Best Practices: Table of Contents

Best Practices Configuration Management Migration Procedures Development Techniques Development FAQs Data Cleansing Data Connectivity Using PowerConnect for BW Integration Server Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for Mainframe Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for MQSeries Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for SAP Incremental Loads Mapping Design Metadata Reporting and Sharing Naming Conventions Session and Data Partitioning Using Parameters, Variables and Parameter Files Error Handling A Mapping Approach to Trapping Data Errors Design Error Handling Infrastructure Documenting Mappings Using Repository Reports Error Handling Strategies Using Shortcut Keys in PowerCenter Designer Object Management Creating Inventories of Reusable Objects & Mappings Operations

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Updating Repository Statistics Daily Operations Load Validation Third Party Scheduler Event Based Scheduling Repository Administration High Availability Performance Tuning Recommended Performance Tuning Procedures Performance Tuning Databases Performance Tuning UNIX Systems Performance Tuning Windows NT/2000 Systems Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Tuning Sessions for Better Performance Determining Bottlenecks Platform Configuration Advanced Client Configuration Options Advanced Server Configuration Options Platform Sizing Recovery Running Sessions in Recovery Mode Project Management Developing the Business Case Assessing the Business Case Defining and Prioritizing Requirements Developing a WBS Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan Managing the Project Lifecycle Security Configuring Security

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Migration Procedures

Challenge To develop a migration strategy that ensures clean migration between development, test, QA, and production, thereby protecting the integrity of each of these environments as the system evolves. Description In every application deployment, a migration strategy must be formulated to ensure a clean migration between development, test, quality assurance, and production. The migration strategy is largely influenced by the technologies that are deployed to support the development and production environments. These technologies include the databases, the operating systems, and the available hardware. Informatica offers flexible migration techniques that can be adapted to fit the existing technology and architecture of various sites, rather than proposing a single fixed migration strategy. The means to migrate work from development to production depends largely on the repository environment, which is either: • • Standalone PowerCenter, or Distributed PowerCenter

This Best Practice describes several migration strategies, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each. It also discusses an XML method provided in PowerCenter 5.1 to support migration in either a Standalone or a Distributed environment. Standalone PowerMart/PowerCenter In a standalone environment, all work is performed in a single Informatica repository that serves as the shared metadata store. In this standalone environment, segregating the workspaces ensures that the migration from development to production is seamless. Workspace segregation can be achieved by creating separate folders for each work area. For instance, we might build a single data mart for the finance division within a

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corporation. In this example, we would create a minimum of four folders to manage our metadata. The folders might look something like the following:

In this scenario, mappings are developed in the FINANCE_DEV folder. As development is completed on particular mappings, they will be copied one at a time to the FINANCE_TEST folder. New sessions will be created or copied for each mapping in the FINANCE_TEST folder. When unit testing has been completed successfully, the mappings are copied into the FINANCE_QA folder. This process continues until the mappings are integrated into the production schedule. At that point, new sessions will be created in the FINANCE_PROD folder, with the database connections adjusted to point to the production environment. Introducing shortcuts in a single standalone environment complicates the migration process, but offers an efficient method for centrally managing sources and targets. A common folder can be used for sharing reusable objects such as shared sources, target definitions, and reusable transformations. If a common folder is used, there should be one common folder for each environment (i.e., SHARED_DEV, SHARED_TEST, SHARED_QA, SHARED_PROD). Migration Example Process Copying the mappings into the next stage enables the user to promote the desired mapping to test, QA, or production at the lowest level of granularity. If the folder where the mapping is to be copied does not contain the referenced source/target tables or transformations, then these objects will automatically be copied along with the mapping. The advantage of this promotion strategy is that individual mappings can be promoted as soon as they are ready for production. However, because only one mapping at a time can be copied, promoting a large number of mappings into production would be very time consuming. Additional time is required to re-create or copy all sessions from scratch, especially if pre- or post-session scripts are used. On the initial move to production, if all mappings are completed, the entire FINANCE_QA folder could be copied and renamed to FINANCE_PROD. With this approach, it is not necessary to promote all mappings and sessions individually. After the initial migration, however, mappings will be promoted on a “case-by-case” basis.

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If using shortcuts. Using the old shortcut as a model. Create or copy a session in the Server Manager to run the mapping (make sure the mapping exists in the current repository first). 2. (COMMON_DEV. COMMON_QA. • In the PowerCenter Designer.Follow these steps to copy a mapping from Development to Test: 1. Using the newly copied mapping. if not using shortcuts. skip to step 2 • • Create four common folders. Copy the mapping from Development into Test. open it in the Designer and bring in the newly copied shortcut. one for each migration stage COMMON_TEST. follow the copy session wizard. follow these substeps. open the appropriate test folder. link all of the output ports to the new shortcut. However. first delete the old shortcut before linking the output ports. Copy the shortcut objects into the COMMON_TEST folder. 3. • If copying the mapping. first follow these substeps. skip to step 4: • • • • Open the mapping that uses shortcuts. COMMON_PROD). Using the old shortcut as a model. if any of the objects are active. if not using shortcuts. 4. link all of the input ports to the new shortcut. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-3 . and drag and drop the mapping from the development folder into the test folder. If using shortcuts.

This can have negative performance implications. In Test and Quality Assurance. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. and Production “environments” are stored in separate folders. they all reside on the same server. QA. If Development or Test loads are running simultaneously with PAGE BP-4 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Test. such as: • • • • In Development. 5. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group.• If creating the mapping. enter all the appropriate information in the Session Wizard. the owner of the folders should be a user in the development group. Performance Implications in the Single Environment A disadvantage of the single environment approach is that even though the Development. In Production. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. Implement appropriate security.

however. The trouble with this is that everything is moved. Each repository has a similar name for the folders in the standalone environment. Production loads run late at night. QA. and then eventually into the Production environment. Because each environment is segregated from the others. parameters/variables. The first is that everything is moved at once (also an advantage). hardware and software) for Development. There are. separate repositories provide the same function as the separate folders in the standalone environment described previously. work performed in Development cannot impact Test. This is the preferred method for handling Development to Production migrations. and Production.namely that maintenance is required to remove any unwanted or excess objects. independent environments (i. sequences. there may be 50 mappings in QA but only 40 of them are production-ready.Production loads. in our Finance example we would have four repositories. QA. There are three main techniques to migrate from Development to Production. and most Development and Test loads run during the day so this does not pose a problem. Test. Distributed PowerCenter In a distributed environment. There are three ways to accomplish the Repository Copy method: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-5 . For instance. contending with the pre-scheduled Production runs. and sessions. moved into the Test repository. FINANCE_DEV. and FINANCE_PROD. database connections. mappings. The 10 unready mappings are moved into production along with the 40 production-ready maps. With a fully distributed approach. there are separate. including source and target tables. situations do arise where performance benchmarking with large volumes or other unusual circumstances can cause test loads to run overnight. which leads to the second disadvantage -. For example. Often. each involving some advantages and disadvantages: • • • Repository Copy Folder Copy Object Copy Repository Copy The main advantage to this approach is the ability to copy everything at once from one environment to another. etc. ready or not. the server machine may reach 100 percent utilization and Production performance will suffer. three distinct disadvantages to the repository copy method. The final advantage is that everything can be moved without breaking/corrupting any of the objects. FINANCE_QA. However.. FINANCE_TEST. The mappings are created in the Development repository.e. Another advantage is the ability to automate this process without having users perform this process. transformations. or Production. Another disadvantage is the need to adjust server variables. Everything will need to be set up correctly on the new server that will now host the repository.

The PMREP utilities can be utilized both from the Informatica Server and from any client machines connected to the server. Repository Backup and Restore The Backup and Restore Repository is another simple method of copying an entire repository. Select the created . This will create a . the user must delete the current repository in the new location. To perform this one needs to go the file menu of the Repository Manager and select Copy Repository. be sure to first delete any matching destination repositories. To ensure success.REP file to automatically restore the repository in the destination server.• • • Copying the Repository Repository Backup and Restore PMREP Copying the Repository The repository copy command is probably the easiest method of migration. PAGE BP-6 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . then the TEST repository must first be deleted using the Delete option in the Repository Manager to create room for the new repository. if a user was copying a repository from DEV to TEST. To restore the repository simply open the Repository Manager on the destination server and select Restore Repository from the File menu. PMREP Using the PMREP commands is essentially the same as the Backup and Restore Repository method except that it is run from the command line. go to the File menu in the Repository Manager and select Backup Repository. From there the user is prompted to choose the location to which the repository will be copied. Then the Copy Repository routine must be run. For example.REP file containing all repository information. since the Restore Repository option does not delete the current repository. To perform this function. The following screen shot shows the dialog box used to input the new location information: To successfully perform the copy.

and then clearing the Enable checkbox under the General tab. scripts can be written to be run on a daily basis to perform functions such as connect. Delete the sessions in the Server Manager and the mappings in the Designer.The following table documents the available PMREP commands: The following is a sample of the command syntax used within a batch file to connect to and backup a repository. restore. follow these steps to convert the repository to Production: 1. Using the code example below as a model. • • Disable the sessions in the Server manager by opening the session properties. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-7 . etc: After following one of the above procedures to migrate into Production. Disable sessions that schedule mappings that are not ready for Production or simply delete the mappings and sessions. backup.

If using lookup transformations in the mappings and the connect string is anything other than $SOURCE or $TARGET. The disadvantages of Folder Copy are: • • User needs to be logged into multiple environments simultaneously. All source and target tables. then after the folder is copied. open the session properties. In Test and Quality Assurance.2. Folder Copy Copying an entire folder allows you to quickly promote all of the objects in the Development folder to Test. and from the General tab make the required changes to the pre. Edit each database connection by changing the connect string to point to the production sources and targets. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. • In the Server Manager. otherwise skip to step 2: PAGE BP-8 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . follow these substeps. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. for example. select Database Connections from the Server Configuration menu. sequences or server variables. follow these steps: 1. everything in the folder must be ready to migrate forward. and sessions are promoted at once. Modify the pre. 4. developers (or the Repository Administrator) must manually delete these mappings from the new folder. If using shortcuts. ensure that the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. 3. such as: • • • • In Development. reusable transformations. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. Implement appropriate security. If certain mappings are not ready. The advantages of Folder Copy are: • • • Easy to move the entire folder and all objects in it Detailed Wizard guides the user through the entire process There’s no need to update or alter any Database Connections. In Production. • • • In the Server Manager. then the connect string will need to be modified appropriately. from QA to Production.and post-session commands as necessary. Therefore. If copying a folder. The repository is locked while Folder Copy is being performed.and post-session scripts. Modify the database connection strings to point to the Production sources and targets. and so forth. mappings.

4. Drag and drop the folder onto the production repository icon within the Navigator tree structure. Follow the Copy Folder Wizard steps. create a common folder using exactly the same name and case as in the “source” repository. Copy the shortcut objects into the common folder in Production and make sure the shortcut has exactly the same name. If a folder with that name already exists. Point the folder to the correct shared folder if one is being used: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-9 . it must be renamed.) 3. 2. Open and connect to either the Repository Manager or Designer. (To copy the entire folder.• • • In each of the dedicated repositories. drag and drop the folder icon just under the repository level.

For additional information. Implement appropriate security: • • • • In Development. In Production. Modify the pre. be sure to remember the following steps: 1. open the session properties.and post-sessions scripts.After performing the Folder Copy method. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. see the previous description of Object Copy for the standalone environment. ensure the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group.and post-session commands as necessary: • In the Server Manager. Object Copy Copying mappings into the next stage within a networked environment has many of the same advantages and disadvantages as in the standalone environment. 2. but the process of handling shortcuts is simplified in the networked environment. Additional advantages and disadvantages of Object Copy in a distributed environment include: Advantages: • More granular control over objects PAGE BP-10 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and from the General tab make the required changes to the pre. In Test and Quality Assurance.

Copy the mapping from quality assurance (QA) into production. enter all the appropriate information in the Session Wizard. Drag and drop the mapping from QA into Production. create a common folder with the exact same name and case. otherwise skip to step 2: In each of the dedicated repositories. follow these substeps. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-11 . 3. 2. Copy the shortcuts into the common folder in Production making sure the shortcut has the exact same name.Disadvantages: • • 1. If creating the mapping. Create or copy a session in the Server Manager to run the mapping (make sure the mapping exists in the current repository first). connect to both the QA and Production repositories and open the appropriate folders in each. • • In the Designer. • • Much more work to deploy an entire group of objects Shortcuts must exist prior to importing/copying mappings If using shortcuts. • • If copying the mapping follow the copy session wizard.

It ensures that the latest development maps can be moved over manually as they are completed. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. This method gives you total granular control over the objects that are being moved. Informatica recommends using the Object Copy method. In Development. PAGE BP-12 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and Production servers: For migrating from Development into Test. In Test and Quality Assurance. For recommendations on performing this copy procedure correctly. see the steps outlined in the Object Copy section. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. ensure the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. Test/QA. In Production. Recommendations Informatica recommends using the following process when running in a three-tiered environment with Development. • • • • Implement appropriate security.4.

copy that text. use one of the repository copy methods. XML Object Copy Process Another method of copying objects in a distributed (or centralized) environment is to copy objects by utilizing PM/PC’s XML functionality. if you had to copy one session many times. you would export that session to an XML file. For example. The XML Object Copy Process works in a manner very similar to the Repository Copy backup and restore method.When migrating from Test to Production. Before performing this migration. all code in the Test server should be frozen and tested. If similar server and database naming conventions are utilized. two sessions will be created. Then. The following demonstrates the import/export functionality: 1. (Refer to the steps outlined in the Repository Copy section for recommendations to ensure that this process is successful. Objects are exported into an XML file: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-13 . This method is more useful in the distributed environment because it allows for backup into an XML file to be moved across the network. that XML file can be changed with a text editor to allow more flexibility. When you imported that XML file back into your folder. Once the XML file has been created. After the Test code is cleared for production. as it allows you to copy sources. Informatica recommends using the Repository Copy method. mappings.). You would then change the name of the session you just pasted to be unique. and paste that text within the XML file. you could edit that file to find everything within the <Session> tag. targets. there will be minimal or no changes required to sessions that are created or copied to the production server. reusable transformations. and sessions.

2. PAGE BP-14 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Sessions can be exported and imported into the Server Manager in the same way (the corresponding mappings must exist for this to work). Objects are imported into a repository from the corresponding XML file: 3.

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However. It provides answers in a number of areas.. but they can also be run concurrently and make use of more system resources. Q: How does source format affect performance? (i. if there is an intent to perform intricate transformations before loading to target. Fixed-width files are faster than delimited files because delimited files require extra parsing. a flat file that is located on the server machine loads faster than a database located on the server machine. including Scheduling.e. consider writing to multiple disks or file systems simultaneously. it is possible to design a mapping with multiple targets. and document components of the analytic solution. this Best Practice addresses some questions that are commonly raised by project teams. name. Backup Strategies. which allows the PowerCenter mappings to access the data in an optimized fashion by using filters and custom SQL SELECTs where appropriate.Development FAQs Challenge Using the PowerCenter product suite to most effectively to develop. what is the impact of having multiple targets populated by a single map?) With PowerCenter. Description The following pages summarize some of the questions that typically arise during development and suggest potential resolutions. Q: What are some considerations when designing the mapping? (i. Refer to the product guides supplied with PowerCenter for additional information. When using multiple output files (targets). is it more efficient to source from a flat file rather than a database?) In general. it may be advisable to first load the flat-file into a relational database. You can then load the targets in a specific order using Target Load Ordering. Not only is it easier to debug a mapping with a limited number of objects.e. This minimizes disk seeks and applies to a PAGE BP-16 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The recommendation is to limit the amount of complex logic in a mapping. Server Administration. and Metadata. While the most effective use of PowerCenter depends on the specific situation.

a hundred individual sessions can be logically grouped into twenty batches. consult your Database User Guide. and so on. For example. Q: What are some considerations for determining how many objects and transformations to include in a single mapping? There are several items to consider when building a mapping. and to multiple sessions running simultaneously. keeping all log files in the same directory. a sequential batch ensures that session1 runs before session2 when session2 is dependent on the load of session1. It's also possible to set up conditions to run the next session only if the previous session was successful. Scheduling Techniques Q: What are the benefits of using batches rather than sessions? Using a batch to group logical sessions minimizes the number of objects that must be managed to successfully load the warehouse. There are two types of batches: sequential and concurrent. regardless of the number of objects it takes to fulfill the requirement. It is best to use filters as early as possible in the mapping to remove rows of data that are not needed. o A sequential batch simply runs sessions one at a time. This is the SQL equivalent of the WHERE clause. which simplifies the operations tasks associated with loading the targets. For example. Sequential batches help ensure that dependencies are met as needed. Log File Organization Q: Where is the best place to maintain Session Logs? One often-recommended location is the default /SessLogs/ folder in the Informatica directory. Error information also appears in the PowerCenter Help File within the PowerCenter client applications. in a linear sequence. The most expensive use of the DTM is passing unnecessary data through the mapping. The Operations group can then work with twenty batches to load the warehouse. or to stop on errors. etc. Q: What documentation is available for the error codes that appear within the error log files? Log file errors and descriptions appear in Appendix C of the PowerCenter User Guide. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-17 . Using the filter condition in the Source Qualifier to filter out the rows at the database level is a good way to increase the performance of the mapping. For other database-specific errors.session writing to multiple targets. The business requirement is always the first consideration.

o

A concurrent batch groups logical sessions together, like a sequential batch, but runs all the sessions at one time. This can reduce the load times into the warehouse, taking advantage of hardware platforms' Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) architecture. A new batch is sequential by default; to make it concurrent, explicitly select the Concurrent check box.

Other batch options, such as nesting batches within batches, can further reduce the complexity of loading the warehouse. However, this capability allows for the creation of very complex and flexible batch streams without the use of a third-party scheduler. Q: Assuming a batch failure, does PowerCenter allow restart from the point of failure? Yes. When a session or sessions in a batch fail, you can perform recovery to complete the batch. The steps to take vary depending on the type of batch: If the batch is sequential, you can recover data from the session that failed and run the remaining sessions in the batch. If a session within a concurrent batch fails, but the rest of the sessions complete successfully, you can recover data from the failed session targets to complete the batch. However, if all sessions in a concurrent batch fail, you might want to truncate all targets and run the batch again. Q: What guidelines exist regarding the execution of multiple concurrent sessions / batches within or across applications? Session/Batch Execution needs to be planned around two main constraints: • • Available system resources Memory and processors

The number of sessions that can run at one time depends on the number of processors available on the server. The load manager is always running as a process. As a general rule, a session will be compute-bound, meaning its throughput is limited by the availability of CPU cycles. Most sessions are transformation intensive, so the DTM always runs. Also, some sessions require more I/O, so they use less processor time. Generally, a session needs about 120 percent of a processor for the DTM, reader, and writer in total. For concurrent sessions: • • One session per processor is about right; you can run more, but all sessions will slow slightly. Remember that other processes may also run on the PowerCenter server machine; overloading a production machine will slow overall performance.

Even after available processors are determined, it is necessary to look at overall system resource usage. Determining memory usage is more difficult

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than the processors calculation; it tends to vary according to system load and number of Informatica sessions running. The first step is to estimate memory usage, accounting for: • • • Operating system kernel and miscellaneous processes Database engine Informatica Load Manager

Each session creates three processes: the Reader, Writer, and DTM. • • If multiple sessions run concurrently, each has three processes More memory is allocated for lookups, aggregates, ranks, and heterogeneous joins in addition to the shared memory segment.

At this point, you should have a good idea of what is left for concurrent sessions. It is important to arrange the production run to maximize use of this memory. Remember to account for sessions with large memory requirements; you may be able to run only one large session, or several small sessions concurrently. Load Order Dependencies are also an important consideration because they often create additional constraints. For example, load the dimensions first, then facts. Also, some sources may only be available at specific times, some network links may become saturated if overloaded, and some target tables may need to be available to end users earlier than others. Q: Is it possible to perform two "levels" of event notification? One at the application level, and another at the PowerCenter server level to notify the Server Administrator? The application level of event notification can be accomplished through postsession e-mail. Post-session e-mail allows you to create two different messages, one to be sent upon successful completion of the session, the other to be sent if the session fails. Messages can be a simple notification of session completion or failure, or a more complex notification containing specifics about the session. You can use the following variables in the text of your post-session e-mail: E-mail Variable %s %l %r %e Description Session name Total records loaded Total records rejected Session status

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%t

Table details, including read throughput in bytes/second and write throughput in rows/second Session start time Session completion time Session elapsed time (session completion time-session start time) Attaches the session log to the message Attaches the named file. The file must be local to the Informatica Server. The following are valid filenames: %a<c:\data\sales.txt> or %a</users/john/data/sales.txt> On Windows NT, you can attach a file of any type. On UNIX, you can only attach text files. If you attach a non-text file, the send might fail. Note: The filename cannot include the Greater Than character (>) or a line break.

%b %c %i %g %a<filename>

The PowerCenter Server on UNIX uses rmail to send post-session e-mail. The repository user who starts the PowerCenter server must have the rmail tool installed in the path in order to send e-mail. To verify the rmail tool is accessible: 1. Login to the UNIX system as the PowerCenter user who starts the PowerCenter Server. 2. Type rmail <fully qualified email address> at the prompt and press Enter. 3. Type . to indicate the end of the message and press Enter. 4. You should receive a blank e-mail from the PowerCenter user's e-mail account. If not, locate the directory where rmail resides and add that directory to the path. 5. When you have verified that rmail is installed correctly, you are ready to send post-session e-mail. The output should look like the following: Session complete. Session name: sInstrTest Total Rows Loaded = 1 Total Rows Rejected = 0 Completed

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Rows Loaded Status 1

Rows Rejected 0

Read Throughput (bytes/sec) 30

Write Throughput Table Name (rows/sec) 1 t_Q3_sales

No errors encountered. Start Time: Tue Sep 14 12:26:31 1999 Completion Time: Tue Sep 14 12:26:41 1999 Elapsed time: 0:00:10 (h:m:s) This information, or a subset, can also be sent to any text pager that accepts e-mail. Backup Strategy Recommendation Q: Can individual objects within a repository be restored from the back-up or from a prior version? At the present time, individual objects cannot be restored from a back-up using the PowerCenter Server Manager (i.e., you can only restore the entire repository). But, It is possible to restore the back-up repository into a different database and then manually copy the individual objects back into the main repository. Refer to Migration Procedures for details on promoting new or changed objects between development, test, QA, and production environments. Server Administration Q: What built-in functions, does PowerCenter provide to notify someone in the event that the server goes down, or some other significant event occurs? There are no built-in functions in the server to send notification if the server goes down. However, it is possible to implement a shell script that will sense whether the server is running or not. For example, the command "pmcmd pingserver" will give a return code or status which will tell you if the server is up and running. Using the results of this command as a basis, a complex notification script could be built. Q: What system resources should be monitored? What should be considered normal or acceptable server performance levels? The pmprocs utility, which is available for UNIX systems only, shows the currently executing PowerCenter processes. Pmprocs is a script that combines the ps and ipcs commands. It is available through Informatica Technical Support. The utility provides the following information: - CPID - Creator PID (process ID)

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shows slot in LM shared memory (See Chapter 16 in the PowerCenter Administrator's Guide for additional details. and primary keys are stored in the repository. it is also very time consuming to do so. All information about column size and scale. variable.used to sync the reader and writer . transformations.Semaphores . Therefore. While it may be beneficial for a developer to enter detailed descriptions of each column. you should first check to see if the Repository Database is able to come back up successfully. Informatica and several key Business Intelligence (BI) vendors. then you should try to start the PowerCenter server. Business Objects. You can also use ps -ef | grep pmserver to see if the server process (the Load Manager) is running. Rather.. even for SELECT access. If this is the case. The decision on how much metadata to create is often driven by project timelines. this decision should be made on the basis of how much metadata will be required by the systems that use the metadata.) Q: What cleanup (if any) should be performed after a UNIX server crash? Or after an Oracle instance crash? If the UNIX server crashes. PAGE BP-22 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .LPID . Informatica does not recommend accessing the repository directly. Q: What procedures exist for extracting metadata from the repository? Informatica offers an extremely rich suite of metadata-driven tools for data warehousing applications. are effectively using the MX views to report and query the Informatica metadata.0 or 1 . expression. including Brio. views have been created to provide access to the metadata stored in the repository. retrieve. and MicroStrategy.Last PID that accessed the resource . sources. Metadata Q: What recommendations or considerations exist as to naming standards or repository administration for metadata that might be extracted from the PowerCenter repository and used in others? With PowerCenter. Cognos. targets. etc. and manage their metadata in Informatica's central repository. datatypes. you can enter description information for all repository objects. You can also drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. etc. All of these tools store. but the amount of metadata that you enter should be determined by the business requirements. Today. The motivation behind the original Metadata Exchange (MX) architecture was to provide an effective and easy-to-use interface to the repository.err log to check if the server has started correctly. Use the pmserver.

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It is primarily used as a query and reporting tool. The partners and respective tools include the following: DataMentors . If users discover data inconsistencies. using the Informatica External Procedures protocol. inconsistent. at the point of entry into the data warehouse or operational data store (ODS). TM FirstLogic – FirstLogic offers direct interfaces to PowerCenter during the extract and load process as well as providing pre-data extraction data cleansing tools like DataRight and Merge/Purge. Thus. and matching of the name and address information during the PowerCenter ETL stage of building a data mart or data warehouse. enhancement. However. cleansing. data analysis system that profiles and DMValiData identifies inconsistencies between data and metadata. PAGE BP-24 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Description Informatica has several partners in the data cleansing arena. standardization. The online interface (ACE Library) integrates the TrueName Library and Merge/Purge Library of FirstLogic. or incorrect. It also provides a way to reformat and summarize files.an effective.Data Cleansing Challenge Accuracy is one of the biggest obstacles blocking the success of many data warehousing projects. it is not unusual to discover that as many as half the records in a database contain some type of information that is incomplete. DMUtils . to ensure that the warehouse provides consistent and accurate data for business decision making. the user community may lose faith in the entire warehouse’s data. these components can be invoked for parsing. The challenge is therefore to cleanse data online. TM . Available tools are : • • • DMDataFuse .a powerful non-compiled scripting language that operates on flat ASCII or delimited files.Provides tools that are run before the data extraction and load process to clean source data.a data cleansing and householding system with the power to accurately standardize and match data. as Transformation Components.

words. but no further information is available at this time. data elements) into a logical order. Datagration's Data Discovery Message Gateway feature assesses data cleansing requirements using automated data discovery tools that identify data patterns.Paladyne – The flagship product. and discovers metadata/field content discrepancies. Informatica users can invoke Trillium’s four data quality components through an easy-to-use graphical desktop object. Trillium – Trillium’s eQuality customer information components (a web enabled tool) are integrated with Informatica’s Transformation Exchange modules and reside on the same server as Informatica’s transformation engine. Delivery of this bridge was originally scheduled for May 2001. As a result. Datagration is an open.. FirstLogic – ACE The following graphic illustrates a high level flow diagram of the data cleansing process. conditioning. and unique probabilistic and fuzzy matching capabilities. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-25 . Vality is in the process of developing a "TX Integration" to PowerCenter. Integration Examples This following sections describe how to integrate two of the tools with PowerCenter. flexible data quality system that can repair any type of data (in addition to its name and address) by incorporating custom business rules and logic. elementizing and standardizing customer data Geocoder: an Internationally-certified postal and census module for address verification and standardization Matcher: a module designed for relationship matching and record linking. It offers data analysis and investigation. Vality – Provides a product called Integrity.e. reveals undocumented business practices. which identifies business relationships (such as households) and duplications. The four components are : • • • • Converter: data analysis and investigation module for discovering word patterns and phrases within free form text Parser: processing engine for data cleansing. Datagration supports relational database systems and flat files as data sources and any application that runs in batch mode. Data Discovery enables Datagration to search through a field of free form data and re-arrange the tokens (i.

Use the Informatica Advanced External Transformation process to interface with the FirstLogic module by creating a “Matching Link” transformation. That process uses the Informatica Transformation Developer to create a new Advanced External Transformation, which incorporates the properties of the FirstLogic Matching Link files. Once a Matching Link transformation has been created in the Transformation Developer, users can incorporate that transformation into any of their project mappings: it's reusable from the repository. When an Informatica session starts, the transformation is initialized. The initialization sets up the address processing options, allocates memory, and opens the files for processing. This operation is only performed once. As each record is passed into the transformation it is parsed and standardized. Any output components are created and passed to the next transformation. When the session ends, the transformation is terminated. The memory is once again available and the directory files are closed. The available functions / processes are as follows. ACE Processing There are four ACE transformations available to choose from. They will parse, standardize and append address components using Firstlogic’s ACE Library. The transformation choice depends on the input record layout. A fourth transformation can provide optional components. This transformation must be attached to one of the three base transformations. The four transforms are: 1. ACE_discrete - where the input address data is presented in discrete fields 2. ACE_multiline - where the input address data is presented in multiple lines (1-6). 3. ACE_mixed - where the input data is presented with discrete city/state/zip and multiple address lines(1-6). 4. Optional transform – which is attached to one of the three base transforms and outputs the additional components of ACE for enhancement.

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All records input into the ACE transformation are returned as output. ACE returns Error/Status Code information during the processing of each address. This allows the end user to invoke additional rules before the final load is completed. TrueName Process TrueName mirrors the ACE transformation options with discrete, multi-line and mixed transformations. A fourth and optional transformation available in this process can be attached to one of the three transformations to provide genderization and match standards enhancements. TrueName will generate error and status codes. Similar to ACE, all records entered as input into the TrueName transformation can be used as output. Matching Process The matching process works through one transformation within the Informatica architecture. The input data is read into the Informatica data flow similar to a batch file. All records are read, the break groups created and, in the last step, matches are identified. Users set-up their own matching transformation through the PowerCenter Designer by creating an advanced external procedure transformation. Users are able to select which records are output from the matching transformations by editing the initialization properties of the transformation. All matching routines are predefined and, if necessary, the configuration files can be accessed for additional tuning. The five predefined matching scenarios include: individual, family, household (the only difference between household and family, is the household doesn't match on last name), firm individual, and firm. Keep in mind that the matching does not do any data parsing, this must be accomplished prior to using this transformation. As with ACE and TrueName, error and status codes are reported. Trillium Integration to Trillium’s data cleansing software is achieved through the Informatica Trillium Advanced External Procedures (AEP) interface. The AEP modules incorporate the following Trillium functional components. • Trillium Converter – The Trillium Converter facilitates data conversion such as EBCDIC to ASCII, integer to character, character length modification, literal constant and increasing values. It may also be used to create unique record identifiers, omit unwanted punctuation, or translate strings based on actual data or mask values. A user-customizable parameter file drives the conversion process. The Trillium Converter is a separate transformation that can be used standalone or in conjunction with the Trillium Parser module. Trillium Parser – The Trillium Parser identifies and/or verifies the components of free-floating or fixed field name and address data. The primary function of the Parser is to partition the input address records

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into manageable components in preparation for postal and census geocoding. The parsing process is highly table- driven to allow for customization of name and address identification to specific requirements. Trillium Postal Geocoder – The Trillium Postal Geocoder matches an address database to the ZIP+4 database of the U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Trillium Census Geocoder – The Trillium Census Geocoder matches the address database to U.S. Census Bureau information.

Each record that passes through the Trillium Parser external module is first parsed and then, optionally, postal geocoded and census geocoded. The level of geocoding performed is determined by a user-definable initialization property. • Trillium Window Matcher – The Trillium Window Matcher allows the PowerCenter Server to invoke Trillium’s deduplication and house holding functionality. The Window Matcher is a flexible tool designed to compare records to determine the level of likeness between them. The result of the comparisons is considered a passed, a suspect, or a failed match depending upon the likeness of data elements in each record, as well as a scoring of their exceptions.

Input to the Trillium Window Matcher transformation is typically the sorted output of the Trillium Parser transformation. The options for sorting include: • • • Using the Informatica Aggregator transformation as a sort engine. Separate the mappings whenever a sort is required. The sort can be run as a pre/post session command between mappings. Pre/post sessions are configured in the Server Manager. Build a custom AEP Transformation to include in the mapping.

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Data Connectivity Using PowerConnect for BW Integration Server

Challenge Understanding PCISBW to load data into the SAP BW. Description PowerCenter supports SAP Business Information Warehouse (BW) as a warehouse target only. PowerCenter Integration Server for BW enables you to include SAP Business Information Warehouse targets in your data mart or data warehouse. PowerCenter uses SAP’s Business Application Program Interface (BAPI), SAP’s strategic technology for linking components into the Business Framework, to exchange metadata with BW. Key Differences of Using PowerCenter to Populate BW Instead of a RDBMS • BW uses the pull model.BW must request data from an external source system, which is PowerCenter before the source system can send data to BW. PowerCenter uses PCISBW to register with BW first, using SAP’s Remote Function Call (RFC) protocol. External source systems provide transfer structures to BW. Data is moved and transformed within BW from one or more transfer structures to a communication structure according to transfer rules. Both, transfer structures and transfer rules, must be defined in BW prior to use. Normally this is done from the BW side. An InfoCube is updated by one communication structure as defined by the update rules. Staging BAPIs (an API published and supported by SAP) is the native interface to communicate with BW. Three PowerCenter product suites use this API. PowerCenter Designer uses the Staging BAPIs to import metadata for the target transfer structures. PCISBW uses the Staging BAPIs to register with BW and receive requests to run sessions. PowerCenter Server uses the Staging BAPIs to perform metadata verification and load data into BW. Programs communicating with BW use the SAP standard saprfc.ini file to communicate with BW. The saprfc.ini file is similar to the tnsnames file in Oracle or the interface file in Sybase. The PowerCenter Designer reads metadata from BW and the PowerCenter Server writes data to BW.

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When using IDOC. The methods have to be chosen in BW. you have four options for the data target when you execute the InfoPackage: 1) InfoCubes only. Informatica recommends installing PCISBW client tools in the same directory as the PowerCenter Client. There is no concept of update or deletes through the staging BAPIs. BW supports two different methods for loading data: IDOC and TRFC (Transactional Remote Functional Call). BW must control all scheduling. Due to its use of the pull model.ini file Required for PowerCenter and PCISBW to connect to BW. (Lots of customers choose this option) You can update the InfoCubes later. When using TRFC method. 2. 2) ODS only 3) InfoCubes then ODS and 4) InfoCubes and ODS in parallel. You need the same saprfc. BW invokes the PowerCenter session when the InfoPackage is scheduled to run in BW.• • • • • • • BW requires that all metadata extensions be defined in the BW Administrator Workbench. Key Steps To Load Data Into BW 1. On NT you can have only one PCISBW.ini on both the PowerCenter Server and the PowerCenter Client). The BW administrator or project manager should tell you the name of the external source system and the InfoSource targets. 4. For more details on installation and configuration refer to the Installation Guide. Start the PCISBW server PAGE BP-30 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Configure the saprfc. An active structure is the target for PowerCenter mappings loading BW. The definition must be imported to Designer. all of the processing required to move data from a transfer structure to an InfoCube (transfer structure to transfer rules to communication structure to update rules to InfoCubes) is done synchronously with the InfoPackage. Loading into the ODS is the fastest since less processing is performed on the data as it is being loaded into BW. 3. Install and Configure PowerCenter and PCISBW Components The PCISBW server must be installed in the same directory as the PowerCenter Server. Build the BW Components Step 1: Create an External Source System Step 2: Create an InfoSource Step 3: Assign an External Source System Step 4: Activate the InfoSources Hint: You do not normally need to create an external Source System or an InfoSources. BW only supports insertion of data into BW.

