TO
DIGITAL CONTROL
AND
STATE VARIABLE METHODS
CHAPTER 1 OUTLINE OF THE SOLUTION MANUAL
2.1 (a) x1, x2 : outputs of unit delayers, starting at the right and proceeding to
the left.
x1(k + 1) = x2(k); x2(k + 1) = – 0.368x1(k) + 1.368x2(k) + r(k)
y(k) = 0.264x1(k) + 0.368x2(k)
LM 0 1OP LM0OP
F= M PP ; g = MM PP ; c = [0.264 0.368]
MN−0.368 1.368Q N1 Q
Y (z ) ∑ Pi D i 0 . 264 z2 + 0 . 368 z1
(b) = =
R (z) 1− D
e
1  1. 368 z   0 . 368 z 
1 2
j
2.2 (a) x1, x2 : outputs of unit delayers, starting at the right and proceeding to
the left.
x1(k + 1) = x2(k) + r (k)
x2(k + 1) = – 5x2(k) – 3x1(k) – 3r (k)
y(k) = x1(k)
x1(k + 2) = x2(k + 1) + r (k + 1)
Substituting for x2(k + 1) from the above set,
x1(k + 2) = – 5x1(k + 1) – 3x1(k) + r(k + 1) + 2r (k)
y(k + 2) + 5y(k + 1) + 3y(k) = r (k + 1) + 2r (k)
LM 0 1 OP ; g = LM 1 OP ; c = [1
(b) F =
N3 5Q N3Q 0]
Y (z) z+2
(c) = 2
R( z) z + 5z + 3
2.3 (a) x1 : output of the unit delayer
1
x1(k + 1) = – x (k) + r(k); y(k) = 2x1(k) – x1(k + 1) = 2.5x1(k) – r(k)
2 1
y(k + 1) = 2.5x1(k + 1) – r(k + 1) = – 0.5y(k) + 2r(k) – r(k + 1)
Y (z) z + 2
=
R( z) 1
z+
2
SOLUTION MANUAL 5
z 2
(b) R (z) = 1; Y(z) = +
1 1
z+ z+
2 2
y (k) = – FH 1 IK k
m (k) + 2 FH 1 IK k 1
m (k – 1)
2 2
5 2
z Y (z) 3
(c) R (z) = ; = + 3
z 1 z z+
1 z 1
2
y(k) =  FH IK
5 1 k
m (k) +
2
m (k)
3 2 3
Y (z) b
2.4 (a) y (k + 1) = ay (k) + b r (k); =
R( z) z a
Ab
R(z) = A; Y(z) = ; y(k) = Ab (a) k–1 m (k – 1)
z a
A z Y (z) Ab
(b) R (z) = ; = ;
z 1 z ( z  a) ( z 1)
Ab Ab
z z
a 1 1 a Ab
Y (z) = + ; y(k) = [1 – (a) k] m (k)
z a z 1 1 a
Az Y(z) Ab
(c) R (z) = ; =
( z  1) 2
z ( z  a) ( z  1) 2
Ab z LM
+
(1  a) z
 z
OP
Y (z) =
(1  a) 2
z a N ( z  1) 2 z 1 Q
Ab
y (k) = [ (a ) k + (1  a ) k  1] ; k ³ 0
(1  a ) 2
z
(d) r(k) = A cos (Wk) = Re {AejWk}; Z {ejWk} =
z  e jW
The output,
LM RS A b z UVOP = Re L A b Ab OP
y(k) = Re Z 1
N T (z  a)b z  e jW
g WQ MN a  e jW
ak +
e jW  a
e jWk
Q
= Re M
L A b ba  e gP
jWk O
N a e Q
k
jW
6 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
1
(b) 2Y (z) – 2z – 1 Y (z) + z – 2 Y (z) =
1  z1
z3
Y (z) =
a
( z  1) 2 z 2  2 z + 1 f
z z 2 + z z 1 az 2
0 . 5 z f 1 0 . 5z
= + 2
z 1 2 z 2 z +1
= 
z 1 2 az 2
z + 0 . 5 f+2 z 2 z + 0 . 5
Therefore,
y (k) = (l)k –
1 FH 1 IK k
cos FH k p IK + 1 FH 1 IK k
sin FH k p IK ; k ³ 0
2 2 4 2 2 4
2.6 From the given difference equation we get,
y (k + 1) – 1.3679 y (k) + 0.3679 y (k – 1)
= 0.3679r (k) + 0.2642 r (k – 1)
0 . 3679 z + 0 . 2642
Y (z) = 2 R (z)
z  1. 3679 z + 0 . 3679
R (z) = 1 + 0.2142z –1 – 0.2142z –2
Hence,
Y (z) = 2
( 0 . 3679 z + 0 . 2642 )
z  1. 3679 z + 0 . 3679
a
1 + 0 . 2142 z 1  0 . 2142 z2 f
= 0.3679z – 1 + 0.8463z – 2 + z – 3 + z – 4 + z – 5 + L
y(0) = 0; y (1) = 0.3679; y (2) = 0.8463;
y (k) = 1, k ³ 3.
2.7 Taking ztransform of the given equation:
Y ( z) z2 z2
= 2 =
R ( z) z  3z + 2 (z  1) (z  2 )
z +1
R(z) = 1 + z – 1 =
z
Y (z) ( z + 1) 3 2
= = 
z ( z  2 )( z  1) z  2 z 1
y(k) = 3(2) k – 2(1) k; k ³ 0
SOLUTION MANUAL 7
Final value theorem will not give correct value since a pole of Y (z)
lies outside the unit circle.
2z  3
2.8 (a) R (z) = z – 1; Y (z) =
z ( z  0 . 5) ( z + 0 . 3)
Y (z) 2 z 3
=
z z z  0 . 5) ( z + 0 . 3)
2 (
40 20 10 50
= + 2  +
z z z  0 .5 z + 0 .3
y(k) = – 40d (k) + 20d (k – 1) – 10(0.5) k + 50(– 0.3) k; k ³ 0
z  6z2 + z
(b) R (z) =
z 1
; Y (z) =
FH
( z  1) z 
1
+j
1 1 IK FH
z  j
1 IK
2 4 2 4
Y (z)  16 8+ j4 8 j4
= + +
z z 1 1
z + j
1
z j
1 1
2 4 2 4
16 16 z  6
=– +
z1 z2  z + 5
16
y(k) = – 16(1)k + (0.56)k [7.94 sin (0.468k) + 16 cos (0.468k)]; k ³ 0
z2
2.9 (a) R (z) = 1 + z – 2 + z – 4 + ¼ =
z 12
Y (z) z
=
z (z  1) ( z + 1) ( z  0 .5) ( z + 0 . 3)
 0 . 833  0 . 41 0 . 476 0 . 769
= + + +
z  0. 5 z + 0.3 z +1 z 1
y(k) = – 0.833(0.5) – 0.41(– 0.3) + 0.476(– 1)k + 0.769(1)k; k ³ 0
k k
z
(b) R(z) = ;
z 1
Y (z) 1
=
z ( z  0.5) ( z  0.1)( z  1)
2
5 2. 5  6 . 94 4 . 44
= + + +
( z  0 . 5) 2 z  0. 5 z  0 .1 z 1
y(k) = – 10k(0.5) + 2.5(0.5) – 6.94(0.1) + 4.44(1)k; k ³ 0
k k k
a f
K 1  a 2 (1  a )
2.10 y(¥) = lim (z – 1) Y (z) =
z ®1 a1  a f 2 (
1  a)
=K
For y (¥) = 1, K = 1
8 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
1 1 1
z+
z Y (z) 1
= 2  22 2
(i) R(z) =
z 1
;
z
= 2
z + 1 ( z  1)a z 1 z +1 f
y(k) =
1
(1)k –
1
cos FH k p IK – 1 sin FH k p IK ; k ³ 0
2 2 2 2 2
z2
az f
Y (z) = 2
2
+1
The output y (k) is bounded because of matching of system poles with
excitation poles.
2.13 (a) D(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08 z + 0.24 = 0
(i) D(1) = – 0.14 < 0
The first condition of Jury’s criterion is violated. The system is un
stable; we may stop the test here.
(b) D(z) = z4 – 1.368 z 3 + 0.4z 2 + 0.08z + 0.002 = 0
(i) D(1) = 0.114 > 0; satisfied
(ii) D(– 1) = 2.69 > 0; (n even); satisfied
Form Jury’s table; from which you will find that (conditions (2.50b)):
a 4 < a 0; 0.002 < 1; satisfied
b 3 > b 0;  – 1 >  – 0.083; satisfied
c 2 > c 0; 0.993 > 0.512; satisfied.
The system is stable.
2.14 D(z) = z 4 + 0.5 z 3 – 0.2 z 2 + z + 0.4 = 0
F 1 + r IJ
D(r) = G
4
F 1 + r IJ
+ 0.5 G
3
F 1 + r IJ
– 0.2 G
2
1+ r
H 1r K H 1 r K H 1r K +
1r
+ 0.4
 0 . 3 r 4 + 3. 4 r 3 + 8 . 8 r 2 + 1. 4 r + 2 . 7
=
(1  r )
4
Form the Routh table, from which you will find that one root of D(r)
lies in the righthalf plane. Therefore, three poles of G (z) lie inside
the unit circle.
SOLUTION MANUAL 9
wn = 2;
ws p
= > 2; T <
p
2 T 2
(c) Noise signal: n(t) = cos 50t
1 1  esT
2.20 Ga(s) = ; Gh0(s) =
s+1 s
RS 1 UV = 1  e T
G(z) = Z{Gh0G(s)} = (1 – z –1) Z
T s s + 1 W z e
( ) T
z Y (z) 1  eT 1 1
R(z) =
z 1
;
z
=
z e a
T (
z 1) f
=
z 1
+
z  eT
y(k) = 1 – e –kT
;k³0
RS 10 UV ; G (z) = (1 – z ) Z RS 10 UV
T s (s + 2 ) W T s (s + 2 ) W
–1
2.21 Ga (s) = 2
G(z) = 5(1 – z ) M
L T z  z + z OP
N z 1 2 z 1 2 a z  e f Q
–1
( )2 ( ) 2 T
10 ( z + 0 . 76)
For T = 0.4 sec, G(z) =
16 ( z  1) ( z  0 . 46 )
2.22 (i) Refer Eqn (2.90b)
(ii) Refer Eqn. (2.107)
10 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
u( k )  u( k  1)
2.25
T
LM e k e k 1 + 1 e k + T e k 2e k 1 + e k 2 OP
( ) ( )
N T Q
( ) D { ( ) ( ) ( )}
= Kc 2
T T I
2.26 Required
z = 0.45, fM = 45 deg, T = 1.57 sec.
(i) D(s) is a phase lag compensator that meets the requirements.
2 z 1
(ii) D(z) = D(s) with s =
T z +1
z  0 . 9391
D(z) = 0.4047
z  0 . 9752
U (s) = Kc 1 +
LM 1
+ TD s E(s)
OP
2.27
N TI s Q
LM 1 OP E (z)
U(z) = Kc 1 +
MM T s + TD s
PP
N I
s=
2 ( z 1)
T z +1
s=
z 1
zT Q
LM1+ T z +1 TD z 1
+
OP
= Kc
N 2T I z 1 T z
E (z)
Q
u(k) = uP(k) + u1(k) + uD(k)
where
uP(k) = Kce(k)
K T
u1(k) – u1(k – 1) = c [e(k) + e(k – 1)]
2 TI
u1(k) =
Kc T
Â
a f
e i  1 + e (i )
TI 2
uD(k) =
Kc TD
T
e( k )  e k  1 a f
Therefore,
LM T
k
a f
e i  1 + e(i ) T
ke(k )  eak  1fpOPP
u(k) = Kc e( k ) + Â + D
MN TI i =1 2 T Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 11
z z
t t
dy (t )
2.28 (a) + ay(t) = r(t); y(t) = y(0) – a y (t) dt + r (t) dt
dt 0 0
z z
kT kT
y(k) = y(k – 1) – a y (t) dt + r (t) dt
( k 1) T ( k 1 ) T
z z
(k + 1) T (k + 1) T
(b) y(k + 1) = y(k) – a y (t) dt + r (t) dt
kT kT
d2 y dy
2.29 (a) +a + by = 0
dt 2 dt
1 a
[y(k) – 2y(k – 1) + y(k – 2)] + [y(k) – y(k – 1)] + by(k) = 0
T2 T
FH
b+
a IK FH 1 IK
+ 12 y(k) – a + 22 y(k – 1) + 2 y(k – 2) = 0;
T T T T T
y(0) = a; y(– 1) = a – Tb
(b) x1 = y; x2 = y& ; x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – bx1 – ax2
LM 0
1 OP
A=
N b
a Q
Using Eqn (2.113) we obtain,
LMa OP
x(k + 1) = x(k) + T)x(k) = (I + AT) x(k); x(0) =
Nb Q
CHAPTER 3 MODELS OF DIGITAL CONTROL DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS
D ( z ) Gh 0 G p ( z )
Y(z) = GpH2 R(z) + [H1R(z) – GpH2R(z)]
1 + D ( z ) Gh 0 G p ( z )
Y ( z) Gh 0 G1G2 ( z ) D ( z )
=
R ( z) 1 + D( z )[ Gh 0 G1 ( z ) + Gh 0 G1G2 ( z ) ]
SOLUTION MANUAL 13
WG ( z )
Y(z) = WG(z) – D(z)Gh0G(z) Y(z); Y(z) =
1 + D ( z )Gh 0 G ( z )
1 q ( z) Gh 0 G( z )
3.7 G(s) = ; L = ;
s( s + 1) q R ( z ) 1 + Gh 0 G( z )
RS1 UV a f a
z T 1+ eT + 1 eT  TeT f
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z 2
T
s (s + 1)
=
W ( z 1) z  e Ta f
For T = 0.25 sec,
0 . 0288( z + 0 . 92 )
Gh0G(z) =
( z  1) ( z  0 . 7788)
RS 185 UV = 185a1e f  40 T
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z
T s (0 . 025s + 1) W z  e  40 T
w( z ) (K F + K P )Gh 0 G( z )
=
wr ( z ) 1 + K P Gh 0 G ( z )
14 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
T s (s + 1) W z 1 a z  e f
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z 2 T
( )
1
fs = 5 Hz = ; T = 0.2 sec
T
0 . 019 z + 0 . 0175
Gh0G(z) = ;
( z  1) ( z  0 . 819 )
Y (z) Gh 0 G( z ) D( z ) 0 . 0095z ( z + 0 . 92 )
= = 3
R( z ) 1 + Gh 0 G( z ) D( z ) z  2 . 81z 2 + 2 . 65z  0 . 819
RS e UV
0 . 4 s
3.10 (i) Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
T s (s + 1) W
Using transform pairs of Table 3.1, we obtain,
LM a1e fz + e e OP (1 – z
0 . 6 0 . 6 1
0 . 45z + 0 .181
N z  1 az  e f Q
–1
Gh0G(z) = 1
)=
( ) z ( z  0 . 368)
Y (z) Gh 0 G( z ) 0 . 45 z + 0 .181
= = 2
R( z ) 1 + Gh 0 G( z ) z + 0 . 081z + 0 .181
RS 5 UV
(b) Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
T s (s + 1) (s + 2) W
2
2.5 5( z  1) ( z  1)
= – 3.75 + – 1.25
z 1 z  0 . 3679 z  0 .1353
The characteristic equation is: z2 + 2.12z + 0.234 = 0; z1, 2 = – 2, – 0.12
A pole lies outside the unit circle; the system is unstable.
SOLUTION MANUAL 15
K
D(z) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = z – e –3T + (1 – e –3T) = 0
3
(i) For T = 0.5, system stable for 0 < K < 4.723
(ii) For T = 1, system stable for 0 < K < 3.315
RS K UV
T s a s + 1f W
3.16 Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z 2
K z  1 L zkaT  1 + e f z + a1  e  Te fp O
T T T
=
(
z
MN )
z  1 az  e f
( )2
PQ T
D(z) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = 0; z2 – az + b = 0
where,
a = e –T + 1 – K(T – 1 + e –T); b = e –T + K(1 – e –T – Te –T)
1+ r
Put z= , then r2 (1 + a + b) + 2r(1 – b) + 1 – a + b = 0
1 r
System is stable for,
1 + a + b > 0; 1 – b > 0; 1 – a + b > 0
Substituting for a and b and solving for K yields:
K<
a
2 1 + e T f
T
T  2 + 2e + TeT
1  e T
K<
1  eT  TeT
T(1 – e –T) > 0 or e–T < 1 which implies T > 0.
