SEMINAR REPORT ON ANDROID OS

middleware and key applications. but does not support programs developed in native code. most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license. a consortium of 34 hardware. The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance.ANDROID OS ABSTRACT: Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. . When released in 2008. software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries.

INTRODUCTION 2.1 ANDROID RUNTIME 2.CONTENTS: 1. ADVANTAGES 4.2 LINUX KERNAL 2.5APPLICATION LAYER 3. DISADVANTAGES 5.3 LIBRARIES 2. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 6.4 APPLICATION FRAMEWORK 2. ARCHITECTURE 2. REFERRENCES .

Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA.1. Qualcomm. T-Mobile. most of the Android platform will be made availableundertheApachefree-softwareandopen-sourcelicense. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries. INTRODUCTION: Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. where the limited battery.1. which converts . an open source mobile device platform based on the Linux operating system. where the main component Dalvik Virtual Machine is located. Motorola. 2. It was designed specifically for Android running in limited environment. the OHA also unveiled their first product. Android. The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance. memory and data storage are the main issues. a consortium of several companies which include Google. middleware and key applications. Intel. CPU.ANDROIDRUNTIME At the same level there is Android Runtime. but does not support programs developedinnativecode. software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. ARCHITECTURE: 2. Android gives an integrated tool “dx”. Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance. THE BIRTH OF ANDROID The Open Handset Alliance. was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. HTC. When released in 2008. a consortium of 34 hardware. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance.

dex file FIG:ARCHITECTURE . after this byte code becomes much more efficienttorunonthesmallprocessors.generated byte code from . Conversion from .java to .jar to .dex file.

2 LINUX KERNAL Android relies on Linux version 2. . The Package Manager keeps track of the applications. the user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers requiredinordertorunit. It helps to manage security.4APPLICATIONFRAMEWORK After that. The media framework was provided by PacketVideo. The Activity Manager manages the life circle of the applications and provides a common navigation back stack for applications. It is a toolkit that all applications use. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the softwarestack. ones which come with mobile device like Contacts or SMS box. it is extra light rational management system. memory management. or applications written by Google and any Android developer. network stack.3LIBRARIES In the next level there are a set of native libraries written in C/C++.6 for core system services such as security.wasmodifiedbyAndroidinordertofitbetterinasmallsizescreen. and driver model. Android uses SQLite. the same browserusedbyApples’Safari. written in Java language. It gives libraries for a playback and recording support for all the major media and static image files. WebKit. FreeType libraries are used to render all the bitmap and vector fonts. memory management. For data storage. 2. Therefore. which are responsible for stableperformanceofvariouscomponents. process management. It has several components. network stack and other important issues. 2. The Windows Manager is Java programming language abstraction on the top oflowerlevelservicesthatareprovidedbytheSurfaceManager.2. which are running in different processes. which are installed in the device. Moreover. process management. one of the members of OHA. As mentioned before. which locates a single file for all operations related to database. it is possible to use 2D and 3D graphics in the same application in Android. there is Application Framework.

 Login . 2.  All applications are equal .Android allows you to access core mobile device functionality through standardAPIcalls.such as contacts or geographic location -. The Resource Manager is used to store localized strings. the user can turn his mobile phone into the unique. layout file descriptions and other external partsof the application.ADVANTAGES Open .  Fast and easy development .Making source code available to everyone inevitably invites the attentionofblackhathackers. The View System generates a set of buttons and lists used in UI. the contacts of people in the address book can be used in other applications too.The SDK contains what you need to build and run Android applications.even the dialer or home screen can be replaced. All applications are written usingtheJavaprogramminglanguage. which are used by the final user. optimized and smart mobile phone. Breaking down boundaries .A disadvantage of open-source development is that anyone canscrutinizethesourcecodetofindvulnerabilitiesandwriteexploits.to create new user experiences.DISADVANTAGES Security .The Telephony Manager contains of a set of API necessary for calling applications.Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and third-party applications -.Platform doesn't run on an encrypted file system and has a vulnerable log-in. By installing different applications. . including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools. Other components like Notification manager is used to customizedisplayalertsandotherfunctions.Combine information from the web with data on the phone -.5APPLICATIONLAYER At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications. for instance. 4.  Open Source . bitmaps.Google’s dependence on hardware and carrier partners puts thefinalproductoutoftheircontrol. Incompetence . Content Providers was built for Android to share a data with other applications. 3.

Android participates in many of the successful open source projects. Parts of the SDK are proprietary and closed source.CONCLUSIONANDFUTURESCOPE Android has been criticized for not being all open-source software despite what was announced by Google. . architect the solution for participation and the developers will not only come but will play well together. Obviously. This is notable contrast with Apple and other companies. where such architecture of participation is clearly belated. The first Android based official devices may well be launched sometime in the early half of 2009. and some believe this is so that Google can control the platform. Software installed by end-users must be written in Java.5. that's an age away when it comes to handset design.suchasOpenMoko. With all upcoming applications and mobile services Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet. That is. and will not have access to lower level device APIs. and Android may well find itself competing against the forthcoming Nokia touch screen phones and maybeeventheiPhone. This provides end-users with less control over their phone's functionality than other free and opensourcephoneplatforms.

openhandsetalliance.http://en.http://en.org/wiki/Eclipse_(software) 10.google.com –AndroidWiki 5.com -AndroidOfficialWebpage 2.com/android/ -OfficialAndroidGoogleCodeWebpage 3.wikipedia.http://www.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(mo.org/wiki/SQLite 8.android.wikipedia.com/ -OfficialGoogleBlog 6.androidwiki.http://code..http://www.wikipedia.REFERRENCES 1.http://www.http://en..blogspot.http://www.com/google-android-dr-080213 .itworld.http://googleblog.com/ -OpenHandsetAllianceWebpage 4.–Wikipedia Information 7.6.org/wiki/WebKit 9.

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