Build mappings Import the InfoSource into PowerCenter Warehouse Designer and build a mapping using the InfoSource as a target. It then can receive the request from BW to run a session on PowerCenter Server. Notepad can corrupt the saprfc. you have to enter the session_name into BW. RFC_INI is used to locate the saprfc. Load data Create a session in PowerCenter and an InfoPackage in BW. cannot execute stored procedure in a BW target. You can only start a Session from BW (Scheduler in the Administrator Workbench of BW). Type R. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-31 . To do this.ini file. cannot partition pipelines with a BW target.ini file: • Type A. open the Scheduler dialog box. Set RFC_INI environment variable for all Windows NT.Start PCISBW server only after you start PowerCenter server and before you create InfoPackage in BW.ini as the connect string in the PowerCenter Server Manager 7. Restrictions on Mappings with BW InfoSource Targets • • • • You You You You can not use BW as a lookup table. Create a Database connection Use DEST entry_for A_type of the saprfc. Use the DEST_for_A_type as connect string. Before you can start a session. Windows 2000 and Windows 95/98 machines equal with saprfc. Specifies the BW application server. Used by PowerCenter Client and PowerCenter Server. To start the session go to the last tab. The Server uses Type A for verify the tables and writing into BW.ini. go to the “Selection 3rd Party Tab and click on the “Selection Refresh” button (symbol is a recycling sign) which then prompts you for the session name.Saprfc. Register the PCISBW as a RFC server at the SAP gateway so it acts as a listener. can use only one transfer structure for each mapping. The client uses Type A for importing the transfer structure (table definition) from BW into the Designer.ini PowerCenter uses two types of entries to connect to BW through the saprfc. Used by the PowerCenter Integration Server for BW. 6. Parameter and Connection information file . Pmbwserver [DEST_Entry_for_R_type] [repo_user][repo_passwd][port_for_PowerCenter_Server] Note: The & sign behind the start command doesn’t work when you start up the PCISBW in a Telnet session 5. • Do not use Notepad to edit this file.ini file.

In some case PCISBW will generate a file with extension *. Error Messages PCISBW writes error messages to the screen.trc in the PowerCenter Server directory. You can use Update Strategy transformation in a mapping. but the PCISBW Server attempts to insert all records. It does not support updates or deletes. BW supports only inserts. PAGE BP-32 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . even those marked for update or delete. You cannot build update strategy in a mapping.• • You cannot copy fields that are prefaced with /BIC/ from the InfoSource definition into other transformations. Look for error messages there.

but difficult to deal with. using TCP/IP. the mainframe or AS400 data is just a regular ODBC data source. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-33 . PowerCenter uses SQL to access the data – which it sees as relational tables at runtime. The ODBC layer works for both Windows and UNIX. DDMs. Description When integrated with PowerCenter. legacy data sources residing on mainframes and AS/400 systems. The PowerConnect client agent and listener work in tandem and. via “datamaps”. so that as far as PowerCenter is concerned. It is an agent-based piece of software infrastructure that must be installed on OS/390 or AS/400 as either a regular batch job or started task. which can directly import the following information. The data can also be compressed and encrypted as it is being moved.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for Mainframe Challenge Accessing important. PREDICT data and ADA-CMP data for ADABAS Physical file definitions (DDS’s) for AS/400 After the above information has been imported and saved in the datamaps. such as DB2. such as VSAM. move the data at high-speed between the two platforms in either direction. flat files. PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 has a Windows design tool. called Navigator. ADABAS. PowerConnect for Mainframe and AS400 provides fast and seamless SQL access to non-relational sources. the PowerConnect client agent must be installed on the same machine as the PowerCenter client or server. In addition. IMS and IDMS. The PowerConnect client agent and PowerCenter communicate via a thin ODBC layer. as well as to relational sources. without using FTP: • • • • • COBOL and PL/1 copybooks Database definitions (DBDs) for IMS Subschemas for IDMS FDTs. without having to write complex extract programs.

5. 3. Perform a “row test” to source the data directly from OS/390. 1. adding the PowerConnect ODBC driver and setting up a client ODBC DSN. packed decimal) Ability to handle complex data structures. Perform the Windows install. 2. This includes entering the Windows license key. This includes entering the mainframe or AS/400 license key and updating the configuration file (dbmover.cfg) to add a node entry for communication between the client and the mainframe or AS/400. 2. Run the import process. The datamap is stored on the mainframe. PAGE BP-34 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the process is as follows: 1.Some of the key capabilities of PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 include: • • • • • • • • • Full EBCDIC-ASCII conversion Multiple concurrent data movements Support of all binary mainframe datatypes (e. A relational table is created. Perform the mainframe or AS/400 install. 4. updating the configuration file (dbmover. 3. such as COBOL OCCURS. This is the logical view.cfg) to change various default settings. This is the physical view. Installing PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 Note: Be sure to complete the Pre-Install Checklist (included at the end of this document) prior to performing the install. Ping the mainframe or AS/400 from Windows to ensure connectivity.g. 4. Review and edit (if necessary) the default table created. Start the Listener on the mainframe or the AS/400 system. Specify the copybook name to be imported. Create the datamap (give it a name). ADABAS MU and PE Support for REDEFINES Date/time field masking Multiple views from single data source Bad data checking Data filtering Steps for Using the Navigator If your objective is to import a COBOL copybook from OS/390. OCCURS DEPENDING ON.

6. before importing a source from PowerConnect for the first time. the statement must be qualified with the PowerConnect high-level qualifier (schema name). which was created when PowerConnect was installed.1800. The DSN name and connect string should be the same as PowerConnect’s ODBC DSN. edit the powermrt. The “import from database” option in Designer is needed to pull in sources from PowerConnect. updating the configuration file (dbmover.DLL When creating sessions in the Server Manager.5. Access sample data in Navigator as a test. To ensure smooth integration.1800). In Designer. along with the PowerConnect ODBC DSN that was created when PowerConnect was installed. increase the default TIMEOUT setting in the PowerConnect configuration files (dbmover. Guidelines for Integrating PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 with PowerCenter • In Server Manager. an ODBC license key is required.ini file by adding this entry at the end of the ODBCDLL section: DETAIL=EXTODBC. To handle large data sources. modify the Tablename prefix in the Source Options to include the PowerConnect high-level qualifier (schema name).cfg) to change various default settings. Since the Informatica server communicates with PowerConnect via ODBC. • • • • • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-35 . adding the PowerConnect ODBC driver and setting up the server ODBC DSN. If entering a custom SQL override in the Source Qualifier to filter PowerConnect data. apply the PowerCenter-PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 ODBC EBF. This includes entering the UNIX or NT license key. This should be of type ODBC.cfg) to (15. Perform the UNIX or NT install. a database connection is required to allow the server to communicate with PowerConnect.

Message Queue is a destination to which messages can be sent.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for MQSeries Challenge Understanding how to use MQSeries Applications in PowerCenter mappings. MQSeries enforces No Structure on the content or format of the message. (2) Message Queue and (3) MQSeries Message. MQSeries Message has two components: PAGE BP-36 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Queue Manager • • • Informatica connects to Queue Manager to send and receive messages. as opposed to a full data set. Because no open connections are needed between systems. creates queues. No Debug ‘Sessions’. Applications can also request data using a ‘request message’ on a message queue. Certain considerations also necessary when using Aggregators. and controls queue operation. You must use actual server manager session to debug a queue mapping. Description MQSeries Applications communicate by sending each other messages rather than calling each other directly. this is defined by the application. Every message queue belongs to a Queue Manager. Not Available to PowerCenter when using MQSeries • • • No Lookup on MQSeries sources. Queue Manager administers queues. they can run independently of one another. and Rank transformations because they will only be performed on one queue. MQSeries Architecture MQSeries architecture has three parts: (1) Queue Manager. Joiners.

test by actually pulling data from the queue. MQ SQ is predefined and comes with 29 message headed fields. Once the code is working correctly. MSGID is the primary key. Design the mapping as if it were not using MQ Series. then make all adjustments in the session when using MQ Series. A data component. • Static MQ Targets – Does not load data to the message header fields. MQ SQ can perform the following tasks: • • • • • Select Associated Source Qualifier . Loading to a Queue There are two types of MQ Targets that can be used in a mapping: Static MQ Targets and Dynamic MQ Targets. used for binary. When extracting from a queue you need to use either of two Source Qualifiers: MQ Source Qualifier (MQ SQ) or Associated Source Qualifier (SQ). XML. XML. Set Tracing Level . which contains the application data or the ‘message body. control end of file. you can create and configure sessions in the Server Manager. then add the MQ Source and Source Qualifier after the mapping logic has been tested. Only one type of MQ Target can be used in a single mapping.verbose. Flat File) or Normalizer (COBOL) is required if the data is not in binary. COBOL). and control syncpoint queue clean-up. Note that certain message headers in a MQSeries message require a predefined set of values assigned by IBM. Flat File or Binary. the queue must be in a form of COBOL. Use mapping parameters and variables Associated SQ – either an Associated SQ (XML.. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-37 . (??CORRECT INTERPRETATION??) Use the target definition specific to the format of the message data (i. control incremental extraction.this is necessary if the file is not binary. Dynamic – Used for binary targets only and when loading data to a message header.• • A header.’ Extraction from a Queue In order for PowerCenter to extract from a queue.000.e. MQ SQ – Must be used to read data from an MQ source. You cannot use a MQ SQ to join two MQ sources. etc. Filter Data – set filter conditions to filter messages using message header ports. If an Associated SQ is used. Set Message Data Size – default 64. which contains data about the queue. flat file. normal. • Creating and Configuring MQSeries Sessions After you create mappings in the Designer. You can create a session with an MQSeries mapping using the Session Wizard in the Server Manager. design the mapping as if it were not using MQ Series.

XML and COBOL source definitions. They appear in all the transformations in the mapping. Note that there are two pages on the Source Options dialog: XML and MQSeries. Flat file. XML. or COBOL datatypes associated with an MQSeries message data. • PAGE BP-38 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . MQSTR).Configuring MQSeries Sources MQSeries mappings cannot be partitioned if an associated source qualifier is used. Transformation datatypes. COBOL or XML format. • If you load data to a dynamic MQ target. You can alternate between the two pages to set configurations for each. • On the MQSeries page. • Be sure to select the MQ checkbox in Target Options for the Associated file type. Once this is done. and the message data is in flat file. IBM MQSeries datatypes appear in the MQSeries source and target definitions in a mapping. Native datatypes. click Edit Object Properties and enter: • The Connection name of the target message Queue. Native datatypes also appear in flat file and XML target definitions in the mapping. Appendix Information PowerCenter uses the following datatypes in MQSeries mappings: • • IBM MQSeries datatypes. the Source Type is set to the following: • • Heterogeneous when there is an associated source definition in the mapping. Message Queue when there is no associated source definition in the mapping. • And the number of rows per message(only applies to flat file MQ Targets). This indicates that the source data is coming from an MQ source. Native datatypes appear in flat file. select File Target type from the list. and click OK. the target type is automatically set to XML. Configuring MQSeries Targets For Static MQSeries Targets. select the MQ connection to use for the source message queue. When the target is an XML file or XML message data for a target message queue. • Enter the Format of the Message Data in the Target Queue (ex. Transformation datatypes are generic datatypes that PowerCenter uses during the transformation process. For MQ Series sources. the target type is automatically set to Message Queue.

IBM MQSeries Datatypes MQSeries Datatypes MQBYTE MQCHAR MQLONG Transformation Datatypes BINARY STRING INTEGER INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-39 .

make sure to set up the PATH environment variable to include current directory. reusable metadata across various systems and to understand the process for extracting data and metadata from PeopleSoft sources without having to write and sustain complex SQR extract programs. Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Installation of PowerConnect for PeopleSoft is a multi-step process. PeopleSoft saves metadata in tables that provide a description and logical view of data stored in underlying physical database table. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft: • • • Imports PeopleSoft source definition metadata via PowerCenter Designer using ODBC to connect to PeopleSoft tables. Log onto the Server machine on Windows NT/2000 or UNIX and run the setup program to select and install the PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Server. to maintain consistent. both the PowerCenter Client and Server have to be set up and configured. Also. On UNIX. Certain drivers that enable PowerCenter to extract source data from PeopleSoft systems also need to be installed. Extracts data from PeopleSoft systems without compromising existing PeopleSoft security features. PAGE BP-40 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . To begin. Extracts data during a session by directly running against the physical database tables using PowerCenter server. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft uses SQL to communicate with the database server. Description PowerConnect for PeopleSoft supports extraction from PeopleSoft systems. The overall process involves: Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft for the PowerCenter Server: • • Installation is simple like other Informatica products.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Challenge To maintain data integrity by sourcing/targeting transactional PeopleSoft systems.

Key columns contain duplicate values. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft also imports the metadata attached to those PeopleSoft structures. • • SQL table. While importing the PeopleSoft objects. PeopleSoft names the underlying database tables after the records. For example. scale and keys. For example. the values of the DEPTID field identify individual departments in your organization. The Designer uses the PS source name as the name of the source definition. department 20200 is INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-41 . When you import a PeopleSoft record. data for the PeopleSoft records AE_REQUEST is saved in the PS_AE_REQUEST database table. SQL view. For example. The PowerCenter Server uses the underlying database table name to extract source data. precision. with the option to change the location. PS_Record_Name. PeopleSoft Trees A PeopleSoft tree is an object that defines the groupings and hierarchical relationships between the values of a database field.Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft for the PowerCenter Client: • • Run the setup program and select PowerConnect for PeopleSoft client from the setup list. departments 10700 and 10800 report to the same manager. the Designer imports both the PeopleSoft source name and the underlying database table name. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft helps in importing from the following PeopleSoft records. Client installation wizard points to the PowerCenter Client directory for the driver installation as a default. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts source data from two types of PeopleSoft objects: • • Records Trees PeopleSoft Records A PeopleSoft record is a table-like structure that contains columns with defined datatypes. Importing Sources PowerConnect for PeopleSoft aids data integrity by sourcing/targeting transactional PeopleSoft systems and by maintaining reusable consistent metadata across various systems. Has one-to-one relationship with underlying physical tables. It specifies how the values of a database file are grouped together for purposes of reporting or for security access. You can use the Tree Manager to define the organizational hierarchy that specifies how each department relates to the other departments. Provides an alternative view of information in one or more database tables. A tree defines the summarization rules for a database field.

and so on. This kind of tree is called a detail tree. you build a treethat mirrors the hierarchy. Winter Trees: Extracts data from loose-level and strict level node-oriented trees. Winter trees contain no details ranges. a query written by a certain logged in user within a group can only access the rows that are part of the records that are assigned to the group the user has access to. which are represented as nodes on the tree. There are no branches in query trees. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from the following PeopleSoft tree structure types: Detail Trees: In the most basic type of tree. but tree nodes from an existing detail tree. which organize record definitions for PeopleSoft Query security. Summary Trees: In a summary tree. and holds detail values. but children can/do exist. which provide an alternative way to group nodes from an existing detail tree. the "lowest" level is the level farthest to the right in the Tree Manager window. the detail values aren't values from a database field. PeopleSoft records are grouped into logical groups. PAGE BP-42 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and each subsequent level defines a higher level grouping of the tree nodes. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from loose-level and strictlevel detail trees with static detail ranges. Query access trees. The Departmental Security tree in PeopleSoft HRMS is a good example of a node-oriented tree. in which database field values appear as detail values. The tree groups the nodes from a specific level in the detail tree differently from the higher levels in the detail tree itself. The next level is made up of tree nodes that group together the detail values. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from loose-level and strict level summary trees. Types of Trees The Tree Manager enables you to create many kinds of trees for a variety of purposes. but all trees fall into these major types: • • • • Detail trees. Summary trees. Node Oriented trees: In a node-oriented tree. It uses either of the following methods to denormalize trees. the PowerCenter Server denormalizes the tree structure. without duplicating the entire tree structure.part of a different division. the tree nodes represent the data values from the database field. This way. Query access trees: are used to maintain security within the PeopleSoft implementation. In other words. Flattening trees When you extract data from a PeopleSoft tree. in which database field values appear as tree nodes. Node-oriented trees.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-43 . For example. Import or create source definition 2. To import a PeopleSoft source definition. Winter and Summary Trees Detail. When creating an ODBC data source. You can use vertical flattening can be used with both strict-level and loose-level trees. PowerCenter Client and Server require a database username and password. You can use the database system names for ODBC names. configure the data source to connect to the underlying database for the PeopleSoft system. Extracting data from PeopleSoft is a three-step process: 1. Importing or Creating Source Definitions Before extracting data from a source. You need a user with read access to PeopleSoft system to access the PeopleSoft physical and metadata tables via an ODBC connection. if PeopleSoft system resides on Oracle database. You can either create separate users for metadata and source extraction or alternatively use one for both. create an ODBC data source for each PeopleSoft system you want to access. Vertical flattening: The PowerCenter Server creates a row for each node or detail range represented in the tree. use the PeopleSoft database connection names. You can only use horizontal flattening with strict level trees. Winter and Summary Trees Extracting Data from PeopleSoft PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from PeopleSoft systems without compromising existing PeopleSoft security To access PeopleSoft metadata and data. configure an ODBC data source to connect to the Oracle database. Use the Sources-Import command in PowerCenter Designer’s Source Analyzer tools to import PeopleSoft records and strict-level trees. Note: If PeopleSoft already establishes database connection names. Create and run a session 1. Flattening Method Horizontal Vertical Vertical only Tree Structure Metadata Extraction Method Import Source definition Create Source definition Create Source definition Tree Levels Strict-level tree Strict-level tree Loose-level tree Detail. Winter and Summary Trees Detail.• • Horizontal flattening: The PowerCenter Server creates a single row for each final branch node or detail range in the tree. you need to import its source definition. Create mapping 3.

When you configure the session. PAGE BP-44 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . you connect to an ERP Source Qualifier to represent the records the PowerCenter Server queries from a PeopleSoft source. PeopleTools based applications are table-based systems. In PeopleSoft 8. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft uses the Panels tab to import PeopleSoft 8 Pages. An ERP Source Qualifier like the Source Qualifier allows you to use user-defined joins and filters. Note: PowerConnect for PeopleSoft works with all versions of PeopleSoft systems. enter the table owner name in the session as a source table prefix. the Navigator displays and organizes sources by the PeopleSoft record or tree name by default. An ERP Source Qualifier is used for all ERP sources like SAP. since changes made within Tree Manager may alter such relationships. However. there are certain tables that are stored on the database without that prefix. 2. PeopleSoft etc. and a Server Manager database connection to create a session. 3. which your database management system uses to optimize performance. When using the default join option between two PeopleSoft tables. Panels tab. Creating and Running a Session You need a valid mapping.After you import or create a PeopleSoft record or tree. PeopleTools Tables contain information that you define using PeopleTools. Application Data Tables house the actual data your users will enter and access through PeopleSoft application windows and panels. registered PowerCenter Server. Create a Mapping After you import or create the source definition. so simply altering the primary-foreign key relationship within Source Analyzer can be dangerous and it is advisable to re-import the whole tree. If the database user is not the owner of the source tables. Importing Records You can import records from two tabs in the Import from PeopleSoft dialog box: • • Records tab. Panels are referred to as Pages. Take care when using user-defined primary-foreign key relationships with trees. Denormalization of the tables that made up the tree will be changed. select PeopleSoft as the source database type and then select a PeopleSoft database connection as source database. A database for a PeopleTools application contains three major sets of tables: • • • System Catalog Tables store physical attributes of tables and views. so an override and a user-defined join will need to be made to correct this. the query created will automatically append a PS_ prefix to the PeopleSoft tables.

Note: You cannot partition an ERP Source Qualifier for PeopleSoft when it is connected to or associated with a PeopleSoft tree. If you need to extract large amount of source data. the PowerCenter Server ignores the table name prefix setting for all connected sources. PowerCenter uses SQL to extract data directly from the physical database tables. performing code page translations when necessary. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-45 .Note: If the mapping contains a Source or ERP Qualifier with a SQL Override. you can partition the sources to improve session performance.

PowerConnect extracts data from transparent tables. cluster tables. The R/3 system is programmed in Advance Business Application Programming-Fourth Generation (ABAP/4. CPI-C communication protocol enables online data exchange and data conversion between R/3 system and PowerCenter . and Human Resources. hierarchies(Uniform & Non Uniform).Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for SAP Challenge Understanding how to install PowerConnect for SAP R/3. extract data from SAP R/3. All of this is accomplished without writing ABAP code. build mappings. or ABAP). pool tables. analytic applications. To initialize CPI-C communication with PowerCenter. SAP IDOCs and ABAP function modules. A transparent table definition on the application server is represented by a single physical table on the database server. Other interfaces between the two include: • Common Program Interface-Communications (CPI-C). Materials Management. such as Financial Accounting. Pool and cluster tables are logical definitions on the application server that do not have a one-to-one relationship with a physical table on the database server. The database server stores the physical tables in the R/3 system. and other applications. while the application server stores the logical tables. SAP R/3 requires information such as the host name of the application server and SAP gateway. Communication Interfaces TCP/IP is the native communication interface between PowerCenter and SAP R/3. Sales and Distribution. and run sessions to load SAP R/3 data into data warehouse. PowerConnect for SAP R/3 provides the ability to integrate SAP R/3 data into data warehouses. a language proprietary to SAP. This information is stored on the PowerCenter Server in a configuration file PAGE BP-46 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Description SAP R/3 is a software system that integrates multiple business applications.

The transport system in SAP is a mechanism to transfer objects developed on one system to another system. and the service name and gateway on the application server. There are two situations when transport system is needed: • • PowerConnect for SAP R/3 installation. The Designer calls a function in the R/3 system to import source definitions. SAP R/3 requires information such as the connection type. Generate and install ABAP program.ini. When creating a mapping using an R/3 source definition. ABAP code blocks. The PowerCenter server uses parameters in the sideinfo file to connect to R/3 system when running the stream mode sessions. Transport ABAP programs from development to production. Extracting data from R/3 is a four-step process: 1. PowerCenter makes remote function calls when importing source definitions. Note: if the ABAP programs are installed in the $TMP class then they cannot be transported from development to production. installing ABAP program. Extract data to file. the SAP protocol for program-toprogram communication. Two ABAP programs can be installed for each mapping: • • File mode. you must use an ERP Source Qualifier. This information is stored on the PowerCenter Client and PowerCenter Server in a configuration file named saprfc. Extract data to buffers. 2. Extraction Process R/3 source definitions can be imported from the logical tables using RFC protocol. Transport system. RFC is the remote communication protocol used by SAP and is based on RPC (Remote Procedure Call). and SAP functions to customize the ABAP program. Create a mapping. Remote Function Call (RFC). and running file mode sessions. The PowerCenter server accesses the buffers through CPI-C. ABAP program variables. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-47 . 3. You can also use joins. The PowerCenter Server accesses the file through FTP or NFS mount.• named sideinfo. filters. Stream Mode. Import source definitions. Designer connects to the R/3 application server using RFC. To execute remote calls from PowerCenter. In the ERP Source Qualifier. you can customize properties of the ABAP program that the R/3 server uses to extract source data.

• Create and Run Session. When the file is complete.4. the installed ABAP program creates buffers on the application server. The program extracts source data and loads it into the file. • Installation and Configuration Steps For SAP R/3 The R/3 system needs development objects and user profiles established to communicate with PowerCenter. the PowerCenter Server accesses the file through FTP or NFS mount and continues processing the session. PowerCenter Server can process data when it is received. PowerCenter calls these objects each time it makes a request to the R/3 system. In stream mode. The program extracts source data and loads it into the buffers. the session must be configured to access the file through NFS mount or FTP. When running a session in file mode. Preparing R/3 for integration involves the following tasks: • • Transport the development objects on the PowerCenter CD to R/3. Run transport program that generate unique Ids. With this method. When a buffer fills. File Mode. (File or Stream mode) Stream Mode. When the session runs. the program streams the data to the PowerCenter Server using CPI-C. the installed ABAP program creates a file on the application server. PAGE BP-48 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

Preparing PowerCenter for integration involves the following tasks: • • • • Run installation programs on PowerCenter Server and Client machines. it is located in \winnt\system32\drivers\etc On UNIX. ASHOST – host name of the SAP R/3 application server. For PowerCenter The PowerCenter Server and Client need drivers and connection files to communicate with SAP R/3. GWSERV – set to sapgw<system number> PROTOCOL – set to “I” for TCP/IP connection. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-49 . Configure the connection files: The sideinfo file on the PowerCenter Server allows PowerCenter to initiate CPI-C with the R/3 system.ini file on the PowerCenter Client and Server allows PowerCenter to connect to the R/3 system as an RFC client. The saprfc. Configure FTP connection to access staging file through FTP. Configure Connections to run Sessions Configure database connections in the Server Manager to access the SAP R/3 system when running a session. it is located in /etc • • sapdp<system number> <port# of dispatcher service>/TCP sapgw<system number> <port# of gateway service>/TCP The system number and port numbers are provided by the BASIS administrator. Create a development class for the ABAP programs that PowerCenter installs on the SAP R/3 system. Required Parameters for saprfc. Configuring the Services File On NT. SYSNR – system number of the SAP R/3 application server. Required Parameters for sideinfo • • • • • • DEST – logical name of the R/3 system LU – host name of the SAP application server machine TP – set to sapdp<system number> GWHOST – host name of the SAP gateway machine.ini • • • • DEST – logical name of the R/3 system TYPE – set to “A” to indicate connection to specific R/3 system.• • Establish profiles in the R/3 system for PowerCenter users.

Insert ABAP Code Block to add more functionality to the ABAP program flow. you cannot install the ABAP program. 6. The installation CD includes devinit. to transport these objects files on the R/3 system. Install PowerConnect for SAP R/3 on PowerCenter. Configure the saprfc. The R/3 system administrator must use the transport control program tp import. 4. 2. For example: qualifying table = table1field1 = table2-field2 where the qualifying table is the “last” table in the condition based on the join order.x system. Do not use Notepad to edit saprfc. profiles and userids for PowerCenter users. Import IDOCS. dev4x. The R/3 administration needs to create authorization. Configure the sideinfo file. do not install the dev3x transport on a 4. filters. Use of outer join when two or more sources are joined in the ERP Source Qualifier. Use a text editor. 5. Creation of ABAP Program variables to represent SAP R/3 structures. Configure the database connection to run session. Key Capabilities of PowerConnect for SAP R/3 Some key capabilities of PowerConnect for SAP R/3 include: • • • • • • Import SAP function in the Source Analyzer. Use of static filters to reduce return rows. The transport process creates a development class called ZERP. you may encounter key constraint errors when you load the data warehouse. dev3x. installing programs. To avoid these errors.ini Set the RFC_INI environment variable. If your mapping has hierarchy definitions only.x system. (MARA = MARA-MATNR = ‘189’) Customization of the ABAP program flow with joins. Configure the FTP connection to access staging files through FTP. Be sure to note the following considerations regarding SAP R/3: You must have proper authorization on the R/3 system to perform integrated tasks. or dev4x transport on a 3. production program files.ini file. and running sessions. If you use R/3 source to create target definitions in the Warehouse Designer. 3. structure fields or values in the ABAP program Removal of ABAP program Information from SAP R/3 and the repository when a folder is deleted. such as WordPad. SAP functions and code blocks.Steps to Configure PowerConnect on PowerCenter 1. R/3 does not always maintain referential integrity between primary key and foreign key relationship. • • • • • • • • PAGE BP-50 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . To avoid problems extracting metadata. edit the keys in the target definition before you build the physical targets.

When the PowerCenter extracts CHAR data from SAP R/3. all you need to do is change the database connections at the session level. This allows you to compare R/3 data with other source data without having use the RTRIM function. If you are upgrading and your mappings use the blanks to compare R/3 data with other data. it treats it as VARCHAR data and trims the trailing blanks. You cannot use an ABAP code block. So for migration purposes. To avoid trimming the trailing blanks. The transport must need to be created manually within SAP and then transported to the Production environment Given that the development and production SAP systems are identical. it does not automatically create a transport for the ABAP code that it just generated. depending on which environment you’re in.• • • • • • • • • Do not use the Select Distinct option for LCHR when the length is greater than 2000 and the underlying database is Oracle. SAP R/3 stores all CHAR data with trailing blanks. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-51 . This causes the session to fail You cannot generate and install ABAP programs from mapping shortcuts. When this ABAP code is generated however. you have to add that parameter as a string value to the key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\PowerMa rt\Parameters\MiscInfo PowerCenter has the ability to generate the ABAP code for the mapping. an ABAP program variable and a source filter if the ABAP program flow contains a hierarchy and no other sources. If a mapping contains both hierarchies and tables. You cannot use dynamic filters on IDOC source definitions in the ABAP program flow. you may not want the PowerCenter Server to trim the trailing blanks.cfg If PowerCenter server is on NT/2000. The PowerCenter server also trims trailing blanks for CUKY and UNIT data. you must generate the ABAP program using file mode. you should be able to just switch your mapping to point to either the development or production instance at the session level. add the flag: AllowTrailingBlanksForSAPCHAR=Yes in the pmserver.

all records are generally inserted or updated into the data warehouse.Records supplied by the source system include only new or changed records. and unloading data. History tracking–keeping track of what has been loaded and when. updates and delete. reloading. Considerations • • • • Incremental Aggregation –loading deltas into an aggregate table. The design should allow data to be incrementally added to the data warehouse with minimal impact to the overall system. The following pages describe several possible load strategies. The goal is to create a load strategy that will minimize downtime for the warehouse and allow quick and robust data management. Record Indicator or Flags . Records can be selected based upon this flag to all for inserts.Records that include columns that specify the intention of the record to be populated into the warehouse. Slowly changing dimensions– Informatica Wizards for generic mappings (a good start to an incremental load strategy). PAGE BP-52 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . it is important to understand the impact of a suitable incremental load strategy. In this scenario. making the process of loading into the warehouse without compromising its functionality increasingly difficult. Error-un/loading data– strategies for recovering. Description As time windows shrink and data volumes increase. Data will be loaded into the warehouse based upon the last processing date or the effective date range.Incremental Loads Challenge Data warehousing incorporates large volumes of data. Date stamped data . Source Analysis Data sources typically fall into the following possible scenarios: • • • Delta Records .Data is organized by timestamps.

• • Key values are present . If the record does not exist. determine if the record needs to be updated. Joins of Sources to Targets. All values must be checked before entering the warehouse. timestamps. inserted as a new record. depending on the need and volume. Loading Method Data can be loaded directly from these locations into the data warehouse. lookup the keys or critical columns in the target relational database. Take care to ensure that the record exists for updates or deletes or the record can be successfully inserted. This occurs in cases of delta loads. store keys in the a separate table and compare source records against this log table to determine load strategy. Source Based Load Strategies Complete Incremental Loads in a Single File/Table The simplest method of incremental loads is from flat files or a database in which all records will be loaded. or removed (deleted from target or filtered out and not added to the warehouse). There is no additional overhead produced in moving these sources into the warehouse. No Key values present . keys or surrogate keys. data must be checked against what has already been entered into the warehouse. This particular strategy requires bulk loads into the warehouse. Records are directly joined to the target using Source Qualifier join conditions or using joiner transformations after the source qualifiers (for heterogeneous sources). Load table log. Record indicators can be beneficial when lookups into the target are not necessary. When using joiner transformations. Identify Which Records Need to be Compared Once the sources are identified. Record indicators. 2. with no overhead on processing of the sources or sorting the source records. For example. If it does exist. More design effort may be needed to manage errors in these situations. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-53 . insert the record as a new row. take care to ensure the data volumes are manageable. Here are some considerations: • Compare with the target table. it is necessary to determine which records will be entered into the warehouse and how. • Determine the Method of Comparison 1.Surrogate keys will be created and all data will be inserted into the warehouse based upon validity of the records.When only key values are present. Determine if the record exists in the target table. Using the lookup transformation. You can use this table for comparison with lookups or joins. Generate a log table of records that have been already inserted into the target system. Keep in mind the caches and indexing possibilities 3. Lookup on target.

It may also be feasible to lookup in the target to see if the data exists or not. Changed Data based on Keys or Record Information Data that is uniquely identified by keys can be selected based upon selection criteria. Target Based Load Strategies Load Directly into the Target Loading directly into the target is possible when the data will be bulk loaded. you can also check to see if you need to update these records or discard the source record. records that contain key information such as primary keys. the records can be selected based on this effective date and only those records past a certain date will be loaded into the warehouse. For example. you can use mapping variables to provide the previous date processed. The incremental load can be determined by dates greater than the previous load date or data that has an effective key greater than the last key processed. Loading Method With the use of relational sources.Date Stamped Data This method involves data that has been stamped using effective dates or sequences. A router transformation or a filter can be placed after the source qualifier to remove old records. Placing the load strategy into the ETL component is much more flexible and controllable by the ETL developers and metadata. To compare the effective dates. Load into Flat Files and Bulk Load using an External Loader PAGE BP-54 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . alternate keys etc can be used to determine if they have already been entered into the data warehouse. recovery and update strategy. The alternative is to use control tables to store the date and update the control table after each load. The mapping will be responsible for error control. Load Method It may be possible to do a join with the target tables in which new data can be selected and loaded into the target. If they exist. Non-relational data can be filtered as records are loaded based upon the effective dates or sequenced keys. Views can also be created to perform the selection criteria so the processing will not have to be incorporated into the mappings. refer to Best Practice: Variable and Mapping Parameters. For detailed instruction on how to select dates.

whichever date can be used to identify a newly inserted record. make your variable a date/time. Using Mapping Variables and Parameter Files A mapping variable can be used to perform incremental loading. After data has been loaded. For the Aggregation option. go to the menu and select Mappings. Name the variable and. The source system must have a reliable date to use. making the mirror the active database and the active as the mirror.The mapping will load data directly into flat files. state your initial value. This is a very important issue that everyone should understand. This method reduces the load times (with less downtime for the data warehouse) and also provide a means of maintaining a history of data being loaded into the target. Typically this method is only used for updates into the warehouse. The mapping variable is used in the join condition in order to select only the new data that has been entered based on the create_date or the modify_date. This is the date at which the load should start. Load into a Mirror Database The data will be loaded into a mirror database to avoid down time of the active data warehouse. with the mapping designer open. the databases are switched. Here are the steps involved in this method: Step 1: Create Mapping Variable In the Informatica Designer. In the same screen. The date must follow one of these formats: • • • • MM/DD/RR MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS MM/DD/YYYY MM/DD/YYYY HH24:MI:SS Step 2: Use the Mapping Variable in the Source Qualifier The select statement will look like the following: Select * from tableA Where CREATE_DATE > to_date('$$INCREMENT_DATE'. select MAX. 'MM-DD-YYYY HH24:MI:SS') Step 3: Use the Mapping Variable in an Expression INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-55 . then select Parameters and Values.. in this case. An external loader can be invoked at that point to bulk load the data into the target.