4500 K
3.18 (a) G(s) = ; K = 14.5; z = 0.707; wn = 255.44
s (s + 361. 2 )
ez wn t F dw i 1 z 2 I
y(t) = 1 –
1 z2
sin GH n 1  z 2 t + tan 1
z JK
(b) T = 0.01 sec,
1. 3198z + 0 . 4379 Y ( z ) 1.3198z + 0.4379
Gh0G(z) = ; = 2
z 1.027 z + 0.027 R( z )
2
z + 0.2929 z + 0.4649
By dividing the numerator polynomial by the denominator polyno
mial, we obtain,
y(T) = 1.3198, y(2T) = 1.3712, y(3T) = 0.7426, y(4T) = 0.9028,
y(5T) = 1.148 T = 0.001 sec,
0.029 z + 0.0257 Y(z) 0.029 z + 0.0257
Gh0G(z) = ; = 2
z 2  1.697 z + 0.697 R( z ) z  1.668 z + 0.7226
Dividing the numerator polynomial by the denominator polynomial,
we can obtain the response.
Y (z) Gh 0 G( z )
3.19 =
R( z ) 1 + Gh 0 GH ( z )
RS 1 UV = 1  e ; 1
Gh0G(z) = (1 – z –1) Z
T sa s + 1f W z  e 1
)Z S
R 1 UV = e z  2e + 1 1 1
T s a s + 1f W z  1 az  e f
Gh0GH(z) = (1 – z –1 1
2 ( )
Y (z) a
= 2
f
1 e1 ( z 1)
; R(z) =
z
; Y(z) = 2
0.632 z
R( z ) z  z +1 e1 z 1 z  z + 0.632
SOLUTION MANUAL 17
(a sin W) z
a k sin (Wk) « ; a2 = 0.632;
z 2
 (2a cos W z + a
) 2
1
cos W = = 0.629; W = 0.89 rad; y(k) = 1.02(0.795)k sin (0.89k)
2a
RS 1 UV = 0.632 ; Y z ( ) 0.632
3.20 Gh0G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
T sa s + 1f W z 0.368 R z ( )
=
z + 0.264
;
z
R(z) =
z 1
0.632 z
Y(z) = ; y(k) = 0.5 [1 – (– 0.264)k] m(k)
( z  1) ( z + 0.264 )
Z [ Gh 0 ( s ) G( s ) e DTs ] 0 . 632
Y (z) = R(z); Z {Gh0(s) G(s)} =
1 + Z [ Gh 0 ( s ) G( s )] z  0 . 368
FG z 1 IJ FG z +1.2 z +1 IJ
2
3.21 (i) D(z) = 4
H z + 0.1 K H z  0.3z + 0.8 K
2
= 4M
L 1 z OP LM 1+1.2 z + z OP
1 1 2
D( z ) 50 46 . 62 7 . 38 z + 4 . 05
(ii) = + + 2
z z z + 0 .1 z  0 . 3z + 0 . 8
46 . 62 7 . 38 + 4 . 05 z1
D(z) = –50 + +
1 + 0 .1z1 1  0 . 3z 1 + 0 . 8 z 2
Refer Figs 3.21 – 3.22
3.22 D(z) = 2
a
10 z 2 + z +1
=
f233.33 127.08
+
25 106.25
+ 2 +
z (z  0.5) (z  0.8) z  0.5 z  0.8 z z
233.33z 1 127.08z 1
= + + (106.25 + 25z –1)z –1
1 0.5z 1 1 0.8 z1
SOLUTION MANUAL 19
qss 30
3.23 (a) Process steadystate gain, K = = = 30°C/(kg/min)
Qm 1
q(t) = 0.283qss at t1 = 25 min
q(t) = 0.632qss at t2 = 65 min
Therefore (refer Eqns (3.53b))
1
tD + t = t1 = 25
3
tD + t = t2 = 65
This gives
tD = 5 min, t = 60 min
1
(b) tCD = tD + T = 5.5
2
Kc = 1.5t/KtCD = 0.545
TI = 2.5tCD = 13.75 min
TD = 0.4tCD = 2.2 min
3.25
TIM001 TIM000
# 0030
TIM000 TIM001
# 0060
TIM000 10000
10000 10001
10001 TIM002
# 0015
TIM002 TIM003
# 0030
10002 10003
I/O Assignment:
10000–N(Green); 10001–N (Red)
10002–S(Green); 10003–S (Red)
TIM000–Timer for 30 sec delay
TIM001–Timer for 60 sec delay
TIM002–Timer for 15 sec delay
TIM003–Timer for 30 sec delay
SOLUTION MANUAL 21
3.26
00000
10003 10000
10000
00002
10000 10002
00000 00002
00003 10001
10001
10001
CNT000
# 0005
00001
CNT000 10003
I/O Assignment:
00000–Start Push button (PB1)
00001–Stop Push button (PB2)
00002–Upper level sensor: 1 if liquid level above LL1;
otherwise 0
00003–Lower level sensor: 1 if liquid level above LL2;
otherwise 0
10000–Liquid supply valve (V1)
10001–Drain valve (V2)
10002–Stirring motor (M)
10003–Buzzer
22 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
00000
CNT000 10000
10000
00001
00002 10000
CNT000
# 0005
10001
10001 TIM001
# 0002
I/O Assignment:
00000–Start push button
00001–Stop push button
00002–Product proximity sensor
10000–Conveyor motor
10001–Solenoid
CNT000–Counter with a Set Value of 5
TIM001–Timer for 2 sec delay
SOLUTION MANUAL 23
3.28
00002
TIM000 10001
10001
00001
TIM001 10000
10000
10000 00001
TIM000
# 0020
00000
TIM001 01000
01000
01000 00000
TIM001
# 0020
I/O Assignment:
00000–S1; 00001–S2
00002–S3; 10000–M1
10001–M2; 01000–Workbit
TIM000–Timer for 20 sec delay
TIM001–Timer for 20 sec delay
24 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
3.29
00000
00001 10001 10000
10000
00003 00002
00003
TIM000
# 0007
TIM000
00001 10000 10001
00002
10001
I/O Assignment:
00000–PB1; 00001–PB2
00002–LS1; 00003–LS2
10000–Forward motor
10001–Reverse motor
TIM000–Timer for 7 sec delay
CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF DIGITAL CONTROL ALGORITHMS
K2
q( s ) K1
G(s) = =
E ( s) s( Js + K 2 )
Kp = lim G(s) = •
sÆ0
K1
Kv = lim sG(s) =
sÆ0 K2
Ka = lim s2G(s) = 0
sÆ0
2 z 1 z 1
Bilinear transformation: s = = 1.274 ;
T z +1 z +1
0.4( z  0.939)
D1(z) =
( z  0.975)
1.57
Kv of the original analog system is given by, Kv = lim s = 1.57
sÆ0 s ( s + 1)
Kv of the equivalent digital system is:
1
Kv = lim (z – 1) D1(z) Gh0G(z)
T z ®1
LM 1.57  0.792 OP , K = 1.57
where Gh0G(z) = 1.57
N z  1 z  0.208 Q v
1
4.3 Kp = lim Gh0G(z) = •; Kv = lim (z – 1) Gh0G(z) = 3.041
zÆ1 T z Æ1
1
Ka = lim (z – 1)2 Gh0G(z) = 0
T 2 zÆ1
ess (unit step) = 0; ess (unit ramp) = 0.33; ess (unit acceleration) = •
4.4 z2 – 1.9z + 0.9307 = 0; z = 0.95 ± j0.168 = 0.965e± j0.175 = re± jq
1
wn = In 2 r + q 2 ; z = 0.199; wn = 8.93
T
4.5 (a) (i) W(s) = 0;
Y1(z) = Gh0G(z) [R(z)D2(z) + {R(z)D3(z) – Y1(z)}D1(z)]
[ D2 ( z ) + D1 ( z ) D3 ( z )]Gh 0 G( z ) R( z )
Y1(z) =
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z )
(ii) R(s) = 0
Y2(z) = GW(z) – Gh0G(z) D1(z) Y2(z)
GW ( z )
Y2(z) = ; Y(z) = Y1(z) + Y2(z)
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z)
(b) D3(z) = D2(z) GD0G(z)
SOLUTION MANUAL 27
[1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z )] D3 ( z ) R( z )
Y1(z) = = D3(z) R(z)
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z )
GW ( z )
Y2(z) = ; Y(z) = Y1(z) + Y2(z)
1 + D1 ( z )Gh 0 G( z)
(c) D1(z) can be made large to reject the disturbances.
4.6 Consider the corresponding continuoustime system.
K2 sK1 + K 2
(i) D(s) = K1 + ; D(s) G(s) =
s s( s + 1)
1 1
Kv = K2; = 0.01 =
Kv K2
(ii)
Y (s) s 1
= ; Y(s) = ; yss = 0
W (s) s( s + 1) + K1s + K2 s( s + 1) + K1s + K2
Thus a PI compensator meets the requirements.
T

K K (1  e t )
4.7 G(s) = ; Gh0G(z) = ;
J s +1 
T
ze t
0.393 1 z  0.607
For K = t = 1, Gh0G(z) = ; S(z) = =
z  0.607 1 + Gh 0 G( z ) z  0.214
ws 2p
= = 6.28 rad/sec
2 2T
28 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
w S2 S
0 0.25 0.5
1 0.45 0.67
2 0.8752 0.9355
2.5 1.0827 1.04
3.14 1.3086 1.144
4 1.53 1.23
6.28 1.753 1.324
 S  < 1 for 0 £ w £ 2.
4.8 (a) D(z, K) = A(z) + KB(z)
= (z – l1) (z – l 2) L (z – lk)
We consider the effect of parameter K on the root lk. By definition,
D(lk, K) = 0. If K is changed to (K + DK), then lk also changes and the
new polynomial is,
∂D
D(lk + Dlk, K + DK) = D(lk, K) + Dlk
∂z z=lk
∂D
+ DK + L = 0
∂K z= lk
LM ∂ D / ∂K OP
Dlk = –
N ∂D / ∂z Q z = lk
DK
∂D 1 ∂D
= B(lk) = – A( l k ); = P (l k  l i )
∂K l =lk K ∂z z = lk iπk
Dl k A( l k )
SKl k = =
DK / K P (l k  l i )
iπk
K 0.393K
(b) G(s) = ; Gh0G(z) = ; D(z, K) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = 0
s +1 z  0.607
A(z) + KB(z) = (z – 0.607) + K(0.393) = 0
Nominal value of K = 1.
Closedloop pole is at z= 0.213 = l
dD ( z )
A(l) = 0.213 – 0.607 = – 0.394; = 1; SKl = – 0.394
dz z=l
SOLUTION MANUAL 29
For a 10% change in nominal gain, the change in the root location is
∂K
given by, D(l k) = SKl = – 0.0393
K
1

1 1  e 2t
(c) G(s) = ; Gh0G(z) = ; D(z, t ) = 1 + Gh0G(z) = 0;
t s +1 
1
ze 2 t
1

z + 1 – 2e 2t =0
1 1
 ∂p
2t 1  2t
Let p = e = ; e
∂t 2t 2
Characteristic equation is,
z + 1 + p(– 2) = 0; A(z) + p(B(z)) = 0
1

Nominal value of p = e 2 = 0.6065
Closedloop pole is at z = 0.213 = l
dD( z ) ∂( l )
A(l) = 1.213; = 1; Spl = 1.213 =
dz z= p ∂p / p
1
∂p 1  2 t ∂t 1 ∂t ∂t
Now = 2
e = = 0.5 ; Stl = 0.6065
p 2t p 2t t t
For 10% change in the nominal value of t, the change in root location
is given by,
∂t
D(l k ) = Stl = 0.06065
t
0.368 z + 0.264 1 + 0.5w
4.9 Gh0G(z) = ; T = 1 sec; z =
z 2  1.368z + 0.368 1  0.5w
0.0381( w  2 )( w + 12.14 )
Gh0G(w) =
w( w + 0.924)
FH1  j g IK FH1 + j g IK
2 12.14
Gh0 G( jg) =
F
H 0.924 K
jg 1 + j
g I
1 0.005( z + 1)
4.11 G(s) = , T = 0.1, Gh0G(z) =
s2 ( z  1) 2
1 + 0.05w 1  0.05w 1  j 0.05g
z= ; Gh0G(w) = ; Gh0G( jg) =
1  0.05w w 2
( jg ) 2
Bode plot analysis:
f M = – 2 deg.
In the low frequency range, – Gh0G( jg) is about –180 º. Therefore, a lag
compensator cannot fulfil the requirement of 50º phase margin.
( w + 1)
The lead compensator D(w) = 64 satisfies the requirements.
( w + 16)
The gain crossover frequency = 4
f M = 50.62º, GM = 13 dB, Kv = •, Ka = 4.
4.12 (a) K = 50
0.0043K ( z + 0.85)
Gh0G(z) = ;
( z  1)( z  0.61)
FH
10 1 
w IK FH1 + w IK
20 246.67
Gh0G(w) =
F
H 4.84 K
w 1+
w I
1
– 10 log = – 4.77 at 4 rad/sec.
a
1 1
= 4 a = 2.3; = 6.92
t at
0.4347 w + 1
D2(w) =
0.144 w + 1
Laglead compensator results in f M = 60º, g b = 8, wb = 7.61 rad/sec.
1 49
Kp = 0.8K; = 0.02; K = 61.25; G(s) =
1 + 0.8 K 3s + 1
7.5215
(b) Gh0G(z) =
z  0.8465
Closedloop pole: z + 6.675 = 0
The system is unstable.
49(1  w / 4)
(c) Gh0G(w) =
(1 + 3w )
1+ w
Lag compensator D(w) = satisfies the requirements.
1 + 10 w
(i) T = 1 sec,
0.3679 K ( z + 0.7181)
Gh0G(z) =
( z  1)( z  0.3679)
The root locus is a circle; the breakaway points are at z = 0.6479 and
z = – 2.0841.
At the point of intersection of the root locus with unit circle, we find
by magnitude condition, K = 2.3925. This gain results in marginal
stability.
11353
. K ( z + 0.5232)
(ii) T = 2 sec, Gh0G(z) =
( z  1)( z  0.1353)
Breakaway points are at z = 0.4783, – 1.5247; Critical gain
K = 1.4557.
3.0183K ( z + 0.3010 )
(iii) T = 4 sec, Gh0G(z) =
( z  1)( z  0.0183)
Breakaway points are at z = 0.3435, – 0.9455; Critical gain
K = 0.9653. The smaller the sampling period, the larger the critical
gain for stability.
K ( z + 0.717)
4.16 Gh0G(z) =
( z  1)( z  0.368)
The root locus is a circle with breakaway point at z = 0.648, – 2.08.
(a) At the point of intersection with the unit circle, K = 0.88 and
z1,2 = 0.244 ± j0.97 = 1 – 1.33 rad
= e jwT; w = 1.33 rad/sec.
(b) The value of K at this point is 0.072.
e–T/t = 0.648, t = 2.3 sec.
(c) At the point of intersection of the root locus with z = 0.5 locus, we get
K = 0.18. The line through intersection point makes an angle of 32º
with real axis. Therefore
0 .2 A( z  0.5) K ( z  0.5)
4.17 z2 + 0.2Az – 0.1A = 0; 1 + 2
= 0; Gh0G(z) = ;
z z2
= K = 0.2 A
The root locus is a circle. At the point of intersection with unit circle, we
find by magnitude criterion, K = 0.666. Therefore, A = 3.33.
34 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
1
4.18 G(s) = ; T = 0.1
s +1
PT 0.091K
H(s) = = 0.9554; Gh0GH(z) =
2p z  0.9048
The root locus is a circle.
(a) 1 + Gh0GH(z) = 0; z – 0.9048 + 0.091K = 0
For K = 1, z – 0.8138 = 0
T
e–T/t = 0.8138; = 0.206; t = 0.4854 sec
t
0.4854
(b) Required timeconstant = = 0.12136
4
e–T/0.12136 = 0.43867; 0.091K = 0.46613; K = 5.1223
0.01873 K ( z + 0.9356)
4.19 Gh0G(z) =
( z  1)( z  0.8187)
0.2 K ( z + 0.368)
4.20 Gh0G(z) =
( z  0.368)( z  0.315)
The root locus of the uncompensated system is a circle. At point P corre
sponding to the intersection of root locus with z = 0.5 locus, we get
0.2 K = 0.3823 or K = 1.91.
At this point,
wn = 1.65, Kp = 0.957.