You can view the value of the mapping variable in the session log file. If all subsequent rows are LESS than that. You can use the variable functions in the following transformations: • • • • Expression Filter Router Update Strategy The variable constantly holds (per row) the max value between source and variable.For the purpose of this example. So if one row comes through with 9/1/2001. PAGE BP-56 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . In the expression create a variable port and use the SETMAXVARIABLE variable function and do the following: SETMAXVARIABLE($$INCREMENT_DATE. No table is needed to store the max(date)since the variable takes care of it. After the mapping completes. then 9/1/2001 is preserved. then the variable gets that value. that is the PERSISTENT value stored in the repository for the next run of your session.CREATE_DATE) CREATE_DATE is the date for which you would like to store the maximum value. The value of the mapping variable and incremental loading is that it allows the session to use only the new rows of data. use an expression to work with the variable functions to set and use the mapping variable.

. Within an expression. Use mapplets to leverage the work of critical developers and minimize mistakes when performing similar functions. • • • Avoid calculating or testing the same value over and over. use many times. and set a True/False flag.Mapping Design Challenge Use the PowerCenter tool suite to create an efficient execution environment. Reduce the number of transformations • • There is always overhead involved in moving data between transformations. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-57 . This is also helpful for maintenance. Session shared memory between 12M and 40MB should suffice. Calculate once. General Suggestions for Optimizing 1. use variables to calculate a value used several times. Description Although PowerCenter environments vary widely. Consider more shared memory for large number of transformations. particularly in the Source Qualifier. Calculate it once in an expression. most sessions and/or mappings can benefit from the implementation of common objects and optimization procedures. • • Delete unnecessary links between transformations to minimize the amount of data moved. Follow these procedures and rules of thumb when creating mappings to help ensure optimization. 2.g. 3. if you exchange transformations (e. a Source Qualifier). Only connect what is used.

e.000 rows. If you use field-level stored procedures. • • • Plan for reusable transformations upfront. Only manipulate data that needs to be moved and transformed. then the 500k rows will have to be adjusted down as the number of bytes increase (i. 5.e. Reducing the number of records used throughout the mapping provides better performance Use active transformations that reduce the number of records as early in the mapping as possible (i. Sometimes conversion is excessive. PowerMart has to make a call to that stored procedure for every row so performance will be slow..g. • • Single-pass reading is the server’s ability to use one Source Qualifier to populate multiple targets. a 2. placing filters. Use variables.. Use mapplets to encapsulate multiple reusable transformations. Select appropriate driving/master table while using joins. 7. Watch the data types. For any additional Source Qualifier. • • 9.000 rows or less.024 or less. aggregators as close to source as possible). cache lookup table columns for those lookup tables of 500. If you have different Source Qualifiers for the same source (e. 8. • • • The engine automatically converts compatible types. the server reads the source for each Source Qualifier. and happens on every transformation. one for delete and one for update/insert).4. Facilitate reuse. The table with the lesser number of rows should be the driving/master table.024. Utilize single-pass reads.. Remove or reduce field-level stored procedures. the server reads this source. If the row byte count is more than 1. This typically improves performance by 10-20%.048 byte row PAGE BP-58 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . • • • Delete unused ports particularly in Source Qualifier and Lookups. Lookup Transformation Optimizing Tips • • When your source is large. When DTM bottlenecks are identified and session optimization has not helped. 6. The rule of thumb is not to cache any table over 500. Minimize data type changes between transformations by planning data flow prior to developing the mapping. This is only true if the standard row byte count is 1. use tracing levels to identify which transformation is causing the bottleneck (use the Test Load option in session properties).

consider replacing with an unconnected. Suggestions for Using Mapplets INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-59 . replace with string. 13. If working with data that is not able to return sorted data (e. which allows the PowerCenter mappings to access the data in an optimized fashion by using filters and custom SQL Selects where appropriate. improve lookup performance by placing all conditions that use the equality operator ‘=’ first in the list of conditions under the condition tab. For small lookup tables. Optimize IIF expressions. so the lookup table will not be cached in this case). trim spaces before comparing). Use Flat Files Using flat files located on the server machine loads faster than a database located in the server machine.. Fixed-width files are faster to load than delimited files because delimited files require extra parsing. uncached lookup Review complex expressions. If processing intricate transformations. 10. 11. When using a Lookup Table Transformation. 12. 11.. consider loading first to a source flat file into a relational database. • • • • • • 14. Replace lookup with decode or IIF (for small sets of values). do not cache if the number of lookup table rows is big. If caching lookups and performance is poor. For fewer number of lookup calls. Avoid date comparisons in lookup. less than 5.e. Replace Aggregate Transformation object with an Expression Transformation object and an Update Strategy Transformation for certain types of Aggregations. Examine mappings via Repository Reporting. 15. Cache only lookup tables if the number of lookup calls is more than 10-20% of the lookup table rows. Operators are faster than functions (i. Test expression timing by replacing with constant. Minimize aggregate function calls.g. cache for more than 5-10 lookup calls. CONCAT). Optimize char-varchar comparisons (i. || vs.000 rows.• • • • can drop the cache row count to 250K – 300K. Web Logs) consider using the Sorter Advanced External Procedure. • • • Operations and Expression Optimizing Tips Numeric operations are faster than string operations..e.

nonreusable sequence generator. these include: COBOL source definitions. A mapplet can be active or passive depending on the transformations in the mapplet. 3. it expands the mapplet. After you save a mapplet. 4. Active mapplets contain at least one active transformation.5 style lookup functions 5. all changes made to the parent mapplet logic are inherited by every ‘child’ instance of the mapplet. There are several unsupported transformations that should not be used in a mapplet. you can use it in a mapping to represent the transformations within the mapplet. and PowerMart 3.or post-session stored procedures. pre. you use an instance of the mapplet. To create a mapplet. Do not reuse mapplets if you only need one or two transformations of the mapplet while all other calculated ports and transformations are obsolete 6. For example. you can create a mapplet containing a series of Lookup transformations to find each dimension key. Being aware of this property when using mapplets can save time when debugging invalid mappings. create mapplet output ports. connect. To pass data out of a mapplet. normalizer. The server then runs the session as it would any other session. When you use the mapplet in a mapping. It allows you to reuse transformation logic and can contain as many transformations as necessary. PAGE BP-60 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . rather than recreate the same lookup logic in each mapping. When you use the mapplet in a mapping. 1. add. All uses of a mapplet are all tied to the ‘parent’ mapplet. You can then use the mapplet in each fact table mapping. Passive mapplets only contain passive transformations. if you have several fact tables that require a series of dimension keys. When you use a mapplet in a mapping. and configure transformations to complete the desired transformation logic. the mapplet provides source data for the mapping and is the first object in the mapping data flow. • 7. Use a mapplet Input transformation to define input ports.A mapplet is a reusable object that represents a set of transformations. Each port in an Output transformation connected to another transformation in the mapplet becomes a mapplet output port. Source data for a mapplet can originate from one of two places: • Sources within the mapplet. joiner. 2. passing data through each transformation in the mapplet as designed. data passes through the mapplet as part of the mapping data flow. Hence. Use one or more source definitions connected to a Source Qualifier or ERP Source Qualifier transformation. Sources outside the mapplet. Create a mapplet when you want to use a standardized set of transformation logic in several mappings. When the server runs a session using a mapplet. target definitions.

This means you cannot use only one data flow of the mapplet in a mapping. You need one target in the mapping for each Output transformation in the mapplet.• • Active mapplets with more than one Output transformations. You cannot use only one data flow of the mapplet in a mapping. Passive mapplets with more than one Output transformations. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-61 . Reduce to one Output Transformation otherwise you need one target in the mapping for each Output transformation in the mapplet.

You also can drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. The Metadata Reporter allows report access to every Informatica object stored in the repository. The amount of metadata that is entered is dependent on the business requirements. with an Internet PAGE BP-62 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . data types. Because Informatica does not support or recommend direct reporting access to the repository. targets. the second way of repository metadata reporting is through the use of views written using Metadata Exchange (MX). • Metadata Reporter The need for the Informatica Metadata Reporter arose from the number of clients requesting custom and complete metadata reports from their repositories. and primary keys are stored in the repository. even for Select only queries. all information about column size and scale. Informatica offers two recommended ways for accessing the repository metadata. variable. The Metadata Reporter is a web-based application that allows you to run reports against the repository metadata. this decision should be made on the basis of how much metadata will be required by the systems that use the metadata. sources.Metadata Reporting and Sharing Challenge Using Informatica’s suite of metadata tools effectively in the design of the end-user analysis application. • Effective with the release of version 5. etc. The architecture of the Metadata Reporter is web-based. While it may be beneficial for a developer to enter detailed descriptions of each column. These views can be found in the Informatica Metadata Exchange (MX) Cookbook. etc. transformations. expression. Informatica PowerCenter contains a Metadata Reporter. it will also require a substantial amount of time to do so. Description The levels of metadata available in the Informatica tool suite are quite extensive. Also.0. The decision on how much metadata to create is often driven by project timelines. Description information can be entered for all repository objects. Therefore.

jdbc:odbc:<data_source_name>) Although the Repository Manager provides a number of Crystal Reports. Because the Metadata Reporter is web-based. Make sure the proper JDBC drivers are installed for your database platform. The Metadata Reporter connects to your Informatica repository using JDBC drivers. You do not need direct access to the repository database. you can generate reports from any machine that has access to the web server where the Metadata Reporter is installed. You can run reports on any repository. You can install the Metadata Reporter on a server running either UNIX or Windows that contains a supported web server. The Metadata Reporter contains servlets that must be installed on a web server that runs the Java Virtual Machine and supports the Java Servlet API. • • • The Metadata Reporter provides 15 standard reports that can be customized with the use of parameters and wildcards. the Metadata Reporter has several benefits: • The Metadata Reporter is comprehensive.3 with Jserv 1. you can generate reports for objects on which you need more information. your sources or targets or PowerMart or PowerCenter The reports in the Metadata Reporter are customizable. The Metadata Reporter is easily accessible.) The Metadata Reporter is accessible from any computer with a browser that has access to the web server where the Metadata Reporter is installed. The currently supported web servers are: • • • iPlanet 4. The Metadata Reporter allows you to set parameters for the metadata objects to include in the report.3 (Note: The Metadata Reporter will not run directly on Microsoft IIS because IIS does not directly support servlets. As you view a report.1 Jrun 2.1 or higher Apache 1. even without the other Informatica Client tools being installed on that computer.browser front end. Syntax . The reports are as follows: • • • • Batch Report Executed Session Report Executed Session Report by Date Invalid Mappings Report INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-63 . Ex. The name of any metadata object that displays on a report links to an associated report. (Note: You can also use the JDBC to ODBC bridge to connect to the repository. The reports provide information about all types of metadata objects.3. The Metadata Reporter allows you to go easily from one report to another.

Although the overall motivation for creating the second generation of MX remains consistent with the original intent. The same requirement also holds for MX2. it’s not suitable for procedural programming tasks that can be achieved by C. Java. One of the key advantages of MX views is that they are part of the repository database and thus could be used independent of any of the Informatica’s software products. A number of BI tools and upstream data warehouse modeling tools require complex multidimensional metadata. MX2 is implemented in C++ and offers an advanced object-based API for accessing and manipulating the PowerCenter Repository from various programming languages. Today. especially multidimensional models for OLAP. Although SQL provides a powerful mechanism for accessing and manipulating records of data in a relational paradigm. Extensive metadata content. and MicroStrategy. such as hierarchies. levels. the requirements and objectives of MX2 supersede those of MX. Metadata Exchange: The Second Generation (MX2) The MX architecture was intended primarily for Business Intelligence (BI) vendors who wanted to create a PowerCenter-based data warehouse and then display the warehouse metadata through their own products. are effectively using the MX views to report and query the Informatica metadata. Informatica and several key vendors. consult the Metadata Reporter Guide included in your PowerCenter Documentation. the increasing popularity and use of object-oriented software tools require interfaces that can fully take advantage of the object technology. Furthermore. thus leading to the development of a self-contained API Software Development Kit that can be used independently of the client or server products.• • • • • • • • • • • Job Report Lookup Table Dependency Report Mapping Report Mapplet Report Object to Mapping/Mapplet Dependency Report Session Report Shortcut Report Source Schema Report Source to Target Dependency Report Target Schema Report Transformation Report For a detailed description of how to run these reports. The result was a set of relational views that encapsulated the underlying repository tables while exposing the metadata in several categories that were more suitable for external parties. or Visual Basic. Cognos. Informatica currently supports the second generation of Metadata Exchange called MX2. The primary requirements and features of MX2 are: Incorporation of object technology in a COM-based API. PAGE BP-64 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . including Brio. and various relationships. Business Objects. C++. Self-contained Software Development Kit (SDK).

maintenance of the MX views and direct interfaces becomes a major undertaking with every major upgrade of the repository. The object-based technology of MX2 supports a multi-tier architecture so that a future Informatica Repository Server could be accessed from a variety of thin client programs running on different operating systems. MX2 alleviates this problem by offering a set of object-based APIs that are abstracted away from the details of the underlying relational tables. The object-based technology used in MX2 provides the infrastructure needed to implement automatic metadata synchronization and change propagation across different tools that access the Informatica Repository. The MX2 interfaces provide metadata write capabilities along with the appropriate verification and validation features to ensure the integrity of the metadata in the repository. based on the standard Unified Modeling Language (UML). One of the main challenges with MX views and the interfaces that access the repository tables is that they are directly exposed to any schema changes of the underlying repository database. This also facilitates robust metadata exchange with the Microsoft Repository and other software that support this repository. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-65 . Therefore. As a result. Support for Microsoft’s UML-based Open Information Model (OIM). could become a de facto general-purpose repository standard. Framework to support a component-based repository in a multi-tier architecture.This type of metadata was specifically designed and implemented in the repository to accommodate the needs of our partners by means of the new MX2 interfaces. MX2 offers the object-based interfaces needed to develop more sophisticated procedural programs that can tightly integrate the repository with the third-party data warehouse modeling and query/reporting tools. Informatica has worked in close cooperation with Microsoft to ensure that the logical object model of MX2 remains consistent with the data warehousing components of the Microsoft Repository. The Microsoft Repository and its OIM schema. Complete encapsulation of the underlying repository organization by means of an API. With the advent of the Internet and distributed computing. MX2 interfaces comply with Microsoft’s Component Object Model (COM) interoperability protocol. Integration with third-party tools. thus providing an easier mechanism for managing schema evolution. synchronizing changes and updates ensures the validity and integrity of the metadata. Synchronization of metadata based on changes from up-stream and downstream tools. MX could not be used for writing or updating metadata in the Informatica repository. such tasks could only be accomplished by directly manipulating the repository’s relational tables. Interoperability with other COM-based programs and repository interfaces. Because of the limitations associated with relational views. Given that metadata will reside in different databases and files in a distributed software environment. any existing or future program that is COMcompliant can seamlessly interface with the Informatica Repository by means of MX2. multi-tier architectures are becoming more widely accepted for accessing and managing metadata and data. Ability to write (push) metadata into the repository. As a result.

98. This architecture not only encapsulates the physical repository structure. extensible API based on the standard COM protocol.MX2 Architecture MX2 provides a set of COM-based programming interfaces on top of the C++ object model used by the client tools to access and manipulate the underlying repository. but also leverages the existing C++ object model to provide an open. PAGE BP-66 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . its interfaces are automatically registered and available to any software through standard COM programming techniques. The MX2 COM APIs support the PowerCenter XML Import/Export feature and provide a COM based programming interface in which to import and export repository objects. After the successful installation of MX2. or Windows NT using the install program provided with its SDK. MX2 can be automatically installed on Windows 95.

Whenever an object is shared between projects. Mappings are listed in alphabetical order. Choosing a convention and sticking with it is the key point .g. FAQs The following paragraphs present some of the questions that typically arise in naming repositories and suggest answers: Q: What are the implications of numerous repositories or numerous folders within a repository.. and each group works independently? • One consideration for naming conventions is how to segregate different projects and data mart objects from one another. the suggestions in this document focus on the former. Q: What naming convention is recommended for Repository Folders? • Something specific (e. Description Repository Naming Conventions Although naming conventions are important for all repository and database objects. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-67 . given that multiple development groups need to use the PowerCenter server. Company_Department_Project-Name_Prod) is appropriate if multiple repositories are expected for various projects and/or departments. the object should be stored in a shared work area so each of the individual projects can utilize a shortcut to the object.and sometimes the most difficult in determining naming conventions.Naming Conventions Challenge Choosing a good naming standard for the repository and adhering to it. It is important to note that having a good naming convention will help facilitate a smooth migration and improve readability for anyone reviewing the processes.

Normalizer Transform: Sequence Generator: Source Qualifier Transform: Stored Procedure Update Strategy Repository Objects Mapping Name: Session Name: Batch Names: PAGE BP-68 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . targets. etc. Transformation Objects Naming Convention Advanced External aep_ProcedureName Procedure Transform: Aggregator Transform: agg_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. mappings. sources.Note that incorporating functions in the object name makes the name more descriptive at a higher level. sessions. INSERT_EMPLOYEE or UPDATE_EMPLOYEE) nrm_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. Router: rtr_TARGETTABLE that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done Group Name: Function_TargetTableName(s) (e. The drawback is that when an object needs to be modified to incorporate some other business logic.g. Joiner Transform: jnr_SourceTable/FileName1_ SourceTable/FileName2 Lookup Transform: lkp_LookupTableName Mapplet: mplt_Description Mapping Variable: $$Function or Process that is being done Mapping Parameter: $$Function or Process that is being done Normalizer Transform: nrm_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. External Procedure ext_ProcedureName Transform: Filter Transform: fil_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done.g. lookups.g.. Use descriptive names cautiously and at a high enough level. the name no longer accurately describes the object. etc. Expression Transform: exp_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. The following tables illustrate some naming conventions for transformation objects (e. seq_Function sq_SourceTable1_SourceTable2 SpStoredProcedureName UpdTargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the procession being done Naming Convention m_TargetTable1_TargetTable2 s_MappingName bs_BatchName for a sequential batch and bc_BatchName for a concurrent batch. joiners.. Rank Transform: rnk_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done.) and repository objects (e.). It is not advisable to rename an object that is currently being used in a production environment.

etc. you should use the prefix 'var_' plus a meaningful name. Batch Names Batch names follow basically the same rules as the session names. When you bring a source port into a lookup or expression. subject area. such as 'b_' should be used and there should be a suffix indicating if the batch is serial or concurrent. usually because of different actions. Target Table Names There are often several instances of the same target. In that case. It is a good idea to prefix generated output ports. A prefix.Folder Name Folder names should logically group sessions and mappings. The grouping can be based on project. Incremental Load is a update of the target and normally run periodically indicates a weekly run of this session / batches indicates a monthly run of this session / batches Shared Objects INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-69 . promotion group. Delete). Insert. Reject. or some combination of these. For example. When looking at a session run. the port should be prefixed with “IN_”. For variables inside a transformation. This helps trace the port value throughout the mapping as it may travel through many other transformations. the tables should be named as follows: • • • • CUSTOMER_DIM_UPD CUSTOMER_DIM_INS CUSTOMER_DIM_DEL CUSTOMER_DIM_REJ Port Names Ports names should remain the same as the source unless some other action is performed on the port. the port should be prefixed with the appropriate name. To make observing a session run easier. there will be the several instances with own successful rows. This will help the user immediately identify the ports that are being inputted without having to line up the ports with the input checkbox. targets should be named according to the action being executed on that target. Batch init_load incr_load wkly mtly Session Postfixes Initial Load indicates this session should only be used one time to load initial data to the targets. if a mapping has four instances of CUSTOMER_DIM table according to update strategy (Update. failed rows.

If ODBC DSNs are different across multiple machines. For example. refrain from using environment tokens in the ODBC DSN. The result is that the repository may refer to the same object by multiple names. When you use Copy Folder. the users are allowed to create shortcuts to objects in the folder. it is also copied. If the Database Connection information does not already exist in the folder you are copying to. targets. if you are creating a session in your QA repository using connection User1_DW. and even in your PAGE BP-70 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . there is a risk of analyzing the same table using different names. Machine2 has ODBS DSN Name1 that points to database1. You should know which DW database. TableA is uniquely identified as Name1. If you have an object that you want to use in several mappings or across multiple folders. Database Connection Information A good convention for database connection information is UserName_ConnectString.TableA in the repository. ODBC Data Source Names Set up all Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) data source names (DSNs) the same way on all client machines. So. machine1 has ODBS DSN Name0 that points to database1. mappings. you can place the object in a shared folder. and mapplets. The DBDS is the same name as the ODBC DSN since the PowerCenter Client talks to all databases through ODBC. As you migrate objects from dev. to test. TableA is uniquely identified as Name0. TableA gets analyzed in on machine 2. to prod. transformations. To share objects in a folder. ODBC database names should clearly describe the database they reference to ensure that users do not incorrectly point sessions to the wrong databases. if you use connections with names like Dev_DW in your development repository.Any object within a folder can be shared. You can then use the object in other folders by creating a shortcut to the object in this case the naming convention is ‘SC_’ for instance SC_mltCREATION_SESSION. the session will write to the QA DW database because you are in the QA repository. testers. the folder must be designated as shared. Database Connection names must be very generic to be understandable and enable a smooth migration. Using a convention like User1_DW allows you to know who the session is logging in as and to what database. Also. TableA gets analyzed in on machine 1. like an Expression transformation that calculates sales tax. creating confusion for developers. and potentially end users. session information is also copied.TableA in the repository. based on which repository environment. PowerCenter uniquely identifies a source by its Database Data Source (DBDS) and its name. they will eventually wind up in your QA. These objects are sources. you are working in. Once the folder is shared. you are likely to wind up with source objects called dev_db01 in the production repository. Be careful not to include machine names or environment tokens in the Database Connection Name. For example. Using this convention will allow for easier migration if you choose to use the Copy Folder method. SC_DUAL. do not call it dev_db01. For example.

Instead. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-71 . when you copy a folder from Dev to QA. and possibly even connect strings. Now. if you have a User1_DW connection in each of your three environments. your sessions will automatically hook up to the connection that already exists in the QA repository. passwords.Production repository as you migrate folders. your sessions are ready to go into the QA repository with no manual intervention required. Manual intervention would then be necessary to change connection names. user names.

The column “ID” displays the percentage utilization of CPU idling during the specified interval without any I/O wait. COBOL and standard flat files. If there are CPU cycles PAGE BP-72 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Continue adding partitions to the session until the desired performance threshold is met or degradation in performance is observed. XML. it may be possible to improve performance through parallel execution of the Informatica server engine. target type. However. and by coordinating the interaction between sessions.1. (The Designer client tool is used to implement session partitioning. Parallel execution benefits systems that have the following characteristics: • Under utilized or intermittently used CPUs. the iterative process of adding partitions can begin.Session and Data Partitioning Challenge Improving performance by identifying strategies for partitioning relational tables. Besides hardware. check the CPU usage of your machine: UNIX–type VMSTAT 1 10 on the command line. Description On hardware systems that are under-utilized. These strategies take advantage of the enhanced partitioning capabilities in PowerCenter 5. there are several other factors to consider when determining if a session is an ideal candidate for partitioning. These considerations include source and target database setup. When these factors have been considered and a partitioned strategy has been selected. determine if you should partition your session. First. Follow these three steps when partitioning your session. 1. parallel execution may impair performance on over-utilized systems or systems with smaller I/O capacity. see the Partitioning Rules and Validation section of the Designer Help). and mapping design. To determine if this is the case. and CPUs. partitions.

there should be no need to use the “Number of Cached Values” property of the sequence generator. To determine if the session is paging. the unused capacity of the CPU. PI displays number of pages swapped in from the page space during the specified interval. As with any session. The column “%IOWAIT” displays the percentage of CPU time spent idling while waiting for I/O requests. NT – check the task manager performance tab. Partition tables. make sure it is at least n times the original value for the non-partitioned session. The column “%idle” displays the total percentage of the time that the CPU spends idling (i. If too much memory is allocated to your session. if possible. it may be necessary to allocate more memory. Consider Using External Loader. You can only use • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-73 . you will receive a memory allocation error. To best monitor performance.) • NT – check the task manager performance tab. this value should be at least n times the original value for the non-partitioned session. For a session with n partitions. Work with the DBA to discuss the partitioning of source and target tables.e.. Sufficient I/O. PO displays the number of pages swapped out to the page space during the specified interval.available (twenty percent or more idle time) then this session’s performance may be improved by adding a partition. and the setup of tablespaces. A notable increase in performance can also be realized when the actual source and target tables are partitioned. see the Session and Server Guide for further directions on setting up partitioned sessions. The following are selected hints for session setup. To determine the I/O statistics: UNIX– type IOSTAT on the command line. The source data should be partitioned into equal sized chunks for each partition. The next step is to set up the partition. Sufficient memory. Check to see that you’re using as much memory as you can. and note your session settings before you add each partition. using an external loader may increase session performance. For a session with n partitions. If the session is paging. add one partition at a time. • NT – check the task manager performance tab. If you must set this value to a value greater than zero. Set DTM Buffer Memory. 2. increase the memory. follow these steps: UNIX – type VMSTAT 1 10 on the command line. Set cached values for Sequence Generator. Partition the source data evenly. If these values indicate that paging is occurring. • • • Add one partition at a time.

Paging. PAGE BP-74 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . These conditions can help to maximize the benefits that can be achieved through partitioning. Check the session statistics to see if you have increased the write throughput. in order to reduce network overhead and delay. add another partition. causing degradation in performance. the Informatica Server creates one memory cache for each partition and one disk cache for each transformation. • • Write throughput. The third step is to monitor the session to see if the partition is degrading or improving session performance. Target files are written to same physical machine that hosts the PMServer process. Table Spaces and Database Partitions are properly managed on the target system. the memory requirements will grow for each partition. you must make sure that DTM memory is increased to handle the lookup caches.Oracle external loaders for partitioning. the system may start paging to disk. All possible constraints are dropped or disabled on relational targets. • • • • • • • Indexing has been implemented on the partition key when using a relational source. Assumptions The following assumptions pertain to the source and target systems of a session that is a candidate for partitioning. 3. Therefore. When you partition a session and there are cached lookups. to reduce network overhead and delay. Oracle External Loaders are utilized whenever possible (Parallel Mode). Refer to the Session and Server Guide for more information on using and setting up the Oracle external loader for partitioning. Source files are located on the same physical machine as the PMServer process when partitioning flat files. If the memory is not bumped up. If the session performance is improved and the session meets the requirements of step 1. All possible indexes are dropped or disabled on relational targets. When you partition a source that uses a static lookup cache. COBOL and XML. Check to see if the session is now causing the system to page.

x. This is similar to creating a port in most transformations. it provides built-in parameters for use within Server Manager. aggregation type. you use the pop-up window to create a variable by specifying its name. variables. etc. precision and scale. Description Prior to the release of PowerCenter 5. Informatica added four functions to affect change to mapping variables: • • • • SetVariable SetMaxVariable SetMinVariable SetCountVariable INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-75 . Using parameter files. data type. Aggregator and Rank Transformations). In addition. initial value. Variables. PowerCenter 5.Using Parameters. and parameter files work and using them for maximum efficiency. global parameters defined within Server Manager would affect the subdirectories for Source Files. Target Files. Similarly. these values can change from session-run to session-run. are objects that can change value dynamically. Expression.g. Variables and Parameter Files Challenge Understanding how parameters. Mapping Variables You declare mapping variables in PowerCenter Designer using the menu option Mappings -> Parameters and Variables.x has made variables and parameters available across the entire mapping rather than for a specific transformation object. Log Files.. the only variables inherent to the product were defined to specific transformations and to those Server variables that were global in nature. After mapping variables are selected. Transformation variables were defined as variable ports in a transformation and could only be used in that specific Transformation object (e. by definition.

then a data type specific default value is used. the value stored in the repository would be the max value across ALL session runs until the value is deleted. with an aggregation type of Max. Runs in debug mode and is configured to discard session output. Is a debug session. Value in session parameter file Value saved in the repository Initial value Default value Mapping Parameters and Variables Since parameter values do not change over the course of the session run. Name The name of the variable should be descriptive and be preceded by ‘$$’ (so that it is easily identifiable as a variable). 3. Variable values are not stored in the repository when the session: • • • • Fails to complete. the value used is based on: • • • Value in session parameter file Initial value Default value PAGE BP-76 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . For example. Aggregation Type This entry creates specific functionality for the variable and determines how it stores data. Is configured for a test load.A mapping variable can store the last value from a session run in the repository to be used as the starting value for the next session run. a value saved in the repository from the previous run of the session. or the default value based on the variable data type. The start value can be a value defined in the parameter file for the variable. Order of Evaluation The start value is the value of the variable at the start of the session. a user-defined initial value for the variable. Initial Value This value is used during the first session run when there is no corresponding and overriding parameter file. 4. A typical variable name is: $$Procedure_Start_Date. 2. This value is also used if the stored repository value is deleted. If no initial value is identified. The PowerCenter Server looks for the start value in the following order: 1.

Parameter Files Parameter files can be used to override values of mapping variables or mapping parameters. A line can be ‘REMed’ out by placing a semicolon at the beginning. mapping parameters and variables can be used in the Expression Editor section of the following transformations: • • • • Expression Filter Router Update Strategy Mapping parameters and variables also can be used within the Source Qualifier in the SQL query. they are divided into session-specific sections. with each section defined within brackets as FOLDER. at the outer-most batch a session resides in.txt Parameter) Database Connection $DBConnection_Target Sales (database (Session Parameter) connection) Session Log File (Session $PMSessionLogFile d:/session INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-77 .s_m_subscriberstatus_load] $$Post_Date_Var=10/04/2001 [USER1.s_test_var1] $$PMSuccessEmailUser=XXX@informatica. Parameter files do not globally assign values. and source filter sections. user-defined join. Parameters or variables must be defined in the mapping to be used.SESSION_NAME. either within the session properties. or to define Server-specific values for a session run.Once defined. Parameter files have a very simple and defined format. The following parameters and variables can be defined or overridden within the parameter file: Parameter & Variable Type Parameter & Variable Name Desired Definition String Mapping Parameter $$State MA Datetime Mapping Variable $$Time 10/1/2000 00:00:00 Source File (Session $InputFile1 Sales. Some parameter file examples: [USER1.com .$$Help_User A parameter file is declared for use by a session. The naming is case sensitive. or as a parameter value when utilizing PMCMD command.

and a parameter file for restarting. Schema/Owner names within Target Objects/Session Properties. Sample Solution Create a mapping with source and target objects. From the menu create a new mapping variable named $$Post_Date with the following attributes: • • • • TYPE – Variable DATATYPE – Date/Time AGGREGATION TYPE – MAX INITIAL VALUE – 01/01/1900 PAGE BP-78 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Scenario Company X wants to start with an initial load of all data but wants subsequent process runs to select only new information.Parameter) Parameters and variables cannot be used in the following: • • • logs/firstrun. The following example uses a mapping variable. an expression transformation object.txt Lookup SQL Override. Example: Variables and Parameters in an Incremental Strategy Variables and parameters can enhance incremental strategies. Process will run once every twenty-four hours. Lookup Location (Connection String). The environment data has an inherent Post_Date that is defined within a column named Date_Entered that can be used.

use the following in the Source_Filter Attribute: DATE_ENTERED > to_Date(' $$Post_Date'. The next step is to $$Post_Date and Date_Entered to an Expression transformation.--)). This is where the function for setting the variable will reside. In the expression code section place the following function: SETMAXVARIABLE($$Post_Date. An output port named Post_Date is created with data type of date/time.Note that there is no need to encapsulate the INITIAL VALUE with quotation marks. hence the need to convert the parameter to a date time.g.'MM/DD/YYYY HH24:MI:SS') Also note that the initial value 01/01/1900 will be expanded by the PowerCenter Server to 01/01/1900 00:00:00.. For example: DATE_ENTERED 9/1/2000 10/30/2001 9/2/2000 Resultant POST_DATE 9/1/2000 10/30/2001 10/30/2001 Consider the following with regard to the functionality: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-79 . However.DATE_ENTERED) The function evaluates each value for DATE_ENTERED and updates the variable with the Max value to be passed forward. it is necessary to use the native RDBMS function to convert (e. if this value is used within the Source Qualifier SQL. TO DATE(--. Within the Source Qualifier Transformation.

the variable is updated in the Repository for use in the next session run. To view the current value for a particular variable associated with the session. Treat Rows As is set to Update in the session properties) the function will not work. It need not go to the target. the rows have to be marked for insert. but before the Target. the port must be connected to a downstream object. That way the dates are processed and set in order and data is preserved. only sources where Date_Entered > 02/03/1998 will be processed. make the session Data Driven and add an Update Strategy after the transformation containing the SETMAXVARIABLE function. then add an ORDER BY clause to the Source Qualifier. based on the variable in the Source Qualifier Filter. The reason is that that memory will not be instantiated unless it is used in a downstream transformation object. In this case. the Max Date_Entered was 02/03/1998. If the mapping is an update only mapping (i. As data flows through the mapping. 2. Upon successful completion of the session. right-click on the session and choose View Persistent Values. The first time this mapping is run the SQL will select from the source where Date_Entered is > 01/01/1900 providing an initial load.e. In order for the function to assign a value and ultimately store it in the repository. In order for the function to work correctly. If the intent is to store the original Date_Entered per row and not the evaluated date value. 3. the variable gets updated to the Max Date_Entered it encounters. The next time this session is run.. but it must go to another Expression Transformation. PAGE BP-80 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The following graphic shows that after the initial run.1.

Resetting or Overriding Persistent Values To reset the persistent value to the initial value declared in the mapping. view the persistent value from Server Manager (see graphic above) and press Delete Values. Run PMCMD for that session but declare the specific parameter file within the PMCMD command. either change. If a session run is needed for a specific date. To override the variable. A session may (or may not) have a variable. place it on the server. causing the Order of Evaluation to use the Initial Value declared from the mapping. There are two basic ways to accomplish this: • Create a generic parameter file. use a parameter file. and point all sessions to that parameter file. In this example. uncomment or delete the variable in the parameter file. This will delete the stored value from the Repository. and the parameter file need not have variables and parameters defined for every session ‘using’ the parameter file. • Parameter files can be declared in Session Properties under the Log & Error Handling Tab. after the initial session is run the parameter file contents may look like: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-81 .

instances. If. in the subsequent run. DB Instance ORC1 ORC99 HALC UGLY GORF Schema aardso environ hitme snakepit gmer Table orders orders order_done orders orders User Sam Help Hi Punch Brer Password max me Lois Judy Rabbit Each sales order table has a different name.s_Incremental] $$Post_Date=04/21/2001 Upon running the sessions. NULL. Scenario Company X maintains five Oracle database instances. All instances have a common table definition for sales orders. NULL. then a simple Perl Script can update the parameter file to: [Test. Example: Using Session and Mapping Parameters in Multiple Database Environments Reusable mappings that can source a common table definition across multiple databases. the order of evaluation looks to the parameter file first. sees a valid variable and value and uses that value for the session run. are required in a multiple database environment. run another script to reset the parameter file. NULL. NULL. NULL. NULL. the variable override is ignored and the Initial Value or Stored Value is used.4) (28) PAGE BP-82 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . user/logins).s_Incremental] . regardless of differing environmental definitions (e.[Test.$$Post_Date= By using the semicolon. schema and login. schemas.g. the data processing date needs to be set to a specific date (for example: 04/21/2001). After successful completion. but each instance has a unique instance name. but the same definition: ORDER_ID DATE_ENTERED DATE_PROMISED DATE_SHIPPED EMPLOYEE_ID CUSTOMER_ID SALES_TAX_RATE STORE_ID Sample Solution NUMBER DATE DATE DATE NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER (28) NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NULL. NULL (28) (28) (5.

Using Server Manager. the strings are named according to the DB Instance name. the initial value is not required as this solution will use parameter files. In this example. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-83 . Then create a Mapping Parameter named $$Source_Schema_Table with the following attributes: Note that the parameter attributes vary based on the specific environment. Using Designer create the mapping that sources the commonly defined table. Also. create multiple connection strings. Open the source qualifier and use the mapping parameter in the SQL Override as shown in the following graphic.

s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=aardso.txt [Test. Now create the parameter file.Open the Expression Editor and select Generate SQL. Within the Source Database connection. Parmfile1. In this example.txt [Test. create a session based on this mapping. The generated SQL statement will show the columns. there will be five separate parameter files.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] PAGE BP-84 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .orders $DBConnection_Source= ORC1 Parmfile2. Override the table names in the SQL statement with the mapping parameter. drop down place the following parameter: $DBConnection_SourcePoint the target to the corresponding target and finish. Using Server Manager.

s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table= gmer.order_done $DBConnection_Source= HALC Parmfile4.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=hitme.txt [Test.0.0.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=snakepit.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\Parmfile1.txt ‘ 1 1 INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-85 .txt [Test.$$Source_Schema_Table=environ.orders $DBConnection_Source= GORF Use PMCMD to run the five sessions in parallel.orders $DBConnection_Source= UGLY Parmfile5.txt [Test.orders $DBConnection_Source= ORC99 Parmfile3. The syntax for PMCMD for starting sessions is as follows: pmcmd start {user_name | %user_env_var} {password | %password_env_var} {[TCP/IP:][hostname:]portno | IPX/SPX:ipx/spx_address} [folder_name:]{session_name | batch_name}[:pf=param_file] session_flag wait_flag In this environment there would be five separate commands: pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.

1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile5.or post-session script would change the parameter file for the next session.pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127. PAGE BP-86 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .0.0. a pre.0.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127. you could run the sessions in sequence with one parameter file.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile3. In this case.0.0.0.txt ‘ 1 1 Alternatively.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile2.0.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile4.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.0.

Another approach is to use mappings to trap data errors. In the production environment. which ones should be captured? What process can capture the possible errors? Should errors be captured before they have a chance to be written to the target database? Should bad files be used? Will any of these errors need to be reloaded or corrected? How will the users know if errors are encountered? How will the errors be stored? Should descriptions be assigned for individual errors? Can a table be designed to store captured errors and the error descriptions? Capturing data errors within a mapping and re-routing these errors to an error table allows for easy analysis for the end users and improves performance. The database still enforces the foreign key constraints. but erroneous data will not be written to the target table. This can be accomplished by creating a lookup into a dimension table prior to loading the fact table. data must be checked and validated prior to entry into the data warehouse. The first step in using mappings to trap errors is understanding and identifying the error handling requirement. One strategy for handling errors is to maintain database constraints. suppose it is necessary to identify foreign key constraint errors within a mapping.A Mapping Approach to Trapping Data Errors Challenge Addressing data content errors within mappings to facilitate re-routing erroneous rows to a target other than the original target table. The following questions should be considered: • • • • • • • • • • What types of errors are likely to be encountered? Of these errors. Also. Description Identifying errors and creating an error handling strategy is an essential part of a data warehousing project. if constraint errors are captured within INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-87 . Referential integrity is assured by including this functionality in a mapping. For example.

enabling the user to trace the error rows back to the source. and incorrect data formats or data types. Error tables are important to an error handling strategy because they store the information useful to error identification and troubleshooting. the two error tables are ERR_DESC_TBL and TARGET_NAME_ERR. the ROW_ID. null values intended for not null target fields. Mapping logic can identify data content errors and attach descriptions to the errors. Data content errors also can be captured in a mapping. the next step is to separate the error from the data flow.the mapping. The ERR_DESC_TBL table will hold information about the error. such as the mapping name. Error Handling Example In the following example. The TARGET_NAME_ERR table provides the user with the entire row that was rejected. These two columns allow the TARGET_NAME_ERR and the ERR_DESC_TBL to be linked. including: date conversion. the PowerCenter server will not have to write the error to the session log and the reject/bad file. The composite key allows developers to trace rows written to the error tables. These two tables might look like the following: The error handling functionality must assigned to a unique description for each error in the rejected row. After we’ve identified the type of error. In this example. any null value intended for a not null target PAGE BP-88 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and a description of the error. we want to capture null values before they enter into a target field that does not allow nulls. This approach can be effective for many types of data content errors. This table is designed to hold all error descriptions for all mappings within the repository for reporting purposes. In this example. The TARGET_NAME_ERR table will be an exact replica of the target table with two additional columns: ROW_ID and MAPPING_ID. The MAPPING_ID refers to the mapping name and the ROW_ID is generated by a Sequence Generator. Any row containing an error (or errors) will be separated from the valid data and uniquely identified with a composite key consisting of a MAPPING_ID and a ROW_ID. Use the Router Transformation to create a stream of data that will be the error route.

we need to filter the columns within the row that are actually errors. For example. with each containing the same content except for a different error description. The following chart shows how the two error tables can be linked. one row of data may have as many as three errors. the row actually has only one error so we need to write only one error with its description to the ERR_DESC_TBL. When the row is written to the ERR_DESC_TBL. You can use the Normalizer Transformation A mapping approach to break one row of data into many rows After a single row of data is separated based on the number of possible errors in it. but in this case. we need to break the error row into several rows. Focus on the bold selections in both tables. After field descriptions are assigned. This step can be done in an Expression Transformation. TARGET_NAME_ERR Column1 NULL Column2 NULL Column3 NULL ROW_ID 1 MAPPING_ID DIM_LOAD ERR_DESC_TBL FOLDER_NAME MAPPING_ID ROW_ID ERROR_DESC LOAD_DATE SOURCE Target CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 1 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 2 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 3 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL The solution example would look like the following in a mapping: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-89 . we can link this row to the row in the TARGET_NAME_ERR table using the ROW_ID and the MAPPING_ID.field will generate an error message such as ‘Column1 is NULL’ or ‘Column2 is NULL’.

This gives business analysts an opportunity to evaluate and correct data imperfections while still allowing the records to be processed for end-user reporting. thereby using the same logic repeatedly within a mapplet. such as a constraint error. The most important aspect of the mapping approach however. business organizations need to decide if the analysts should fix the data in the reject table or in the source systems. A record flagged as a hard error is written to the error route. A ‘hard’ error can be defined as one that would fail when being written to the database. data warehouse operators can effectively communicate data quality issues to the business users. errors can be flagged as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’. Ultimately. By adding another layer of complexity within the mappings. is its flexibility. Once an error type is identified. PAGE BP-90 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . By using the mapping approach to capture identified errors. The mapping approach also reports errors based on projects or categories by identifying the mappings that contain errors. the error handling logic can be placed anywhere within a mapping. while a record flagged as a soft error can be written to the target system and the error tables. The advantage of the mapping approach is that all errors are identified as either data errors or constraint errors and can be properly addressed.The mapping approach is effective because it takes advantage of reusable objects. This makes error detection easy to implement and manage in a variety of mappings. A ‘soft’ error can be defined as a data content error.

and set a limit on how many errors can occur before the load process stops. especially if a response is critical to the continuation of the process. An error handling strategy should be capable of accounting for unrecoverable errors during the load process and provide crash recovery. Error handling is an integral part of any load process and directly affects the process when it starts and stops. at some point a record with incorrect data will be introduced into the data warehouse from a source system. and provide a mechanism for reload. the typical requirement of an error handling system is to address data quality issues (i. Stop and restart processes can be managed through the preand post. Post-session scripts can be written to increase the functionality of the notification process to send detailed messages upon receipt of an error or file. provide a place to put the rejected rows. Implementing an error handling strategy requires a significant amount of planning and understanding of the load process.Design Error Handling Infrastructure Challenge Understanding the need for an error handling strategy. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-91 . PowerCenter includes a post-session e-mail functionality that can trigger the delivery of e-mail. It also should report on the rows that are rejected by the load process. identifying potential errors. Although error handling varies from project to project. dirty date). it is critical to have a notification process in place. Therefore. The error handling strategy should reject these rows. correction of data or a rerun of the process. Description It important to realize the need for an error handling strategy. and determining an optimal plan for error handling.session shell scripts for each PowerCenter session. stop. the owner needs to know if any rows were loaded or changed during the load. You should prepare a high level data flow design to illustrate the load process and the role that error handling plays in it.e. Although source systems vary widely in functionality and data quality standards. then devise an infrastructure to resolve the errors. Regardless of whether an error requires manual inspection. and restart capabilities..

SENT file. named <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD with two additional columns. An additional error table. window. Timer to check if If the .DAT and . Match the Hash Total and the Column Totals loaded in the target tables with the contents of the .SENT file do not arrive by 3:00 the files have arrived by 3:00 AM for daily loads AM.SENT Files. The two tables look like the following: PAGE BP-92 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 1) E-mail 2) Page Tablespace check and Database constraints check for creating Target Tables The rejected record number crosses the error threshold limit OR Informatica PowerCenter session fails for any other reason. 1) E-mail 2) Page If the Hash total and the total number of records do not match. Infrastructure Overview A better way of identifying and trapping errors is to create tables within the mapping to hold the rows that contain errors.The following table presents examples of one company’s error conditions and the associated notification actions: Error Condition Notification Action Arrival of . A Sample Scenario: Each target table should have an identical error table. rollback the data load and send notification to Production Support. If they do not match. do a rollback of the records loaded in the target. send an e-mail notification to Production Support and 2:00 PM Saturday for weekly loads on-call resource. and notification is sent to the DBA and Production Support. ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL captures descriptions for all errors committed during loading. 1) E-mail 2) Page Timer to check if the load has completed by 5:00 If the load has not completed within the 2-hour AM. the system load for all the loads that are part of the system are aborted. 1) E-mail 2) Page Load the rejected records to a reject file and send an e-mail notification to Production Support. by 5:00 AM. MAPPING_NAME and SEQ_ID. then send an e-mail notification to Product Support.DAT files or . 1) E-mail If the required Tablespace is not available.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-93 . The entire process of defining the error handling strategy within a particular mapping depends on the type of errors that you expect to capture. the error description states that ‘LKP1 was Invalid’.The <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD table is target specific. Thus. we can determine that the row of data in the TARGET_RELOAD table with the SEQ_ID of 1 had three errors. <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD Fields: Values: LKP1 test LKP2 OCC LKP3 VAL ASOF_DT 12/21/00 SEQ_ID 1 MAPPING_NAME DIM_LOAD ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL FOLDER_NAME Values: Project_1 Project_1 Project_1 MAPPING_NAME DIM_LOAD DIM_LOAD DIM_LOAD SEQ_ID 1 1 1 ERROR_DESC LKP1 Invalid LKP2 Invalid LKP3 Invalid LOAD_DATE SYSDATE SYSDATE SYSDATE SOURCE Target DIM DIM DIM DIM DIM DIM LKP_TBL SAL CUST DEPT The TARGET(<TARGET_TABLE_NAME>)_RELOAD captures rows of data that failed the validation tests. we can know that (‘test’) is the failed value in LKP1. By looking at the data rows stored in ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL. By using the MAPPING_NAME and SEQ_ID. Since rows in TARGET_RELOAD have a unique SEQ_ID. we can identify that mapping DIM_LOAD with the SEQ_ID of 1 had 3 errors. The following examples illustrate what is necessary for successful error handling. By looking at the first row in the ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL. we can determine which values failed the lookup. The ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL is a target table in each mapping that requires error capturing.

One way of doing this is through the generic Crystal Reports that are supplied with PowerCenter. transformations.rpt). PAGE BP-94 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and comments for each target table.) You can choose from the following four reports: Mapping report (map. PowerCenter provides several ways to access the metadata contained within the repository. from the mapping itself. down to the objects and ports within the mapping. Target table report (Trg_tbl. You can also drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. but the Informatica mappings must be properly documented to take full advantage of this metadata. datatypes. Executed session report (sessions. Provides target field transformation expressions. This means that comments must be included at all levels of a mapping. (Open the Repository Manager. Description It is crucial to take advantage of the metadata contained in the repository in to document your Informatica mappings. targets. and click Reports. Lists source column and transformation details for each mapping in each folder or repository. Source and target dependencies report (S2t_dep. These reports are accessible through the Repository Manager. etc.rpt). All information about column size and scale. you can enter description information for all repository objects. sources. Once the mappings and sessions contain the proper metadata. but the amount of metadata that you enter should be determined by the business requirements. With PowerCenter.Documenting Mappings Using Repository Reports Challenge Documenting and reporting comments contained in each of the mapping objects. it is important to develop a plan for extracting this metadata.rpt). Shows the source and target dependencies as well as the transformations performed in each mapping. descriptions. and primary keys are stored in the repository.rpt). Provides information about executed sessions (such as the number of successful rows) in a particular folder.

or the Metadata Reporter Guide included with the PowerCenter documentation. You will have to use the MX2 Views to access the repository.1. or create custom SQL view. To produce such a printout. The Metadata Reporter allows for customized reporting of all repository information without direct access to the repository itself. A printout of the mapping object flow is also useful for clarifying how objects are connected. In PowerCenter 5. consult Metadata Reporting and Sharing. arrange the mapping in Designer so the full mapping appears on the screen. then use Alt+PrtSc to copy the active window to the clipboard. these will not be displayed in the generic Crystal Reports.Note: If your mappings contain shortcuts. you can develop a metadata access strategy using the Metadata Reporter. For more information on the Metadata Reporter. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-95 . Use Ctrl+V to paste the copy into a Word document.

The business must decide what is acceptable and prioritize two conflicting goals: • • The need for accurate information The ability to analyze the most complete information with the understanding that errors can exist. Both dimensional and factual data are rejected when any errors are encountered. Description When loading data into an EDW or DM. Data Integration Process Validation In general. the use of data profiles. Reports indicate what the errors are and how they affect the completeness of the data.Error Handling Strategies Challenge Efficiently load data into the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) and Data Mart (DM). Once the corrected rows have been loaded. The business needs to be aware of the consequences of either permitting invalid data to enter the EDW or rejecting it until it is fixed. Both approaches present complex issues. although it may not be complete. This Best Practice describes various loading scenarios. an alternate method for identifying data errors. there are three methods for handling data errors detected in the loading process: • Reject All. and alternatives for addressing the most common types of problems. the factual data will be reprocessed and PAGE BP-96 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . When the source system data does not meet these rules. methods for handling data errors. This is the simplest to implement since all errors are rejected from entering the EDW when they are detected. the loading process must validate that the data conforms to known rules of the business. the process needs to handle the exceptions in an appropriate manner. This provides a very reliable EDW that the users can count on as being correct. These errors need to be fixed in the source systems and reloaded on a subsequent load of the EDW. Dimensional errors cause valid factual data to be rejected because a foreign key relationship cannot be created.

This approach gives users a complete picture of the data without having to consider data that was not available due to it being rejected during the load process. The development effort to fix this scenario is significant. reports may change. restoring backup tapes for each night’s load. This approach requires categorizing the data in two ways: 1) as Key Elements or Attributes. Minimal additional code may need to be written since the data will only enter the EDW if it is correct. After the data is fixed. Inserts are important for dimensions because subsequent factual data may rely on the existence of the dimension data row in order to load properly. but incorrect detail numbers. Once the EDW is fixed. Both the EDW and DM may contain incorrect information that can lead to incorrect decisions. and determining the particular data elements to be rejected. The development effort required to fix a Reject All scenario is minimal. with detail information being redistributed along different hierarchies. With Reject None. This method provides a balance between missing information and incorrect information. All changes that are valid are processed into the EDW to allow for the most complete picture. Updates do not affect the data integrity as much because the factual data can usually be loaded with the existing dimensional data unless the update is to a Key Element. After the errors are corrected. assuming that all errors have been fixed. • Reject None. since the rejected data can be processed through existing mappings once it has been fixed. • Reject Critical. Key elements are required fields that maintain the data integrity of the EDW and allow for hierarchies to be summarized at different levels in the organization. data integrity is intact. a new loading process needs to correct both the EDW and DM.loaded. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-97 . Rejected elements are reported as errors so that they can be fixed in the source systems and loaded on a subsequent run of the ETL process. The development strategy may include removing information from the EDW. which can be a time-consuming effort based on the delay between an error being detected and fixed. This approach involves examining each row of data. and reprocessing the data. This delay may cause some user dissatisfaction since the users need to take into account that the data they are looking at may not be a complete picture of the operational systems until the errors are fixed. and 2) as Inserts or Updates. Attributes provide additional descriptive information per key element. The problem is that the data may not be accurate. but the data may not support correct aggregations. these changes need to be loaded into the DM. and it would then be loaded into the data mart using the normal process. Factual data can be allocated to dummy or incorrect dimension rows. resulting in grand total numbers that are correct.

The following hypothetical example represents three field values in a source system. Field 1 changes from Closed to Open. The effort also incorporates some tasks from the Reject None approach in that processes must be developed to fix incorrect data in the EDW and DM. Profiles should occur once per change in the source systems. This allows power users to analyze the EDW using either current (As-Is) or past (As-Was) views of dimensional data. Profile records are created with date stamps that indicate when the change took place. The first row on 1/1/2000 shows the original values. However. The first value passes validation. Field 2 is finally fixed to Red. business management needs to understand that some information may be held out of the EDW. this method allows the greatest amount of valid data to enter the EDW on each run of the ETL process. which is invalid. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Field 1 Value Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Black BRed BRed Red Field 3 Value Open Open Open Open 9–5 9–5 24hrs 24hrs Three methods exist for handling the creation and update of Profiles: 1. the correction process cannot be automated. Problems occur when two fields change in the source system and one of those fields produces an error.The development effort for this method is more extensive than Reject All since it involves classifying fields as critical or non-critical. Informatica generally recommends using the Reject Critical strategy to maintain the accuracy of the EDW. On 1/5/2000. and also that some of the information in the EDW may be at least temporarily allocated to the wrong hierarchies. Date 1/1/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 Closed Sunday Field 2 Value Black Field 3 Value Open 9 – 5 PAGE BP-98 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If a third field is changed before the second field is fixed. Using Profiles Profiles are tables used to track history of dimensional data in the EDW. it would be desirable to update the existing Profile rather than creating a new one. On 1/10/2000 Field 3 changes from Open 9-5 to Open 24hrs. and developing logic to update the EDW and flag the fields that are in error. When the second field is fixed. If a field value was invalid. but Field 2 is still invalid. while at the same time screening out the unverifiable data fields. On 1/15/2000. By providing the most fine-grained analysis of errors. When this error is fixed. but the logic needed to perform this UPDATE instead of an INSERT is complicated. then the original field value is maintained. it is difficult for the ETL process to produce a reflection of data changes since there is now a question whether to update a previous Profile or create a new one. which produces a new Profile record. As the source systems change. while the second value is rejected and is not included in the new Profile. The first method produces a new Profile record each time a change is detected in the source. and Field 2 changes from Black to BRed.

a mistake was entered on the first change and should be reflected in the first Profile. It involves being able to determine when an error occurred and examining all Profiles generated since then and updating them appropriately. causing an automated process to update old Profile records. This incorrectly shows in the EDW that two changes occurred to the source information when. we simplify the process by directly applying all changes to the source system directly to the EDW. in reality. The second method updates the first Profile created on 1/5/2000 until all fields are corrected on 1/15/2000. And.regardless if it is a fix to a previous error -. which loses the Profile record for the change to Field 3. we need to create complex algorithms that handle the process correctly. If the third field changes before the second field is fixed. When the second field was fixed it would also be added to the existing Profile. 2. The second Profile should not have been created. The third method creates only two new Profiles. we would identify it as a previous error. but then causes an update to the Profile records on 1/15/2000 to fix the Field 2 value in both. as in this option.Date 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Black Black Red Field 3 Value Open 9 – 5 Open 24hrs Open 24hrs By applying all corrections as new Profiles in this method. If an error is never fixed in the source system. we run the risk of losing Profile information. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/5/2000 (Update) 1/5/2000 (Update) Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Field 3 Value Black Black Black Red Open 9 – 5 Open 9 – 5 Open 24hrs Open 24hrs If we try to apply changes to the existing Profile. even if we create the algorithms to handle these methods. Each change . we still have an issue of determining if a value is a correction or a new value. which incorrectly reflects the changes in the source system. we show the third field changed at the same time as the first.is applied as a new change that creates a new Profile. when in reality a new Profile record should have been entered. but a new value is entered. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/5/2000 (Update) 1/10/2000 (Update) Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Field 3 Value Black Black Black Red Red Open Open Open Open 9–5 9–5 24hrs 9-5 Open 24hrs If we try to implement a method that updates old Profiles when errors are fixed. 3. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-99 . as in this method.

The source file or record is illegible. no tracking is possible to determine whether the invalid record has been replaced or not. A data quality indicator code is included in the DQ fields corresponding to the original fields in the record where the errors were encountered. In this way. fatal errors (missing primary key value). and potentially deleting the newly inserted record. wrong data type/format. but the process of fixing old Profile records. data quality (DQ) fields will be appended to the end of the record. another process examines the existing Profile records and corrects them as necessary. Metadata indicating that x number of invalid records were received and could not be processed may or may not be available for a general notice to be sent to the sending system.Recommended Method A method exists to track old errors so that we know when a value was rejected. This method only delays the As-Was analysis of the data until the correction method is determined because the current information is reflected in the new Profile. Quality indicators may be used to record several types of errors – e. missing data in a required field. the corrected data enters the EDW as a new Profile record. In this case..g. This record would be sent to a reject queue. The file or record would be sent to a reject queue. due to the nature of the error. These records cannot be loaded to the EDW because they lack a primary key field to be used as a unique record identifier in the EDW. Data Quality Edits Quality indicators can be used to record definitive statements regarding the quality of the data received and stored in the EDW. it is likely that individual unique records within the file are not identifiable. correct value it flags it as part of the load strategy as a potential fix that should be applied to old Profile records. However. Once an action is decided. in the absence of a primary key. when the process encounters a new. While information can be provided to the source system site indicating there are file • PAGE BP-100 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . or invalid data value. no tracking is possible to determine whether the invalid record has been replaced or not. Then. The indicators can be append to existing data tables or stored in a separate table linked by the primary key. The following types of errors cannot be processed: • A source record does not contain a valid key. Quality indicators can be used to: • • • show the record and field level quality associated with a given record at the time of extract identify data sources and errors encountered in specific records support the resolution of specific record error types via an update and resubmission process. Metadata will be saved and used to generate a notice to the sending system indicating that x number of invalid records were received and could not be processed. If the file or record is illegible. is delayed until the data is examined and an action is decided. Records containing a fatal error are stored in a Rejected Record Table and associated to the original file name and record number. If a record contains even one error. one field for every field in the record.

In these error types. The business needs to decide whether analysts should be allowed to fix data in the reject tables. a reference table is used for this validation. Source System As errors are encountered. “3”-Wrong Data Type/Format. These indicators provide the opportunity for operations staff. but they contain errors: • • • A required (non-key) field is missing. these indicators provide the level of detail necessary for acute quality problems to be remedied in a timely manner. Handling Data Errors The need to periodically correct data in the EDW is inevitable. specific problems may not be identifiable on a record-by-record basis. or whether data fixes will be restricted to source systems. implementation. At the same time. the records can be processed. When an error is detected during ingest and cleansing. “4”-Invalid Data Value and “5”Outdated Reference Table in Use. business process problems and information technology breakdowns. systemic issues. they are written to a reject file so that business analysts can examine reports of the data and the related error messages indicating the causes of error. Typically. Aggregated and analyzed over time. The quality indicators: “0”-No Error. these indicators provide the information necessary to identify acute data quality problems. restoring previous loads from tape. we cannot rule this out as a possible solution. apply a concise indication of the quality of the data within specific fields for every data type. the identified error type is recorded. “1”-Fatal Error. But how often should these corrections be performed? The correction process can be as simple as updating field information to reflect actual values. “2”-Missing Data from a Required Field. These are used to indicate the quality of incoming data at an elemental level. The value in a field does not fall within the range of acceptable values identified for the field. or as complex as deleting data from the EDW. Quality Indicators (Quality Code Table) The requirement to validate virtually every data element received from the source data systems mandates the development. This can present credibility problems when trying to track INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-101 .errors for x number of records. data quality analysts and users to readily identify issues potentially impacting the quality of the data. Although we try to avoid performing a complete database restore and reload from a previous point in time. and then reloading the information correctly. Reject Tables vs. capture and maintenance of quality indicators. The value in a numeric or date field is non-numeric. If errors are fixed in the reject tables. the EDW will not be synchronized with the source systems.

Attributes include things like the color of a product or the address of a store. to find specific patterns for market research). When a source value does not translate into a reference table value. we use the ‘Unknown’ value. like numbers. a location number is assigned and the new location is transferred to the EDW using the normal process. These types of errors do not generally affect the aggregated facts and statistics in the EDW. On/Off or Yes/No indicators). When attribute errors are encountered for a new dimensional value. we use the value that represents off or ‘No’ as the default. with some data being attributed to the old primary key and some to the new. When errors are encountered in translating these values. Fields that are restricted to a limited domain of values (e. Fixing this type of error involves integrating the two records in the EDW. default values can be assigned to let the new record enter the EDW.g. If all fixes occur in the source systems. For example.the history of changes in the EDW and DM. An analyst would be unable to get a complete picture. then these fixes must be applied correctly to the EDW. (e. Attribute errors can be fixed by waiting for the source system to be corrected and reapplied to the data in the EDW. Primary Key Errors The business also needs to decide how to handle new dimensional values such as locations. are referred to as small value sets. The process assumes that the change in the primary key is actually a new warehouse and that the old warehouse was deleted. After a source system value is corrected and passes validation. Attribute Errors and Default Values Attributes provide additional descriptive information about a dimension concept. (All reference tables contain a value of ‘Unknown’ for this purpose. In many cases.) The business should provide default values for each identified attribute. are handled on a case-by-case basis. along with the related facts. then the location number is changed due to some source business rule such as: all Warehouses should be in the 5000 range. it is corrected in the EDW. This type of error causes a separation of fact data. Problems occur when the new key is actually an update to an old key in the source system. the attributes are most useful as qualifiers and filtering criteria for drilling into the data. the data integration process is set to populate ‘Null’ into these fields. Attribute errors are typically things like an invalid color or inappropriate characters in the address. which means “undefined” in the EDW. Integrating the two rows involves combining the Profile PAGE BP-102 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Some rules that have been proposed for handling defaults are as follows: Value Types Reference Values Small Value Sets Other Description Default Attributes that are foreign keys to other Unknown tables Y/N indicator fields No Any other type of attribute Null or Business provided value Reference tables are used to normalize the EDW model to prevent the duplication of data.g. Other values.

it is necessary to restore the source information for both dimensions and facts from the point in time at which the error was introduced. creating new entities in dimensional data. If we let the facts enter the EDW and subsequently the DM. two primary keys mapped to the same EDW ID really represent two different IDs). New entities in dimensional data include new locations. The situation is more complicated when the opposite condition occurs (i. If facts were loaded using both primary keys. Reference Tables The EDW uses reference tables to maintain consistent descriptions.e. products. This involves updating the measures in the DM to reflect the changed data. then the related fact rows must be added together and the originals deleted in order to correct the data. hierarchies. A translation table is associated with each reference table to map the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-103 . Reference data and translation tables enable the EDW to maintain consistent descriptions across multiple source systems. we must decide how to handle the facts. Multiple source data occurs when two source systems can contain different data for the same dimensional entity. and designating one primary data source when multiple sources exist. then a manual decision is required as to which is correct.. deleting affected records from the EDW and reloading from the restore to correct the errors. DM Facts Calculated from EDW Dimensions If information is captured as dimensional data from the source. the fix process becomes simpler. the affected rows can simply be loaded and applied to the DM. Data Stewards Data Stewards are generally responsible for maintaining reference tables and translation tables. we save these rows to a reject table for reprocessing the following night. but used as measures residing on the fact records in the DM. If we load the facts with the incorrect data. taking care to coordinate the effective dates of the Profiles to sequence properly. If we reject the facts when these types of errors are encountered. they are populated into the DM as usual. After the errors are fixed. the process to fix the DM can be time consuming and difficult to implement. then when we encounter errors that would cause a fact to be rejected. Fact Errors If there are no business rules that reject fact records except for relationship errors to dimensional data. we would like to reject the fact until the value is corrected. After they are loaded. If two Profile records exist for the same day. etc. From a data accuracy view. This nightly reprocessing continues until the data successfully enters the EDW. In this case. regardless of how the source system stores the data. Initial and periodic analyses should be performed on the errors to determine why they are not being loaded. we need to create processes that update the DM after the dimensional data is fixed.information. Each table contains a short code value as a primary key and a long description for reporting purposes.

the SOURCE column in FILE X on System X can contain ‘O’. For example. Dimensional data uses the same concept of translation as Reference tables.) PAGE BP-104 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . include correction of the EDW and DM. if the data steward entered ST as translating to OFFICE by mistake). at a minimum.g. Processes should be built to handle these types of situations. (Other similar translation issues may also exist. The data steward would make the following entries into the translation table to maintain consistency across systems: Source Value OF ST WH Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE The data stewards are also responsible for maintaining the Reference table that translates the Codes into descriptions. this is straightforward. The ETL process uses the Reference table to populate the following values into the DM: Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE Code Description Office Retail Store Distribution Warehouse Error handling results when the data steward enters incorrect information for these mappings and needs to correct them after data has been loaded. products may have multiple source system values that map to the same product in the EDW. Using both of these tables.codes to the source system values. These translation tables map the source system value to the EDW value. the ETL process can load data from the source systems into the EDW and then load from the EDW into the DM.. but Products serves as a good example for error handling. New entities in the EDW may include Locations and Products. The translation tables contain one or more rows for each source value and map the value to a matching row in the reference table. Correcting the above example could be complex (e. but over time. Dimensional Data New entities in dimensional data present a more complex issue. ‘ST’ and ‘WH’. The data steward would be responsible for entering in the Translation table the following values: Source Value O S W Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE These values are used by the data integration process to correctly load the EDW. The only way to determine which rows should be changed is to restore and reload source data from the first time the mistake was entered. ‘S’ or ‘W’. Other source systems that maintain a similar field may use a two-letter abbreviation like ‘OF’. For location.

If both sources are allowed to update the shared information. These dates are useful for both Profile and Date Event fixes. while the second lets the ETL process create the translation. Further. the two systems then contain different information. A potential solution to this issue is to generate an e-mail each night if there are any translation table entries pending verification. it creates a new Profile indicating the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-105 . including beginning and ending effective dates. A problem specific to Product is that when it is created as new. two products are mapped to the same product. For example. data accuracy and Profile problems are likely to occur. The data steward then opens a report that lists them. a log of these fixes should be maintained to enable identifying the source of the fixes as manual rather than part of the normal load process. or create the translation data through the ETL process and force the data steward to review it. The situation is more complicated when the opposite condition occurs (i. requiring manual intervention.There are two possible methods for loading new dimensional entities. In this case.. Manual Updates Over time. but really represent two different products). the fact rows for the various SKU numbers need to be merged and the original rows deleted. If we update the shared information on only one source system. Because they share Store information. but marks the record as ‘Pending Verification’ until the data steward reviews it and changes the status to ‘Verified’ before any facts that reference it can be loaded. which produces an inaccurate view of the product when reporting. it is really just a changed SKU number. If the changed system is loaded into the EDW. This occurs when two sources contain subsets of the required information. any system is likely to encounter errors that are not correctable using source systems. Facts should be split to allocate the information correctly and dimensions split to generate correct Profile information. When the dimensional value is left as ‘Pending Verification’ however. one system may contain Warehouse and Store information while another contains Store and Hub information. Either require the data steward to enter the translation data before allowing the dimensional data into the EDW. A method needs to be established for manually entering fixed data and applying it correctly to the EDW. The first option requires the data steward to create the translation for new entities. Affected records from the EDW should be deleted and then reloaded from the restore to correctly split the data. and subsequently to the DM. This causes additional fact rows to be created. Profiles would also have to be merged. it is necessary to restore the source information for all loads since the error was introduced. When this happens. facts may be rejected or allocated to dummy values.e. This requires the data stewards to review the status of new values on a daily basis. it is difficult to decide which source contains the correct information. When this is fixed. both sources have the ability to update the same row in the EDW. Multiple Sources The data stewards are also involved when multiple sources exist for the same data.

However. This allows developers to pull the information from the system of record. One solution to this problem is to develop a system of record for all sources. only if the field changes on the primary source would it be changed. assumes a change occurred and creates another new Profile with the old. the process causes two Profiles to be loaded every day until the two source systems are synchronized with the same information. Another solution is to indicate. knowing that there are no conflicts for multiple sources. at a field level. because multiple sources can provide information toward the one Profile record created for that day. PAGE BP-106 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Then. If the two systems remain different. unchanged value. Developers can use the field level information to update only the fields that are marked as primary. at the field level. the source that should be considered primary for the field. While this sounds simple. this requires additional effort by the data stewards to mark the correct source fields as primary and by the data integration team to customize the load process. a primary source where information can be shared from multiple sources. it requires complex logic when creating Profiles. When the second system is loaded. the business analysts and developers need to designate. it compares its old unchanged value to the new Profile. To avoid this type of situation.information changed.

then drag and drop into another folder or mapping and click OK. hold the mouse down and drag to view a box. Be sure the box touches every object you want to select. • • • • • • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-107 . When using the "drag & drop" approach to create Foreign Key/Primary Key relationships between tables. If possible. then scroll down and click on “open”. go into customize toolbars under the tools menu. double click on it’s the window’s title bar. press <F9>. use an icon in the toolbar rather than a command from a drop down menu. To use Create Customized Toolbars to tailor a toolbar for the functions you commonly perform. To expedite mapping development. Alternatively. To start the Debugger. be sure to start in the Foreign Key table and drag the key/field to the Primary Key table. press <Alt> <T> then <C>. without holding <Ctrl> creates a Shortcut to an object. use multiple fields/ports selection to copy or link. The same action. To delete customized icons. To use a Docking\UnDocking window such as Repository Navigator. To copy a mapping from a shared folder. right click on the folder name. press and hold <Ctrl> and highlight the mapping with the left mouse button. Description General Suggestions • • To Open a folder with workspace open as well.Using Shortcut Keys in PowerCenter Designer Challenge Using shortcut keys in PowerCenter Designer to edit repository objects. click on an Open folder icon (rather than double-clicking on it). To quickly select multiple transformations. From here you can either add new icons to your toolbar by “dragging and dropping” them from the toolbar menu or you can “drag and drop” an icon from the current toolbar if you no longer want to use it. Set the Key Type value to “NOT A KEY” prior to dragging.

just type the first letter on the list to select the item you want. When adding a new port. then press <Alt><f> to insert the new field/port below it and click OK. To validate the Default value. press <Esc> then click OK. To move the current field in a transformation Up. press <Alt><O>. first highlight it. To add a new field or port. press <Ctrl><C>. press <Alt><C>. For all combo/dropdown list boxes. then press <Alt><w> and click OK. first highlight an existing field or port. To copy a selected item in the grid. To cancel an edit in the grid. To past a selected item from the Clipboard to the grid. To copy a selected row from the grid. then click OK when you have finished. first highlight the port you want to validate. then press OK once again in the “Expression parsed successfully” pop-up. The box must be highlighted in order to check/uncheck the port type. When moving about the expression fields via arrow keys: o Use the SPACE bar to check/uncheck the port type.. PAGE BP-108 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . use the Functions and Ports Tab. just begin typing. o Press <F2> then <F3> to quickly open the Expression Editor of an OUT/VAR port. press <F2. press <Ctrl><V>. To move the current field in a transformation Down. first highlight it. To select PowerCenter functions and ports during expression creation.Edit Tables/Transformation • • • • • • • To edit any cell in the grid. The expression must be highlighted. simply press OK to initiate the parsing/validation of the expression. • • • • • • • Expression Editor • • To expedite the validation of a newly created expression. To paste a selected row from the grid. You don't need to press DEL first to remove the ‘NEWFIELD’ text. press <Alt><P> . To delete a selected field or port from the grid. then press <Alt><v> and click OK). then press <Alt><u> and click OK. then move the cursor to the character you want to edit and click OK.