We will use lag compensator. Kp is to be increased by a factor of
7.5 z  b1 1  b 1
= 7.837; D(z) = ; = 7.837
0.957 z  b2 1 b2
Let, b2 = 0.98, then b1 = 0.84
wn is slightly decreased with lag compensator (as seen from rootlocus
plot of the lagcompensated system), which is acceptable.
T2 z +1
4.21 Gh0G(z) = K ; T = 1 sec
2 ( z  1) 2
1
Ka = lim (z – 1)2 Gh0G(z) D(z) = 0.072
T 2 z®1
Corresponding to K/2 = 0.18, we find from the root locus that third pole is
located at z = 0.2. It slows down the response.
The third pole corresponding to K = 0.2 lies inside the circle of radius
0.56.
0.2( z + 0.75)
Gh0G(z) D(z) =
z( z 1)( z + 0.4)
1 0.0048( z + 0.9833)
(b) G(s) = ; T = 0.1 sec; Gh0G(z) =
s( s + 1) ( z 1)( z  0.9048)
We select an M(z) that has pole excess of at least equal to that of
Gh0G(z), and unstable (or critically stable) poles of Gh0G(z) are in
cluded in 1–M(z) as zeros. M(z) = z–1 satisfies these requirements.
LM OP = 208.33 L z  0.9048 O
NM z + 0.9833 QP
1 M( z)
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1  M ( z ) Q
1
4.24 G(s) = ; T = 0.1 sec
s( s + 1)
2p zw T
(a) z = 0.8, wn = ; z = e n – wnT 1  z 2
10 T
This gives z1,2 = 0.55 ± j0.22
( T  1 + e  T )( z + a) 1  e  T  Te  T
Gh0G(z) = ; a =
( z  1)( z  e  T ) T  1 + eT
( z + 0.9833)
= 4.8 × 10–3
( z  1)( z  0.9048)
D(z) = z2 – 1.1z + 0.3509
We select an M(z) that has pole excess of at least equal to that of
Gh0G(z), unstable poles of Gh0G(z) are included in 1 – M(z) as zeros,
and satisfies transient accuracy requirements.
z a
1 – M(z) = (z – 1) F(z); F(z) =
z  1.1z + 0 . 3509
2
Tz 1
e*ss(unitramp) = lim (z – 1) 2 (z – 1) F(z) = TF(1) =
z ®1 ( z  1) Kv
SOLUTION MANUAL 37
Kv = 5, T = 0.1: F(1) = 2
1=
F(1) =
1  1.1 + 0 . 3509
= = 0.7491 satisfies steadystate accuracy requirements.
( 0 . 6491z  0 . 3982 )
M(z) =
z 2  1.1z + 0 . 3509
1 LM
M( z) OP
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1  M ( z ) Q
( z  0 .9048) ( z  0.6135)
= 135.227
( z + 0.9833) ( z  0.7491)
(b) y(k) = 0, 0.5, 1, 1, K
Y(z) = 0.5z –1 + z –2 + z –3 + L
Y ( z)
= (0.5z –1 + z –2 + z –3 + L) (1 – z –1)
R ( z)
( z + 0.9833)
M(z) = (0.5z–1 + 0.5z–2); Gh0G(z) = 4.8 × 10–3
( z  1) ( z  0.9048)
( z  0.9048) ( z + 1)
D(z) = 104.17
( z + 0.9833) ( z + 0 . 5)
E(z) = R(z) [1 – M(z)]
ess = lim (z – 1) E(z) = 0.15.
z ®1
1 0 .18
4.25 G(s) = ; T = 2 sec; Gh0G(z) =
10 s + 1 z  0 . 82
1 1
y(t) = 1 – e–t; Y(s) = 
s s +1
z z 0 . 86 z
Y(z) =  = ;
z  1 z  0 .14 ( z  1) ( z  0 .14)
Y (z) 0 . 86
M(z) = =
R(z) z  0 .14
1 LM M( z) OP
4 . 8  3 . 9 z 1
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1  M ( z )
=
Q 1  z1
Result:
u(k) = 10e(k) – 6e(k – 1) – 0.75u (k – 1)
U(z) = 10E(z) – 6z–1 E(z) – 0.75z–1 U(z)
38 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
U(z) 10  6 z1
= D(z) =
E( z ) 1 + 0 . 75 z1
2
4.27 G(s) = ; T = 1 sec
( s + 1) (s + 2 )
( z + 0 . 368) 1
Gh0G (z) = 0.4 ; R (z) =
( z  0 . 368) ( z  0 .135) 1  z1
M(z) may be chosen as z–1; but, as can be examined, the response will
exhibit intersample ripples. We therefore take,
M(z) = =1z–1 + = 2 z–2
E(z) = R(z) [1 – M(z)]
lim (z – 1) R(z) [1 – M(z)] = 0 gives = 1 + = 2 = 1
z ®1
=1 1 =2 2
z + z
Y (z) Y ( z ) / R( z ) >0 >0
Gh0G(z) = = =
U(z) U ( z ) / R( z ) > >
1 + 1 z1 + 2 z2
>0 >0
0 . 4 z  1 + 0 .1472 z  2
=
1  0 . 503z  1 + 0 . 04968z  2
Comparing the coefficients, we get
a1 = 0.731, a2 = 0.269,
>0 = 1.8275, >1 = – 0.919, >2 = 0.09
1 LMM (z ) OP
U ( z ) / R( z )
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1 M ( z )
=
Q
1Y ( z ) / R( z )
1
4.28 G(s) = s (s + 1) ; T = 1 sec
SOLUTION MANUAL 39
=1 1 =2 2
z + z
Y ( z ) / R( z ) >0 >0
Gh0G(z) = =
U ( z ) / R( z ) > >
1 + 1 z1 + 2 z2
>0 >0
a1 + a2 = 1
Comparing the coefficients of Gh0G(z), we get
a1 = 0.582, a2 = 0.418; M(z) = 0.582z–1 + 0.418z–2
2
e 5s 0 . 3935z
4.29 G(s) = ; T = 5 sec; Gh0G(z) =
10 s + 1 1  0 . 6065z  1
y(0) = 0, y(1) = 0, y(2) = 1.582(1 – e–0.5) = 0.6225
y(k) = 1; k ≥ 3
1
Y(z) = 0.6225z–2 + z–3 + z– 4 + L = 0.6225z–2 + z–3
1  z 1
Y ( z)
= M(z) = 0.6225z–2 + 0.3775z–3
Rz( )
1 LMM (z ) OP 1  0 . 3678z  2
D(z) =
N
Gh 0 G( z ) 1 M ( z ) Q
= 1.582
1  0 . 6225z  2  0 . 3775z  3
Y ( z ) / R( z ) c
1  0 . 3678 z  2 h
U(z) =
Gh 0 G( z ) / R( z )
= 1.582
c
1  z 1 h
40 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
0 . 3935z  2
4.30 Gh0G(z) =
1  0 . 6065z  1
a 2 2
z
Y ( z ) / R( z ) b0
= = Gh0G(z)
U ( z ) / R( z ) b b
1 + 1 z 1 + 2 z  2
b0 b0
1 LM M(z)OP = U z / R z
( ) ( )
D(z) =
N Q 1Y z / R z
Gh 0 G( z ) 1  M ( z ) ( ) ( )
c1  0 . 6065z h 1
= 2.541
c1 z hc1 + z h
1 1
It is physically realizable.
1
Y(z) = z–2 = z–2 + z–3 + z–4 + L
1  z 1
y(k) = 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, K
u(0) = b0 = 2.541
u(1) = b1 + u(0) = 1, u(2) = b2 + u(1) = 1
u(k) = 2.541, 1, 1, 1 K
CHAPTER 5 CONTROL SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING STATE
VARIABLE METHODS
5.1
or x& = Ax + bu
LM0 1 0 0 0 OP LM OP
A = MM00  0.025 3 0
;b=
0
PP MM PP
MN0 12
0
190 1000
0  4.2
0
0.2
PQ MN PQ
y = qL = nx1 = 0.5 x1
5.2
u 1 if 1 q 1 q
KA KT
sLf + Rf + 1 x3 Js + B x2 s x1
LM0 1 0 OP 0 LM OP
A =
MM00 PP MM
1 20 ; b = 0 ; c = [1
PP 0 0]
N 0 5 Q 2.5 N Q
42 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
5.3 x1 = qM ; x2 = q& M , x3 = ia ; y = qL
x&1 = x2
2 x& 2 + x2 = 38 x3
k
e a = k1(qR – qL) – k2 q& M = k1qR – 1 x1 – k2x2
20
LM 0 OP L 0 O
M P
A= M 0 19 P ; b = M 0 P ; c = LM OP
1 0
1
MM k  0.5
P MM k PP N 0 0
Q
 P
( k + 0.5) 20
MN 40 2 PQ
21
N2Q
1
1
 2
2
5.4 x1 = w ; x2 = ia
Jw& + Bw = KT ia
dia
Raia + La = ea – Kbw
dt
e a = Kcec = Kc [k1 (er – Kt w) – k2 ia}
LM  B KT OP
A = MM (k K KJ + K ) J
( Ra + k2 Kc ) ; PP
MN L PQ
1 t c b
a La
LM k 0K OP
b =
MN L PQ ; c = [1 0]
1
a
c
P AP = M
L11 6OP
N15 8Q
–1
5.5 A =
L1 O
P b = M P ; c = cP = [2
N2 Q
–1
b = –1]
Y (s ) PD s 2 1
= 1 1 = 1 2
= 2
U ( s) D 1  ( 3s  2s ) s + 3s + 2
SOLUTION MANUAL 43
1 s –1 X2 1 s –1
U X1 = Y
–3
–2
Y (s ) P D + P2 D 2 + P3 D 3 + P4 D 4
= 1 1
U ( s) D
2 s 1 (1  8 s 1 ) + 15 s 2 (1) + ( 2 s 1 ) (1 + 11s 1 ) + 2 s 1 ( 6 s 1 ) 2 (1)
=
1  [ 11s 1 + 8 s 1 + ( 15 s 1 )( 6 s 1 )] + [( 11s 1 )( 8 s 1 )]
1
=
s 2 + 3s + 2
s –1 X1
1 2
–11 –15
U Y
6
2 –1
X2
s –1
8
lI – A = lI – A  = l2
5.7 X(s) = (sI – A)–1 x0 + (sI – A)–1 b U(s)
= G(s)x0 + H(s) U(s)
LMs(s + 3) s+3 1 OP 1 LM OP
MM 1s PP MM PP
1 1
G(s) = s( s + 3) s ; H(s) = s
D D 2
N 1 s 2
Q s N Q
D = s3 + 3s2 + 1
44 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
5.8
5.9 Taking outputs of integrators as state variables, we get (x1 being the
output of rightmost integrator),
x&1 = x 2
x& 2 = – 2x2 + x3
x& 3 = – x3 – x2 – y + u
y = 2x1 – 2x2 + x3
LM 0 1 0 OP
0 LM OP
A =
MM02 PP
2 1 ; b = 0 ; c = [2
MM PP –2 1]
N 1 2 1Q NQ
5.10 Taking outputs of integrators as state variables (x1 and x2 are outputs of
top two integrators from left to right; x3 and x4 are corresponding vari
ables for other integrators):
x&1 = – 4x4 + 3u1; x& 2 = x1 – 3x2 + u1 + 2u2;
x& 3 = – x2 + 3u2; x& 4 = – 4x4 + x3;
LM0 0 0 4 OP LM3 0 OP
A= M
1 3 0 0
PP MM10 2
PP
0 1 0 0 LM OP
MM0 1 0 0
;B=
PQ MN0 3
;C=
PQ
0 0 0 1 N Q
N0 0 1 4 0
s+3
=
( s + 1)(s + 2)
SOLUTION MANUAL 45
1
(b) G(s) =
( s + 1)(s + 2)
5.12 a1 = – tr (A) = – 4
LM2 1 0 OP
MM 1 0 3PP
1
Q = A + a I = 1 3 2 ; a
2 1 2 =– tr(AQ2) = 6
N Q 2
LM 1 1  2OP
3 2 MM 1 1 3 PP
Q = AQ + a I = 3 2  4 ;
2
N Q
1
a3 = – tr(AQ3) = – 5
3
As a numerical check, we see that the condition: 0 = AQ3 + a3I is satis
fied. Therefore, D(s) = s3 – 4s2 + 6s – 5.
(sI – A)+ = Q1s2 + Q2s + Q3 = Q(s)
CQ( s )B 1 LM
3s + 5 4( s  3) OP
G(s) =
D( s)
=
N
D( s)  s + 2s 2( s 2  3s + 1)
2
Q
5.13 x&1 = – 3x1 + 2x2 + [– 2x1 – 1.5x2 – 3.5x3]
x& 3 = x2 – r
x& 3 + x3 = – x1 + u ; y = x2 + x3
LM2 1 1 OP
0 LM OP
A =
MM 11 PP
0 0 ; b = 1 ; c = [0 1
MM PP 1]
N 0 1 1Q NQ
5.15 Taking outputs of pseudointegrators as state variables (x1, x2, x3, x4: from
top to bottom):
x&1 + x1 = u1; x& 2 + 5x2 = 5u2; x& 3 + 0.5x3 = 0.4u1; x& 4 + 2x4 = 4u2
u1 = K1r1 – K1y1; u2 = K2r2 – K2y2
y1 = x1 + x2; y2 = x3 + x4
Writing the state equations we get,
x& = Ax + Bu
LM1  K 1  K1 0 0 OP
A= M PP ;
0 5 5 K 2 5 K 2
MM 0.4 K 0.4 K1 0.5
2  4 K PQ
0
N 0
1
0 4 K 2 2
LM K 0 OP
LM OP
1
B= M
0
MM0.4K
5K 2
PP 1 1 0 0
1 0
;C=
PQ 0 0 1 1 N Q
N 0 4K 2
Y (s ) s+3 2 –1
5.16 (i) = = +
U ( s) ( s + 1)(s + 2) s+1 s+ 2
L =
LM1 0 OP ; b = LM1OP ; c = [2
N 0 2Q N1Q –1]
SOLUTION MANUAL 47
u + x1
2
+
+ y
–1
+
+ x2
–1
+
–2
Y (s ) b3 5
(ii) = 3 = 3
U ( s ) s + a 1s + a 2 s + a 3
2
s + 4 s + 5s + 2
2
From Eqns (5.56), the second companion form of the state model is given
below.
LM0 0 2 OP 5 LM OP
A =
MM10 PP
0 5 ; b = 0 ; c = [0
MM PP 0 1]
N 1 4 Q 0 NQ
+ x1 + x2 + x3 = y
u 5 2
– – –
2 5 4
Y (s ) b s 3 + b 1s 2 + b 2 s + b 3 s 3 + 8s 2 + 17s + 8
(iii) = 03 =
U ( s) s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3 s 3 + 6s 2 + 11s + 6
From Eqns (5.54), the state model in second companion form is given
below.