) or even a string of transformations (mapplets).g. carefully consider whether the effort to create. In PowerCenter.Creating Inventories of Reusable Objects & Mappings Challenge Successfully creating inventories of reusable objects and mappings. Evaluate potential reusable objects by two criteria: • • Is there enough usage and complexity to warrant the development of a common object? Are the data types of the information passing through the reusable object the same from case to case or is it simply the same high-level steps with different fields and data? Common objects are sometimes created just for the sake of creating common components when in reality. if the calculation were to be performed in a number of mappings. test. it is simpler to add the calculation to both mappings. Many times developers see a situation where they may perform a certain type of high-level process (e. if there is a simple calculation like subtracting a current rate from a budget rate that will be used for two different mappings. expression. filters. creating and testing the object does not save development time or future maintenance. filter. The second criterion for a reusable object concerns the data that will pass through the reusable object. reusable objects can be single transformations (lookups. However. For example. etc. These common routines are excellent candidates for reusable objects. Description Reusable Objects The first step in creating an inventory of reusable objects is to review the business requirements and look for any common routines/modules that may appear in more than one data movement. if it was very difficult. update strategy) in two INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-109 . including identifying potential economies of scale in loading multiple sources to the same target. Often.. and document the common object is worthwhile. and if all occurrences would be updated following any change or fix – then this would be an ideal case for a reusable object.

or sometimes multiple mappings. providing a high-level description of what each object will accomplish. Remember. the focus is on the target tables. five mappings may be needed to populate the corresponding star schema with data (i. list the source file or table that will be used to populate the table. at first look. By simply focusing on the target tables. in each mapping using the mapplet or reusable transformation object. but at this point the intent is to identify the number and functionality of reusable objects that will be built for the project. Mappings A mapping is an individual movement of data from a source system to a target system. the goal here is to create an inventory of as many as possible. this seems like a great candidate for a mapplet. the same size and number of ports must pass into and out of the mapping/reusable object. However. Create a column with a number next to each Target table. Keep in mind that it will be impossible to identify 100 percent of the reusable objects at this point. The detailed design will occur in a future subtask. and hopefully the most difficult ones. create two rows for the target each with the same number. when creating an inventory of mappings. one for each of the dimension tables and two for the fact table. after performing half of the mapplet work. The latter is especially true for mainframe data sources where COBOL OCCURS statements litter the landscape. Thus. A more comprehensive approach to creating the inventory of mappings is to create a spreadsheet listing all of the target tables.or more mappings.. For each of the target tables. if a single source of data populates multiple tables. Consider whether there is a practical way to generalize the common logic. In a typical warehouse or data mart model. so that it can be successfully applied to multiple cases. the developers may realize that the actual data or ports passing through the high level logic are totally different from case to case. with an assumption that each target table has its own mapping. However. In a simple world. each from a different source system). While often true. a single source table would populate a single target table. The remainder will be discovered while building the data integration processes. thus making the use of a mapplet impractical. Efficiencies can sometimes be realized by loading multiple tables from a single source. this is usually not the case. these efficiencies can be overlooked. when creating a reusable object. While the business may consider a fact table and its three related dimensions as a single ‘object’ in the data mart or warehouse. this approach yields multiple mappings.e. and sometimes a single source of data creates many target tables. and list the additional source(s) of data. each OCCURS statement decomposes to a separate table. For this exercise. Document the list of the reusable objects that pass this criteria test. the actual object will be replicated in one to many mappings. Typically. The Table would look similar to the following: PAGE BP-110 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . however. the challenge is to think in individual components of data movement. The goal here is to create an inventory of the mappings needed for the project. in another column. in practice. Sometimes multiple sources of data need to be combined to create a target table. In the case of multiple source tables per target.

First. merge the data back into a single row to generate the inventory of mappings. it is often helpful to record some additional information about each mapping to help with planning and maintenance. For example. the spreadsheet can be sorted either by target table or source table.2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ARCHITECTURE. so there will be no easy way to rerun a single table. re-sort the spreadsheet by number. Next. Sorting by source table can help determine potential mappings that create multiple targets. Apply the naming standards generated in 2. In this example. or Low number of target rows. When merging targets into one mapping in this manner. with each number representing a separate mapping.000 rows Med – 10. be sure to keep restartabilty/reloadability in mind.000 rows High – 100. determine for the project a threshold for a High.000 rows + INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-111 . When using a source to populate multiple tables at once for efficiency. The inventory would look similar to the following: Number 1 2 4 Target Table Customers Customer_Type Products Orders_Item Source Cust_File Items Tickets Ticket_Items At this point. potentially the Customers table and the Customer_Type tables can be loaded in the same mapping.000 to 100. The mapping will always load two or more target tables from the source. give each mapping a name. These names can then be used to distinguish mappings from each other and also can be put on the project plan as individual tasks. Then. the following thresholds might apply: Low – 1 to 10. in a warehouse where dimension tables are likely to number in the thousands and fact tables in the hundred thousands. give both targets the same number.Number 1 2 3 4 4 Target Table Customers Products Customer_Type Orders_Item Orders_Item Source Cust_File Items Cust_File Tickets Ticket_Items When completed. Medium. For the mappings with multiple sources or targets.

or complexity rating. Add any other columns of information that might be useful to capture about each mapping. initial estimate. PAGE BP-112 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Med or Low) to each of the mappings based on the expected volume of data to pass through the mapping. these mappings will be the first candidates for performance tuning. such as a high-level description of the mapping functionality.Assign a likely row volume (High. actual completion time. resource (developer) assigned. These high level estimates will help to determine how many mappings are of ‘High’ volume.

INDEX_NAME. The frequency of updating depends on how heavily the repository is used. analyze table OPB_ATTR compute statistics. In large repositories. The following information is useful for generating scripts to update distribution statistics. For the repository tables. the repository becomes slower and slower over time. so they quickly become outdated in frequently-used repositories. it is useful for Database Administrators to create scripts to automate the task. it is helpful to understand that all PowerCenter repository tables and index names begin with "OPB_" or "REP_". ' compute statistics. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-113 . Because the statistics need to be updated table by table. table_name. Database servers do not update these statistics continuously.' from user_indexes where INDEX_NAME like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like: 'ANALYZETABLE' TABLE_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS. Most databases keep and use column distribution statistics to determine which index to use in order to optimally execute SQL queries.' from user_tables where table_name like 'OPB_%' select 'analyze index '.' analyze table OPB_ANALYZE_DEP compute statistics. ' compute statistics. Description The Database Administrator needs to continually update the database statistics to ensure that they remain up-to-date. and SQL query optimizers may choose a less-than-optimal query plan. and nearly all use one or more indexes to speed up queries. As a result.Updating Repository Statistics Challenge The PowerCenter repository has more than eighty tables. Oracle Run the following queries: select 'analyze table '. choosing a sub-optimal query plan can drastically affect performance.

. This updates statistics for the repository tables.e. the lines that look like: 'ANALYZEINDEX' INDEX_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS. analyze index OPB_DIM_LEVEL compute statistics.. MS SQL Server Run the following query: select 'update statistics '. . edit the file and remove all the headers. .' analyze index OPB_DBD_IDX compute statistics. Then. .e.. Save the output to a file.analyze table OPB_BATCH_OBJECT compute statistics. Run this as a SQL script. the top two lines) and add a 'go' at the end of the file. then edit the file and remove the header information (i. name from sysobjects where name like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like : name update statistics OPB_ANALYZE_DEP update statistics OPB_ATTR update statistics OPB_BATCH_OBJECT . 'ANALYZEINDEX' INDEX_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS.' Run this as a SQL script. . (i. This updates statistics for the repository tables. Sybase Run the following query: select 'update statistics '. name from sysobjects where name like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like name update statistics OPB_ANALYZE_DEP update statistics OPB_ATTR update statistics OPB_BATCH_OBJECT PAGE BP-114 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Save the output to a file. . analyze index OPB_EXPR_IDX compute statistics.

Save the output to a file. ' . This updates statistics for the repository tables. . update statistics low for table OPB_BATCH_OBJECT ..' from systables where tabname like 'opb_%' or tabname like 'OPB_%'. runstats on table PARTH.. the top two lines). . Save the output to a file. tabname. ' and indexes all.' from sysstat. update statistics low for table OPB_ATTR . . This will produce output like : (constant) tabname (constant) update statistics low for table OPB_ANALYZE_DEP .OPB_BATCH_OBJECT INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-115 . then remove the header information (i. DB2 Run the following query : select 'runstats on table '.OPB_ANALYZE_DEP and indexes all. . runstats on table PARTH.e.OPB_ATTR and indexes all. (rtrim(tabschema)||'.')||tabname. the top line that looks like: (constant) tabname (constant) Run this as a SQL script. . Run this as a SQL script.e. then edit the file and remove the header information (i.tables where tabname like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like: runstats on table PARTH. This updates statistics for the repository tables. and add a 'go' at the end of the file. Informix Run the following query: select 'update statistics low for table '..

. Save the output to a file. PAGE BP-116 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . . .and indexes all. Run this as a SQL script to update statistics for the repository tables.

to help in the support of the production data warehouse. This is a high-level document that discusses the system to be maintained. it should contain the following information: • • • • • • • Times when the system should be available to users Scheduled maintenance window Who is expected to monitor the operating system Who is expected to monitor the database Who is expected to monitor the Informatica sessions How quickly the support team is expected to respond to notifications of system failures Escalation procedures that include data warehouse team contacts in the event that the support team cannot resolve the system failure Operations Manual INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-117 . and identifies the groups responsible for monitoring the various components of the system. the day-to-day operation of the data warehouse is the responsibility of a Production Support Team. Service Level Agreement The Service Level agreement outlines how the overall data warehouse system will be maintained. the components of the system. The Data Warehouse Development team. Description In most organizations. becomes in effect. To that end. a Service Level Agreement and an Operations Manual. the most important task is keeping the system running and available for the end users. a customer to the Production Support team.Daily Operations Challenge Once the data warehouse has been moved to production. This team is typically involved with the support of other systems and has expertise in database systems and various operating systems. At a minimum. the Production Support team needs two documents.

the Operations Manual should contain: • • • • • Information on how to stop and re-start the various components of the system Ids and passwords (or how to obtain passwords) for the system components Information on how to re-start failed PowerCenter sessions A listing of all jobs that are run. monthly. their frequency (daily.). providing all of the information necessary for a production support operator to maintain the system and resolve most problems that may arise. At a minimum. This manual should be self-contained. etc.The Operations Manual is crucial to the Production Support team because it provides the information needed to perform the maintenance of the data warehouse system. This manual should contain information on how to maintain all components of the data warehouse system. weekly. and the average run times Who to call in the event of a component failure that cannot be resolved by the Production Support team PAGE BP-118 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

but you must have a means of extracting this information. The following paragraphs describe three possible solutions for load validation. The first step is to determine what information you need for load validation (e. batch names. you must determine the source of this information. beginning with a fairly simple solution and moving toward the more complex: 1. under the General tab and ‘Session Commands’ A number of variables are available to simplify the text of the e-mail: %s Session name %e Session status %b Session start time %c Session completion time %i Session elapsed time %l Total records loaded INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-119 . All this information is stored as metadata in the repository.g. Do you want it stored as a flat file? Do you want it e-mailed to you? Do you want it available in a relational table.. you must determine how you want this information presented to you. session start times. session names. Post-session e-mails on either success or failure Post-session e-mail is configured in the session. Finally. session completion times.Load Validation Challenge Knowing that all data for the current load cycle has loaded correctly is essential for good data warehouse management. the need for load validation varies. data validation or data cleansing functionality inherent in the your mappings. successful rows and failed rows). However. Then. so that history easily be preserved? All of these factors weigh in finding the correct solution for you. Description Methods for validating the load process range from simple to complex. depending on the extent of error checking.

and the most customizable. The following graphic illustrates a sample mapping: PAGE BP-120 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . (session_timestamp . Use a mapping A more complex approach. 2. successful rows and session duration: select subject_area. The following sample query shows how to extract folder name. notifying him/her that the session was successful and the report can run. REP_SESS_LOG.- %r Total records rejected %t Target table details %m Name of the mapping used in the session %n Name of the folder containing the session %d Name of the repository containing the session %g Attach the session log to the message TIP: One practical application of this functionality is the situation in which a key business user waits for completion of a session to run a report. You can configure email to this user. session_timestamp. is a great place to start . You can do this by sourcing the MX view REP_SESS_LOG and then performing lookups to other repository tables or views for additional information. successful_rows. is to create a PowerCenter mapping to populate a table or flat file with desired information. session_name. Query the repository Almost any query can be put together to retrieve data about the load execution from the repository. session name.session_name) order by subject_area. The MX view. session_name The sample output would look like this: Folder Name Web Analytics Web Analytics Finance Finance HR Session Name Session End Time 5/8/2001 7:49:18 AM 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 7:53:01 8:06:01 8:10:32 8:15:27 AM AM AM AM Successful Rows 12900 125000 35987 45 5 Failed Session Rows Duration (sec’s) 0 0 0 0 0 126 478 178 12 10 S M W DYNMIC KEYS FILE LOAD SMW LOAD WEB FACT SMW NEW LOANS SMW UPD LOANS SMW NEW PERSONNEL 3. This view is likely to contain all the information you need. session end time.actual_start) * 24 * 60 * 60 from rep_sess_log a where session_timestamp = (select max(session_timestamp) from rep_sess_log where session_name =a.

This enables you to compare the current execution time with to the minimum and maximum durations. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-121 .This mapping selects data from REP_SESS_LOG and performs lookups to retrieve the absolute minimum and maximum run times for that particular session.

and High Level. This Best Practice describes various levels to integrate a third-party scheduler. there are three levels of integration between a third-party scheduler and Informatica: Low Level. That initial PowerCenter process subsequently kicks off the rest of the sessions and batches. Medium Level. The third-party scheduler is not adding any functionality that cannot be handled by the PowerCenter scheduler. Low Level Low level integration refers to a third-party scheduler kicking off only one Informatica session or a batch. Description When moving into production. A low level of integration is very simple to implement because the third-party scheduler kicks off only one process.Third Party Scheduler Challenge Successfully integrate a third-party scheduler with PowerCenter. The correct level of integration depends on the complexity of the batch/schedule and level and type of production support. This type of integration is very simple and should only be used as a loophole to fulfill a corporate mandate on a standard scheduler. In this level of integration. Because PowerCenter has a scheduler. PAGE BP-122 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The PowerCenter scheduler handles all processes and dependencies after the third-party scheduler has kicked off the initial batch or session. many companies require the use of a third-party scheduler that is the company standard. A third-party scheduler can start and stop an Informatica session or batch using the PMCMD commands. there are several levels at which to integrate a third-party scheduler with PowerCenter. nearly all control lies with the PowerCenter scheduler. Third Party Scheduler Integration Levels In general.

Therefore. the control is shared between PowerCenter and a third-party scheduler. PowerCenter is controlling the dependencies within those batches. This type of integration is more complex than low level integration because there is much more interaction between the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. the Production Support personnel may not be able to determine the exact breakpoint. Medium Level Medium level integration is when a third-party scheduler kicks off many different batches or sessions. many of the PowerCenter sessions may be left in batches. to reduce total amount of work required to integrate the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. Because many companies only have Production Support personnel with knowledge in the company’s standard scheduler. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-123 . the production support burden lies with the Production Support team. but not all sessions. The thirdparty scheduler controls all dependencies between the sessions. the third-party scheduler controls all dependencies among the sessions. High level integration allows the Production Support personnel to have only limited knowledge of PowerCenter. Because the PowerCenter sessions are not part of any batches. but not necessarily the specific session. Medium level integration requires Production Support personnel to have a fairly good knowledge of PowerCenter. PowerCenter may have several sessions defined with dependencies. Thus. the Production Support personnel may not be able to determine the exact breakpoint. They are probably able to determine the general area. A third-party scheduler may kick off several PowerCenter batches and sessions but within those batches. the majority of the production support burden falls back on the Project Development team. This type of integration is the most complex to implement because there are many more interactions between the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. In this level of integration. Thus. Thus. However. Because Production Support personnel in many companies are knowledgeable only about the company’s standard scheduler. Thus. the production support burden is shared between the Project Development team and the Production Support team. the Production Support personnel are usually able to determine the exact breakpoint. one significant disadvantage of this level of integration is that if the batch fails at some point. one of the main advantages of this level of integration is that if the batch fails at some point. High Level High level integration is when a third-party scheduler has full control of scheduling and kicks off all PowerCenter sessions. This reduces the integration chores because the third-party scheduler is only communicating with a limited number of PowerCenter batches. Because the Production Support personnel in many companies are knowledgeable only about the company’s standard scheduler. one of the main disadvantages of this level of integration is that if a batch fails at some point.Low level integration requires production support personnel to have a thorough knowledge of PowerCenter.

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the start of a session needs to be triggered by another session or other event. the FTP process should be scripted so that it creates the indicator file upon successful completion of the source file FTP. This file can be an empty. much like a flat file source. The file used as the indicator file must be able to be located by the PowerCenter Server. The dummy file will be removed immediately after it is located. under advanced options.Event Based Scheduling Challenge In an operational environment. or dummy. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-125 . The best method of event-based scheduling with the PowerCenter Server. is the use of indicator files. If the session is waiting on its source file to be FTP’ed from another server. It is. the PowerCenter Server will look for the existence of this file and will remove it when it sees it. essential that you do not use your flat file source as the indicator file. The mere existence of the dummy file is enough to indicate that the session should start. When the session starts. therefore. file. Description The indicator file configuration is specified in the session configuration.

the native PowerCenter backup provides a clean backup that can be restored to a new database.Repository Administration Challenge The task of managing the repository. is extremely important. Description The following paragraphs describe several of the key tasks involved in managing the repository: Backing Up the Repository Two back-up methods are advisable for repository backup: (1) either the PowerCenter Repository Manager or ‘pmrep’ command line utility. including connectivity to the PowerCenter repository. Purging Old Session Log Information Similarly. Analyzing Tables in the Repository If operations in any of the client tools. if folder copies are taking an unusually long time. To determine which logs to eliminate. you may need to analyze the tables in the repository to facilitate data retrieval. either in development or production. execute the following select statement to retrieve the sessions with the most entries in OPB_SESSION_LOG: PAGE BP-126 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . A number of best practices are available to facilitate the tasks involved with this responsibility. and (2) the traditional database backup method. Removing unnecessary data from these tables will expedite the repository backup process as well as the folder copy operation. and Informatica recommends using both methods. are slowing down . thereby increasing performance. If database corruption occurs. although both are not essential. the OPB_SESSION_LOG and/or OPB_SESS_TARG_LOG tables may be being transferred. The native PowerCenter backup is required.

count(*) from opb_session_log a.. Copy the original session. When you delete the session.subj_id=c. then selecting Delete from the Edit menu. opb_load_session c where a. Respond ‘Yes’ when the system prompts you with the question “‘Delete these logs from the Repository?” pmrep Utility The pmrep utility was introduced in PowerCenter 5. 2.select subj_name. opb_subject b.session_id and b.session_id=c. Log into Repository Manager and expand the sessions in a particular folder. sessname. the entries in the tables are deleted. You can manually delete any of these by highlighting a particular log.. This utility is a command-line program for Windows 95/98 or Windows NT/2000 to update session-related parameters in a PowerCenter repository. sessname order by count(*) desc 1. When you select one of the sessions. The following examples illustrate the use of pmrep: Example 1: Script to backup PowerCenter Repository echo Connecting to repository <Informatica Repository Name>.subj_id group by subj_name. then delete original session. Command line mode is useful for batch files or scripts.. It is a standalone utility that installs in the PowerCenter Client installation directory... • • Command line mode lets you execute pmrep commands from the windows command line.. This mode invokes and exits each time a command is issued.0 to facilitate repository administration and server level administration. Interactive mode invokes pmrep and allows you to issue a series of commands from a pmrep prompt without exiting after each command. eliminating all rows for an individual session. all of the session logs will appear on the righthand side of the screen. the entries in the repository tables do not duplicate. d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep connect -r <Informatica Repository Name> -n <Repository User Name> -x <Repository Password> -t <Database Type> -u <Database User Name> -p < Database Password> -c <Database Connection String> echo Starting Repository Backup. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-127 . d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep backup -o Output File Name> echo Clearing Connection… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep cleanup echo Repository Backup is Complete. The pmrep utility has two modes: command line and interactive mode. When a session is copied. It is not currently available for UNIX.

the connection fails.Example 2: Script to update database connection information echo Connecting to repository Informatica Repository <Informatica Repository Name>. d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep connect -r <Informatica Repository Name> -n <Repository User Name> -x <Repository Password> -t <Database Type> -u <Database User Name> -p < Database Password> -c <Database Connection String> echo Begin Updating Connection Information for <Database Connection Name>… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep updatedbconfig –d <Database Connection Name> –u <New Database Username> –p <New Database Password> –c <New Database Connection String> -t <Database Type> echo Clearing Connection… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep cleanup echo Completed Updating Connection Information for <Database Connection Name>… Export and Import Registry The Repository Manager saves repository connection information in the registry. PAGE BP-128 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If you import a registry containing a DSN that does not exist on that client system. and then import it to a different client machine (as long as both machines use the same operating system). for each imported DSN. Be sure to have the appropriate data source configured under the exact same name as the registry you are going to import. you can export the connection information. The section of the registry that you can import and export contains the following repository connection information: • • • • Repository name Database username and password (must be in US-ASCII) Repository username and password (must be in US-ASCII) ODBC data source name (DSN) The registry does not include the ODBC data source.. To simplify the process of setting up client machines..

while the other server in the cluster is the secondary server. This is best accomplished in a clustered environment.cfg file instead of the physical IP addresses of the servers. load schedules cannot be impacted by the failure of physical hardware. In addition. If the machine hosting the PowerCenter Server goes down. running Solaris OS Sun High-Availability Clustering Software External EMC storage. the Sun high-availability software automatically starts the PowerCenter Server on the secondary server using the basic auto start/stop scripts that are used in many UNIX environments to automatically start the PowerCenter Server whenever a host is rebooted. this example is based on the following hardware and software characteristics: • • • • 2 Sun 4500. but only by one server at a time One of the Sun 4500’s serves as the primary data integration server. another machine must recognize this and start another Server and assume responsibility for running the sessions and batches.cfg file is needed. The PowerCenter Server must be running at all times. the PowerCenter Server ‘thinks’ it is physically hosted by the primary server and uses the resources of the primary server. Thus. Description While there are many types of hardware and many ways to configure a clustered environment. To facilitate this. When the primary server goes down. with each server owning specific disks PowerCenter installed on a separate disk that is accessible by both servers in the cluster. a logical IP address can be created specifically for the PowerCenter Server. This logical IP address is specified in the pmserver. the Sun highavailability software changes the ownership of the disk where the PowerCenter Server is installed from the primary server to the secondary server.High Availability Challenge In a highly available environment. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-129 . only one pmserver. Under normal operations. although it is physically located on its own server.

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After the tuning achieves a desired level of performance. 6. By running a session and monitoring the server. Only minor tuning of the session can be conducted at this point and usually has only a minor effect. If the system is paging. source. This is the optimum desired performance. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-131 . Benchmark the sessions to set a baseline to measure improvements against 2. and the actual application of the business rules is the slowest portion. Only after the server. 1. increasing the physical memory available on the machine) can greatly improve performance. Perform Benchmarking. When the source and target are optimized. the DTM should be the slowest portion of the session details. Monitor the server. the target is inserting the data quickly. re-run the session to determine the impact of the changes. This indicates that the source data is arriving quickly.Recommended Performance Tuning Procedures Challenge Efficient and effective performance tuning for PowerCenter products.g. This time look at the details and watch for the Buffer Input and Outputs for the sources and targets. 3. it should immediately be apparent if the system is paging memory or if the CPU load is too high for the number of available processors. Description Performance tuning procedures consist of the following steps in a pre-determined order to pinpoint where tuning efforts should be focused. Tune the source system and target system based on the performance details. Use the performance details. Re-run the session and monitor the performance details. 4.. and target have been tuned to their peak performance should the mapping be analyzed for tuning. correcting the system to prevent paging (e. 5.

7. comparing the new performance with the old performance. re-run the sessions that have been identified as the benchmark. Finally. optimizing one or two sessions to run quickly can have a disastrous effect on another mapping and care should be taken to ensure that this does not occur. In some cases. PAGE BP-132 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

• Explain Plan Explain Plan. and TKPROF are powerful tools for revealing bottlenecks and developing a strategy to avoid them. Most DBAs are already familiar with these tools. You can grant viewing privileges with either the ‘SELECT’ privilege. The SQL in a source qualifier or in a lookup that is running INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-133 . This Best Practice covers tips on tuning several databases: Oracle. which allows a user to view for individual V$ views or the ‘SELECT ANY TABLE’ privilege. With this in mind. Explain Plan allows the DBA or developer to determine the execution path of a block of SQL code. Because SYS is the owner of these views. with each query having an immediate hit. only SYS can query them. Oracle Performance Tuning Tools Oracle offers many tools for tuning an Oracle instance. which allows the user to view all V$ views. carefully consider which users should be granted the privilege to query these views. Keep in mind that querying these views impacts database performance.Performance Tuning Databases Challenge Database tuning can result in tremendous improvement in loading performance. enabling the DBA to draw conclusions about database performance. SQL Trace. SQL Server and Teradata. Using the SELECT ANY TABLE option requires the ‘O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY’ parameter be set to ‘TRUE’. so we’ve included only a short description of some of the major ones here. which allows the ‘ANY’ keyword to apply to SYS owned objects. • V$ Views V$ views are dynamic performance views that provide real-time information on database activity.

Run this utility after the database has been up and running (for hours or days). Memory and Processing Memory and processing configuration is done in the init. Accumulating statistics may take time. While this type of planning is time consuming. • TKPROF The output of SQL Trace is provided in a dump file that is difficult to read.. the payoff is well worth the effort in terms of performance gains. Co-locate tables that are heavily used with tables that are rarely used to help minimize disk contention.ora file. Also be sure to implement disk striping. PAGE BP-134 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Rollback files should be separated onto their own disks because they have significant disk I/O. TKPROF formats this dump file into a more understandable report. a standard set of parameters to optimize PowerCenter is not practical and will probably never exist. Database files should be separated and identified.for a long time should be generated and copied to SQL*PLUS or other SQL tool and tested to avoid inefficient execution of these statements. • UTLBSTAT & UTLESTAT Executing ‘UTLBSTAT’ creates tables to store dynamic performance statistics and begins the statistics collection process.’ This report should give the DBA a fairly complete idea about the level of usage the database experiences and reveal areas that should be addressed. • SQL Trace SQL Trace extends the functionality of Explain Plan by providing statistical information about the SQL statements executed in a session that has tracing enabled. ‘UTLESTAT’ ends the statistics collection process and generates an output file called ‘report. Because each database is different and requires an experienced DBA to analyze and tune it for optimal performance. Disk I/O Disk I/O at the database level provides the highest level of performance gain in most systems. so you need to run this utility for a long while and through several operations (i. they are not fighting for the same resource. Review the PowerCenter session log for long initialization time (an indicator that the source qualifier may need tuning) and the time it takes to build a lookup cache to determine if the SQL for these transformations should be tested. both loading and querying). this.e. Separate indexes so that when queries run indexes and tables. or RAID technology can help immensely in reducing disk contention. This utility is run for a session with the ‘ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE = TRUE’ statement.txt.

in bytes. For such queries. Parallel_min_servers=8 o Used to enable parallel query. o The value of this parameter can be changed without shutting down the Oracle instance by using the ALTER SESSION command.3. its value defaults to twice the value of the SORT_AREA_SIZE parameter. Cost-based optimization is always used for queries that reference an object with a nonzero degree of parallelism.) Optimizer_percent_parallel=33 This parameter defines the amount of parallelism that the optimizer uses in its cost functions. If this parameter is not set.4 set to make use of the parallel query option to facilitate parallel processing of queries and indexes. (Note: ALTER SESSION refers to the Database Administration command issued at the svrmgr command prompt. We’ve also included the descriptions and documentation from Oracle for each setting to help DBAs of other (nonOracle) systems to determine what the commands do in the Oracle environment to facilitate setting their native database commands and settings in a similar fashion. The settings presented here are those used in a 4-CPU AIX server running Oracle 7. a RULE hint or optimizer mode or goal is ignored. o Initially not set on Install. while high values favor table scans. The default of 0 means that the optimizer chooses the best serial plan. o Maximum number of query servers or parallel recovery processes for an instance. to be used for the hash join.TIP: Changes made in the init. Use svrmgr to issue the commands “shutdown” and “startup” (eventually “shutdown immediate”) to the instance. The value of this parameter can be changed without shutting down the Oracle instance by using the ALTER SESSION command. Use of a FIRST_ROWS hint or optimizer mode overrides a nonzero setting of OPTIMIZER_PERCENT_PARALLEL. Low values favor indexes. • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-135 . A value of 100 means that the optimizer uses each object's degree of parallelism in computing the cost of a full table scan operation. • HASH_AREA_SIZE = 16777216 o Default value: 2 times the value of SORT_AREA_SIZE o Range of values: any integer o This parameter specifies the maximum amount of memory. • parallel_max_servers=40 o Used to enable parallel query.ora file will take effect after a restart of the instance.

in bytes. • SORT_AREA_SIZE=8388608 o Default value: Operating system-dependent o Minimum value: the value equivalent to two database blocks o This parameter specifies the maximum amount. 500. For example. then an increased value for this parameter may speed the import. if one process is doing all database access. of Program Global Area (PGA) memory to use for a sort. o Increasing SORT_AREA_SIZE size improves the efficiency of large sorts. The memory is released back to the PGA.o o Initially not set on Install.000 rows from a table was taking 19 minutes. not to the operating system. as in a full database import. PMServer and Oracle target on same box). primary key with unique index in place. Minimum number of query server processes for an instance. this parameter may need to be adjusted. A normal tcp (network tcp/ip) connection in tnsnames. Performance went from about 2Mb/min (280 rows/sec) to about 10Mb/min (1360 rows/sec). the total time decreased from 24 minutes to 8 minutes for ~120130 bytes/row.ora would look like this: DW. if very large indexes are created.. This is also the number of query server processes Oracle creates when the instance is started.armafix = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL =TCP) (HOST = armafix) (PORT = 1526) ) ) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=DW) ) ) PAGE BP-136 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . However. all memory is freed. In one case. a fact mapping that was using a lookup to get five columns (including a foreign key) and about 500. IPC as an Alternative to TCP/IP on UNIX On an HP/UX server with Oracle as a target (i. After the last row is fetched out. o The default is usually adequate for most database operations.e.000 row write (array inserts). using an IPC connection can significantly reduce the time it takes to build a lookup cache. particularly the CREATE INDEX statements. the memory is released down to the size specified by SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE. After the sort is complete and all that remains to do is to fetch the rows out. In another mapping. there is only one memory area of SORT_AREA_SIZE for each user process at any time. Multiple allocations never exist. Changing the connection type to IPC reduced this to 45 seconds.

then generate SQL statements as output to disable and enable these indexes. Oracle 7 (and above) offers an alternative to dropping and rebuilding indexes by allowing you to disable and re-enable existing indexes. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011060 .' || TABLE_NAME || ' DISABLE CONSTRAINT ' || CONSTRAINT_NAME || ' . and use it for connection to the local Oracle instance: DWIPC.armafix = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=ipc) (KEY=DW) ) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=DW)) ) Improving Data Load Performance • Alternative to Dropping and Reloading Indexes Dropping and reloading indexes during very large loads to a data warehouse is often recommended but there is seldom any easy way to do this. With this in mind.AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011077 .Make a new entry in the tnsnames like this. then writing another SQL statement to rebuild it can be a very tedious process.AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011075 . writing a SQL statement to drop each index. it is an easy matter to write a SQL statement that queries this table. For example. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-137 .' FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') AND CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'R' This produces output that looks like: ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. Run the following to generate output to disable the foreign keys in the data warehouse: SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' || OWNER || '. Oracle stores the name of each index in a table that can be queried. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.

SQL’ PAGE BP-138 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011071 . ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.' || TABLE_NAME || ' DISABLE PRIMARY KEY .CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011134 .AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE PRIMARY KEY . Finally.' || TABLE_NAME || ' DISABLE PRIMARY KEY .CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011070 .ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. Dropping or disabling primary keys will also speed loads. disable any unique constraints with the following: SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' || OWNER || '.' FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') AND CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'P' This produces output that looks like: ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. Save the results in a single file and name it something like ‘DISABLE. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011133 .CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011059 . ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE PRIMARY KEY . Run the results of this SQL statement after disabling the foreign key constraints: SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' || OWNER || '. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011131 .' FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') AND CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'U' ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE PRIMARY KEY .

If you do not use lookups or updates on your target tables you should get a boost by using this SQL statement to generate scripts. The DIRECT path obtains an exclusive lock on the table being loaded and writes the data blocks directly to the database files. you need a control file. Re-enable the unique constraints first. merely add ‘OPTIONS (OPTION = TRUE) to beginning of the control file. You may want to experiment to determine which method is faster. The CONVENTIONAL path is the default method for SQL*Loader.’ Save the results in another file with a name such as ‘ENABLE. and evaluates constraints. These options are: • • • • DIRECT PARALLEL SKIP_INDEX_MAINTENANCE UNRECOVERABLE A control file normally has the following format: LOAD DATA INFILE <dataFile> APPEND INTO TABLE <tableName> FIELDS TERMINATED BY '<separator>' (<list of all attribute names to load>) To use any of these options. SQL*Loader has several options that can improve data loading performance and are easy to implement. SQL*Loader • Loader Options SQL*Loader is a bulk loader utility used for moving data from external files into the Oracle database. and re-enable primary keys before foreign keys. you can exclude the index that will be used for the lookup from your script. rerun these queries after replacing ‘DISABLE’ with ‘ENABLE. fires triggers. Re-enable constraints in the reverse order that you disabled them. To use the Oracle bulk loader.To re-enable the indexes.SQL’ and run it as a post-session command. which specifies how data should be loaded into the database. but this also slows queries (such as lookups) and updates. TIP: Dropping or disabling foreign keys will often boost loading. such as ‘OPTIONS (DIRECT = TRUE)’. bypassing all SQL INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-139 . This performs like a typical INSERT statement that updates indexes. If you use lookups and updates (especially on large tables).

but not PRIMARY KEY.processing. Optimizing Query Performance • Oracle Bitmap Indexing With version 7. Since most dimension tables in a warehouse have nearly every column indexed. Oracle will default to btree. size. but is not much help for low cardinality/highly duplicated data and may even increase query time. UNIQUE KEY and NOT NULL constraints. The PARALLEL option can be used with the DIRECT option when loading multiple partitions of the same table. Oracle added bitmap indexing to supplement the traditional b-tree index. The DIRECT option automatically disables CHECK and foreign key REFERENCES constraints.e. This kind of data is an excellent candidate for a bitmap index.. that b-tree indexing is still the Oracle default. bitmaps will be smaller and faster to create than a b-tree index on the same column. the performance time can be reduced to that of loading a single partition. for example). A typical example of a low cardinality field is gender – it is either male or female (or possibly unknown). The UNRECOVERABLE option in the control file allows you to redo log writes during a CONVENTIONAL load. Loading Partitioned Sessions To improve performance when loading data to an Oracle database using a partitioned session. Note that no other users can write to the loading table due to this exclusive lock and no SQL transformations can be made in the control file during the load. then you can bypass index updates by using the SKIP_INDEX_MAINTENANCE option. however. If the CONVENTIONAL path must be used (i. Keep in mind. You will have to rebuild the indexes after the load. by create the Oracle target table with the same number of partitions as the session. Also note that for certain columns. If you don’t specify an index type when creating an index. A b-tree index can greatly improve query performance on data that has high cardinality or contains mostly unique values. and ability to create and drop very quickly. the space savings is dramatic. Recoverability should not be an issue since the data file still exists. If the partitions are located on separate disks. and can significantly improve query performance. but overall performance may improve significantly. transformations are performed during the load.x. Disabling these constraints with the SQL scripts described earlier will benefit performance when loading data into a target warehouse. But it is important to note that when a bitmap-indexed column is PAGE BP-140 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .3. Bitmap indexes are suited to data warehousing because of their performance.

all_indexes. inserts and updates). bitmap indexes are rebuilt after each DML statement (e.updated. For this reason. create bitmap index emp_gender_bit on emp (gender).0.. To enable bitmap indexes. a ‘star query’ may be created that accesses the Fact table first followed by the Dimension table joins. The relationship between Fact and Dimension keys is another example of low cardinality. With a bitmapped index on the Fact table. it is a good idea to drop or disable bitmap indexes prior to the load and recreate or re-enable them after the load. create index emp_gender on emp (gender). making bitmap indexing a poor choice for OLTP database tables with constant insert and update traffic. you must set the following items in the instance initialization file: • • • compatible = 7.g. and user_indexes with the word ‘BITMAP’ in the Uniqueness column rather than the word ‘UNIQUE. drop index emp_gender_bit. • B-tree indexes: drop index emp_active. every row associated with that bitmap entry is locked. Information for bitmap indexes in stored in the data dictionary in dba_indexes. which can make loads very slow. This ‘star query’ access method is only used if the STAR_TRANSFORMATION_ENABLED parameter is equal to TRUE in the init. then joins back to the Fact table. To specify a bitmap index. • Bitmap indexes: drop index emp_active_bit.0 # or higher event = "10111 trace name context forever" event = "10112 trace name context forever" INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-141 .3. add the word ‘bitmap’ between ‘create’ and ‘index’. create bitmap index emp_active_bit on emp (active_flag).ora file and if there are single column bitmapped indexes on the fact table foreign keys. All other syntax is identical. Creating bitmap indexes is similar to creating b-tree indexes.’ Bitmap indexes cannot be unique. avoiding a Cartesian product of all possible Dimension attributes. drop index emp_gender. a query processes by joining all the Dimension tables in a Cartesian product based on the WHERE clause.2. Also. With a b-tree index on the Fact table. create index emp_active on emp (active_flag).

The following will improve query results on Fact and Dimension tables (including appending and updating records) by updating the table and index statistics for the data warehouse: The following SQL statement can be used to analyze the tables in the database: SELECT 'ANALYZE TABLE ' || TABLE_NAME || ' COMPUTE STATISTICS. Index Statistics • Table Method Index statistics are used by Oracle to determine the best method to access tables and should be updated periodically as normal DBA procedures. ANALYZE TABLE MARKET_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS. • TIP: To check if the parallel query option is installed. start and log into SQL*Plus. The following SQL statement can be used to analyze the indexes in the database: SELECT 'ANALYZE INDEX ' || INDEX_NAME || ' COMPUTE STATISTICS. a syntax error will appear in your SQL statement. If the parallel query option is installed.' FROM USER_INDEXES WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') This generates the following results: ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011125 COMPUTE STATISTICS. the word ‘parallel’ appears in the banner text. ANALYZE TABLE VENDOR_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS. the keyword ‘bitmap’ won't be recognized. If you try to create bitmap indexes without the parallel query option. PAGE BP-142 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .• event = "10114 trace name context forever" Also note that the parallel query option must be installed in order to create bitmap indexes.' FROM USER_TABLES WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') This generates the following results: ANALYZE TABLE CUSTOMER_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS.

Example of improper use of alias: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-143 . Note that the DBA must grant the execution privilege for dbms_utility to the database user executing this command. The following examples demonstrate how to utilize four processors: SELECT /*+ PARALLEL(order_fact. Parallelism Parallel execution can be implemented at the SQL statement. For this reason. If data warehouse indexes are the only indexes located in a single schema. or instance level for many SQL operations. The degree of parallelism should be identified based on the number of processors and disk drives on the server. database object.DBMS_UTILITY. Use ‘estimate’ instead of ‘compute’ in the above examples. • SQL Level Parallelism Hints are used to define parallelism at the SQL statement level. with the number of processors being the minimum degree. Save these results as a SQL script to be executed before or after a load. TIP: These SQL statements can be very resource intensive. and you will not receive an error message. • Schema Method Another way to update index statistics is to compute indexes by schema rather than by table. ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011105 COMPUTE STATISTICS. we recommend running them at off-peak times when no other process is using the database. In this example. BDB is the schema for which the statistics should be updated.4) */ ….Analyze_Schema ('BDB'. SELECT /*+ PARALLEL_INDEX(order_fact. it is often acceptable to estimate the statistics rather than compute them. Otherwise. order_fact_ixl. be sure to use this alias in the hint. If you find the exact computation of the statistics consumes too much time.4) */ …. especially for very large tables. TIP: When using a table alias in the SQL Statement. then you can use the following command to update the statistics: EXECUTE SYS. 'compute').ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011119 COMPUTE STATISTICS. the hint will not be used.

SELECT /*+PARALLEL (EMP. TEMPORARY TABLESPACE . The correct way is: SELECT /*+PARALLEL (A. ENAME FROM EMP A Here. . to execute the ENABLE. 4) */ EMPNO. . .SQL file created earlier (assuming the data warehouse is on a database named ‘infadb’). the parallel hint will not be used because of the used alias “A” for table EMP. PAGE BP-144 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . use the operating system’s authentication to log onto the database instance. Create the Oracle user “pmuser” with the following SQL statement: CREATE USER PMUSER IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY DEFAULT TABLESPACE . In the following example.and post-session commands. you would execute the following as a post-session command: sqlplus -s pmuser/pmuser@infadb @ /informatica/powercenter/Scripts/ENABLE. . ENAME FROM EMP A • Table Level Parallelism Parallelism can also be defined at the table and index level. Additional Tips • Executing Oracle SQL Scripts as Pre and Post Session Commands on UNIX You can execute queries as both pre. the Informatica id “pmuser” is used to log onto the Oracle database. To avoid this. For a UNIX environment. the format of the command is: sqlplus –s user_id/password@database @ script_name. 4) */ EMPNO. this may be a security issue since both username and password are hard-coded and unencrypted. The following example demonstrates how to set a table’s degree of parallelism to four for all eligible SQL statements on this table: ALTER TABLE order_fact PARALLEL 4. Ensure that Oracle is not contending with other processes for these resources or you may end up with degraded performance due to resource contention.SQL In some environments.sql For example.

If either data source is large. Too much unneeded data and index information flowing into buffer cache quickly pushes out valuable pages. For example. However. • • • • • • Manage system memory usage (RAM caching) Create and maintain good indexes Partition large data sets and indexes Monitor disk I/O subsystem performance Tune applications and queries Optimize active data Manage RAM Caching Managing random access memory (RAM) buffer cache is a major consideration in any database server environment. Managing performance on an SQL Server encompasses the following points. • DRIVING_SITE ‘Hint’ If the source and target are on separate instances. then processes everything on the target instance. which may reduce the number of selected rows. Accessing data in RAM cache is much faster than accessing the same Information from disk. If database I/O (input/output operations to the physical disk subsystem) can be reduced to the minimal required set of data and index pages. “pmuser” (the id Informatica is logged onto the operating system as) is automatically passed from the operating system to the database and used to execute the script: sqlplus -s /@infadb @/informatica/powercenter/Scripts/ENABLE.ora parameter “os_authent_prefix” to distinguish between “normal” oracle-users and “external-identified” ones. the Source Qualifier transformation should be executed on the target instance. SQL Server Description Proper tuning of the source and target database is a very important consideration to the scalability and usability of a business analytical environment. To force the Oracle optimizer to process the join on the source instance. this causes a great deal of network traffic.In the following pre-session command. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-145 . you want to join two source tables (A and B) together. Oracle fetches all of the data from both tables. these pages will stay in RAM longer.SQL You may want to use the init. moves the data across the network to the target instance. use the ‘Generate SQL’ option in the source qualifier and include the ‘driving_site’ hint in the SQL statement as: SELECT /*+ DRIVING_SITE */ …. The primary goal of performance tuning is to reduce I/O so that buffer cache is best utilized.

Priority Boost Option Use this option to specify whether SQL Server should run at a higher scheduling priority than other processors on the same computer. Set Working Set Size Option Use this option to reserve physical memory space for SQL Server that is equal to the server memory setting. It will vary dynamically between min server memory and max server memory. Setting ‘set working set’ size means the operating system will not attempt to swap out SQL Server pages even if they can be used more readily by another process when SQL Server is idle. The default value is 0. Optimizing Disk I/O Performance PAGE BP-146 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . which is a priority base of seven. The server memory setting is configured automatically by SQL Server based on workload and available resources. SQL Server creates and executes a parallel plan for a query only when the estimated cost to execute a serial plan for the same query is higher than the value set in cost threshold for parallelism. If you set this option to one.Several settings in SQL Server can be adjusted to take advantage of SQL Server RAM usage: • • Max async I/O is used to specify the number of simultaneous disk I/O operations (???) that SQL Server can submit to the operating system. Set this option to 1 to suppress parallel plan generation. Only set cost threshold for parallelism on symmetric multiprocessors (SMP). The cost refers to an estimated elapsed time in seconds required to execute the serial plan on a specific hardware configuration. Max Degree of Parallelism Option Use this option to limit the number of processors (a max of 32) to use in parallel plan execution. The default is 0. these include: Full Recovery Bulk-Logged Recovery Simple Recovery Cost Threshold for Parallelism Option Use this option to specify the threshold where SQL Server creates and executes parallel plans. which uses the actual number of available CPUs. Note that this setting is automated in SQL Server 2000 SQL Server allows several selectable models for database recovery. Set the value to a number greater than 1 to restrict the maximum number of processors used by a single query execution . SQL Server runs at a priority base of 13.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-147 . those 999. Methods for creating and managing partitions include configuring your storage subsystem (i. • • Bcp is a command prompt utility that copies data into or out of SQL Server. SQL Server commits all rows to be loaded as a single batch. disk. TIP: Both of these mechanisms enable you to exercise control over the batch size.999. rather than having to shell out to the command prompt. it is good to get in the habit of specifying a batch size for recoverability reasons. Unless you are working with small volumes of data.000. tables and views.000 rows of new data into a table. By specifying a batch size of 10. Unlike bcp. An advantage of using BULK INSERT is that it can copy data into instances of SQL Server using a Transact-SQL statement. The second is the BULK INSERT statement. because SQL Server would have only had to rollback 9999 rows instead of 999. Partitioning can be done using a variety of techniques. performance can be improved by partitioning the data to increase the amount of disk I/O parallelism. BULK INSERT is a Transact-SQL statement that can be executed from within the database environment. file groups.When configuring a SQL Server that will contain only a few gigabytes of data and not sustain heavy read or write activity. you attempt to load 1. If none is specified. BULK INSERT can only pull data into SQL Server.. RAID partitioning) and applying various data configuration mechanisms in SQL Server such as files.000 you could have saved significant recovery time. The first mechanism is the bcp utility. it is necessary to drive configuration around maximizing SQL Server disk I/O performance by load-balancing across multiple hard drives. Partitioning for Performance For SQL Server databases that are stored on multiple disk drives. The server suddenly loses power just as it finishes processing row number 999. which will contain hundreds of gigabytes or even terabytes of data and/or that can sustain heavy read/write activity (as in a DSS application). Some possible candidates for partitioning include: • • • • • Transaction log Tempdb Database Tables Non-clustered indexes Using bcp and BULK INSERT Two mechanisms exist inside SQL Server to address the need for bulk movement of data. you need not be particularly concerned with the subject of disk I/O and balancing of SQL Server I/O activity across hard drives for maximum performance.999 rows will need to be rolled back out of the database before you attempt to reload the data.e. For example. To build larger SQL Server databases however.999. When the server recovers.

One of TPump’s advantages is that it does not lock the table that is being loaded. and “upserts” to any table. This best practice will focus on MultiLoad since PowerCenter 5. MultiLoad. FastLoad is used for loading inserts into an empty table. · Change from Full to Bulk-Logged Recovery mode unless there is an overriding need to preserve a point–in time recovery. With PowerCenter 5. and TPump.x several aspects of tuning can be controlled by setting MultiLoad parameters to maximize write throughput. Tuning MultiLoad There are many aspects to tuning a Teradata database. Other areas to analyze when performing a MultiLoad job include estimating space requirements and monitoring MultiLoad performance. the data is first written to file. such as online users modifying the database during bulk loads.General Guidelines for Initial Data Loads While loading data: • • • • • • Remove indexes Use Bulk INSERT or bcp Parallel load using partitioned data files into partitioned tables Run one load stream for each available CPU Set Bulk-Logged or Simple Recovery model Use TABLOCK option While loading data • • • Create indexes Switch to the appropriate recovery model Perform backups General Guidelines for Incremental Data Loads • • Load Data with indexes in place Performance and concurrency requirements should determine locking granularity (sp_indexoption). MultiLoad supports inserts. updates. Note: In PowerCenter 5.1. MultiLoad Parameters PAGE BP-148 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .x can auto-generate MultiLoad scripts and invoke the MultiLoad utility per PowerCenter target. Read operations should not affect bulk loads.0. deletes. whereas in PowerCenter 5. the Informatica server transfers data via a UNIX named pipe to MultiLoad. Teradata Description Teradata offers several bulk load utilities including FastLoad.

Set this parameter to 1 to drop error tables or 0 to retain error tables. selecting the one that will be most efficient for each target table. Tenacity. data is preserved for restart operations after a system failure.With PowerCenter 5. try to limit the number of checkpoint operations that are performed. Sleep. Ensure that the date format used in your target flat file is equivalent to the date format parameter in your MultiLoad script. and no non-unique secondary indexes: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-149 . but also allows you to set performance options. Work tables. this parameter specifies the maximum number of sessions that are allowed to log on to the database. error tables. This value should not exceed one per working amp (Access Module Process). In addition to the space that may be required by target tables. Also validate that your date format is compatible with the date format specified in the Teradata database. it represents the number of records to write before performing a checkpoint operation. this parameter specifies the number of minutes that MultiLoad waits before retrying a logon operation. Available only in PowerCenter 5. or the restart log table. it represents the interval in minutes between checkpoint operations. assuming no fallback protection. If the checkpoint is set to a value greater than 60. Date Format. no journals. Here are the MultiLoad-specific parameters that are available in PowerCenter: • • TDPID. This not only enhances development. Update. Delete. you can auto-generate MultiLoad scripts. To maximize write speed to the database. • • • • • • Estimating Space Requirements for MultiLoad Jobs Always estimate the final size of your MultiLoad target tables and make sure the destination has enough space to complete your MultiLoad job. Load Mode.1. Available load methods include Insert. require a lot of extra permanent space. A client based operand that is part of the logon string. each MultiLoad job needs permanent space for: • • • Work tables Error tables Restart Log table Note: Spool space cannot be used for MultiLoad work tables. Allows you to specify whether to drop or retain the three error tables for a MultiLoad session. When you set the checkpoint value to less than 60. Spool space is freed at each restart. Checkpoint. and Upsert. Interval in hours between MultiLoad attempts to log on to the database when the maximum number of sessions are already running. A checkpoint interval is similar to a commit interval for other databases.x. Also remember to account for the size of error tables since error tables are generated for each target table. Available only in PowerCenter 5. By using permanent space for the MultiLoad tables. in particular. Use the following formula to prepare the preliminary space estimate for one target table. Max Sessions. Consider creating separate external loader connections for each method. Drop Error Tables.1.

as data is applied to the target tables. 4. • 2. such as data bus or CPU capacities at or near 100 percent for one or more processors. as data is acquired from the client system. Use the Teradata RDBMS Query Session utility to monitor the progress of the MultiLoad job.PERM = (using data size + 38) x (number of rows processed) x (number of apply conditions satisfied) x (number of Teradata SQL statements within the applied DML) Make adjustments to your preliminary space estimates according to the requirements and expectations of your MultiLoad job. Determine whether the target tables have non-unique secondary indexes (NUSIs). Check the DBC.Resusage table for problem areas. If it is during the application phase. 7. then the issue is not likely to be with the client system. Determine which phase of the MultiLoad job is causing poor performance. • If the performance bottleneck is during the acquisition phase. then the issue may be with the client system. Write operations to the fallback error tables are performed at normal SQL speed. 3. Check the size of the error tables. 6. PAGE BP-150 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Check for locks on the MultiLoad target tables and error tables. Non-unique primary indexes can cause severe MultiLoad performance problems. which is much slower than normal MultiLoad tasks. 5. NUSIs degrade MultiLoad performance because the utility builds a separate NUSI change row to be applied to each NUSI sub-table after all of the rows have been applied to the primary table. Save these listings for evaluation. Monitoring MultiLoad Performance Here are some tips for analyzing MultiLoad performance: 1. The MultiLoad job output lists the job phases and other useful information. Verify that the primary index is unique.

Does ps show that your system is running many memory-intensive jobs? Look for jobs with a large set (RSS) or a high storage integral.Performance Tuning UNIX Systems Challenge The following tips have proven useful in performance tuning UNIX-based machines. increase memory to prevent swapping. If page swapping does occur at any time. What processes are using most of the memory? This may help you distribute the workload better. If the swap space is too small for the intended applications. it should be increased. Swapping. use pstat and swap. Identifying and Resolving Memory Issues Use vmstat or sar to check swapping actions. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-151 . What processes are using most of the CPU? This may help you distribute the workload better. causes a major performance decrease and increased I/O. By using sar 5 10 or vmstat 1 10. Some swapping will normally occur regardless of the tuning settings. you can get a snapshot of page swapping. On a memory-starved and I/O-bound server. To check swap space availability. all are worthy of consideration. on any database system. This occurs because some processes use the swap space by their design. this can effectively shut down the PowerCenter process and any databases running on the server. Check the system to ensure that swapping does not occur at any time during the session processing. While some of these tips will be more helpful than others in a particular environment. Description Running ps-axu Run ps-axu to check for the following items: • • • • Are there any processes waiting for disk access or for paging? If so check the I/O and memory subsystems.

if single-file throughput is important. but you may not care about them as much. Using symbolic links helps to keep the directory structure the same throughout while still moving the data files that are causing I/O contention. which is a memory hog. Making the buffer cache smaller will hurt disk I/O performance. If only one memory-intensive job is running at a time. but netstat-m should give you an idea of how many buffers you really need. try following remedial steps: • • • • • • • Reduce the size of the buffer cache. Using iostat permits monitoring the load on specific disks. Reduce the size of your kernel’s tables. Are swap-outs occurring consistently? If so. Take notice of how fairly disk activity is distributed among the system disks. If you have statically allocated STREAMS buffers. your system may perform satisfactorily. Use your fastest disk drive and controller for your root filesystem. Long bursts of swap-outs mean that active jobs are probably falling victim and indicate extreme memory shortage. number of processes. you are extremely short of memory. Are there a high number of address translation faults? (System V only) This suggests a memory shortage. Is activity concentrated in one area of the disk (good). spread evenly across the disk (tolerable). Iostat can be used to monitor the I/O load on the disks on the UNIX server. These should ALWAYS be zero. are the most active disks also the fastest disks? Run sadp to get a seek histogram of disk activity. If memory seems to be the bottleneck of the system. or in two welldefined peaks at opposite ends (bad)? • • • Reorganize your file systems and disks to distribute I/O activity as evenly as possible. as well as CPU load. • PAGE BP-152 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Alternatively. etc. The buffer cache is not used in system V. look at the w and de fields of vmstat. if your system has one. vmstat –S 5 to detect and confirm memory problems and check for the following: • • • Are pages-outs occurring consistently? If so.Run vmstate 5 (sar –wpgr ) for SunOS. If it is not. If you don’t see any significant improvement. Try running jobs requiring a lot of memory at night. by decreasing BUFPAGES. This may limit the system’s capacity (number of files. This may reduce network performance. add more memory. this will almost certainly have the heaviest activity.4 and SunOS 4. reduce the number of large (2048. BSD systems swap-out inactive jobs. you are short of memory.and 4096-byte) buffers. Try to limit the time spent running sendmail. This may not help the memory problems. If you don’t have vmsta –S. Identifying and Resolving Disk I/O Issues Use iostat to check i/o load and utilization. Put performance-critical files on a filesystem with a large block size: 16KB or 32KB (BSD).). Try running jobs requiring a lot of memory in a batch queue. Occasional swap-outs are normal. put performance-critical files into one filesystem and use the fastest drive for that filesystem.X systems.

replacing it. If your system has disk capacity problem and is constantly running out of disk space. Use nice to lower the priority of CPU-bound jobs will improve interactive performance.4. or buying another system to share the load. Get users to run jobs at night with at or any queuing system that’s available always for help. fix memory problem first. This points to CPU overload. editor backup and auto-save files. rwhod and routed are particularly likely to be performance problems. This may hurt your system’s memory performance. %sys (system). without letup? It is good for the CPU to be busy. If your system is paging or swapping consistently. try the following actions: • • • Write a find script that detects old core dumps. Run the script through cron. using nice to raise the priority of CPU-bound jobs will expedite them but will hurt interactive performance. If you are using NFS and using remote files. also observe for CPU idle time. If you are running BSD UNIX or V. this is indicative of memory and contention of swapping/paging problems.• • • • Increase the size of the buffer cache by increasing BUFPAGES (BSD). A target goal should be %usr + %sys= 80 and %wio = 10 leaving %idle at 10. If %wio is higher. source code files. and %idle (% of idle time). In general though.. and other trash and deletes it automatically. • • • Eliminate unnecessary daemon processes. but if it is always busy 100 percent of the time. but any savings will help. look at your network situation. the disk and I/O contention should be investigated to eliminate I/O bottleneck on the UNIX server. build a new filesystem. it is necessary to make memory changes to reduce the load on the system server. This provides the %usr (user). it will soon become insufficient. use the disk quota system to prevent individual users from gathering too much storage. Check memory statistics again by running vmstat 5 (sar-rwpg). using nice is really only a temporary solution. and small data files).g. In this case. %wio (waiting on I/O). If the system shows a heavy load of %sys. Use a smaller block size on file systems that are mostly small files (e. you have memory problems. You may not care if the CPU (or the memory or I/O system) is overloaded at night. If your workload grows. and restore). Swapping makes performance worse. You don’t have local disk I/O problems. When you run iostat 5above. Also. Rebuild your file systems periodically to eliminate fragmentation (backup. object modules. work must be piling up somewhere. Consider upgrading your system. Is the idle time always 0. Identifying and Resolving Network Issues INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-153 . provided the work is done in the morning. and %usr has a high %idle. Identifying and Resolving CPU Overload Issues Use sar –u to check for CPU loading.

or one or more servers may have crashed. then spray the remote system from the local system and run netstat-s again. the remote system is slow network server If the increase of socket full drops is less than the number of dropped packets. If timeout is high. If the number of dropped packets is large. A large number of dropped packets may also indicate data corruption. If the number of input or output errors is large. reconfigure the kernel with more buffers. If timeoutand retrans are high. If badmixis roughly equal to timeout. have users log into the remote system to do their work. General Tips and Summary of Other Useful Commands • • • • • Use dirs instead of pwd. If the number of collisions is large. If the increase of UDP socket full drops (as indicated by netstat) is equal to or greater than the number of drop packets that spray reports. at least one NFS server is overloaded. the network or an NFS server is overloaded. avoid long search paths. Reorganize the computers and disks on your network so that as many users as possible can do as much work as possible on a local system. Avoid ps.0 or System V. suspect hardware problems. Instead. the system may just not be able to tolerate heavy network workloads. The greputility is a good example of an I/O intensive program. PAGE BP-154 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If not. some part of the network between the NFS client and server is overloaded and dropping packets. A large number of input errors indicate problems somewhere on the network. If you use sh.intensive programs across the network. If collisions and network hardware are not a problem. look for network errors. If you are short of STREAMS data buffers and are running Sun OS 4. Run netstat-s on the remote system. Look at netsat-i. Try to prevent users from running I/O. Use vi or a native window editor rather than emacs. Run nfsstat and look at the client RPC data. If the retransfield is more than 5 percent of calls.You can suspect problems with network capacity or with data integrity if users experience slow performance when they are using rlogin or when they are accessing files via NFS. A large number of output errors suggests problems with your system and its interface to the network. memory or disk I/O problems on the remote system. at least one NFS server is overloaded. Use systems with good network performance as file servers. Use spray to send a large burst of packets to the slow system. figure out which system appears to be slow. Minimize the number of files per directory. suspect an overloaded network. the network may be faulty. Try to reorganize the network so that this system isn’t a file server. the remote system most likely cannot respond to incoming data fast enough.3 (or earlier). but badxidis low. Look to see if there are CPU.

proprietary file systems from the UNIX vendor are most efficient and well suited for database work when tuned properly. lsattr –E –l sys0 is used to determine some current settings on most UNIX environments. The Veritas File System. Typical choices include: s5. Use PMProcs Utility ( PowerCenter Utility). Maxuproc is the setting to determine the maximum level of user background processes.Current PowerMart processes ---------------> UID PID PPID C powermar 2711 1421 289406976 powermar 2713 2711 289406976 powermar 1421 1 powermar 2712 2711 289406976 powermar 2714 1421 289406976 powermar 2721 2714 289406976 powermar 2722 2714 289406976 STIME TTY TIME CMD 16 18:13:11 ? 0:07 dtm pmserver.cfg 1 202 - <-----------. Of particular attention is maxuproc. this is defaulted to 40 but should be increased to 250 on most systems. For example: harmon 125: pmprocs <-----------. to view the current Informatica processes. and lastly raw devices that. Be sure to check the database vendor documentation to determine the best file system for the specific machine. ufs.powermar pm4 25000000 2714 2714 <-----------.oradba dba 21749760 1331 2478 m 202 00000000 --rw------. On most UNIX environments.cfg 0 202 1:30 pmserver 0:08 dtm pmserver. The UNIX System V File System. The “UNIX File System” derived from Berkeley (BSD). in reality are not a file system at all.cfg 0 202 11 18:13:17 ? 1 08:39:19 ? 17 18:13:17 ? 11 18:13:20 ? 12 18:13:27 ? 8 18:13:27 ? 0:05 dtm pmserver. Use rlogin rather than NFS to access files on remote systems.cfg 1 202 0:04 dtm pmserver. Don’t run grep or other I/O.Current Semaphore Resources ---------------> INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-155 .Current Shared Memory Resources ---------------> IPC status from <running system> as of Tue Feb 16 18:13:55 1999 T ID KEY MODE OWNER GROUP SEGSZ CPID LPID Shared Memory: m 0 0x094e64a5 --rw-rw---.• • • Use egrep rather than grep: it’s faster. vxfs.powermar pm4 25000000 2711 2711 m 4 00000000 --rw------.cfg 1 202 0:02 dtm pmserver.cfg 0 202 0:04 dtm pmserver. In general.powermar pm4 5000000 1421 2714 m 8003 00000000 --rw------.oracle dba 20979712 1254 1273 m 1 0x0927e9b2 --rw-rw---. Avoid raw devices.intensive applications across NFS.

Creator PID LPID . References: System Performance Tuning (from O’Reilly Publishing) by Mike Loukid.used to sync the reader and writer 0 or 1 . Most database systems provide a special tuning supplement for each specific version of UNIX. when tuning UNIX environments. the general rule of thumb is to tune the server for a major database system.3. For example.3 running on AIX 4. PAGE BP-156 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .shows slot in LM shared memory Finally. you also tune the system for PowerCenter. is the main reference book for this Best Practice.There are 19 Semaphores held by PowerMart processes • • • • • • Pmprocs is a script that combines the ps and ipcs commands Only available for UNIX CPID . Because PowerCenter processes data in a similar fashion as SMP databases. there is a specific IBM Redbook for Oracle 7. by tuning the server to support the database. For detailed information on each of the parameters discussed here and much more on performance tuning of the applications running on UNIX-based systems refer this book.Last PID that accessed the resource Semaphores .

running at 100 percent for all CPUs). NT scalability is quite limited. Memory: pages/second. However. look for these performance indicators to check: Processor: percent processor time.Performance Tuning Windows NT/2000 Systems Challenge The Microsoft Windows NT/2000 environment is easier to tune than UNIX environments.e. For SMP environments you need to add one monitor for each CPU. Description The two places to begin when tuning an NT server are: • • The Performance Monitor. this does not mean that the NT system administrator is entirely free from performance improvement responsibilities. one CPU may be at 100% utilization while the other CPUs are at 0% utilization. When using the Performance Monitor. If the number is much higher. although Microsoft is working on the problem. and click on the Performance tab). There is currently no solution for optimizing this situation. it may be necessary to add processing power to the server. NT is considered a “selftuning” operating system because it attempts to configure and tune memory to the best of its ability. The following tips have proven useful in performance tuning NT-based machines. with differences for Windows 2000 noted in the last section. Note: Tuning is essentially the same for both NT and 2000 based systems. The Performance tab (hit ctrl+alt+del. Unfortunately. there is a need to tune the memory INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-157 . If the system is “maxed out” (i. but offers limited performance options. choose task manager. especially in comparison with UNIX environments. In this comparison. Thus. a number of five pages per second or less is acceptable. While some are likely to be more helpful than others in any particular environment. all are worthy of consideration. Also keep in mind NT’s inability to split processes across multiple CPUs.

Off-loading CPU hogs may be the only recourse. Resolving Typical NT Problems The following paragraphs describe some common performance problems in an NT environment and suggest tuning solutions. can potentially starve the CPUs on the machine. be sure to level the load across the controllers too. This is. it is also expensive and usually must be planned to support the BANK system for EISA and PCI architectures. This setting is used to determine the number of users sitting idle waiting for access to the same disk device. The device drivers for some types of hardware are notorious for wasting CPU clock cycles. If necessary. Assume that some software will not be well coded. In situations where there are multiple controllers. Memory and services. It monitors the server network connection. combined with the use of a Network Analyzer. This is the best place to tune database performance within NT environments. check the Services in Control Panel because many background applications do not uninstall the old service when installing a new update or version. files should be moved to less utilized disk devices to optimize overall performance. connections. I/O Optimization. and some background processes. Be sure to get the latest drivers from the hardware vendor to minimize this problem. Some connections may be fast while others are slow. level the load across the disk devices by moving files. Physical disks: percent time. Intimate knowledge of the network card. and hubstacks is critical for optimal server performance when moving data across the network. the load on the database can be leveled across multiple disks. Server: bytes total/second. Thus. Physical disks: queue length. It is nebulous because it bundles multiple network connections together. Load reasonableness. Although adding memory to NT is always a good solution. by far. High I/O settings indicate possible contention for I/O. such as a mail server or web server running on the same machine. This is a very nebulous performance indicator. moving files to less frequently used disk devices should level the load of the disk device. Careful analysis of the network card (or cards) and their settings. Remember that this is only a guideline. can eliminate bottlenecks and improve throughput of network traffic at a magnitude of 10 to 1000 times depending on the hardware. and the recommended setting may be too high for some systems. If this number is greater than two. making it difficult to identify real problems. By analyzing the disk I/O. Before adding memory. Device Drivers.to make better use of hardware rather than virtual memory. the best tuning option for database applications in the NT environment. PAGE BP-158 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and very possibly resulting in a false sense of security. both the unused old service and the new service may be using valuable CPU memory resources.

Therefore they can be viewed in System Monitor. Trace logs collect event traces that measure performance statistics associated with events such as disk and file I/O. Alerts are INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-159 . With Windows 2000.Using electrostatic devices and fast-wide SCSI can also help to increase performance. Windows 2000 provides the following tools (accessible under the Control Panel/Administration Tools/Performance) for monitoring resource usage on your computer: • • System Monitor Performance Logs and Alerts These Windows 2000 monitoring tools enable you to analyze usage and detect bottlenecks at the disk. The System Monitor displays a graph which is flexible and configurable. to monitor the amount of system resources used by the Informatica server and to identify system bottlenecks. session execution. Using this type of product is a good idea whether the disk is formatted for FAT or NTFS. you can use system monitor in the Performance Console of the administrative tools. rank. processor. NT. memory. The Performance Logs and Alerts tool provides two types of performance-related logs—counter logs and trace logs—and an alerting function. Change the disk priority setting in the Registry at service\lanman\server\parameters and add a key for ThreadPriority of type DWORD with a value of 2. not Performance Monitor. or starting a log. on NT servers. Typing perfmon. page faults.exe at the command prompt causes the system to start System Monitor. sets the disk device priority low. This is useful in monitoring other systems that require administration. be sure to implement disk stripping to split single data files across multiple disk drives and take advantage of RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks) technology. running a program. You can copy counter paths and settings from the System Monitor display to the Clipboard and paste counter paths from Web pages or other sources into the System Monitor display. Also increase the priority of the disk devices on the NT server. Counter logs record sampled data about hardware resources and system services based on performance objects and counters in the same manner as System Monitor. or thread activity. The Informatica server also uses system memory for other data such as aggregate. Data in counter logs can be saved as comma-separated or tab-separated files that are easily viewed with Excel. The System Monitor is portable. The alerting function allows you to define a counter value that will trigger actions such as sending a network message. Monitoring System Performance In Windows 2000 In Windows 2000 the Informatica server uses system resources to process transformation. and cached lookup tables. or system tools in the task manager. and reading and writing of data. by default. Finally. and fragmentation can be eliminated by using a Windows NT/2000 disk defragmentation product. joiner. and network level.