48 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM 0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
A =
MM06 0
PP
1 ; b = 0 ; c = [2
MM PP 6 2]
N 11 6 1 Q NQ
+ + + y
+ + +
1 8 17 8
u +
–
z x3
z x2
z x1
6 11 6
+ +
+ +
Y (s ) s +1 b 2s + b 3
5.17 (i) = 3 = 3
U ( s) s + 3s + 2s s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3
2
LM0 0 0 1 OP LM OP
A
MM0
= 1
PP
0 2 ; b = 1 ; c = [0
MM PP 0 1]
N 1 3 0 Q NQ
Y (s ) 1 b3
(ii) = 3 = 3
U ( s) s + 6 s + 11s + 6
2
s + a 1s + a 2 s + a 3
2
LM 0 1 0OP LM0OP
A =
MM06 0 1
 6 PQ
P MM1PP
; b = 0 ; c = [1 0 0]
N  11 NQ
Y ( s) s 3 + 8s 2 + 17s + 8 1 2 1
(iii) = 3 = 1+ + +
U ( s) s + 6s 2 + 11s + 6 s +1 s + 2 s + 3
SOLUTION MANUAL 49
LM1 0 0 OP 1 LM OP
L =
MM 00 PP
2 0 ; b = 1 ; c = [–1 2
MM PP 1] ; d = 1
N 0 3 Q1 NQ
Y (s ) 1000 s + 5000 b 2s + b 3
5.18 (a) = 3 = 3
U ( s) s + 52 s + 100 s
2
s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3
LM0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
A =
MM00 0
PP
1 ; b = 0 ; c = [5000
MM PP 1000 0]
N 100 52 1 Q NQ
Y ( s) 1000s + 5000 50 31.25 18.75
(b) = 3 = + +
U ( s) s + 52 s + 100 s
2
s s+2 s + 50
LM0 0 0 OP50 LM OP
L =
MM00 PP
2 0 ; b = 31.25 ; c = [1
MM PP 1 1]
N 0 50 Q
18.75 N Q
Y (s ) 2s 2 + 6s + 5 1 1 1
5.19 = = + +
U ( s) ( s + 1) 2 ( s + 2) ( s + 1) 2 s + 1 s + 2
LM1 1 0 OP 0 LM OP
L =
MM 00 PP
1 0 ; b = 1 ; c = [1
MM PP 1 1]
N 0 2 Q1 NQ
z
t
x(t) = eL (t – t) bu(t)dt
0
LMe t
te t 0 OP
e Lt
–L
= L –1
[(sI – L) –1
]= M 0 e t 0 PP
MN 0 0 e 2 t Q
50 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM OP
z
t
(t  t )e (t  t ) dt
MM PP L1  e  te OP
z PP = MM1  e
t t
z
0
t
L ( t t ) MM t
 (t  t ) t
PP
PP MMN 12 (1  e )
e bu(t ) dt = e dt
MM 2t
PQ
z
0 0
MM PP
t
e 2( t  t ) dt
N 0 Q
y = x1 + x2 + x3 = 2.5 – 2e–t – te–t – 0.5 e–2t
1 1
x2 + x1
u 1 +
+ –
–1 –1
+y
x3 +
+
1
+
–2
LMl  2 OP 1
adj(lI – A) =
N 0 l  1Q
L0 1OP ; v = LM1OP
= 2; adj(l I – A) = M
For l2
N0 1Q N1Q
1 2
SOLUTION MANUAL 51
L1O L2O
l = – 1, l = – 2; v = M P , v = M P
1 2
N1Q N1Q 1 2
LM 0 1 0 OP
(iii) A= 3
MM12 07 26PP ; lI – A = (l + 1) (l + 2) (l + 3) = 0
N Q
l1 = – 1, l2 = – 2, l3 = – 3
(l1I – A)v1 = 0 gives
MM123 1 2
PP MMnn 12
N 7 5 QN 13 Q N0 Q
v1 = [1 –1 – 1]T
(l2I – A)v2 = 0 gives
v2 = [1 – 2 1/2]T
(l3I – A)v3 = 0 gives
v3 = [1 –3 3]T
5.21 (a)
LM 0 1 0 . . . 0 OP
MM 0. 0 1 . . . 0
PP
A= M PP
. . . . . .
MM . . . . . . .
PP
MMNa0 n
0
a n 1
0
.
.
.
. .
. a 2
1
a 1 PQ
LM l i 1 0 . . . 0OP
MM 0. li 1 0 . . 0
PP
(l I – A) = M PP
i
MM .
1 P
MMa0 0 . . . li
l + a PQ
P
N n a n 1 . . . a2 i i
52 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
cnn = ln1
i
LM 1 1 . . . 1 OP
M
P= M l
l 1 l2 . . . ln
PP
MM . PP
2
1 l22 . . . l2n
. . . . .
MNl n 1
1 ln21 n 1
. . . ln PQ
(b)
LM 0 1 0 OP
MM24
A= 0 0
P
1 ; lI – A = 0
9 PQ
yields: l1 = –2, l2 = –3, l3 = – 4
N  26
LM
1 1 1 OP
MM
P = 2 3 4 = [v1 v2 v3]
PP
4 N
9 16 Q
LM 0 1 0 OP
5.22 (a)
MM2
A= 0 0 1
PP
N 4 3 Q
The characteristic equation is,
l3 + 3l2 + 4l + 2 = 0
l1 = – 1 + j1, l2 = – 1 – j1, l3 = – 1.
SOLUTION MANUAL 53
LM 1 1 1 OP
MM  j2
P = 1 + j1 1  j1 1 ;
PP
N j2 1 Q
LM1 + j1 0 0 OP
P AP = L =
–1
MM 00 1 0 j1 01PP
N Q
LM 1/ 2  j1/ 2 0OP LM1 1 0 OP
MM 0 j10/ 2 10PP ; Q LQ = MM01 01
(b) Q = 1/ 2 –1
0
PP
N Q N 1 Q
5.23 A = M
L4 3OP ; lI – A = (l + 1) (l – 2) = 0
N6 5Q
adj(lI – A) = M
Ll  5 3 OP ;
N 6 l + 4 Q
l = – 1, adj(l I – A) = M
L6 3OP ; v = LM1OP
1
N6 3Q N1Q
1 1
l = 2, adj(l I – A) = M
L3 3OP ; v = LM1OP
2 2
N6 6Q N2Q 2
P= M
L1 1OP ; J = P AP = LM1 0OP
N1 2Q N 0 2Q
–1
e = Pe P = P M
At Jt Le 0 OP P = LM 2e  e
–1
t
–1
t 2t
e  t + e 2t OP
N 0 e Q N2 e  2 e 2 t t 2t
 e  t + 2e 2 t Q
s+4 LM 3 OP
L0
A= M
3 OP ( s + 1)( s + 3)
MM ( s + 1)( s + 3)
PP
5.24 (a)
N1 4 Q
; (sI – A)–1 =
1
( s + 1)( s + 3) MN
s
( s + 1)( s + 3) PQ
LM 3 e t 1
 e 3 t
3  t 3 3 t
e + e OP
At
e = M2 2 2 2
PP
MN 12 e t 1
 e 3 t
2
1  t 3 3 t
2
e + e
2 Q
54 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM 3 e  1 e e  e O
PP
t 1 3 t1 t 3 t
(b) e =M2
At 2 2 2
e + e P
NM 2 e + 2 e
3 3 1 3
Q
t 3 t t 3 t
2 2
L 0 1 OP ; lI – A = l + 5l + 6 = 0; l
A= M
N6 5Q
2
5.25 (a) 1 = – 2, l2 = – 3
d d
f (l ) = g(l ) gives
dl l = 2
dl l = 2
b1 = te–2t, b0 = (1 + 2t)e–2t
eAt =
LM(1 + 2t )e 2 t
2te 2 t OP
N 2te 2 t
(1  2t )e 2 t Q
5.26
SOLUTION MANUAL 55
X1 ( s ) s 1 (1 + 2s 1 )
= G (s) =
1  ( 2s 1  2 s 1 + s 2 ) + ( 2s 1 )(2 s 1 )
11
x10
s 1 (1 + 2s 1 ) 1 / 2 1 / 2
= = +
D s +1 s + 3
X1 ( s) s 2 (1) 1 / 2 1 / 2
= G 12 (s) = = +
x 20 D s +1 s + 3
X 2 (s) s 2 (1) 1 / 2 1 / 2
= G21(s) = = +
x10 D s +1 s + 3
X 2 (s) s 1 (1 + 2s 1 ) 1 / 2 1 / 2
= G22(s) = = +
x 20 D s +1 s + 3
X1 ( s) s 2 (1) + s 1 (1 + 2s 1 ) 1
= H1(s) = =
U ( s) D s +1
X2 ( s) 1
= H2(s) =
U ( s) s +1
Zeroinput response:
x(t) = eAt x0 = L –1
[G(s)x0]
LM
1 e  t + e 3t e  t  e 3t OP LMx OP
0
1
N Q Nx Q
=
2 e  t  e 3t e  t + e 3t 0
2
Zerostate response:
LM1  e OP
z t
t
e A (t t ) bu(t ) dt = L –1 [H(s)U(s)] =
N1  e Q
x(t) = t
0
LM 0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
5.27
MM6
A= 0 0
PP MM PP
1 ; b = 0 lI – A = (l + 1) (l + 2) (l + 3) = 0
N 11 6 2 Q NQ
56 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM 1 OP L 1 1 1 O LM1 OP
M P
1 1 0 0
P = Ml l P = 1 2 3 ; L = P AP = 0
MNl
1 l2
M
l PQ MN 1 4 9 PQ
3 P MM 0 –1
2 0 ;
PP
2
1 l22 2
3 N 0 3 Q
LM 1 OP
b = P–1
MM 1 PP
b = 2 ; c = cP = [1 1 1]
N Q
The state model in Jordan canonical form:
x& = L x + b u; y = c x
The transformed initial vector is:
LM 1 OP
MM 1 PP
0
x =P x –1 0
= 2
N Q
The solution is,
z
t
x1 (t ) = e –t
x10 + e  ( t t ) dt = 1
0
z
t
z
t
1 2 –3t
x 3 (t) = e –3t
x 30 + e 3( t t ) dt = + e
3 3
0
x(t) = P x (t)
1 2
x1(t) = – e–2t + e–3t; x2(t) = 2(e–2t – e–3t)
3 3
x3(t) = – 2(2e–2t – 3e–3t); y(t) = x1(t)
LM 0 1 OP ; eigenvalues are l
5.28 A =
N2 3Q 1 = – 1, l2 = – 2
s+4 1
= +
( s + 1)( s + 2) s( s + 1)( s + 2)
SOLUTION MANUAL 57
3 2 1/ 2 1 1/ 2
=  +  +
s +1 s + 2 s s +1 s + 2
1 3
y(t) = + 2e  t  e 2 t
2 2
LM1 0OP LMs + 3 1OP LM2 1OP LM 1/ s OP
5.29 Y(s) = C(sI – A)–1 BU(s) =
N1 1Q N 2 sQ N0 1Q N 1/(s + 3)Q
LM 3s + 16s + 18 OP
2
= M s( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) P
MM 4s + 6 PP
N s(s + 2)(s + 3) Q
L y (t ) OP = LM3  25 e  e + 12 e OP
y(t) = M
t 2 t 3 t
Ny (t)Q MN 1 + e  2e PQ
1
2 2 t 3 t
LM 1 e 4t
+
2 7t
e
0.5 4t 0.5 7t
e  e OP
= MM 34 e 4 t
3
4
 e 7t
3 3
2 4 t 1 7t PP
N3 3 3
e + e
3 Q
z LMN OP
t
4 4 ( t t ) 4 7 ( t t )
y(t) = x2(t) = 7
0
3
e  e
3
dt
Q
28 1 LM 1
(1  e 4 t )  (1  e 7t ) OP
=
3 4 N 7 Q
eAt =
LMe + te
–t t
te  t OP
N te Q
5.31 t
e  t  te  t
x(t) = e A ( t  t0 ) x ( t 0 )
Given: x1(2) = 2 ; t0 = 1, t = 2
58 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
N 2k Q 2
LM 0 1 0 OP
5.32 (a) A = 3
MM12 07 26PP
N Q
l1 = – 1, l2 = – 2, l3 = – 3
Modes: e–t, e–2t, e–3t
(b) Eigenvectors:
LM 1 OP LM 1 OP LM 1 OP LM 1 1 1 OP
v1
MM1PP
= 1 ; v 2 MM1/ 2 PP
= 2 ; v
MM 3 PP MM1
= 3 ; P = 1
3 2 3
PP
N Q N Q N Q N 1/ 2 3 Q
LM1 0 0 OP
x = P x ; x& = P–1
MM 0 0 3PP
AP x = 0 2 0 x
N Q
x (0) = P–1 x(0)
LMet
OP L x (0)O
PP MMx (0)PP
0 0 1
x (t) = M 0 e 2 t
0
MN 0 Q MN x (0)PQ
2
0 e 3 t 3
LM0OP LM k OP
MMkPP MM 3k PP
x(0) = P x (0) = P 0 = 3k ; k π 0
NQ N Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 59
l1 = 2, l2 = –1.
Modes are e2t and e–t
LMl  1 1 OP
N 2 lQ
(b) adj(lI – A) =
P= M
L1 1 OP
N2 1Q
x = P x gives
x& = P–1 AP x =
2 0 LM OP LM x OP ; y(t) = cP x = [5
1
0 1 N Q Nx Q 2
–1] x
LM x (t)OP = LMe
1
2 ( t  t0 )
0 O L x (t ) O
PQ MN x (t )PQ
1 0
Nx (t )Q N
2 0 e  ( t  t0 ) 2 0
LM 0 OP = LM K OP ; K π 0
x(t0) = P x (t0) = P
N K Q N K Q
With this initial condition, the mode e2t will be hidden from y(t).
LM e OP = La bO L 1 O ; LM e OP = La b O L 1 O
2 t t
This gives
LMa bOP = LM 2e t
 e 2 t e  t  e 2 t OP
eAt =
N c d Q N2 e 2 t
 2e  t 2 e 2 t  e  t Q
60 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
= L –1
[(sI – A)–1]
LM 2  1 1

1 OP
(sI – A) –1
= MM s +2 1  s +2 2 s +1 s + 2
2 1 PP
Ns + 2 s +1 
s + 2 s +1 Q
LM s 1 OP
(sI – A) =
N2 s + 3Q
LM 0 1 OP
A =
N2 3Q
LM c OP
V= M PP is a triangular matrix with diagonal elements equal to unity;
cA
5.35
MM M PQ V = (– 1) for all a ’s. This proves the result.
n
NcA n1 i
LM1 2OP
5.38 (i) U = [b Ab] =
N0 1 Q
; r(U) = 2
Completely controllable
LM c OP = L 1 1O ; r(V) = 1
V =
NcAQ MN3 3 PQ
Not completely observable.
(ii) The system is in Jordan canonical form; it is controllable but not
observable.
(iii) The system is in Jordan canonical form; it is both controllable and
observable.
SOLUTION MANUAL 61
LM c OP
r ( V) = r M cA P = 3
MNcA PQ
2
s+4
(ii) G(s) =
( s + 2)( s + 3)
The given state model is in controllable companion form. Since there
is a polezero cancellation, the model is unobservable.
5.41 (a) lI – A = (l – 1) (l + 2) (l + 1)
The system is unstable.
(b) G(s) = c(sI – A)–1 b
1
=
( s + 1)(s + 2)
The G(s) is stable
(c) The unstable mode et of the free response is hidden from the transfer
function representation
62 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
10 b2
5.42 (a) G(s) = = 2
s +s
2
s + a 1s + a 2
10( s + 2) 10 s + 20 b 2s + b 3
G(s) = = 3 = 3
s( s + 1)( s + 2) s + 3s + 2 s s + a 1s 2 + a 2 s + a 3
2
LM0 1 0 OP
0 LM OP
A =
MM00 PP MM PP
0 1 ; b = 0 ; c = 20 10 0
N 2 3 1 Q NQ
(c) Let us obtain observable companion form realization of
10( s + 2)
G(s) =
s( s + 1)( s + 2)
LM0 0 0 OP 20 LM OP
A =
MM10 PP MM
0 2 ; b = 10 ; c = 0 0 1
PP
N 1 3 Q 0 N Q
5.42 Refer Section 5.4.
CHAPTER 6 STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL
CONTROL SYSTEMS
LM3 1 0 OP 3 LM OP
6.1
MM1
F = 4
PP
0 1 ; g = 7
MM PP
N 0 0 Q 0 N Q
LMz + 3 1 0O
1P ; zI – F = z
MM 41 0z P
3
(zI – F) = + 3z2 + 4z + 1 = D
N z QP
L z
1 M
2
z OP 1
DM
–1
(zI – F) z = (4 z + 1) z( z + 3) z + 3 P z = G(z)
MN z 1 z( z + 3) + 4 PQ
L 3z  7z OP
1 M
2
DM
H(z) = (zI – F)–1 g= 7z  9z + 3P
2
MN 3z + 7 PQ
6.2
64 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
2 5LM 1 OP LM OP 1
6.3 F = 1 1 ; g =
2 MN 0
; c = [2
PQ NQ 0]; zI – F = z2 – z +
2
=D
2z + 2
G(z) = c(zI – F)–1 g =
1
z2  z +
2
LM2 0 OP1 2 0 LM
2 5 0 4 0 OP LM OP LM OP
6.4 C=
N1 1
;G=
Q0 1 3
2 N
; F = 1 1 ; D =
0 0 2 Q MN PQ N Q
1
D = zI – F = z2 – z +
2
G(z) = C(zI – F)–1 G + D
LM
1 2 z + 2 4D  4 z  14 30 OP
MN PQ
= 1
D z+ 2 3z  4 2D  3z  9
6.5 x1, x2 and x3 : outputs of unit delayers starting at the top and proceeding
towards the bottom.
1 1
x1(k + 1) = x1(k) + x2(k) + 2x3(k) + u(k)
2 4
1
x2(k + 1) = – x2(k) – x3(k) – u(k)
2
1
x3(k + 1) = 3x2(k) + x3(k) + 2u(k)
3
y(k) = 5x1(k) + 6x2(k) – 7x3(k) + 8u(k)
LM 1 1 OP
M 2 4
2
1
PP LM OP
F = M0
1
MM
1 ; g = 1 ; c = [5
PP MM PP 6 –7]; d = 8
2
1 2 N Q
N0 3
3 Q
6.6 x1, x2 and x3 : outputs of unit delayers starting at the top and proceeding
towards the bottom.
x1(k + 1) = x2(k) + u1(k); x2(k + 1) = 3x1(k) + 2x3(k)
x3(k + 1) = – 12x1(k) – 7x2(k) – 6x3(k) + u2(k)
SOLUTION MANUAL 65
LM 0 1 0 1 0 OP 0 2 0 2 0
LM OP LM OP LM OP
MM12
F= 3 0
PP
2 ;G= 0 0 ;C= ;D=
MM PP N Q N Q
N Q N Q
0 0 1 0 1
7 6 0 1
Y (z) 3z 2  z  3 b z 2 + b 1z + b 2
6.7 (i) = = 02
R( z ) z 2 + 1 z  2 z + a 1z + a 2
3 3
0 LM 1 OP
1 ; g = LM0OP ; c = [– 1
F= 2
3 MN 3 PQ N1 Q – 2]; d = 3
Y ( z ) 2 z 3 + 2 z 2  z + 2 b z 3 + b1 z 2 + b2 z + b3
(ii) = = 03
R( z ) z3 + z2  z 
3 z + a1 z 2 + a 2 z + a 3
4
LM0 0
3 OP
0.5 LM OP
F = M1
MM0
4
PP
0 1 ; g = 3 ; c = [0 0
MM PP 1]; d = – 2
N 1 1 4 PQ N Q
Y (z) 1 2 1
6.8 (i) =1– + +
R( z ) z +1 z +1 z + 3
LM1 0 0 1 OP LM OP
MM 0
F= 0
PP
2 0 ; g = 1 ; c = [– 1
MM PP 2 1]; d = 1
N 0 3 1 Q NQ
Y (z) 5 2 3
F z  1 I F I FH z  1 IK
(ii) = 3
+ 2
+
R( z ) 1
H 3K H K z
3 3
LM 1 1 0O
PP L0O
M
F = M0
3
1
1 P ; g = M0P ; c = [5 – 2 3]; d = 0
MM MM1PP
1P NQ
3
N0 0
3Q
P
66 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM0 0 3 OP 0 LM OP
MM0
F= 1
PP
0 7 ; g = 0 ; c = [0 0
MM PP 1]; d = 0
N 1 5 Q0 NQ
(ii) y(k + 2) + 3y(k + 1) + 2y(k) = 5r(k + 1) + 3r(k)
Y (z) 5z + 3 2 7 1 0 1 LM OP LM OP
= 2
R( z ) z + 3z + 2
= +
z +1 z + 2
;F=
0 2
;g=
1
;
N Q NQ
c = [–2 7]; d = 0
(iii) y(k + 3) + 5y(k + 2) + 7y(k + 1) + 3y(k) = r(k + 1) + 2r(k)
Y (z) b 2 z + b3 z+2
= 3 = 3
R( z ) z + a1 z + a 2 z + a 3
2
z + 5z 2 + 7z + 3
LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
F= 0
MM3 70 51PP ; g = MM01PP ; c = [2 1 0]; d = 0
N Q NQ
L 0 1OP ; g(l) = b + b l
F= M
6.10
N3 4Q 0 1
lI – F = l2 – 4l + 3 = 0; l1 = 1, l2 = 3
f (l) = lk; f (1) = 1 = g(1) = b 0 + b 1; f (3) = 3k = g(3) = b 0 + 3b 1
b 0 = 1.5 – 0.5(3)k; b 1 = 0.5[(3)k – 1]
Fk = b 0I + b 1F =
LM1.5  0.5(3) k
0.5[(3) k  1] OP
N1.5[(3) 1]
k
0.5 + 1.5(3)k Q
6.11 Refer Example 6.3
1 z +1 1 LM OP
(zI – F)–1 =
( z + 0.2)( z + 0.8) 0.16 z N Q
z
X(z) = (zI – F)–1 zx(0) + (zI – F)–1 gU(z); U(z) =
z 1
SOLUTION MANUAL 67
LM 17 z 22 z 25 z OP
M 6 + 9 + 18 P
X(z) = M z + 0.2 z + 0 .8 z 1 P
MM 6 z  9 z 187 z PP
3 .4 17.6
MN z + 0.2 + z + 0.8 + z  1 PQ
LM17 (0.2) + 22 (0.8) + 25 OP
k k
x(k) = M 6
MN 6 (0.2)  9 (0.8) + 187 PPQ
9 18 ; y(k) = cx(k) = x (k)
3.4 17.6 1
k k
5 z 2z 2 z 2 z 4z z
X1(z) = + + ; X2(z) = + +
z
1
z+
1 z 1 z
1
z+
1 z 1
2 2 2 2
x (k) = – 5 F I + 2 F I – 2; x (k) = –2 F I + 4 F I – 1
1
k
1 k
1 1 k k
1
H 2K H2K H 2K H 2 K
2
2 1 2
H 2K H 2 K
LM1 1 0 OP
6.13
MM 0 0 2 PP
F = 0 1 0
N Q
Eigenvalues of matrix F are – 1, – 1 and – 2.
(a) Therefore the modes of the free response are (– 1)k, k(– 1)k and (– 2)k
LM(1) k
k (1) k1 OP L0O LMk(1) k 1
OP
0 P M1 P = M (1)
0
(b) x(k) = F x(0) = M 0 PP
(1)
MP
k k k
1
; G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z 2
1 RS UV
6.14 (a) Ga(s) =
s( s + 2) s (s + 2) T W
0.2838z + 0.1485
=
z  11353
2
. z + 0.1353
LM 0 1 O
P L0 O
; g = M P ; c = [0.1485
F=
N0.1353 11353
. Q N1 Q 0.2838]; d = 0
(b) A = M
L0 1OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [1 0]
N0 2Q N1Q
L1 OP LM OP LM 12 (T + e 2 1)OP
z
2T
=M
1 T
(1  e2 T )
dt b = M
F = eAT
MN0 2
e 2 T
;g=
PQ MN e At
PQ M 1 (1 e ) PP
N 2 Q
2 T
0
c = [2 – 4]; d = 6
1 1
6.16 Let x1 be the output of the block and x2 be the output of the block
s 10s + 1
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – 0.1x2 + u + 0.1w
LM0 1 OP0 0 LM OP LM OP
A=
N0 0.1
;b=
Q1
; b1 =
0.1 NQ N Q
LM1 OP OP
LM
1
0.1t
= Ms PP
s( s + 0.1) ; eAt = 1 10(1  e )
(sI – A)–1
MN 0 1  0.1t
N Q
Q
0 e
s + 0.1
LM1 OP ; g =
z LM10T 100 + 100e OP
T 0 .1T
10(1  e 0.1T )
e A q b dq =
N0 Q N 10 10e Q
F=  0.1T
e 0.1T 0
SOLUTION MANUAL 69
LM1 0.1 OP
0.005 LM 0 OP
LM OP
F=
N0 0.99
;g=
Q0.1 N
; g1 =
0.01
;
Q
N Q
LM x (k + 1) OP = LM1 0.1 OP x(k) + LM0.005OP u(k) + LM 0 OP w(k)
1
N x (k + 1)Q N0 0.99Q
2 N 0.1 Q N0.01Q
LM 1 0 O
P Le 0 O  0.1t
(sI – A) = M s +
–1 0.1
1 P ; e = M0.1te PQ ; T = 3 sec
At
MN (s + 0.1) s + 0.1PQ N
6.17 0.1  0.1t  0.1t
e
2
L0.741 0 OP ; G = e B dq = LM259.182 0 OP ;
z
T
F=e = M Aq
C= M
L1 0OP
N0 1 Q
(a) G(z) = (1 – z ) Z M
L 1 OP = 0.3679(z + 0.7181)
N s (s + 1) Q (z  1)(z  0.3679)
–1
6.18 2
e 0 . 4 s
6.19 Ga(s) =
s +1
G(z) = (1 – z–1) Z
RS 1  e UV = 0.4512 z + 0.1809
 0.6
T z 1 z  e W z  0.3679z
1 2
70 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM0 1 OP 0 LM OP
F=
N0 0.3679 Q
;g=
1 NQ
; c = [0.1809 0.4512]
Y ( s ) e 0.4 s
(b) =
U ( s) s +1
State model,
x&1 (t) = – x1(t) + u(t – 0.4); tD = 0.4, N = 0, D = 0.4, m = 0.6
F = e–1 = 0.3679
z z
0. 6 0. 4
s
g2 = e ds = 0.4512; g1 = e –0.6
es ds = 0.1809
0 0
LM0.3679 0.1809 OP
0.4512 LM OP
F=
N 0 0
;g=
Q1
; c = [1
N Q 0]
z
0. 5
F = e–1 = 0.3679; g2 = es ds = 0.3935;
0
z
0. 5
g1 = e –0.5
es ds = 0.2387
0
x(k + 1) = 0.3679x(k) + 0.2387u(k – 3) + 0.3935u(k – 2)
x2(k) = u(k – 3), x3(k) = u(k – 2), x4(k) = u(k – 1)
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k)
e t D
s
Y (s )
6.21 = Ga(s) = ; 0 £ tD £ T
U ( s) s2
x1 = y, x2 = y& ; x&1 = x2, x& 2 = u(t – tD)
SOLUTION MANUAL 71
A2T 2
+L=
1 T LM OP
F = eAT = I + AT +
2! 0 1 N Q
tD = D T = (1 – m)T
LMt OP
z L (T  t ) / 2 OP ; g = e
z
mT DT tD
b ds = M
2
As (T  )
e A s b ds =
MN PQ
D AmT
N T t Q
g2 = e D
1 2
0 D 0 tD
N = 0 (Refer Eqn. (6.35))
LM1 F tD I OP LM (T  t )2 OP
T tD T 
H KP M 2 D
PP ; c = [1
F = M0
2
MM0 1 tD
PP ; g = MM T 1t D
PP
0 0]
MN QP NM Q
0 0
6.22 For this problem, the solution comes from Review Example 6.3 with
K = 2.
1 1 1
6.23 x1, x2 and x3: outputs of the blocks , and respectively.
s s +1 s+2
(a)
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – x2 + x3; x& 3 = – 2x3 + u
LM 0 1 0 OP
0 LM OP
MM 0
A= 0 1 1 ; b = 0
PP MM PP
N 0 2 1 Q NQ
Eigenvalues of A are l1 = 0, l2 = –1, l3 = –2
g(l) = b 0 + b 1l + b 2l2; f (l) = elT
For l = 0, elT = 1 = b 0
For l = –1, e–T = b 0 – b 1 + b 2
For l = – 2, e–2T = b 0 – 2b 1 + 4b 2
72 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
1 1
b 0 = 1; b 1 = (3 + e–2T – 4e–T ); b 2 = (1 + e–2T – 2e–T)
2 2
eAT = b 0I + b 1A + b 2A2
LM1 1  eT
1
(1 + e 2 T  2e  T ) OP
= M0 PP
2
MM0 e T e T  e 2 T
e2T
;
PP
MN 0
Q
LM3 + 1 T + e  1 e T 2 T OP
z M PP
T 4 2 4
bdq = M
1 1 T 2T
e Aq e + e
MM 2 1 1 2 PP
g=
0
2T
N  e
2 2 Q
x(k + 1) = eAT x(k) + g[r(k) – x1(k)] = Fx(k) + gr(k)
LM 7  1 T  e + 1 e T 2 T
1  e T
1
(1 + e 2 T  2 e  T ) OP
M 4 12
F= M  +e  e
1
4
T 2 T
e T
2
e  T  e 2 T
PP
MM 2 1 + 1 e2 PP
N Q
2 T
0 e 2 T
2 2
z
t
(b) x(t) = eA(t – kT) x(kT) + e A( t t ) bu(t )dt ; kT £ t < (k + 1)T
kT
eAt = b 0I + b 1A =
LM 2e T
 e2
T
e T  e  2 T OP
N2e Q
T
;
+ 2e2 e + 2e2
T T T
L0.5  e OP
z
T
+ 0.5e2 T
b dq = M
T
N e Q
Aq
g= e T
 e 2 T
0
SOLUTION MANUAL 73
LM1 0.1 OP LM
0.005 OP
x(k + 1) =
N0 0.99 Q
x(k) +
0.1 Nu(k)
Q
74 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM x (k + 1) OP L1 OP LM x (k) OP LM0OP
MM xx ((kk ++ 11))PP = MMM00
1 0.1 0 1
2
PM P MP
0.99 0 x ( k ) + 0 e(k)
0 QP MN x ( k ) PQ MN1 PQ
2
N c 0 Q N c
LM0.005OP
MM 0 PP
+ 0.1 [– 41x (k) + 50(r(k) – x (k))]
c 1
N Q
LM0.75 0.1 0.205OP LM0.25OP
MM 1 0 0 PP
= 5 0.99 4.1 x(k) + 5 r(k)
MM 1 PP
N Q N Q
L1 1 1 1OP ; r (U) = 2; V = LM c OP ; r (V) = 2
(a) U = [g Fg] = M
6.27
N0 0 1 1Q NcFQ
Therefore system is both controllable and observable.
(b) Given system is in Jordan canonical form. It is both controllable and
observable.
LM 0 1OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [1 0]
6.28 A=
N  1 0 Q N1 Q
U = [b Ab] = M
L0 1OP ; r (U) = 2; V = LM c OP = LM1 0OP ; r (V) = 2
N1 0 Q NcAQ N0 1Q
The continuoustime system is both controllable and observable.
Comparing the given state model with Eqn (6.59), we observe that the
given system is a harmonic oscillator with frequency w = 1 or period
T = 2p.
Therefore, T = np; n = 1, 2, K will lead to hidden oscillations.
For T = p, for example, the discretetime model is given by (refer Eqns
(6.60))
LM 1 0 OP x(k) + LM2OP u(k); y(k) = [1
x(k + 1) =
N 0 1Q N0 Q 0]x(k)
F 1 I Fl  1 I
H
6.30 (a) lI – F = l 
4 K H 2K
1 1
Eigenvalues of F are: l1 = , l2 =
4 2
1
(b) G(z) = c(zI – F)–1 g =
Fz  1I
H 4K
(c) Since there is a polezero cancellation, the system is either uncontrol
lable or unobservable or both.
Given state model is in controllable canonical form. Therefore, the
model is controllable but not observable.
CHAPTER 7 POLEPLACEMENT DESIGN AND STATE
OBSERVERS
Y (s ) b s n 1 + b 2 s n  2 + L + b n
7.1 = 1n
U ( s) s + a 1s n 1 + L + a n
LM 0 1 0 . . 0 OP LM0OP
M0
&x = M .
0 1 0 . 0
P M0 P
. Px + M . P u
MM 0 1 P
PP MM . PP
. . . .
0 . . .
MN a n  a n 1 . . . a Q 1 MN1PQ
y = [>n >n–1 L >1] x; u = – kx + r; k = [k1 k2 L kn]
x& = [A – bk] x + br; y = cx
LM 0 1 0 . . 0 OP
A – bk = M
M 0 0 1 0 . 0
PP
MM 0 PP
. . . . . .
0 . . . 1
MN a  k n 1  a n 1  k2 . . .  a 1  kn PQ
LM *1 OP LM0OP
G(s) = c[sI – (A – bk)]–1 b=c M
M *2
P M
. P M.P ×
0
P 1
MM . P M.P
P M P
D
NM *n QP NM1 QP
LM 0 1 0 OP
A – bk =
MM6 0 k 0 1
PP
N 1 11 k2 6  k3 Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 77
(b) ~
x = x – x$
x& = (A – mc) ~
~ x ; mT = [m1 m2 m3 ]
LM m 1 1 0 OP
MM6  m
A – mc = m 2 0 1
PP
N 3 11 6 Q
sI – (A – mc) = s3 + (6 + m1)s2 + (11 + 6m1 + m2)s + 11m1 + 6m 2
+ m3 + 6
(s + 5) (s + 2 + j3.464) (s + 2 – j3.464) = s3 + 9s2 + 36s + 80
m1 = 3, m2 = 7, m3 = – 1
Observation equation is Eqn (7.31) and the structure is given in
Fig. 7.6.