If you want to create your own log setting press the right mouse on one of the log types. If you start logging with these settings. but want to be notified when it exceeds or falls below a specified value so that you can investigate and determine the cause of the change. data is saved to the Perflogs folder on the root directory and includes the counters: Memory\ Pages/sec.) The predefined log settings under Counter Logs named System Overview. (The subkey is HKEY_CURRENT_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SysmonLog\Log_Qu eries.useful if you are not actively monitoring a particular counter threshold value. after manual start-up. PhysicalDisk(_Total)\Avg. updates every 15 seconds and logs continuously until it achieves a maximum size. and Processor(_Total)\ % Processor Time. PAGE BP-160 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Disk Queue Length. You might want to set alerts based on established performance baseline values for your system. are configured to create a binary log that. Some other useful counters include Physical Disk: Reads/sec and Writes/sec and Memory: Available Bytes and Cache Bytes. Note:You must have Full Control access to a subkey in the registry in order to create or modify a log configuration.

or in the update override of a target object. a PowerCenter mapping is the biggest ‘bottleneck’ in the load process as business rules determine the number and complexity of transformations in a mapping.Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Challenge In general. Optimize SQL Overrides When SQL overrides are required in a Source Qualifier. Consider Single-Pass Reading If several mappings use the same data source. Consolidate separate mappings into one mapping with either a single Source Qualifier Transformation or one set of Source Qualifier Transformations as the data source for the separate data flows. source and target for peak performance. if a function is used in several mappings. This Best Practice offers some guidelines for tuning mappings. The extent to which and how SQL can be tuned depends on the underlying source or target database system. When these conversions are performed unnecessarily performance slows. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-161 . Lookup Transformation. be sure the SQL statement is tuned. Description Analyze mappings for tuning only after you have tuned the system. For example. Scrutinize Datatype Conversions PowerCenter Server automatically makes conversions between compatible datatypes. the conversion may be unnecessary. Similarly. if a mapping moves data from an Integer port to a Decimal port. then back to an Integer port. consider a single-pass reading. a single-pass reading will reduce the number of times that function will be called in the session.

For example. NOTE: All the tuning options mentioned in this Best Practice assume that memory and cache sizing for lookups are sufficient to ensure that caches will not page to disks. lookup caching should be enabled. datatype conversions can help improve performance. the source and lookup contain the following number of records: ITEMS (source): MANUFACTURER: DIM_ITEMS: Number of Disk Reads 5000 records 200 records 100000 records PAGE BP-162 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . During transformation errors. re-evaluate the constraints for these transformation.In some instances however. the PowerCenter Server engine pauses to determine the cause of the error. Any source of errors should be traced and eliminated. if the lookup table needs less than 300MB of memory. In general. A better rule of thumb than memory size is to determine the ‘size’ of the potential lookup cache with regard to the number of rows expected to be processed. This is especially true when integer values are used in place of other datatypes for performing comparisons using Lookup and Filter transformations. The session log can help point out the cause of these errors. conflicting mapping logic. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table on a row-by-row basis. If errors recur consistently for certain transformations. the PowerCenter Server caches the lookup table and queries the lookup cache during the session. removes the row causing the error from the data flow. Optimize Lookup Transformations There are a number of ways to optimize lookup transformations that are setup in a mapping. Practices regarding memory and cache sizing for Lookup transformations are covered in Best Practice: Tuning Sessions for Better Performance. In Mapping X. and logs the error in the session log. consider the following example. Eliminate Transformation Errors Large numbers of evaluation errors significantly slow performance of the PowerCenter Server. and so on. any condition that is specifically set up as an error. Transformation errors can be caused by many things including: conversion errors. When this option is not enabled. When to Cache Lookups When caching is enabled.

If the lookup table is not cached. 2. Run the mapping with caching turned on and save the log to a different name than the log created in step 3. it is better to cache the lookup.000 total disk reads to build and execute the lookup. This is the more likely scenario. the number of records in the lookup table is small in comparison with the number of times the lookup is executed. In the non-cached log. In this case. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-163 . take the time from the last lookup cache to the end of the load in seconds and divide it into number or rows being processed: CACHED ROWS PER SECOND = CRS. add a where clause on a relational source to load a sample 10. it is better to not cache the lookup. Consider the case where DIM_ITEMS is the lookup table. 6. In the cached log. Use the following eight step method to determine if a lookup should be cached: 1.000. Thus the lookup should not be cached. Note this time in seconds: LOOKUP TIME IN SECONDS = LS. If the lookup table is cached. 8. it will take a total of 5200 disk reads to build the cache and execute the lookup. If your expected source records is less than X. Look in the cached lookup log and determine how long it takes to cache the lookup object. For example. 3.000 rows. If your expected source records is more than X. then it will take a total of 10. Select a standard set of data from the source. Use the following formula to find the breakeven row point: (LS*NRS*CRS)/(CRS-NRS) = X Where X is the breakeven point. take the time from the last lookup cache to the end of the load in seconds and divide it into the number or rows being processed: NON-CACHED ROWS PER SECOND = NRS. If the lookup table is not cached. it will result in 105. Code the lookup into the mapping.Cached Lookup LKP_Manufacturer Build Cache Read Source Records Execute Lookup Total # of Disk Reads LKP_DIM_ITEMS Build Cache Read Source Records Execute Lookup Total # of Disk Reads 100000 5000 0 105000 200 5000 0 5200 Un-cached Lookup 0 5000 5000 100000 0 5000 5000 10000 Consider the case where MANUFACTURER is the lookup table. So this lookup should be cached. Run the mapping with caching turned off and save the log.000 total disk reads to execute the lookup. In this case the number of records in the lookup table is not small in comparison with the number of times the lookup will be executed. If the lookup table is cached. then the disk reads would total 10. 4. 7. 5.

If it has more than 66. This feature should only be used when the lookup table is not expected to change between session runs. Thus. The formula would result in: (166*147*232)/(232-147) = 66. This can improve performance because the Server builds the memory cache from cache files instead of the database. set the conditions with an equal sign first in order to optimize lookup performance. Sharing Lookup Caches There are a number of methods for sharing lookup caches. if the source has less than 66.603 records. Assume with a non-cached lookup the load is 147 rows per second (NRS = 147). the lookup should not be cached. • • Reducing the Number of Cached Rows There is an option to use a SQL override in the creation of a lookup cache. the memory cache created for the lookup during the initial run is saved to the PowerCenter Server. Assume with a cached lookup the load is 232 rows per second (CRS=232). then the lookup should be cached. Bringing back a common set of columns may reduce the number of disk reads. the lookup must be cached. the PowerCenter Server will re-use the cache for the multiple instances of the lookup.For example: Assume the lookup takes 166 seconds to cache (LS=166).603. if the same lookup is used multiple times in a mapping. it may be better to setup the multiple lookups to bring back the same columns even though not all return ports are used in all lookups. PAGE BP-164 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Using the same lookup multiple times in the mapping will be more resource intensive with each successive instance. Across sessions of the same mapping. Across different mappings and sessions.603 records. If the option of creating a persistent cache is set in the lookup properties. Options can be added to the WHERE clause to reduce the set of records included in the resulting cache. the use of a named persistent cache allows sharing of an existing cache file. the use of an unnamed persistent cache allows multiple runs to use an existing cache file stored on the PowerCenter Server. NOTE: If you use a SQL override in a lookup. If multiple cached lookups are from the same table but are expected to return different columns of data. • Within a specific session run for a mapping. Optimizing the Lookup Condition In the case where a lookup uses more than one lookup condition.

Use simple columns in the group by condition to make the Aggregator Transformation more efficient. as a group is passed through an aggregator. Replace multiple filter transformations with a router transformation. When possible. Optimize Aggregator Transformations Aggregator Transformations often slow performance because they must group data before processing it. As a result. Columns used in the ORDER BY condition should be indexed. Use of the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-165 . ¨ In the case of a cached lookup. This can improve performance for both cached and un-cached lookups. Filter transformations are most effective when a simple integer or TRUE/FALSE expression is used in the filter condition. Avoid complex expressions when creating the filter condition. the Server must wait for all rows of data before processing aggregate calculations. The Sorted Input option decreases the use of aggregate caches. calculations can be performed and information passed on to the next transformation. an ORDER BY condition is issued in the SQL statement used to create the cache. especially in GROUP BY ports. Filters or routers should also be used to drop rejected rows from an Update Strategy transformation if rejected rows do not need to be saved. Instead of using a Filter Transformation to remove a sizeable number of rows in the middle or end of a mapping. ¨ In the case of an un-cached lookup. This reduces the number of transformations in the mapping and makes the mapping easier to follow.Indexing the Lookup Table The PowerCenter Server must query. since a SQL statement created for each row passing into the lookup transformation. sort and compare values in the lookup condition columns. use numbers instead of strings or dates in the GROUP BY columns. indexes on the database table should include every column used in a lookup condition. The session log will contain the ORDER BY statement. Optimize Filter and Router Transformations Filtering data as early as possible in the data flow improves the efficiency of a mapping. Without sorted input. use a filter on the Source Qualifier or a Filter Transformation immediately after the source qualifier to improve performance. Also avoid complex expressions in the Aggregator expressions. performance can be helped by indexing columns in the lookup condition. Use the Sorted Input option in the aggregator. This option requires that data sent to the aggregator be sorted in the order in which the ports are used in the aggregator’s group by. the PowerCenter Server assumes all data is sorted by group and. When it is used.

The premise is to use the previous row of data to determine whether the current row is a part of the current group or is the beginning of a new group. the smaller set of data should be cached and thus set as Master. If possible. Define the rows from the smaller set of data in the joiner as the Master rows. An Update Strategy Transformation would follow the Expression Transformation and set the first row of a new group to insert and the following rows to update. Use an Expression and Update Strategy instead of an Aggregator Transformation. so a SQL override or a join condition should be used when joining multiple tables from the same database schema. if the row is a part of the current group. making calls to external procedures slows down a session. using this option assumes that a mapping is using an Aggregator with Sorted Input option. the use of variable ports is required to hold data from the previous row of data processed. In order to minimize memory requirements. Use the database to do the join when sourcing data from the same database schema. Avoid External Procedure Transformations For the most part. This technique can only be used if the source data can be sorted. In the Expression Transformation. Normal joins are faster than outer joins and the resulting set of data is also smaller. PAGE BP-166 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Optimize Sequence Generator Transformations Sequence Generator transformations need to determine the next available sequence number. avoid the use of these Transformations. Configuring the Number of Cached Values to a value greater than 1000 should be considered. when it is called next time. Use Normal joins whenever possible. which include Stored Procedures.Sorted Inputs option is usually accompanied by a Source Qualifier which uses the Number of Sorted Ports option. then its data would be used to continue calculating the current group function. thus increasing the Number of Cached Values property can increase performance. It should be noted any cached values not used in the course of a session are ‘lost’ since the sequence generator value in the repository is set. External Procedures and Advanced External Procedures. Optimize Joiner Transformations Joiner transformations can slow performance because they need additional space in memory at run time to hold intermediate results. The Master rows are cached to memory and the detail records are then compared to rows in the cache of the Master rows. Database systems usually can perform the join more quickly than the Informatica Server. to give the next set of cache values. Further. If it is set to cache no values then the Informatica Server must query the Informatica repository each time to determine what is the next number which can be used. This property determines the number of values the Informatica Server caches at one time. Thus.

the Informatica Server must search and group the data. a mapping has five target tables. When examining expressions. Each target requires a Social Security Number lookup. 2.Field Level Transformation Optimization As a final step in the tuning process. Keep in mind that there may be more than one field causing performance problems. Processing field level transformations takes time. In the case of each aggregate function call. move the lookup to a position before the data flow splits. Likely candidates for optimization are the fields with the most complex expressions. 5. Make another copy of the mapping and replace the other half of the complex expressions with a constant. focus on complex expressions for possible simplification. Run and time the edited session. expressions used in transformations can be tuned. do the following: 1. Instead of performing the lookup right before each target. Thus the following expression: SUM(Column A) + SUM(Column B) Can be optimized to: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-167 . For example. Copy the mapping and replace half the complex expressions with a constant. Aggregate function calls can sometime be reduced. Run and time the edited session.20% performance improvement by optimizing complex field level transformations. Minimize Function Calls Anytime a function is called it takes resources to process. Time the session with the original expression. Its often possible to get a 10. If the transformation expressions are complex. then processing will be slower. 4. 3. Factoring out Common Logic This can reduce the number of times a mapping performs the same logic. moving the task upstream in the mapping may allow the logic to be done just once. If a mapping performs the same logic multiple times in a mapping. Use the target table mapping reports or the Metadata Reporter to examine the transformations. To help isolate slow expressions. There are several common examples where function calls can be reduced or eliminated.

'yes'. operators are faster than functions. Be creative in making expressions more efficient. 0.SUM(Column A + Column B) In general. VAL_A+VAL_B. This allows many logical statements to be written in a more compact fashion. VAL_C.’ ‘). IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’Y’. 3 comparisons and two additions. For example if you have an expression which involves a CONCAT function such as: CONCAT(CONCAT(FIRST_NAME. 0. VAL_B+VAL_C.0) + IIF(FLG_C=’Y’. VAL_A+VAL_B+VAL_C. 16 ANDs and 24 comparisons. VAL_A. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’N’. not just a logical test. LAST_NAME) It can be optimized to: FIRST_NAME || ‘ ‘ || LAST_NAME Remember that IIF() is a function that returns a value.0)))))))) Can be optimized to: IIF(FLG_A=’Y’. VAL_A. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’Y’. VAL_C.0) + IIF(FLG_B=’Y’. The following is an example of rework of an expression which eliminates three comparisons down to one: For example: IIF(X=1 OR X=5 OR X=9. so operators should be used whenever possible. The optimized expression results in 3 IIFs. VAL_B. VAL_A+VAL_C. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’Y’. For example: IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’Y’. 'no') PAGE BP-168 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . VAL_B. 0. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’N’.0) The original expression had 8 IIFs. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’N’. 0. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’N’.

using DECODE may improve performance. 'no') Calculate Once. unnecessary links between transformations should be removed to minimize the amount of data moved. When a DECODE function is used. If the same subexpression is used several times in a transformation. Thus. 4) = 1. configuring the lookup around EMPLOYEE_ID improves performance. For example. The Treat CHAR as CHAR On Read option can be set in the Informatica Server setup so that the Informatica Server does not trim trailing spaces from the end of CHAR source fields. Use Many Times Avoid calculating or testing the same value multiple times. Choose Numeric versus String Operations The Informatica Server processes numeric operations faster than string operations. Along the same lines. This is especially important with data being pulled from the Source Qualifier Transformation. The local variable can be used only within the transformation but by calculating the variable only once can speed performance. if a lookup is done on a large amount of data on two columns. Optimizing Char-Char and Char-Varchar Comparisons When the Informatica Server performs comparisons between CHAR and VARCHAR columns. EMPLOYEE_NAME and EMPLOYEE_ID. Use DECODE instead of LOOKUP When a LOOKUP function is used. when looking up a small set of unchanging values. 'yes'. the Informatica Server must lookup a table in the database. consider making the subexpression a local variable. the lookup values are incorporated into the expression itself so the Informatica Server does not need to lookup a separate table. As there is always overhead involved in moving data between transformations.Can be optimized to: IIF(MOD(X. Reduce the Number of Transformations in a Mapping Whenever possible the number of transformations should be reduced. it slows each time it finds trailing blank spaces in the row. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-169 .

Tuning Sessions for Better Performance Challenge Running sessions is where ‘the pedal hits the metal’. Joiner. The Aggregator. Both index and data cache files can be created for the following transformations in a mapping: • • • • Aggregator transformation (without sorted ports) Joiner transformation Rank transformation Lookup transformation (with caching enabled) PAGE BP-170 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . this should not be the major or only area of focus when implementing performance tuning. While it is true that various specific session options can be modified to improve performance. you should review the sessions for performance optimization. Rank and/or Lookup transformations can point to a session bottleneck. information about readfromdisk and writetodisk counters for Aggregator. depending on the factors discussed in the following paragraphs. target database and mappings. A common misconception is that this is the area where most tuning should occur. Because index and data caches are created for each of these transformations. Caches The greatest area for improvement at the session level usually involves tweaking memory cache settings. Joiner. . Description When you have finished optimizing the sources. both the index cache and data cache sizes may affect performance. When the PowerCenter Server creates memory caches. Rank and Lookup Transformations use caches. When performance details are collected for a session. it may also create cache files. Review the memory cache settings for sessions where the mappings contain any of these transformations. Any value other than zero for these counters may indicate a bottleneck.

and the session is configured for incremental aggregation. index and data files may exist in the cache directory if the session is configured for either incremental aggregation or to use a persistent lookup cache. If a cache file handles more than 2 gigabytes of data. the DTM generally deletes the overflow index and data cache files. try to configure the index and data cache sizes to store the appropriate amount of data in memory.dat. such as PMAGG*. The PowerCenter Server uses memory to process an INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-171 .The PowerCenter Server creates the index and data cache files by default in the PowerCenter Server variable directory. Informatica recommends that the cache directory be local to the PowerCenter Server. The naming convention used by the PowerCenter Server for these files is PM [type of widget] [generated number]. Cache files may also remain if the session does not complete successfully. When a session is run. if disk space is a constraint. If the PowerCenter Server requires more memory than the configured cache size. The PowerCenter Server writes to the index and data cache files during a session in the following cases: • • • • The mapping contains one or more Aggregator transformations. However. the PowerCenter Server writes a message in the session log indicating the cache file name and the transformation name. Remember that you only need to configure cache memory for an Aggregator transformation that does NOT use sorted ports. The DTM may create multiple files when processing large amounts of data. The mapping contains a Lookup transformation that is configured to initialize the persistent lookup cache. The number of index and data files is limited only by the amount of disk space available in the cache directory. The DTM runs out of cache memory and pages to the local cache files. When creating these files. an aggregate data cache file would be named PMAGG31_19. and the Informatica Server runs the session for the first time. For example. The session fails if the local directory runs out of disk space. $PMCacheDir. The cache directory may be changed however. the PowerCenter Server creates multiple index and data files. it stores the overflow values in these cache files.idx2. the PowerCenter Server appends a number to the end of the filename. You may encounter performance or reliability problems when you cache large quantities of data on a mapped or mounted drive. The mapping contains a Lookup transformation that is configured to use a persistent lookup cache.dat or . Refer to Chapter 9: Session Caches in the Informatica Session and Server Guide for detailed information on determining cache sizes.idx1 and PMAGG*. • • Allocate at least enough space to hold at least one row in each aggregate group. When a session completes.idx. Since paging to disk can slow session performance. o Aggregator Caches Keep the following items in mind when configuring the aggregate memory cache sizes.

If the lookup table changes. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table instead of the lookup cache. Just like for a joiner. the PowerCenter Server automatically aligns all data for joiner caches on an eight-byte boundary. Lookup caching should be enabled for relatively small tables. When the Lookup transformation is not configured for caching. The PowerCenter Server names these files PMAGG*. Lookup cache files are saved after a session which has a lookup that uses a persistent cache is run for the first time. • Joiner Caches The source with fewer records should be specified as the master source because only the master source records are read into cache.• Aggregator transformation with sorted ports. not cache memory. However. regardless of whether the lookup table is cached or not.idx and saves them to the cache directory. When it is used. the PowerCenter Server saves index and data cache information to disk at the end of the session. the PowerCenter Server reads all the rows from the master source and builds memory caches based on the master rows. The result of the Lookup query and processing is the same. when the transformation is configured to not cache. These files are reused for subsequent runs. the PowerCenter Server aligns all data for lookup caches on an eight-byte boundary which helps increase the performance of the lookup. which helps increase the performance of the join. the PowerCenter Server uses this historical information to perform the incremental aggregation. Incremental aggregation can improve session performance. The next time the session runs. you must be sure to set the Recache from Database option to ensure that the lookup cache files will be rebuilt. • Lookup Caches Several options can be explored when dealing with lookup transformation caches. After the memory caches are built. • Persistent caches should be used when lookup data is not expected to change often. • • PAGE BP-172 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .dat and PMAGG*. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table for each input row. When a session is run with a Joiner transformation. Mappings that have sessions which use incremental aggregation should be set up so that only new detail records are read with each subsequent run. the PowerCenter Server reads the rows from the detail source and performs the joins. bypassing the querying of the database for the lookup. Using a lookup cache can sometimes increase session performance. Refer to Best Practice: Tuning Mappings for Better Performance to determine when lookups should be cached. Also.

If a session is part of a concurrent batch. the combined DTM buffer memory allocated for the sessions or batches must not exceed the total memory for the PowerCenter Server system. and each target may have a different row size. When the DTM buffer memory is increased. Row size INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-173 . to create the required number of session blocks. each transformation. which results in different numbers of rows that can be fit into one memory block. • Optimizing the Buffer Block Size Within a session.000 bytes Default Buffer Block Size – the default size is 64. first determine the number of memory blocks the PowerCenter Server requires to initialize the session. You can tweak session properties to increase the number of available memory blocks by adjusting: • • DTM Buffer Pool Size – the default setting is 12. Then you can calculate the buffer pool size and/or the buffer block size based on the default settings. If you don’t see a significant performance increase after increasing DTM buffer memory. it allocates blocks of memory to hold source and target data. which can improve performance during momentary slowdowns. When the DTM buffer memory allocation is increased. the total memory available on the PowerCenter Server needs to be evaluated. you may modify the buffer block size by changing it in the Advanced Parameters section. Sessions that use a large number of source and targets may require additional memory blocks. increasing the DTM buffer pool size may improve performance. use the number of groups in the XML source or target in the total calculation for the total number of sources and targets. If there are XML sources and targets in the mappings. If a session’s performance details show low numbers for your source and target BufferInput_efficiency and BufferOutput_efficiency counters. • Increasing the DTM Buffer Pool Size The DTM Buffer Pool Size setting specifies the amount of memory the PowerCenter Server uses as DTM buffer memory. Increasing DTM buffer memory allocation generally causes performance to improve initially and then level off. Each source. This specifies the size of a memory block that is used to move data throughout the pipeline. the PowerCenter Server creates more buffer blocks.000.000 bytes To configure these settings. then it was not a factor in session performance.Allocating Buffer Memory When the PowerCenter Server initializes a session. The PowerCenter Server uses DTM buffer memory to create the internal data structures and buffer blocks used to bring data into and out of the Server.

and CPU). data can be processed in parallel with a single session by partitioning the source via the source qualifier. Partitioning Sessions If large amounts of data are being processed with PowerCenter 5. you must remember to increase the size of the database rollback segments to accommodate this larger PAGE BP-174 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Also. Keep in mind that each partition will compete for the same resources (i. and writing. use the source or target with the largest row size. so it may need to be increased for optimal performance. disk... memory. When calculating this. Also. Each concurrent session will use a maximum of 1. performance slows. it has been noted that simple mappings (i. If you increase the commit interval. and therefore use a lot less processing power than a full CPU. If there are independent sessions that use separate sources and mappings to populate different targets. and the slower the overall performance. more than 20 transformations).. mappings with only a few transformations) do not make the engine “CPU bound” .4 CPUs for the first session. Each time the PowerCenter Server commits.x. the more often the PowerCenter Server writes to the target database. the DTM buffer pool size is split among all partitions. so make sure that the hardware and memory are sufficient to support a parallel session.e. block size should be configured so that it can hold roughly 100 rows. The default is 64K. their datatypes and precisions.e. Informatica recommends that the size of the shared memory (which determines the number of buffers available to the session) should not be increased at all unless the mapping is “complex” (i. Therefore. plus or minus a factor of ten. you can separate it into several simpler mappings with separate sources. the smaller the commit interval. This technique should only be employed on servers with multiple CPUs available. and a maximum of 1 CPU for each additional session. based on number of ports. Partitioning allows you to break a single source into multiple sources and to run each in parallel. they can be placed in a concurrent batch and run at the same time. This enables you to place the sessions for each of the mappings in a concurrent batch to be run in parallel. The buffer block size does not become a factor in session performance until the number of rows falls below 10 or goes above 1000.is determined in the server. When increasing the commit interval at the session level. Increasing the Target Commit Interval One method of resolving target database bottlenecks is to increase the commit interval. thus allowing for simultaneous reading.e. The PowerCenter Server will spawn a Read and Write thread for each partition. If there is a complex mapping with multiple sources. processing. the number of times the PowerCenter Server commits decreases and performance may improve. Ideally. Running Concurrent Batches Performance can sometimes be improved by creating a concurrent batch to run several sessions in parallel on one PowerCenter Server.

you may set the tracing level to Verbose to see the flow of data between transformations. you may want to consider leaving the tracing level at Normal and focus your efforts on reducing the number of transformation errors. However. The Decimal datatype is a numeric datatype with a maximum precision of 28. since reading and manipulating a highprecision datatype (i. Do not use Verbose tracing INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-175 . One of the major reasons that Informatica has set the default commit interval to 10. set the tracing level to Terse. the PowerCenter Server does not write error messages or row-level information for reject data. you should see an increase in performance. those with a precision of greater than 28) can slow the PowerCenter Server. disabling decimal arithmetic may improve session performance. you may be able to improve performance by reducing the amount of data the PowerCenter Server writes to the session log. However. In some cases though. if terse is not an acceptable level of detail.000 is to accommodate the default rollback segment / extent size of most databases. Disabling Decimal Arithmetic If a session runs with decimal arithmetic enabled. The PowerCenter Server writes recovery information in the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table during each commit. Reducing Error Tracing If a session contains a large number of transformation errors. However. Disabling Session Recovery You can improve performance by turning off session recovery. Note that the tracing level must be set to Normal in order to use the reject loading utility.e.number of rows. The PowerCenter Server setup can be set to disable session recovery. At this tracing level.. just increasing the commit interval without making the appropriate database changes may cause the session to fail part way through (you may get a database error like “unable to extend rollback segments” in Oracle). To reduce the amount of time spent writing to the session log file. session performance may be improved by disabling decimal arithmetic. To use a high-precision Decimal datatype in a session. it must be configured so that the PowerCenter Server recognizes this datatype by selecting Enable Decimal Arithmetic in the session property sheet. Terse tracing should only be set if the sessions run without problems and session details are not required. As an additional debug option (beyond the PowerCenter Debugger). If you increase both the commit interval and the database rollback segments. This can decrease performance. But be sure to weigh the importance of improved session performance against the ability to recover an incomplete session when considering this option. this will significantly affect the session performance.

PAGE BP-176 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Always remember to switch tracing back to Normal after the testing is complete. it makes sense to fix and prevent any recurring transformation errors. Informatica does not recommend reducing error tracing as a long-term response to high levels of transformation errors.except when testing sessions. Because there are only a handful of reasons why transformation errors occur. The session tracing level overrides any transformation-specific tracing levels within the mapping.

attempt to isolate the problem by running test sessions. you should establish an approach for identifying performance bottlenecks. You should be able to compare the session’s original performance with that of the tuned session’s performance. investigating each area in the order indicated: 1. Make appropriate tuning changes to mappings and/or sessions. It involves the following five steps: 1. 4.Determining Bottlenecks Challenge Because there are many variables involved in identifying and rectifying performance bottlenecks. Make a temporary copy of the mapping and/or session that is to be tuned. The actual execution time may be used as a performance metric. 2. Delete the temporary sessions upon completion of performance tuning. then tune the copy before making changes to the original. Carefully consider the following five areas to determine where bottlenecks exist. Document the change made to the mapping/and or session and the performance metrics achieved as a result of the change. 5. The swap method is very useful for determining the most common bottlenecks. an efficient method for determining where bottlenecks exist is crucial to good data warehouse management. Description The first step in performance tuning is to identify performance bottlenecks. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-177 . 3. use a process of elimination. 2. 4. To begin. 3. Write Read Mapping Session System Before you begin. 5. Implement only one change at a time and test for any performance improvements to gauge which tuning methods work most effectively in the environment.

You can optimize session performance by writing to a flat file target local to the PowerCenter server. 3. 3. Create a mapping and session that writes the source table data to a flat file. This type of bottleneck can easily be identified with the following procedure: 1. PAGE BP-178 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . you have a write bottleneck. Using a Database Query To identify a source bottlenecks by executing a read query directly against the source database. you should first use a read test session with a flat file as the source in the test session. 2. Create a test mapping that contains only the flat file source. Create a session for the test mapping. Measure the query execution time and the time it takes for the query to return the first row. you have a read bottleneck. If the test session’s performance increases significantly. 2. If the local flat file is very large. you probably do not have a write bottleneck. and the target table. Flat File Targets If the session targets a flat file. Using a Test Session with a Flat File Source 1. Read Bottlenecks Relational Sources If the session reads from a relational source. 2. You may also use a database query to indicate if a read bottleneck exists. you can optimize the write process by dividing it among several physical drives. follow these steps: 1.Write Bottlenecks Relational Targets The most common performance bottleneck occurs when the PowerCenter Server writes to a target database. the source qualifier. Copy the read query directly from the session log. Run the query against the source database with a query tool such as SQL Plus. Make a copy of the original session Configure the test session to write to a flat file If the session performance is significantly increased when writing to a flat file.

After using the swap method. Make a copy of the original mapping 2. retain only the sources. Use the swap method to determine if the bottleneck is in the mapping. High Rowsinlookupcache counters: Multiple lookups can slow the session. you may improve performance by eliminating the errors. you may have a mapping bottleneck. 4. If a session has large numbers in any of the Transformation_errorrows counters. High Rowsinlookupcache and Errorrows counters indicate mapping bottlenecks. Mapping Bottlenecks If you have eliminated the reading and writing of data as bottlenecks. refer to the Best Practice: Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Session Bottlenecks Session performance details can be used to flag other problem areas in the session Advanced Options Parameters or in the mapping. you can use the session’s performance details to determine if mapping bottlenecks exist. Low Buffer Input and Buffer Output Counters INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-179 .If there is a long delay between the two time measurements. Remove all transformations. Connect the source qualifiers to the target. source qualifiers. Ensure the flat file source is local to the PowerCenter Server. you probably do not have a read bottleneck. For further details on eliminating mapping bottlenecks. High Errorrows counters: Transformation errors affect session performance. In the copied mapping. Follow these steps to identify mapping bottlenecks: Using a Test Mapping without transformations 1. you have a source bottleneck. You may improve session performance by locating the largest lookup tables and tuning those lookup expressions. and any custom joins or queries 3. Flat File Sources If your session reads from a flat file source. Tuning the Line Sequential Buffer Length to a size large enough to hold approximately four to eight rows of data at a time (for flat files) may help when reading flat file sources.

mapping. Rank. you can improve session performance by increasing the index and data cache sizes. Percentage reflecting how seldom the DTM waited for a free buffer when passing data to the writer. use system tools like vmstat and iostat to monitor such items as system performance and disk swapping actions. Percentage reflecting how seldom the DTM waited for a full buffer of data from the reader. increasing the session DTM buffer pool size may improve performance. System Bottlenecks After tuning the source. Note that these can only be found in the Session Performance Details file. BufferOutput_Efficiency Target BufferInput_Efficiency BufferOutput_Efficiency Aggregator and Rank Aggregator/Rank_readfromdisk PAGE BP-180 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . For further details on eliminating session bottlenecks. refer to the Best Practice: Tuning Sessions for Better Performance. UNIX On UNIX. Number of times the Informatica Server read from the index or data file on the local disk. instead of using cached data. target. If these counters display any number other than zero.If the BufferInput_efficiency and BufferOutput_efficiency counters are low for all sources and targets. or Joiner transformations. Windows NT/2000 Use system tools such as the Performance tab in the Task Manager or the Performance Monitor to view CPU usage and total memory usage. Rank. and session. examine each Trasnformation_readfromdisk and Transformation_writetodisk counter. For further information regarding system tuning. Aggregator. Transformation Source Qualifier and Normalizer Transformations Counters BufferInput_Efficiency Description Percentage reflecting how seldom the reader waited for a free buffer when passing data to the DTM. you may also consider tuning the system hosting the PowerCenter Server. and Joiner Readfromdisk and Writetodisk Counters If a session contains Aggregator. Percentage reflecting how seldom the Informatica server waited for a full buffer of data from the reader. The following table details the Performance Counters that can be used to flag session and mapping bottlenecks. refer to the Best Practices: Performance Tuning UNIX-Based Systems and Performance Tuning NT/2000-Based Systems.

The Joiner transformation does not generate output row counters associated with the master source. Number of rows in which the Infor matica Server encountered an error Note: The PowerCenter Server generates two sets of performance counters for a Joiner transformation. Number of times the Informatica Server read from the index or data file on the local disk. instead of using cached data. The first set of counters refers to the master source. Number of rows stored in the lookup cache.Transformations Aggregator/Rank_writetodisk Joiner Transformation (see Note below) Joiner_readfromdisk Joiner_writetodisk Lookup Transformation All Transformations Lookup_rowsinlookupcache Transformation_errorrows Number of times the Informatica server wrote to the index or data file on the local disk. instead of using cached data. instead of using cached data. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-181 . Number of times the Informatica server wrote to the index or data file on the local disk. The second set of counters refers to the detail source.

PAGE BP-182 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Instead. resolve potential missing or invalid license key issues and change the Server Manager Session Log Editor to your preferred editor. Solution • • From Repository Manager. choose Export Registry from the Tools drop down menu. the software will display the message indicating that the license key is missing or invalid. For all subsequent client installs.Advanced Client Configuration Options Challenge Setting the Registry in order to ensure consistent client installations. then use the Repository Manager to export that connection information to a file. Description Ensuring Consistent Data Source Names To ensure the use of consistent data source names for the same data sources across the domain. Resolving the Missing or Invalid License Key Issue The “missing or invalid license key” error occurs when attempting to install PowerCenter Client tools on NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 with a userid other than ‘Administrator. You can then distribute this file and import the connection information for each client machine. the Administrator can create a single "official" set of data sources. The user who attempts to log in using the normal ‘nonadministrator’ userid will be unable to start the PowerCenter Client tools. simply choose Import Registry from the Tools drop down menu.’ This problem also occurs when the client software tools are installed under the Administrator account. and subsequently a user with a non-administrator ID attempts to run the tools.