LM 0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
(c)
MM6
x& = 0 0 1 x+ 0 u
PP MM PP
N 11  6 1 Q NQ
y = [1 0 0]x
LM 0 1 OP ; a
Aee =
N 11 6 Q le = [1 0]
LMk 1 k2 6  k3 OP
MM 0
A – bk = 1 0 11
PP
N 1 6 Q
78 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM x& OP L 6 0 OP LM x OP LM0OP LM x OP
(c) x& = M 6 0
3 1 3 3
M x& P MM11 1 0
PP MM xx PP + MM10PP u; y = [1 0
Mx P
0] x
NM PQ N NM PQ
1 1 1
2 0 QN Q NQ
2 2
A = M
L0 0OP ; a
ee
N1 0 Q le = [0 1]; mT = [m1 m2]
4
Settling time = £ 4; zwn ≥ 1
zw n
The observer poles may be fixed at s = – 2, – 3.
Characteristic polynomial: s2 + 5s + 6.
sI – (A – mc) = s2 + (2 + m2)s + 2m2 + 1 + m1
LM 1OP
Comparing and solving the resulting equations: m =
N 3Q
x&$ = (A – mc) x$ + (B – md)u + my
7.5 The estimation error should decay as fast as e–10t at least. Hence, the pole
should be at s = – 10. Desired characteristic polynomial: s + 10
x& = Ax + bu; y = cx
$ q
q& 2¢ = – 10 q$ 2 – 10y – 4.5u; q$ 2 = q¢2 + my; q$ = q1 = 1 LM OP LM OP
$q 2 q$ 2N Q N Q
LM y + q$ OP
x$ = Q q$ = 2
N y + 2q$ Q2
L0 9OP ; b = LM9OP ; c = [0
(a) A = M
7.6
N1 0 Q N0 Q 1]
LM9k 1 9  9 k2 OP
(A – bk) =
N1 0 Q
; sI – (A – bk) = s2 + 9k1s + 9k2 – 9
LM81OP
m=
N12Q
L0 9OP ; b = LM9OP ; c = [0
(d) A = M
N1 0Q N9Q 1]
LM 1 2 OP ;
sI – (A – bk = s2 + 3s + 2, gives k =
N9 9 Q
LM1 7 OP ; c(A – bk) = [0 –2]
A – bk =
N 0 2Q
L c OP = L0 1O ; r (V) = 1. System is unobservable
V=M
Nc(A  bk)Q MN0 2 PQ
7.7 &&
y + w 02 y = u
(a) x& =
LM 0 1OP x + LM0OP u
Nw 2
0 0Q N1 Q
(b) wn = 2w0; z = 1; s = – 2w0
Characteristic polynomial: (s + 2w0)2 = s2 + 4w0s + 4w 02
LM 0 1 OP ; sI – (A – bk) = s 2
+ k2s + w 02 + k1
A – bk =
Nw  k
2
0 1 k Q 2
k= [3w 02 4w0]
(c) m = [m1 m2]T
N99w Q2
0
LM 0 OP
1
(A – bk) =
N20.6  k 1 k Q 2
SOLUTION MANUAL 81
LM 16 OP
sI – (A – mc) = (s + 8)2 gives m =
N84.6Q
U ( s) 778.16 s + 3690.72
(c) = k [sI – (A – bk – mc)]–1 m = 2
Y ( s) s + 19.6 s + 151.2
(a) A = M
L0 1OP ; b = LM0OP ; c = [1 0]
7.9
N0 0 Q N1 Q
1
(b) wn = 1; z = ;
2
LM m OP = LM 5 OP
1
sI – (A – mc) = s2 + 5s + 25 gives m =
Nm Q N25Q
2
U ( s) 40.4(s + 0.619)
(d) = k [sI – (A – mc – bk)]–1 m = 2
Y ( s) s + 6.414 s + 33.07
U ( s) 8.07(s + 0.62)
=
Y ( s) ( s + 6.41)
7.10 (a) Desired polynomial: (s + 2) (s + 1 + j1) (s + 1 – j1)
= s3 + 4s2 + 6s + 4
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = – x2 + x3; x& 3 = – 2x3 + u; y = x1
~
x1 = x1 – r; ~ x 2 = x2; ~
x 3 = x3
x& = A ~
~ x + bu
LM0 1
0 0 OP LM OP
MM0
A= 0 1 1 ; b = 0
PP MM PP
N 0 2 1 Q NQ
u = – k~
x = – k1x1 – k2x2 – k3x3 + k1r; N = k1;
LM0 0 1 OP
MM1 1 3
PP
2
U = [b Ab A b] = 0
N 2 4 Q
p1 = [1 0 0]
LM p OP L1 0 OP
MM PP = MM0 1
1 0
P = p1 A
PP
0 ; sI – A = s3 + 3s2 + 2s
Np A Q MN0 1
1
2
1 Q
k = [4 6–2 4–3]; P = [4 3 1]
3 2
(b) Desired polynomial: s + 8s + 24s + 32
LM1 0 0 OP
MM0 0 1 PP
A c (A ) c ] = 0 1 1
T T T T 2 T
U = [c
N Q
LM p OP L0 0 OP
0 1]; P = M p A P = M0 1
1 1
MNp (A ) PQ MMN1 3
2
PP
T
p1 = [0
Q
1
T 2
1 4
sI – A = s3 + 3s2 + 2s
mT = [32 24 – 2 8 – 3] P = [5 7 8]
SOLUTION MANUAL 83
LM1 1 1OP
MM0 4 7PP
Ab A b] = 1 2 4 ; U = – 5
2
U = [b
N Q
Conditions for existence of integral control solution are satisfied.
p1 = [– 0.8 0.8 0.2]
LM p OP L0.8 OP
P= MpAP = M 1
1 0.8 0.2
MNp A PQ MMN 1 P
1 0
0 PQ
1
2
1 2
x1 = q; x2 = q& ; x3 = ia
x& = Ax + bu
LM0 1 0 0 OP LM OP
MM0
A= 0 1 1 ;b= 0 ;
PP MM PP
N 1 10 10 Q N Q
sI – (A – bk) = s3 + (11 + 10k3) s2 + (11 + 10k2 + 10k3)s + 10k1
Characteristic polynomial:
(s2 + 2zwns + w 2n ) (s + 10) = (s2 + 2s + 4) (s + 10) = s3 + 12s2 + 24s + 40
k = [4 1.2 0.1]
7.13 x1 = w; x2 = ia
x&1 = – x1 + x2; x& 2 = – x1 – 10x2 + 10u
LM1 1OP 0 LM OP
A=
N1 10Q;b=
10 N Q
z
t
z= ( y  r )dt; z& = y – r = x1 – r
0
84 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM1 1 0 OP LM 0 OP
MM 1
A = 1 10
P MM 0 PP
0 ; b = 10
0 PQ
N 0 N Q
sI – ( A – b k) = s3 + (11 + 10k2)s2 + (11 + 10k1 + 10k2)s + 10k3
dia
u – Kbq& = La + (Ra + 0.1)ia
dt
This gives, x& 3 = – 2x3 – 20x2 + 20u
LM0 10 0 OP LM OP
MM0
A= 0 05 ;b= 0
PP MM PP
N 20 2 20 Q N Q
sI – (A – bk¢) = s3 + (20k¢3 + 2)s2 + (100 + 100k¢2)s + 100k¢1
Desired polynomial: (s + 3 + j3) (s + 3 – j3) (s + 20)
= s3 + 26s2 + 138s + 360.
k¢ = [3.6 0.38 1.2]
k1¢ = k1KA = KA
k2¢ = k2KA; k2 = 0.11
k3¢ = k3KA; k3 = 0.33
1
x&1 = x2; x& 2 = –x2 + 20x3; x& 3 = – 5x3 + u
20
LM0 1 0 OP LM 0 OP
20 ; b = M 0 P
MM0
A= 0 1
5PQ
P M1P
N 0 MN 20 PQ
k1¢ = k1KA = KA; k2¢ = k2KA; k3¢ = k3KA
sI – (A – bk¢) = s3 + (6 + 0.05 k3¢ )s2 + (5 + 0.05 k3¢ + k2¢ )s + k1¢
Desired polynomial: (s2 + 2s + 4) (s + 10) = s3 + 12s2 + 24s + 40.
k¢ = [40 13 120]
KA = 40
k2 = 0.325
k3 = 3
Y (s ) b
7.17 =
U ( s) s( s + a )
LM0 1 OP 0 LM OP
A=
N0 a Q
;b=
b NQ
sI – (A – bk) = s2 + (a + b k2)s + b k1 = s2 + a1s + a2
a2 a a
b k1 = a2; k1 = ; a + b k2 = a1; k2 = 1 ; N = k1
b b
7.18 x1 = w; x2 = ia
x& =
LM 0 50 OP LM OP LM OP
0 50
N200 200
x+
Q N Q N Q
200
u+
0
TL
z& = y – r = x1 – r,
LM x& OP LM 0
1 50 0 OP LM x OP LM 0 OP LM 0 OP LM50OP
1
N Q N1 0 0
Desired polynomial:
(s + 10 + j10) (s + 10 – j10) (s + 300) = s3 + 320s2 + 6200s + 60,000.
k = [– 0.38 0.6 6]
Resulting system is of type1.
Steadystate error to constant disturbance is zero, w(t) Æ r.
LM3 2 OP ; b = LM1OP ; c = [0
7.19 (a) A =
N 4 5Q N0Q 1]
LM6 0.5 OP
; x& =
LM
6 0.5 1 OP LM OP
(b) A – bk =
N4 5 Q 4 5 N x+
0
w
Q NQ
5 1
At steady state, x& = 0; xls = x2s. Hence, x2s = w
4 7
LM3 2 0 OP
1 LM OP
(c)
MM 0
z& = y = x ; A = 4
PP
5 0 ; b = 0 MM PP
N Q
2
1 0 0 NQ
sI – (A – bk) = s3 + (8 + k1)s2 + (7 + 5k1 + 4k2)s + 4k3
Desired polynomial: (s + 1) (s + 2) (s + 7) = s3 + 10s2 + 23s + 14.
k = [2 1.5 3.5]; x& = [A – bk] x + bw
LM 3 2OP ; b = LM1OP ; c = [0
A=
N4 5 Q N0 Q 1]
k = [2 1.5 3.5]
Y ( s) 4s Y ( s) 14
= ; y(•) = 0; = ;
W ( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 7) R( s) ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 7)
y(•) = r
7.21 w& = – 0.5w + 100u; u = – Kw + Nr; w& = (– 0.5 – 100K)w + 100 Nr
(a) Time constant = 0.1 sec.
s + 0.5 + 100K = s + 10; K = 0.095
N–1 = – c (A – bK)–1b = 10; N = 0.1;
At steadystate w& Æ 0 . This gives w(•) = r
(b) A = – 0.5; A + dA = – 0.6
w& = – 0.6w + 100u = – 0.6w + 100 (– 0.095w + 0.1r) = – 10.1w + 10r
10
w(•) = r
10.1
(c) z& = w – r
z
t
LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
7.22
MM4
F= 0 0
P MM1PP
1 ;g= 0
1PQ
N 2 NQ
Desired characteristic equation: z z + FH 1
+ j
1 IK FH z + 1  j 1 IK
2 2 2 2
1
= z3 + z2 + z
2
zI – (F – gk) = z3 + (1 + k3) z2 + (2 + k2) z + 4 + k1
LM 3 OP
N
k = 4 
2
0
Q
LM 1 1 0OP
F = M 1 0 1 P ; c = [1 0 0]
2
7.23
MM 0 0 0 PQ
P
N
zI – (F – mc) = z + FH m  IK z
3 1 2
1 + (1 + m2)z + m3
2
LM 3  11 0OP T
m=
N 2 16 Q
LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
7.24
MM 0.5  00.2 111. PP ; g = MM01PP
F= 0
N Q NQ
SOLUTION MANUAL 89
LM 0 1 OP ; c = [1
7.25 F =
N 0.16 1Q 1]
LM 0 1 0 OP LM0OP
7.26 x(k + 1) = 0
MM0.5 00.2 111. PP x(k) + MM01PP u(k)
N Q NQ
LM x (k + 1)OP L 0 0 1 O LM x (k)OP L0O
MM x (k + 1)PP = MMM 1 0 0 PPP MM x (k)PP + MMM0PPP u(k)
2 2
3 3
LM x (k)OP
2
y(k) = [1 0 0] M x ( k ) P
MN x (k)PQ
1
~
x e (k + 1) = (Fee – mf1e) ~
x e (k)
LM 0 0 OP ; f
Fee =
N0.5 11. Q 1e = [0 1]
N x$ (k )Q
m = [0
3
x$ e (k + 1) =
LM 0 0OP x$ (k) + LM0OP u(k) + LM 1 OP y(k) + LM 0 OP y(k + 1)
N0.5 0Q e
N1Q N 0.2Q N11.Q
90 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM 2 1OP ; g = LM4OP
7.27 (a) F =
N  1 1 Q N 3Q
U = [g Fg] = M
L4 5 OP
N3 1Q
1
[3 – 4]; P = M
L p OP = 1 LM 3  4OP
Np FQ 19 N10 7Q
1
p =
1
19 1
LM1 1OP ; p
U = [cT FTcT] =
N1 0Q 1 = [1 – 1]
LM p 1 OP = LM1 1OP
P=
Np F
1
T
Q N3 2Q
zI – FT = z2 – 3z + 1
zI – (FT – mTcT) = z2
mT = [– 1 3] P = [8 – 5]
(c) x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k); u(k) = – k x$ (k)
x$ (k + 1) = (F – mc) x$ (k) + gu(k) + my(k); y(k) = cx(k) + du(k)
x1(k + 1) = 2x1(k) – x2(k) – 5.84 x$1 (k) + 3.79 x$ 2 (k)
x2(k + 1) = – x1(k) + x2(k) – 4.38 x$1 (k) + 2.84 x$ 2 (k)
and
x$1 (k + 1) = – 11.84 x$1 (k) – 5.21 x$ 2 (k) + 8[x1(k) + x2(k)]
x$ 2 (k + 1) = – 0.38 x$1 (k) + 8.84 x$ 2 (k) – 5[x1(k) + x2(k)]
Y (z) 1
7.28 (a) = 2
U ( z ) z + z + 0.16
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) + gu(k); y(k) = cx(k)
SOLUTION MANUAL 91
LM 0 OP ; g = LM0OP ; c = [1
1
F=
N 0.16 1Q N1 Q 0]
LM 0 1OP ; g = LM0OP ; c = [1
(c) F =
N 0.16 1Q N1Q 0]
LM1 1OP
x(k) = Qq(k); Q =
N0 1 Q
q(k + 1) = Q–1 FQq(k) + Q–1 gu(k) = F q(k) + g u(k)
LM 0 1OP ; g = LM0OP
F =
N0.16 1Q N1Q
y(k) = cQq(k) = c q(k) = [1 0] q(k)
Controller design:
zI – ( F – g k) = z2 + (1 + k2)z + 0.16 + k1
Desired characteristic polynomial: z2 – 1.2z + 0.52;
k = [0.36 – 2.2]
92 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
Observer design:
LM 0 1OP ; g = LM0OP ; c = [1
F =
N 0.16 1Q N1Q 0]
LM1 T OP ; g = LM T / 2 OP ; c = [1
2
F=
N0 1 Q N T Q 0]
zw n T ± jw n T 1z 2
Regulator: z = 0.5; wn = 4, z1,2 = e e = 0.77 ± j0.278
2
Characteristic polynomial: z – 1.54z + 0.67
LM T2 OP
T2
N
zI – (F – gk) = z2 + Tk2 +
2
k1  2 z +
2Q k1 – Tk2 + 1
k = [13 3.95]
Prediction observer:
Result follows from Example 7.14.
x(k + 1) = M
L1 0.0952OP x(k) + LM0.00484OP u(k); y(k) = [1 0] x(k)
7.31
N0 0.905 Q N 0.0952 Q
SOLUTION MANUAL 93
L1
f(F) = M
0.0952 OP ;2
N0 0.905 Q
L0.00484
Fg] = M
0.0139OP
U = [g
N 0.0952 0.0862Q
Using Ackerman’s formula:
k = [0 1]U–1 f(F) = [105.01 14.648]
Observer design:
z (k + 1) = FTz(k) + cTh(k); h(k) = mTz(k)
LM 1 0 OP 2
f(FT) =
N0.0952 0.905 Q
LM1 1 OP
U = [cT FTcT] =
N0 0.0952 Q
mT = [0 1] U–1 f(FT) = [19 8.6]
Reduced order deadbeat observer:
~
x 2 (k + 1) = (Fee – mf1e) ~
x 2 (k); Fee = 0.905, f1e = 0.0952
Desired characteristic equation: z = 0; m = 9.51
Refer Equations (7.91)– (7.97)
x$ 2 (k + 1) = 9.51y(k + 1) – 9.51y(k) + 0.05u(k)
7.32 (a) y& + y = u + w; T = 1 sec; A = – 1, b = 1;
z
T
eAT
= 0.368; g = e t dt = 0.632
0
1
= – c (F – gk – 1)–1 g; N = 1.37
N
With u(k) = – 0.3687y(k) + 1.37r we have
y(k + 1) = 0.135y(k) + 0.866r + 0.632w(k)
At steady state, with w = 0;
0.866
ys = 0.135ys + 0.866r; ys = r @r
0.865
(c) At steady state, with r = 0;
0.632
ys = 0.135ys + 0.632w; ys = w = 0.73w
0.865
(d) Integral control:
z = 0.5, wn = 4
zw n T ± jw n T 1z 2
re±jq = e e = – 0.128 ± j0.043
(z + 0.128 + j0.043) (z + 0.128 – j0.043) = z2 + 0.256z + 0.018
Desired characteristic equation: z2 + 0.256z + 0.018
v(k) = v(k – 1) + y(k) – r
Nv  v Q s
F =M
L0.368 0OP ; g = LM0.632OP ;
N0.368 1Q N0.632Q
zI – F  = z2 + 0.256z + 0.018
LM0.632 0.2326 OP
U = [g Fg]=
N0.632 0.8646 Q
p1 = [– 1.58 1.58]
LM p OP = LM1.58
1 1.58 OP
P=
Np F Q N 0
1 1.58 Q
k = [– 0.35 1.624]P = [0.553 2.013]
SOLUTION MANUAL 95
LM0.018  1.27 OP
(e) F – g k =
N0.018  0.27 Q
With w = 0,
LM y OP = LM0.018  1.27OP LM y OP + L 0O r
 0.27Q N v Q MN 1PQ
s s
Nv Q N0.018
s s
LM y OP = LM0.018
s  1.27OP LM y OP + LM0.632OP w
s
Nv Q N0.018
s  0.27Q N v Q N0.632Q
s
L H OP = r LM2 0OP = 2
rM
T
N H A Q N0 2 Q
T
LM5 2OP
ATP + PA = – Q gives P =
N2 1 Q
Since P is positive definite, the system is asymptotically stable.
Also, V(x) = xTPx Æ • as x Æ •
Therefore the system is asymptotically stable inthelarge.
LM 0 1OP ; A P + PA = – I
N1 1Q
T
8.2 A =
LM 3 1 OP
Solving for P, we get: P = M 2 2
PP
MN 12 1
Q
P is not a positive definite matrix; the system is unstable.
8.3 x1 = x2, x 2 = – x1 – x2 + 2
Equilibrium state xe =
LM x OP
e
1
Nx Q
e
2
LM2OP
0 = x 2e ; 0 = – x1e – x 2e + 2; xe =
N0 Q
Let ~
x1 = x1 – 2, ~ x = A ~
x 2 = x2; then ~ x
LM 3 1 OP
L 0 1O
N1 1PQ ; A P + PA = – I gives P = MM 1
A= M PP
T 2 2
N2 1
Q
P is positive definite matrix. Therefore equilibrium state [2 0] T is
asymptotically stable.
SOLUTION MANUAL 97
L7 OP
L 4 K OP ; A P + PA = – I; P = MM 40 K
1
A= M PP
4K 10 K
N 4K  6KQ
T
8.4
MN 101K 3
20 K Q
P is positive definite for K > 0; the system is asymptotically stable for
K > 0.
8.5 From Fig. P8.5, we have
x1 = – x1– Kx3; x 2 = x1 – x2; x 3 = x2 – x3
LM1 0 K OP
x = Ax; A = 1
MM 0 1
PP
0 ; ATP + PA = – Q;
N 1 1 Q
L0 0 OP
Take Q = M0 0
0
MM0 0 2 PQ
P
0 = HHT; HT = [0 0 2]
N
From Lyapunov equation, we obtain,
LM  3 3 K 2 OP
MMK32 PP
1
P=  ( K + 4)  ( K + 4)
( K + 1)( K  8)
N  ( K + 4)  (5K + 8) Q
3 3( K + 4)  9
For P to be positive definite, > 0; > 0,
( K + 1)( K  8) ( K + 1) 2 ( K  8) 2
and
LM  3 3 K 2 OP
MMK32 P
1
 ( K + 4)  ( K + 4) >0
 (5 K + 8)PQ
( K + 1)( K  8)
N  ( K + 4)
LM 0 0.5OP ; F PF – P = – I, gives,
N 0.5 1Q
T
8.7 F =
LM 52 40 O
27 P
P= M
40 100 P
27
MN 27 27 PQ
P is a positive definite matrix. Therefore, the system is asymptotically
stable.
8.8 x1 = x2; x 2 = – (1 – x1) x2 – x1
LM3 1 OP
8.10 x1 = – 3x1 + x2; x 2 = x1 – x2 – x 23 ; J =
N1 1  3 x 22 Q
LM 6 2 OP
Take P = I. Then Q = – (JT + J) =
N2 2 + 6 x 22 Q
Q = 36 x 22 + 8 > 0
Q is positive definite; therefore origin is asymptotically stable.
CHAPTER 9 LINEAR QUADRATIC OPTIMAL CONTROL
x =
LM 0 1 OP 1 LM OP
N1 2z Q
x = Ax; x(0) =
0 NQ
z z L2 0OP ; R = 0; K = 0
• •
2 x (t)dt; Q = M
1
e2(t)dt =
N0 0 Q
2
J= 1
2
0 0
LM2z + 1 1 OP
Solving for P, we get: P = M
1 P
2z
MM 1 2z PQ
P
N
1
J = xT(0) Px(0) = z +
4z
dJ 1 d2J
=1– = 0; z = 0.5; > 0; Jmin = 1
dz 4z 2 dz 2
Y ( s) K
9.2 The closedloop transfer function = 2
R ( s) s + a s + K
y + a y + Ky = Kr; y(0) = y (0) = 0
e = r – y;
e + a e + Ke = 0; x1 = e, x2 = e
x =
LM 0 1 OP 1 LM OP
N K a Q
x; x(0) =
0 NQ
z z LM2 0OP ; R = 0; K = 0
• •
J=
0
e2(t)dt =
0
x12 (t)dt; Q =
N0 0 Q
Lyapunov equation: ATP + PA + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get
100 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
LM a + 1 1 OP
P = MK a PP
K ; J = 1 xT (0) Px(0) = a + 1
MN K1 1
Ka
2
Q
2 K 2a
∂J 1 1 ∂2 J
(i) K = constant: =  ;a= K, >0
∂a 2 K 2a 2 ∂a 2
∂J a 1 F
I = 0; K Æ •
(ii) a = constant:
∂K
=
2
 2
K KH
A=M
L0 1OP ; B = LM0OP ; K = [1 k]; Q = LM1 0OP ;
9.3
N0 0 Q N1 Q N0 1 Q
R = 0; (A – BK) = M
L 0 1 OP ; x(0) = LM1OP
N1  k Q N1Q
(A – BK)TP + P(A – BK) + Q = 0
Solving for P we get,
LM k + 2
2
1 OP
P = M 2k PP
2 ; J = 1 xT (0) Px (0) = k + 2k + 4
2
MN 12 1
k Q
2 4k
∂J 3
= 0 gives k = 2; Jmin =
∂k 2
lI – (A – BK) = l2 + 2l + 1; l1 = – 1, l2 = – 1.
The system is stable.
For k = 1.5, J = 1.54.
For k = 2, J = 1.5
DJ / J 0.04 / 1.5
Skopt = = = 0.107
Dk / k 0.5 / 2
Y (s ) 100
9.4 = G(s) = 2 ;
y = 100u; y(0) = y (0) = 0
U ( s) s
x1 = y, x2 = y ; x =
LM0 1OP x + LM 0 OP u
N0 0Q N100Q
u = r – y(t) – K y (t)
Let ~
x1 = y – r = x1 – r, ~
x 2 = y = x2
SOLUTION MANUAL 101
Then u = – ~
x1 – Kx~2 ; K = [1 K]
x = Ax
~ ~ + Bu; ~ 1 LM OP
2 0 LM OP
x (0) =
0
;Q=
N Q
0 0
;R=0
N Q
(A – BK)TP + P(A – BK) + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get,
LM100K + 1 2
1 OP
P = M 100 K 100 PP
MN 1001 1
10 4 K Q
1 ~T 100 K 2 + 1 ∂ J
J= x (0) P ~
x (0) = ; = 0 gives K = 0.1;
2 200 K ∂K
∂2 J
Jmin = 0.1, >0
∂K2
For K = 0.1, J = 0.1.
For K = 0.09, J = 0.100556
DJ / J 0.000556 / 0.1
SKopt = = = 0.0556
DK / K 0.01 / 0.1
Closedloop system: x = M
L0 OP x or x
1
= x2; x 2 = – k1x1 – k2x2
N k 1 k Q 2
1
LM 5 k2 OP
LM OP
1
+
P= M PP
2k 8 8 1 T 1 5 k ∂J
+ 2 ;
MM N Q
2 ;J= x (0) Px(0) = =0
1 5 ∂ k2
PQ
2 2 2 k2 8
N 8 8 k2
102 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
∂2 J
gives k2 = 20 ; >0
∂ k 22
5
For this value of k2 : Jmin =
4
LM1 + 2k 1 OP
P= M k PP
k 1 1 ∂J
; J = xT (0) Px (0) = 1 + ; =0
MN 1k 2( k + 1)
2k 2 Q
2 2k ∂ k
gives k Æ •
LM2 0OP ; R = 2
9.7 (A – BK)TP + P(A – BK) + KTRK + Q = 0; Q =
N0 2 Q
Solving Lyapunov equation, we get
LM (k + 1) 2
1+ k2 OP
P= M k
MM 1 + k 2
k
(1 + k )(1 + k )
2 ;J= PP
(1 + k ) 2 ∂ J
;
∂k
= 0 gives k = 1; Jmin = 2
PQ
2k
N k k2
For k = 1, J = 2.
For k = 0.9, J = 2.0055.
DJ / J 0.0055 / 2
Skopt = = = 0.0275
Dk / k 0.1 / 1
N2 3Q
P= BP = [1 3]
2
SOLUTION MANUAL 103
LM2 0OP = H H = LM 2 OP [ LM H OP = 2
N0 0 Q NHAQ
T
N0Q
Q= 2 0]; r
LM2 2 2 OP ; K = R –1
N2 2Q
P= BP = [1 2 ];
2
lI – (A – BK) = l2 + 2 l + 1
The roots of this equation are in the left half of the complex plane. The
optimal closedloop system is therefore stable.
Q = HTH =
LM 2 OP [
N0Q
2 0]
LM 6 8OP
P=
N8 16 Q
; K = R–1BTP = [– 1 4]
lI – (A – BK) = l2 + 2l + 1
Optimal closedloop system is asymptotically stable:
u = – Kx = – [– 1 4]x
LM1 0OP ; B = LM1OP ; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2
9.11 A =
N 1 0 Q N0 Q N0 0 Q
{A, B} pair is controllable.
Q = HTH =
LM 2 OP [
N0Q
2 0]
LM0 OP LM OP z
•
1 0 1
9.12 x =
N0 2 Q N Q
x+
20
u; y = x1; J =
2
0
[y(t) – 1]2 + u2dt; yd = r = 1
Let ~
x1 = x1 – r = x1 – 1; ~
x 2 = x2. Then
x =
~ LM
0 1 ~ 0OP
u = A~
LM OP
N
0 2
x +
20 Q N Q
x + Bu;
•
1 ~2
z 1 0 LM OP
N Q
J= ( x1 + u2)dt; Q = ;R=1
20 0 0
{A, B} pair is controllable
LM1OP [1
Q=
N0 Q 0] = HTH. {A, H} pair is observable.
ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0
Solving for P, we get
LM 6.63 0.05 OP
P = M 20
4.63 P ; K = R
–1 T
B P = [1 0.23]
MN 0.05 400 Q
P
u = –K ~
x = – x1 – 0.23x2 + r
LM2 0OP ; R = 2
Q=
N0 8 Q
{A, B} pair is controllable. Q is positive definite.
Solving Ricatti equation, A TP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get
LM 24 2 OP ; K = R B P = [1 6 ]; u = – x
–1 T
N 2 24 Q
P= 1 – 6 x2
A= M
L0 1OP ; B = LM0OP ; Q = LM2 0OP ; R = 2
9.14
N0 1Q N1Q N0 2Q
Solving Ricatti equation, A TP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, we get
SOLUTION MANUAL 105
LM 4 2OP ; K = R
N2 2Q
–1 T
P= B P = [1 1]
x = A x + Bu + M[y – C x ]; M =
5 LM OP
4 NQ
9.15 State variable description of the system, obtained from Fig. P9.15, is given
by
x =
~ 0 LM
1 ~ 0 OP
u = A~
LM OP
0 5Nx +
1 Q
x + Bu
NQ
The problem is to determine optimal control law, u = – K ~
x , that mini
mizes
z FH I
•
1
K
J= ~
x12 + u 2 dt
2
0
LM2 0OP ; R = 1
Q=
N0 0 Q
The pair {A, B} is controllable.
Q = HTH =
LM 2 OP [
N0Q
2 0]. The pair {A, H} is observable.
LM7.495 2 OP
N 2 0.275Q
P=
LM F 2 I OP
M 2r GH 25 + r JK
1/ 2
2 r 1/ 2
PP
P= M
MM 2r F 2 IP
1/ 2
GH
2 r  5 + 25 + JP
r KP
NM Q
Case (i): r = 0.1
LM3.5397 0.6325 OP
P=
N0.6325 0.1194 Q
; K = R–1BTP = [3.1623 0.5968]
LM1.3416 0.2 OP
P=
N 0.2 0.0342 Q
; K = [10 1.7082]
LM0.5941 0.0632 OP
P=
N0.0632 0.0088 Q
; K = [31.6228 4.3939]
LM (25 + k )(2 + k )
1
2
1 2 + k12 OP
P= M PP
10k 2 k1
MM + k
1
2 + k12
PQ
2
2
N 2k
1
1 10 k1
1 ~T 25( 25 + k1 )( 2 + k12 ) ∂ J
J= x (0)P ~
x (0) = ; = 0 gives k1 = 1.345;
2 20k1 ∂ k1
∂2 J
>0
∂ k12
Jmin = 93.26
The matrix (A – BK) is stable.
9.18 From Fig. P9.18, we obtain,
y = – y + u + w; y(0) = 0
Let ys and us be steadystate values (assuming w = 0 for the time being).
At steady state: 0 = – ys + us
The steadystate equation can now be expressed as,
z
•
y = – ~
~ y + u~ , where ~
y = y – ys, u~ = u – us; J = (~
y 2 + u~ 2 )dt
0
(a) A = – 1, B = 1, Q = 2, R = 2
ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, gives P2 + 4P – 4 = 0
P = 2 2 – 2; K = R–1BTP = 2 – 1
(b) u – us = – K(y – ys)
u = – Ky + Nr; Kys + us = Nr
1
N –1 = – C (A – BK)–1 B = ;N= 2
2
Y ( s) 1 1 1
(c) From Fig. P9.18, = = ; W(s) = ;
W ( s) s + 1 + K s + 2 s
1
Y(s) =
s( s + 2 )
1
Steadystate error due to disturbance: lim sY (s) = .
s Æ0 2
108 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
(d) y = – y + u; z = y – r
LMyOP = L1 0O L yO + L1 O u + L 0O r
NzQ MN 1 0PQ MN z PQ MN0PQ MN1PQ
At steady state y = z = 0, and therefore
N1Q N 1 0Q N z Q N0Q s
s
z
•
J= (~
y2 + ~
z 2 + u~ 2 ) dt
0
z
t
Therefore, u(t) = – y(t) – [y(t) – r]dt
0
(e) Block diagram of the control scheme is shown in the figure that
follows:
where, w~ = w – w ; u~ = u – u
s s
z
•
J= ~ 2 + 100u~ 2 ) dt
(w
0
z LM OP LM OP
•
~2 + ~ 2 0  0.5 0
z 2 + 100u~ 2 ) dt; Q =
J=
0
(w
0 2 N Q
; R = 200; A =
1 N 0
;
Q
LM100OP
B=
N0Q
ATP + PA – PBR–1BTP + Q = 0, gives
LM0.21 0.2 OP ; K = R
N 0.2 Q
–1 T
P= B P = [0.105 0.1]
2.2
z
t
u(t) = – 0.105w(t) – 0.1 [w (t) – r]dt
0
100
For G(s) = , the closedloop transfer function is:
s+a
w( s ) 10.5
=
R( s) s( s + 10 + a) + 10.5
1
For R(s) = , we have w (•) = lim sw ( s) = 1
s s Æ0
2 + 1.5 K 2
P=
2K  K 2
1 T 1 + 0.75K 2
J= x (0) Px (0) = {x(0)}2
2 2K  K 2
∂J 2
= 0 gives K = .
∂K 3
SOLUTION MANUAL 111
T s(s + 1) W z  e T
0.4 Y (z)
For T = 0.5, Gh0G(z) = = ; y(k + 1) = 0.6y(k) + 0.4u(k)
z  0.6 U ( z )
(a) Let ys and us be the steadystatevalues. At steadystate,
ys = 0.6ys + 0.4us
Substituting in the state equation,
~ y (k) + 0.4u~ (k)
y (k + 1) = 0.6 ~
y = y – ys, u~ = u – us
where ~
•
Â
1 ~
J= y 2 ( k ) + u~ 2 (k); F = 0.6, G = 0.4, Q = 1, R = 1
2 k=0
0.5108
y(•) = r=r
0.5108
9.23 (a) x(k + 1) = 0.5x(k) + 2u(k) = Fx(k) + Gu(k)
Let xs and us be the steadystate values. At steady state,
xs = 0.5xs + 2us
Substituting in the state equation, we get
~
x (k + 1) = 0.5 ~
x (k) + 2 u~ (k)
where ~
x (k) = x(k) – xs , u~ (k) = u(k) – us
•
Â
1 ~
J= x 2 ( k ) + u~ 2 ( k ) ; F = 0.5, G = 2, Q = 1, R = 1
2 k=0
10.1 Describing functions of some entries of Table 10.2 have been derived in
Section 10.4 and Section 10.11.
10.2 Revisiting Example 10.1 (Fig. 10.19) will be helpful.
4 1 pE
G(jw) = ; =
jw (1 + jw ) 2
N ( E) 4M
– 90∞ – 2 tan–1 w1 = – 180∞
This gives w1 = 1 rad/sec
1

a f
N E1
= G(jw1) = 2
G(jw) =
5
; N(E) =
4
1 FH 0 .1 IK 2
jw (1 + j 0 .1w ) 2
pE E
– 90∞ – 2 tan–1 0.1w1 = – 180∞
This gives w1 = 10 rad/sec.
For a stable limit cycle, 2 D < E < • ; D = 0.1
1
–
a f
N E1
= G(jw1) = 0.25
1
G(jw1) π  for any value of E
N ( E)
The intersection of the two curves does not occur; therefore no limit cycle
exists.
Intersection of the two curves occurs for
114 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
pD
< 0.206 or D < 0.131
2
10
10.5 G(jw) =
(1 + j 0 . 4w ) (1 + j 2w )
4 LM 1 FH H IK 2
 j
H OP
N (E) =
pE MN E E PQ
; H = 0.2
1
The following figure shows G(jw)plot and locus.
N ( E)
Im
Re
pH
4
E increasing 1 E=H
N(E)
G( jw)
1
At the point of intersection of G(jw)plot with locus, measure the
N(E)
angle of G(jw). This comes out to be –115.7∞.
–G(jw1) = – tan–1 0.1w1 – tan–1 2w1 = – 115.7∞
This gives w1 = 5.9 rad/sec
G(jw1) = 0.33
1 p E1

a f
N E1
=
4
= 0.33
K
10.6 G( jw) =
jw (1 + jw ) 2
2 LM p  sin 1 1

1
1 FH 1 IK 2 OP
N(E) =
p MN 2 E E E PQ
SOLUTION MANUAL 115
2 LM
sin 1
1 1 1 OP = 1 – N (E)
=1
p N E
+
E
1
E2 Q c
1
G(jw1) =
N E1a f gives E1 = 4.25
The limit cycle with amplitude 4.25 and frequency 2 rad/sec is a stable
limit cycle.
K
G(jw) =
jw (1 + jw ) (1 + j 0 . 5w )
1
For K = 1, G(jw)plot does not intersect locus. For K = 2, two
N(E)
intersection points are found. One corresponds to unstable limit cycle and
the other corresponds to a stable limit cycle of amplitude 3.75 and
frequency 1 rad/sec.
10.9 (a) Characteristic equation has two real, distinct roots in the left half of
splane.
The origin in the (y, y ) plane is a stable node.
d 2 ( y  1) d ( y  1)
(b) 2
+5 + 6(y – 1) = 0
dt dt
116 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
The singular point is located at (1, 0) in the (y, y ) plane. The charac
teristic equation is
s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 = (s + 3) (s + 2)
The singular point is a stable node.
(c)
a
d2 y  2
8
f
d y2 a f
+ 17(y – 2) = 0
2
dt dt
The singular point is located at (2, 0) in the (y, y ) plane. The charac
teristic equation is
s2 – 8s + 17 = 0 with complex roots in right half splane. The singular
point is an unstable focus.
d 2 ( y  1) d ( y  1)
10.11 2
+ 2z +y–1=0
dt dt
SOLUTION MANUAL 117
ch
Jq + Tc sgn q = KA K1 e; e = qR – q
Therefore
K T
e + e + c sgn ( e ) = 0; K = KAK1
J J
LM Tc OP
e + w 2n e +
N K Q
sgn ( e ) = 0; wn = K/J
LM Tc
a fOPQ
x 2 = – wn x1 +
N K
sgn w n x 2
For Tc = 0, we have
x1 = wn x2; x 2 = – wn x1
d x2 x
= – 1 ; this gives x12 + x 22 = x 21 (0)
d x1 x2
The effect of the Coulomb friction is to shift the centre of the circles in
phase plane to + Tc/K for x2 < 0 and to – Tc/K for x2 > 0. The steadystate
error found from phase trajectory is – 0.2 rad. From the phase trajectory,
we see that
(a) the system is obviously stable for all initial conditions and inputs; and
(b) maximum steadystate error = ± 0.3 rad.
x1 = x2
1
1
From the phase portrait shown in the figure below, it is seen that the
system is stable in the equilibrium zone.
118 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
10.14 Revisiting Review Example 10.6 (Fig. 10.42) will be helpful. The system
equation in the linear range is
e + e + e = 0
The characteristic equation
s2 + s + 1 = 0
has complex roots in left half of splane. Therefore, on the (e, e ) plane, the
origin is a stable focus.
The system equation in saturation region is
e + e = sgn (e)
The trajectories are asymptotic to the ordinates – 1 and + 1 depending on
whether the error is +ve or – ve.
From the phase trajectories plotted from the given initial conditions (with
and without saturation) we find that velocity is always greater for trajecto
ries without saturation; thus the error saturation has a slowing down effect
on the transient.
10.16 (a)
e = – u = – f(e); x1 = e, x2 = e
The trajectories corresponding to x1 > 0 are given by (refer Eqns
(10.24))
1 2 1
x1(t) = – x 2 (t) + x1(0) + x 22 (0)
2 2
and trajectories for x1 < 0 are given by
1 2 1
x1(t) = x 2 (t) + x1(0) – x 22 (0)
2 2
The system response is a limit cycle as shown in the figure.
(b)
e = – u = – f (e + KD e ); x1 = e, x2 = e
The trajectories corresponding to (x1 + KD x2) > 0 are given by
1 2 1
x1(t) = – x 2 (t) + x1(0) + x 22 (0)
2 2
and the trajectories corresponding to (x1 + KD x2) < 0 are given by
1 2 1
x1(t) = x 2 (t) + x1(0) – x 22 (0)
2 2
With derivative feedback, the limit cycle gets eliminated as shown in
the figure.
120 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
(c) Constructing a trajectory for the case of large KD proves the point. An
illustrative trajectory is shown in the figure.
x2 x2
Switching
line
x1 x1
1
Slope = 
Trajectory KD
Trajectory
x2
Switching
line
x1
Trajectory
qR = const + e + 2 1 q 1 q
2 s + 0.5 s
 
0.5
x2
2
1 x1
x1 + 0.5 x2 = 0
F 1 I
H
x 2 = – x2 – f x1 +
3
x2
K
A rough sketch of the phase trajectory is shown in the figure. By
derivative control action (i) settling time is reduced, but (ii) chattering
effect appears.
10.19 Section 10.10 provides solution to this problem. Optimum switching curve
is given by Eqns (10.48). Figure 10.37 shows a few trajectories.
10.20
e + e = – u; x1 = e, x2 = e
For u = +1 (refer Eqns (10.26))
FG 1 + x IJ
H 1 + x ( 0) K
2
x1 – x1(0) = – (x2 – x2(0)) + ln
2
FG 1  x IJ
H 1 + x ( 0) K
2
x1 – x1(0) = – (x2 – x2(0)) – ln
2
x2 FG x2 IJ
x1 = – x2 +
 x2  H
ln 1 + 2
 x2  K
The figure given below shows the switching curve and a few typical mini
mumtime trajectories.
CHAPTER 11 NEURAL NETWORKS FOR CONTROL
11.4 E =
1
2
b
0.4  s ( 3w + w0 )) 2 + (0.8  s (2 w + w0 )
2
g
∂E
= 0
∂w
= – [(0.4 – s (–3w + w0)) s (–3w + w0) (1 – s (–3w + w0)) (–3)
+ (0.8 – s (2w + w0)) s (2w + w0) (1 – s (2w + w0))(2)]
= – [–3x + 2y]
∂E
= 0 = – [x + y]
∂w0
This gives x = y = 0
a0.4  s (3w + w )fa1  s (3w + w )fs ( 3w + w ) = 0
0 0 0
s ( a ) = 0 only at a Æ •
s ( a ) = 1 only at a Æ +•
Therefore
s (– 3w + w0) = 0.4
which gives
–3w + w0 = – 0.41
The equation y = 0 gives
s (2w + w0) = 0.8
or, 2w + w0 = 1.386
Solving for w and w0, we get
w = 0.36, w0 = 0.666
FG Â w
n
IJ
H + wlh01
K
h1
11.5 zl = s li x i
i =1
FG Â w z + w IJ
m
H K
h1 h1
tr = s rl l r0
l =1
Â bv t + v g
p
y j = jr r j0
r =1
vjr (k + 1) = vjr (k) + h tr ej (k)
vj0 (k + 1) = vj0 (k) + h ej (k)
ej (k) = yj  y j (k)
q
wrlh2 ( k + 1) = wrlh2 ( k ) + h t r (1  tr ) zl Â v jr e j ( k )
j =1
SOLUTION MANUAL 125
q
wrh02 ( k + 1) = wrh02 ( k ) + h tr (1  tr ) Â v jr e j ( k )
j =1
+ 1) = wli ( k ) + h xi zl (1  zl )
LMÂ e Â v
q p OP
jr wrl tr (1  tr )
MN PQ
h1 h2
wlih1 ( k j
j =1 r =1
wlh01 ( k + 1) = wlh01 ( k ) + h zl (1  zl )
LMÂ e Â v
q p OP
jr wrl tr (1  t r )
MN PQ
h2
j
j =1 r =1
2 1  ea
11.6 (a) s (a) = a  =
1
1+ e 1 + ea
(1  s ( a ))(1 + s ( a )) ds ( a )
s ¢(a) = =
2 da
Network Output:
FG Â w x IJ ; x
n
y ( k ) = s
H
i= 0 K
i i 0 =1
wi (k + 1) = wi ( k ) +
h
2
b
( y  y ( k ) ) 1  y 2 ( k ) x i g
4
(b) a(1) = Â w i xi (1 ) = 1 + 2 – 0.5 = 2.5
i =1
w (1) = w (0) +
h
2
( 1  0.848 ) 1  ( 0.848) 2 x (1) c h
= [0.974, – 0.948, 0, 0.526]
M
b
(c) y (1) = s w1 x1( 1) + w2 x 2 (1) + w3 x 3 (1) + w4 x 4 (1) = 0.8483 g
e(1) = y(1) – y (1) = –1.8483
y ( 2 ) = – 0.7616; e(2) = – 0.2384
y ( 3 ) = – 0.8483; e(3) = 1.8483
LM Â x
3
( p) ( p) b1  ( y ( p) 2
) g OP
N Q
w1(1) = w1(0) + h 1 e
p =1 2
= 1.0518
M
FG Â w x + w IJ ; l = 1, 2
2
11.7 (a) zl = s
Hi =1 K
li i l0
126 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
FG Â v z + v IJ
2
y = s
H
l =1
l l
K 0
e = y – y
vl (k + 1) = vl (k) + 0.1e (k) zl (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)]
v0 (k + 1) = v0 (k) + 0.1e (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)]
wli (k + 1) = wli (k) + 0.1xi (k) e (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)] zl (k) [1 – zl (k)]
wlo (k + 1) = wlo(k) + 0.1e (k) y (k) [1 – y (k)] zl (k) [1 – zl (k)]
1  (s ( a )) 2 ds ( a )
11.8 s ¢(a) = =
2 da
zl = s (wl x + wl0); l = 1, 2, …, m
FG Â v z + v IJ
m
y = s
H l =1 K
l l 0
e(k) = y – y (k)
vl (k + 1) = vl ( k ) + b h
2
g
e( k ) 1  y 2 ( k ) zl ( k )
v (k + 1) = v ( k ) + e( k )b1  y ( k ) g
h 2
0 0
2
w (k + 1) = w ( k ) + e( k ) b1  y ( k )g v ( k )b1  z ( k ) g x ( k )
h 2 2
l l l l
4
w (k + 1) = w ( k ) + e( k )b 1  y ( k ) g v ( k )b 1  z ( k ) g
h 2 2
l0 l0 l l
4
CHAPTER 12 FUZZY CONTROL
12.7
mR
3 FH 1 IK + 4 FH 1 IK + 5 FH 1 IK + 6 FH 1 IK + 7 FH 1 IK + 7.5 FH 3 IK + 8 FH 3 IK + 9 FH 3IK
4 4 4 2 2 4 4 8
FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK + FH IK
*
12.11 z =
1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3
4 4 4 2 2 4 4 8
= 6.76
12.12 Crisp value for speed =
1600 ( 0.9) + 1700 ( 0.9) + 1800 ( 0.9) + 1900 (0.8) + 2000 (0.7)
+ 2100 ( 0.5) + 2200 ( 0.3) + 2300 ( 0.15) + 2400 ( 0 )
0.9 + 0.9 + 0.9 + 0.8 + 0.7 + 0.5 + 0.3 + 0.15
= 1857.28
12.13 x = 4; y = 8
FG IJ F I
~ K H K
a1 = min m A1 ( 4 ), m B2 ( 8) = min 2 , 1 = 2
H ~ 3 3
F I
a = min G m ( 4 ), m (8)J = min F 1 , 2 I = 1
H ~ ~ K H 3 3K 3
2 A2 B2
F I F2 I
min G a , m ( z )J = min G , m ( z )J
H ~ K 1 C1
H3 ~ K C1
F1
min (a , m ( z )) = min G , m ( z )J
I
~
2 C2
H3 K C2
~
R F2 I F1 IU
m (z) = m ( z ) = max S min G , m ( z )J , min G , m ( z )J V
agg
~
C1
T H 3 ~ K H 3 ~ KW C1 C2
128 DIGITAL CONTROL AND STATE VARIABLE METHODS
2 FH 1 IK + 3 FH 2 IK + 4 FH 2 IK + 5 FH 2 IK + 6 FH 1 IK + 7 FH 1 IK + 8 FH 1 IK
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
z* =
FH 1 IK + FH 2 IK + FH 2 IK + FH 2 IK + FH 1 IK + FH 1 IK + FH 1 IK
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
= 4.7
12.14 x = distance D = 27
y = vehicle speed V = 55
m PS ( 55) = 0 ; m PM ( 55) = 0.25 ; m PL ( 55) = 0.75
~ ~ ~
m PS ( 27) = 0.38 ; m PM ( 27) = 0.62 ; m PL ( 27 ) = 0
~ ~ ~
F I
H ~ K
a1 = min m PS (27), m PM (55) = 0.25
~
z = breaking force B
FH IK F I
H
min a 1 , m PL ( z ) = min 0.25, m PL ( z )
~ K ~
min F m (60 ), m ( 70 )I =
H ~ K
1
a3 = LD MG
~ 5
min F m ( 60 ), m ( 70 )I =
H ~ K 5
1
a4 = LD LG
~
SOLUTION MANUAL 129
F I F3 I
H ~ K H 5 , m ~ ( z )K
min a 1 , m M ( z ) = min M
min F a , m ( z )I = min F , m ( z )I
H ~ K H5 ~ K
2
2 L L
min F a , m ( z )I = min F , m ( z )I
H ~ K H5 ~ K
1
3 L L
min F a , m ( z )I = min F , m ( z )I
H ~ K H5 ~ K
1
4 VL VL