From the menu bar. Under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE open Software/Informatica/PowerMart Client Tools/. use regedt32 to edit the registry. select Security/Permissions.) Changing the Server Manager Session Log Editor The session log editor is not automatically determined when the PowerCenter Client tools are installed. From the menu bar. prompting the user to enter the full path name of the editor to be used to view the logs.exe or Write.exe. Move to registry path location: HKEY_CURRENT_USER Software\Informatica\PowerMart Client Tools\[CLIENT VERSION]\Server Manager\Session Files. Solution • • While logged in as the installation user with administrator authority. Select the Log File Editor entry by double clicking on it. Users often set this parameter incorrectly and must access the registry to change it.Solution • • While logged in as the installation user with administrator authority. and grant read access to the users that should be permitted to use the PowerMart Client. use regedt32 to go into the registry. select View Tree and Data. • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-183 . (Note that the registry entries for both PowerMart and PowerCenter server and client tools are stored as PowerMart Server and PowerMart Client tools. Replace the entry with the appropriate editor entry. typically WordPad. Select Registry --> Exit from the menu bar to save the entry. A window appears the first time a session log is viewed from the PowerCenter Server Manager.e. i.

Description Configuring the Throttle Reader If problems occur when running sessions. This will cause the server to manage many buffer blocks. This parameter closely manages buffer blocks in memory by restricting the number of blocks that can be utilized by the Reader. If the session still hangs. try adjusting the throttle reader. Create a new String value with value name of 'ThrottleReader' and value data of '10'. When a session is partitioned. adjusting semaphore settings in the Unix environment. and configuring server variables. the server makes separate connections to the source and target for every partition.Advanced Server Configuration Options Challenge Configuring the Throttle Reader and File Debugging options. or if the session employs constraint-based loading. To do the same thing in UNIX: • • Add this line to . This is particularly effective if your mapping contains many target tables. Solution: To limit the number of reader buffers using Throttle Reader in NT/2000: • • Access file hkey_local_machine\system\currentcontrolset\services\powermart\parameter s\miscinfo. Note for PowerCenter 5. One technique that often helps resolve “hanging” sessions is to limit the number of reader buffers that use Throttle Reader. it is best to remove the partitions before adjusting the throttle reader. some adjustments at the Server level can help to alleviate issues or isolate problems.x and above ONLY: If a session is hanging and it is partitioned.cfg file: ThrottleReader=10 PAGE BP-184 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

The total number of available operating system semaphores is an operating system configuration parameter. help technical support to resolve the issue by supplying them with Debug files. Go to hkey_local_machine. Place "DebugScrubber" as the value then hit OK. the machine may not boot. depending on the number of sessions the server runs concurrently. Solaris: Use admintool or edit /etc/system to change the parameters. then add value 4. Repeat steps 4 and 5. The number of semaphores required to run a session is 7. Most installations require between 64 and 128 available semaphores.cfg file: • • • • DebugScrubber=4 DebugWriter=1 DebugReader=1 DebugDTM=1 Adjusting Semaphore Settings The UNIX version of the PowerCenter Server uses operating system semaphores for synchronization. However. "DebugReader". Select Start. if you set these parameters too high. Setting Shared Memory and Semaphore Parameters Informatica recommends setting the following parameters as high as possible for the operating system. "DebugDTM" with all three set to "1" To do the same in UNIX: Insert the following entries in the pmserver. such as database servers. To set the debug options on for NT/2000: 1. AIX: Use smit to change the parameters.Configuring File Debugging Options If problems occur when running sessions or if the PowerCenter Server has a stability issue. Select edit. powermart. current_control_set. You may need to increase these semaphore settings before installing the server. miscInfo 3. The method used to change the parameter depends on the operating system: • • • HP/UX: Use sam (1M) to change the parameters. Insert "4" as the value 5. but use "DebugWriter". This is in addition to any semaphores required by other software. Refer to the operating system documentation for parameter limits: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-185 . with a limit per user and system. and type “regedit” 2. services. system. Run.

Parameter SHMMAX SHMMIN SHMMNI SHMSEG Recommended Value for Solaris 4294967295 1 100 10 Description Maximum size in bytes of a shared memory segment. Ease of switching sessions from one server machine to another without manually editing all the sessions to change directory paths. Number of shared memory identifiers. Number of semaphore set identifiers in the system. Maximum number of semaphores in one semaphore set. SEMMNI determines the number of semaphores that can be created at any one time. Maximum number of shared memory segments that can be attached by a process. Number of semaphores in the system. SEMMNS SEMMNI 200 70 SEMMSL equal to or greater than the value of the PROCESSES initialization parameter For example. Minimum size in bytes of a shared memory segment. Must be equal to the maximum number of processes. Configuring Server Variables One configuration best practice is to properly configure and leverage Server variables. you might add the following lines to the Solaris /etc/system file to configure the UNIX kernel: set shmsys:shminfo_shmmax = 4294967295 set shmsys:shminfo_shmmin = 1 set shmsys:shminfo_shmmni = 100 set shmsys:shminfo_shmseg = 10 set semsys:shminfo_semmns = 200 set semsys:shminfo_semmni = 70 Always reboot the system after configuring the UNIX kernel. PAGE BP-186 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Benefits of using server variables: • • Ease of deployment from development environment to production environment.

Approach In Server Manager. the user can choose to use it or not. not userextensible. If the session log directory is specified as $PMSessionLogDir. Each registered server has its own set of variables. (The variable $PMSessionLogDir will be unused so it does not matter what the value of the variable is set to). This is in fact a primary purpose for utilizing variables. Note that this location may be different on every server. The list is fixed. ‘/home/john/logs’. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-187 . bad file directory. The variable will be expanded only if it is explicitly referenced from another location. e.• All the variables are related to directory paths used by server. etc.g. What if a variable is not referenced in the session or mapping? • The variable is just a convenience. Designer: Aggregator/Rank/Joiner attribute for ‘Cache Directory’. But if the session log directory field is changed to designate a specific location. then the session logs will instead be placed in the directory location as designated. External Procedure attribute for ‘Location’ Does every session and mapping have to use these variables (are they mandatory)? • No. then the logs are put in that location. edit the server configuration to set or change the variables. If you remove any variable reference from the session or the widget attributes then the server does not use that variable. Server Variable $PMRootDir $PMSessionLogDir $PMBadFileDir $PMCacheDir $PMTargetFileDir $PMSourceFileDir $PMExtProcDir $PMSuccessEmailUser $PMFailureEmailUser $PMSessionLogCount $PMSessionErrorThreshold Value (no default – user must insert a path) $PMRootDir/SessLogs $PMRootDir/BadFiles $PMRootDir/Cache $PMRootDir/TargetFiles $PMRootDir/SourceFiles $PMRootDir/ExtProc (no default – user must insert a path) (no default – user must insert a path) 0 0 Where are these variables referenced? • • Server manager session editor: anywhere in the fields for session log directory.

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etc. Regardless of whether or not the server is shared. as it will dictate the amount of RAM required when running concurrent sessions. Uses up to 140% of CPU resources. including the operating system and all of its components. let us review the PowerCenter engine and its associated resource needs. considering specific environmental and processing requirements. It also discusses some potential questions and pitfalls that may arise when migrating to Production. it will be necessary to research the requirements of these additional software components when estimating the size of the overall environment. This is important to remember if sessions will be executed concurrently. In addition to requirements for PowerCenter. other applications may share the server. Description This Best Practice provides general guidance for sizing computing environments. Technical Information Before delving into key sizing questions. Please consult the appropriate PowerCenter manuals for explanation of these terms where necessary. This shared memory setting is important. the database engine. Sizing may not be an easy task because it may be necessary to configure a single server to support numerous applications. and will also be used to provide a level of performance that meets your needs. Each session: • Represents an active task that performs data loading. front-end engines.Platform Sizing Challenge Determining the appropriate platform size to support PowerCenter. PowerCenter provides session parameters that can be set to specify the amount of required shared memory per session. Certain terms used within this Best Practice are specific to Informatica’s PowerCenter. • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-189 . Be sure to consider all mandatory server software components. Environmental configurations may very greatly with regard to hardware and software sizing.

Requires additional memory when caching for aggregation. Aggregate caches store the individual groups. lookups. unless the cache requires it after filling system memory. because: • • • Lookup tables. if the following conditions exist. However. memory consumed depends on the size of the master. or heterogeneous data joins contained within the mapping. and offers general guidance for estimating session resources. PAGE BP-190 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . In a join. aggregation. the volume of data moved per session. Key Questions The goal of this analysis is to size the machine so that the ETL processes can complete within the specified load window. result in memory consumption commensurate with the size of the tables involved. The PowerCenter engine: Requires 20-30 MB of memory for the main server engine for session coordination. lookups. Data is stored in incremental aggregation files for adding data to aggregates. The amount of memory can be calculated per session. more memory is used if there are more groups. The space consumed is about the size of the data aggregated. cache the master table. when cached in full. Temporary space is not used like a database on disk. Disk space is not a factor if the machine is dedicated exclusively to the server engine. and the caching requirements for the session’s lookup tables. or joins. or joins. May require additional memory for the caching of aggregations. Note: It may be helpful to refer to the Performance Tuning section in Phase 4 of the Informatica Methodology when determining memory settings. Use these estimates along with recommendations in the preceding Technical Information section to determine the required number of processors. Note: Sorting the input to aggregations will greatly reduce the need for memory. Refer to the Session and Server guide to determine the exact amount of memory necessary per session. The Performance Tuning section provides additional information on factors that typically affect session performance.• • Requires 20-30 MB of memory per session if there are no aggregations. This includes all types of data such as flat files and database tables. disk space will need to be carefully considered: • • • • Data is staged to flat files on the PowerCenter server. and heterogeneous joins. memory. Data does not need to be stripped to prevent head contention. lookups. and disk space to achieve the required performance to meet the load window. Consider the following questions when estimating the required number of sessions.

) and what tools will you use to implement this access? What other applications or services.Please note that the hardware sizing analysis is highly dependent on the environment in which the server is deployed. incrementally loaded. etc. or will all tables be truncated and reloaded? Will the data processing require staging areas? What is the load plan? Are there dependencies between facts and dimensions? How often will the data be refreshed? Will the refresh be scheduled at a certain time. if necessary? How will the data be moved. in bytes? What is the largest table (bytes and rows)? Is there any key on this table that could be used to partition load sessions. enabling incremental load strategies? What is the size of the batch window that is available for the load? Does the load process populate detail data. It is vitally important to remember that in addition to PowerCenter. In an environment where PowerCenter runs in parallel with all of these tools. answer the following questions: Are there currently extract. the query/analysis tool often drives the hardware requirements.. or driven by external events? Is there a "modified" timestamp on the source table rows. run on the PowerCenter server? Has the database table space been distributed across controllers. the query/analysis tool requirements may not impose a sizing limitation. ad-hoc query tool. via flat file processing or relational tables? What is the load strategy.g. consider platform size in light of the following questions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What sources are accessed by the mappings? How do you currently access those sources? Do the sources reside locally. where possible. cube. aggregations. transform. With these additional processing requirements in mind. and how long do they take? What is the total volume of data that must be moved. or both? If data is being aggregated. It is very important to understand the performance characteristics of the environment before making any sizing conclusions. PowerCenter commonly runs on a server that also hosts a database engine plus query/analysis tools. if any. However. what is the ratio of source/target rows for the largest result set? How large is the result set (bytes and rows)? INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-191 . or will they be accessed via a network connection? What kind of network connection exists? Have you decided on the target environment (database/hardware/operating system)? If so. if the ETL processing is performed after business hours. to maximize throughput by reading and writing data in parallel? When considering the server engine size. other applications may be vying for server resources. what are the processes. and load processes in place? If so. what is it? Have you decided on the PowerCenter server environment (hardware/operating system)? Is it possible for the PowerCenter server to be on the same machine as the target? How will information be accessed for reporting purposes (e. is the data updated.

results will definitely vary by installation because each environment has a unique architecture and unique data characteristics. Four sessions ran after the set of 22. 22 sessions ran in parallel.org. "critical path" jobs that drive the resource requirement. and more than 2. This website contains benchmarking reports that will help you fine tune your environment and may assist in determining processing power required. This processor handled just under 20. The source and target database used in the tests was Oracle. In this test scenario. The source and target were both hosted locally on the ETL Server. joining several sources and utilizing several Expression.tpc. However. Links The following link may prove helpful when determining the platform size:www. Lookup and Aggregation transformations. in less than 54 minutes. To simplify the analysis. which did not include the performance and functional enhancements in release 5.8GB of data. The performance tests were performed on a 4-processor Sun E4500 with 2GB of memory. PAGE BP-192 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . populating a large product sales table.5 million rows. A Sample Performance Result The following is a testimonial from a customer configuration.The answers to these questions will provide insight into the factors that impact PowerCenter's resource requirements.1. focus on large. populating various summarization tables based on the product sales table. These results are offered as one example of throughput. All of the mappings were complex. Please note that these performance tests were run on a previous version of PowerCenter.

This technique is called performing recovery. and run the session again. That is. The server can recover committed target data if the following three criteria are met: • All session targets are relational. the server reads all source tables. For example. If a session writing to file targets fails. as if the session completed successfully with one run. This results in accurate and complete target data. even if the session does not complete. The session is configured for a normal (not bulk) target load. the server cannot perform recovery. the server cannot recover sessions configured to bulk load targets. if a session fails while running in recovery mode. you can tell the server to keep data already committed to the target database and process the rest of the source. one option is to truncate the target and run the session again from the beginning. But that is not the only option. Description When a network or other problem causes a session whose source contains a million rows to fail after only half of the rows are committed to the target. This is called nested recovery.Running Sessions in Recovery Mode Challenge Use PowerCenter standard functionality to recover data that is committed to a session's targets. If the session has file targets. and then passes data to the Data Transformation Manager (DTM) starting from row 1001. The server can only perform recovery on relational tables. The server then reads all sources again. the server notes the row id of the last row committed to the target database. Rather than processing the first half of the source again. Although recovering a large session can be more efficient • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-193 . When you run a session in recovery mode. Since bulk loading bypasses database logging. if the server commits 1000 rows before the session fails. When necessary. the server can recover the same session more than once. but only processes from the subsequent row id. you can re-run the session in recovery mode until the session completes successfully. delete the files. The server uses database logging to perform recovery. when you run the session in recovery mode.

This session is configured for a normal load. the server does not write information to that table. If the session is not configured to archive session logs. Reject Files When performing recovery. the server creates a new session log for the recovery session. This allows you to correct and load all rejected rows from the completed session.than running the session again. bulk loading increases general session performance. and deleting source data. weigh the importance of performing recovery when choosing a target load type. the server creates a single reject file. a Microsoft SQL Server database. Therefore. and the Normalizer generates primary keys. Session Logs If a session is configured to archive session logs. the server overwrites the existing log when you recover the session. the server does not create the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table in the target database to store recovery-related information. sessions using these transformations are not guaranteed to return the same values when performing recovery. • The server configuration parameter Disable Recovery is not selected. The mapping consists of: Source Qualifier: SQ_LINEITEM Expression transformation: EXP_TRANS Target: T_LINEITEM The session is configured to save 5 session logs. If the table already exists. When you configure a session to load in bulk. The server appends rejected rows from the recovery session (or sessions) to the session reject file. When the Disable Recovery option is checked. the following must be true: • • Source data does not change before performing recovery. PAGE BP-194 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . When configuring session properties for sessions processing large amounts of data. In addition. Example Session “s_recovery” reads from a Sybase source and writes to a target table in “production_target”. the server creates a new log for each session run. the server logs a message in the session log stating that recovery is not supported. If you perform nested recovery. Both the Sequence Generator and the Normalizer transformations generate source values: the Sequence Generator generates sequences. Changes in source files or tables can result in inaccurate data. The mapping used in the session does not use a Sequence Generator or Normalizer. to ensure accurate results from the recovery. updating. This includes inserting.

] Thu Jan 14 18:42:44 1999 CMN_1022 Database driver error. Since the server cannot find OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY. CMN_1053 Writer: Target is database [TOMDB@PRODUCTION_TARGET]..bad. Start loading table [T_LINEITEM] at: Thu Jan 14 18:42:50 1999 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:43:59 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 10125 INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-195 . (If the session is configured to save logs by timestamp.. CMN_1022 [Function Name : Execute SqlStmt : SELECT SESSION_ID FROM OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY] WRT_8017 Created OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table in target database. As the following session log show.. it creates the table.] Thu Jan 14 18:42:44 1999 CMN_1040 SQL Server Event CMN_1040 [01/14/99 18:42:44 DB-Library Error 10007 : General SQL Server error: Check messages from the SQL Server.log. The following section of the session log shows the server preparing to load normally to the production_target database. the server performs six target -based commits before the session fails. user [lchen].First Run The first time the session runs. the server creates a session log named s_recovery. bulk mode [OFF] .. TM_6095 Starting Transformation Engine.) The server also creates a reject file for the target table named t_lineitem. CMN_1039 SQL Server Event CMN_1039 [01/14/99 18:42:44 SQL Server Message 208 : Invalid object name 'OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY'.. the server appends the date and time to the log file name..

Rows Applied: 10125 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:45:09 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 20250 Rows Applied: 20250 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:46:25 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 30375 Rows Applied: 30375 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:47:31 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 40500 Rows Applied: 40500 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:48:35 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 50625 Rows Applied: 50625 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:49:41 1999 ============================================= PAGE BP-196 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

To archive the existing session log.0. and states the row at which it will begin recovery (i. the server notes the session is in recovery mode. Running a Recovery Session To run a recovery session. and then passes data to the DTM beginning with the first uncommitted row. the server sets row 60751 as the row from which to recover.log.Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 60750 Rows Applied: 60750 Rows Rejected: 0 When a session fails. you can configure the session to recover the committed rows. The server reopens the existing reject file (t_lineitem. since the server committed more than 60. As seen below.e.) TM_6098 Session [s_recovery] running in recovery mode. the server reads the source.. It opens the existing reject file and begins processing with the next row. rather than running the whole session again. row 60751. or choose Save Session Log By Timestamp option on the Log Files tab. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-197 . Second Run (Recovery Session) When you run the session in recovery mode.bad) and appends any rejected rows to that file. or if necessary. Since the session is configured to save multiple logs. it renames the existing log s_recovery.000 rows to the target. … TM_6026 Recovering from row [60751] for target instance [T_LINEITEM]. the server creates a new session log. check the Perform Recovery option on the Log Files tab of the session property sheet. and writes all new session information in s_recovery. When performing recovery. In the session log below. Start the session.log. either increase the number of session logs saved. the server provides more detailed information about the session. you can truncate the target and run the entire session again. When running the session with the Verbose Data tracing level. edit the session schedule and reschedule the session. Note: Setting the tracing level to Verbose Data slows the server's performance and is not recommended for most production sessions. 60752. However.

bad] Third Run (Nested Recovery) If the recovery session fails before completing. If necessary. creating a new session log and appending bad data to the reject file. you can run the session in recovery mode again. return the session to its normal schedule and reschedule the session. it performs any configured postsession stored procedures or commands normally. When the server completes loading target tables. and ‘Perform Recovery’ will not be possible unless this flag is changed to No during server configuration. Things to Consider In PowerCenter 5. PAGE BP-198 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .1. you must edit the session properties to clear the Perform Recovery option.CMN_1053 SetRecoveryInfo for transform(T_LINEITEM): Rows To Recover From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Current Transform [SQ_lineitem]: Rows To Consume From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Output Transform [EXPTRANS]: Rows To Produce From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Current Transform [EXPTRANS]: Rows To Consume From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Output Transform [T_LINEITEM]: Rows To Produce From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Writer: Opened bad (reject) file [C:\winnt\system32\BadFiles\t_lineitem. Returning to Normal Session After successfully recovering a session. This means the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table will not be created. You will need to have “create table” permissions in the target database in order to create this table. The server runs the session as it did the earlier recovery sessions. the DisableRecovery server initialization flag defaults to Yes. You can run the session in recovery mode as many times as necessary to complete the session's target tables. as if the session completed in a single run.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-199 . • • Activity . The best way to gather this type of information is by interviewing the Project Sponsor and/or the project beneficiaries. and their business information requirements. 2. 1.Interview (individually or in forum) Project Sponsor and/or beneficiaries regarding business goals and objectives for the project. • Activity . It may be practical to combine information gathering for the needs assessment and goals definition.Interview (individually or in forum) Project Sponsor and/or beneficiaries regarding problems and needs related to project. In many cases.Developing the Business Case Challenge Identifying the departments and individuals that are likely to benefit directly from the project implementation. The next step in establishing the business scope is to understand the business problem or need that the project addresses.Interview project sponsor to identify beneficiaries. This information can then be summarized in an organization chart that is useful for ensuring that all project team members understand the corporate/business organization. The next step in creating the project scope is defining the business goals and objectives for the project and detailing them in a comprehensive Statement of Project Goals and Objectives.g. using business terms to describe the problem. is key to defining and scoping the project.Organization chart of corporate beneficiaries and participants.Problem/Need Statement 3. Understanding these individuals. define their business roles and project participation. the problem may be expressed as "a lack of information" rather than "a lack of technology" and should detail the business decisions or analysis that is required to resolve the lack of information.. Deliverable . using individual interviews or general meetings to elicit the information. the Project Sponsor and beneficiaries are the best sources for this type of information. • • Activity . For example. the Project Sponsor can help to identify the beneficiaries and the various departments they represent. Description The following four steps summarize business case development and lay a good foundation f or proceeding into detailed business requirements for the project. Deliverable .) and should avoid any technical considerations at this point. Again. This information should be clearly defined in a Problem/Needs Statement. This statement should be a high-level expression of the desired business solution (e. what strategic or tactical benefits does the business expect to gain from the project. One of the first steps in establishing the business scope is identifying the project beneficiaries and understanding their business roles and project participation.

Deliverable - Statement of Project Goals and Objectives

4. The final step is creating a Project Scope and Assumptions statement that clearly defines the boundaries of the project based on the Statement of Project Goals and Objective and the associated project assumptions. This statement should focus on the type of information or analysis that will be included in the project rather than what will not. The assumptions statements are optional and may include qualifiers on the scope, such as ass umptions of feasibility, specific roles and responsibilities, or availability of resources or data.

• •

Activity - Business Analyst develops Project Scope and Assumptions statement for presentation to the Project Sponsor.
Deliverable - Project Scope and Assumptions statement

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Assessing the Business Case

Challenge
Developing a solid business case for the project that includes both the tangible and intangible potential benefits of the project.

Description
The Business Case should include both qualitative and quantitative assessments of the project. The Qualitative Assessment portion of the Business Case is based on the Statement of Problem/Need and the Statement of Project Goals and Objectives (both generated in Subtask 1.1.1) and focuses on d iscussions with the project beneficiaries of expected benefits in terms of problem alleviation, cost savings or controls, and increased efficiencies and opportunities. The Quantitative Assessment portion of the Business Case provides specific measurable details of the proposed project, such as the estimated ROI, which may involve the following calculations:

Cash flow analysis- Projects positive and negative cash flows for the anticipated life of the project. Typically, ROI measurements use the cash flow formula to depict results. Net present value - Evaluates cash flow according to the long-term value of current investment. Net present value shows how much capital needs to be invested currently, at an assumed interest rate, in order to create a stream of payments over time. For instance, to generate an income stream of $500 per month over six months at an interest rate of eight percent would require an investment-a net present value-of $2,311.44. Return on investment - Calculates net present value of total incremental cost savings and revenue divided by the net present value of total costs multiplied by 100. This type of ROI calculation is frequently referred to as return of equity or return on capital employed. Payback - Determines how much time will pass before an initial capital investment is recovered.

The following are steps to calculate the quantitative business case or ROI:

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Step 1. Develop Enterprise Deployment Map. This is a model of the project phases over a timeline, estimating as specifically as possible customer participation (e.g., by department and location), subject area and type of information/analysis, numbers of users, numbers of data marts and data sources, types of sources, and size of data set. Step 2. Analyze Potential Benefits. Discussions with representative managers and users or the Project Sponsor should reveal the tangible and intangible benefits of the project. The most effective format for presenting this analysis is often a "before" and "after" format that compares the current situation to the project expectations. Step 3. Calculate Net Present Value for all Benefits. Information gathered in this step should help the customer representatives to understand how the expected benefits will be allocated throughout the organization over time, using the enterprise deployment map as a guide. Step 4. Define Overall Costs. Customers need specific cost information in order to assess the dollar impact of the project. Cost estimates should address the following fundamental cost components:

• • • • • • • • •

Hardware Networks RDBMS software Back-end tools Query/reporting tools Internal labor External labor Ongoing support Training

Step 5. Calculate Net Present Value for all Costs. Use either actual cost estimates or percentage-of-cost values (based on cost allocation assumptions) to calculate costs for each cost component, projected over the timeline of the enterprise deployment map. Actual cost estimates are more accurate than percentage-of-cost allocations, but much more time-consuming. The percentage-of-cost allocation process may be valuable for initial ROI snapshots until costs can be more clearly predicted. Step 6. Assess Risk, Adjust Costs and Benefits Accordingly. Review potential risks to the project and make corresponding adjustments to the costs and/or benefits. Some of the major risks to consider are:

• • • •

Scope creep, which can be mitigated by thorough planning and tight project scope Integration complexity, which can be reduced by standardizing on vendors with integrated product sets or open architectures Architectural strategy that is inappropriate Other miscellaneous risks from management or end users who may withhold project support; from the entanglements of internal politics; and from technologies that don't function as promised

Step 7. Determine Overall ROI. When all other portions of the business case are complete, calculate the project's "bottom line". Determining the overall ROI is simply a matter of subtracting net present value of total costs from net present value of (total incremental revenue plus cost savings). For more detail on these steps, refer to the Informatica White Paper: 7 Steps to Calculating Data Warehousing ROI.

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Defining and Prioritizing Requirements

Challenge
Defining and prioritizing business and functional requirements is often accomplished through a combination of interviews and facilitated meetings (i.e., workshops) between the Project Sponsor and beneficiaries and the Project Manager and Business Analyst.

Description
The following three steps are key for successfully defining and prioritizing requirements:

Step 1: Discovery
During individual (or small group) interviews with high-level management, there is often focus and clarity of vision that for some, may be hindered in large meetings or not available from lower-level management. On the other hand, detailed review of existing reports and current analysis from the company's "information providers" can fill in helpful details. As part of the initial "discovery" process, Informatica generally recommends several interviews at the Project Sponsor and/or upper management level and a few with those acquainted with current reporting and analysis processes. A few peer group forums can also be valuable. However, this part of the process must be focused and brief or it can become unwieldy as much time can be expended trying to coordinate calendars between worthy forum participants. Set a time period and target list of participants with the Project Sponsor, but avoid lengthening the process if some participants aren't available. Questioning during these session should include the following:

• • • •

What are the target business functions, roles, and responsibilities? What are the key relevant business strategies, decisions, and processes (in brief)? What information is important to drive, support, and measure success for those strategies/processes? What key metrics? What dimensions for those metrics? What current reporting and analysis is applicable? Who provides it? How is it presented? How is it used?

Step 2: Validation and Prioritization
The Business Analyst, with the help of the Project Architect, documents the findings of the discovery process. The resulting Business Requirements Specification includes a matrix linking the specific business requirements to their functional requirements.

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This document. based on the business requirements findings. and Architect develop consensus on a project "phasing" approach. or incremental. "roadmap" for the project (Project Roadmap).At this time also. Step 3: The Incremental Roadmap Concurrent with the validation of the business requirements. the Architect develops the Information Requirements Specification in order to clearly represent the structure of the information requirements. This is presented to the Project Sponsor for approval and becomes the first "Increment" or starting point for the Project Plan. The detailed business requirements and information requirements should be reviewed with the project beneficiaries and prioritized based on business need and the stated project objectives and scope. the Project Manager. the Architect begins the Functional Requirements Specification providing details on the technical requirements for the project. will facilitate discussion of informational details and provide the starting point for the target model definition. they develop a phased. As general technical feasibility is compared to the prioritization from Step 2. Business Analyst. PAGE BP-204 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Thus. Items of secondary priority and those with poor near-term feasibility are relegated to subsequent phases of the project.

When the estimate is complete.and should .3. subtasks required to complete the project. individual resources can be assigned and scheduled. simplifying the effort to develop the WBS. but it does need to break the tasks down to a manageable level of detail. but should review it carefully to ensure that it corresponds to the specific development effort.3). The WBS shouldn't be a 'grocery list' of every minor detail in the project. Tasks. the Project Manager can begin to estimate the level of effort involved in completing each of the steps.1 through 4. the goal is to list every task that must be completed. it is not necessary to determine the critical path for completing these tasks.1 through 4.7 can .3.g. For example. subtasks 4. However. For example.. The phases. At this stage of project planning. the BUILD phase is not complete until tasks 4.be completed in parallel if they do not have sequential requirements. Because project time and resource estimates are typically based on the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). and too much detail.3. This sample is a Microsoft Project file that has been "pre-loaded" with the Phases. Many projects will require the addition of detailed steps to accurately represent the development effort. The WBS serves as a starting point for both the project estimate and the project plan. So. The end result is the Project Plan. and Subtasks that make up the Informatica Methodology.7 are complete. The Project Manager can use this WBS as a starting point. we may have multiple subtasks under a task (e. tasks. Description A WBS is a tool for identifying and organizing the tasks that need to be completed in a project. One general guideline is to keep task detail to a duration of at least a day.3. If the Project Manager chooses not to use Microsoft Project. 4. it is critical to develop a thorough. although subtasks 4. an Excel version of the Work Breakdown Structure is available. removing any steps that aren't relevant or adding steps as necessary. Refer to Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan for further information about the project plan. The Project Plan provides a starting point for further development of the project WBS.5 through 4. After the WBS has been loaded into the selected project management tool and refined for the specific project needs.Developing a WBS Challenge Developing a comprehensive work breakdown structure that clearly depicts all of the various tasks.3.7 under task 4.1 through 4.4 may have sequential requirements that force us to complete them in order. Tasks in the hierarchy are often completed in parallel. it is important to remember that a task is not complete until all of its corresponding subtasks are completed whether sequentially or in parallel. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-205 . but some work can (and should) begin for the DEPLOY phase long before the BUILD phase is complete. and subtasks can be exported from Excel into many other project management tools. It is also important to remember that the WBS is not necessarily a sequential document. One challenge in developing a good WBS is obtaining the correct balance between enough detail. accurate WBS.3.

Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan

Challenge
Developing the first-pass of a project plan that incorporates all of the necessary components but which is sufficiently flexible to accept the inevitable changes.

Description
Use the following steps as a guide for developing the initial project plan:

• • •

Define the project's major milestones based on the Project Scope. Break the milestones down into major tasks and activities. The Project Plan should be helpful as a starting point or for recommending tasks for inclusion. Continue the detail breakdown, if possible, to a level at which tasks are of about one to three days' duration. This level provides satisfactory detail to facilitate estimation and tracking. If the detail tasks are too broad in scope, estimates are much less likely to be accurate. Confer with technical personnel to review the task definitions and effort estimates (or even to help define them, if applicable). Establish the dependencies among tasks, where one task cannot be started until another is completed (or must start or complete concurrently with another). Define the resources based on the role definitions and estimated number of resources needed for each role. Assign resources to each task. If a resource will only be part-time on a task, indicate this in the plan.

• • • •

At this point, especially when using Microsoft Project, it is advisable to create dependencies (i.e., predecessor relationships) between tasks assigned to the same resource in order to indicate the sequence of that person's activities. The initial definition of tasks and effort and the resulting schedule should be an exercise in pragmatic feasibility unfettered by concerns about ideal completion dates. In other words, be as realistic as possible in your initial estimations, even if the resulting scheduling is likely to be a hard sell to c ompany management. This initial schedule becomes a starting point. Expect to review and rework it, perhaps several times. Look for opportunities for parallel activities, perhaps adding resources, if necessary, to improve the schedule.

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When a satisfactory initial plan is complete, review it with the Project Sponsor and discuss the assumptions, dependencies, assignments, milestone dates, and such. Expect to modify the plan as a result of this review.

Reviewing and Revising the Project Plan
Once the Project Sponsor and company managers agree to the initial plan, it becomes the basis for assigning tasks to individuals on the project team and for setting expectations regarding delivery dates. The planning activity then shifts to tracking tasks against the schedule and updating the plan based on status and changes to assumptions. One approach is to establish a baseline schedule (and budget, if applicable) and then track changes against it. With Microsoft Project, this involves creating a "Baseline" that remain s static as changes are applied to the schedule. If company and project management do not require tracking against a baseline, simply maintain the plan through updates without a baseline. Regular status reporting should include any changes to the schedule, beginning with team members' notification that dates for task completions are likely to change or have already been exceeded. These status report updates should trigger a regular plan update so that project management can track the effect on the overall schedule and budget. Be sure to evaluate any changes to scope (see 1.2.4 Manage Project and Scope Change Assessment ), or changes in priority or approach, as they arise to determine if they impact the plan. It may be necessary to modify the plan if changes in scope or priority require rearranging task assignments or delivery sequences, or if they add new tasks or postpone existing ones.

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Managing the Project Lifecycle

Challenge
Providing a structure for on-going management throughout the project lifecycle.

Description
It is important to remember that the quality of a project can be directly correlated to the amount of review that occurs during its lifecycle.

Project Status and Plan Reviews
In addition to the initial project plan review with the Project Sponsor, schedule regular status meetings with the sponsor and project team to review status, issues, scope changes and schedule updates. Gather status, issues and schedule update information from the team one day before the status meeting in order to compile and distribute the Status Report .

Project Content Reviews
The Project Manager should coordinate, if not facilitate, reviews of requirements, plans and deliverables with company management, including business requirements reviews with business personnel and technical reviews with project technical personnel. Set a process in place beforehand to ensure appropriate personnel are invited, any relevant documents are distributed at least 24 hours in advance, and that reviews focus on questions and issues (rather than a laborious "reading of the code"). Reviews may include:

• • • • • • • • •

Project scope and business case review Business requirements review Source analysis and business rules reviews Data architecture review Technical infrastructure review (hardware and software capacity and configuration pla nning) Data integration logic review (source to target mappings, cleansing and transformation logic, etc.) Source extraction process review Operations review (operations and maintenance of load sessions, etc.) Reviews of operations plan, QA plan, deployment and support plan

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Change Management
Directly address and evaluate any changes to the planned project activities, priorities, or staffing as they arise, or are proposed, in terms of their impact on the project plan.

• • •

Use the Scope Change Assessment to record the background problem or requirement and the recommended resolution that constitutes the potential scope change. Review each potential change with the technical team to assess its impact on the project, evaluating the effect in terms of schedule, budget, staffing requirements, and so forth. Present the Scope Change Assessment to the Project Sponsor for acceptance (with formal sign-off, if applicable). Discuss the assumptions involved in the impact estimate and any potential risks to the project.

The Project Manager should institute this type of change management process in response to any issue or request that appears to add or alter expected activities and has the potential to affect the plan. Even if there is no evident effect on the schedule, it is important to document these changes because they may affect project direction and it may become necessary, later in the project cycle, to justify these changes to management.

Issues Management
Any questions, problems, or issues that arise and are not immediately resolved should be tracked to ensure that someone is accountable for resolving them so that their effect can also be visible. Use the Issues Tracking template, or something similar, to track issues, their owner, and dates of entry and resolution as well as the details of the issue and of its solution. Significant or "showstopper" issues should also be mentioned on the status report.

Project Acceptance and Close
Rather than simply walking away from a project when it seems complete, there should be an explicit close procedure. For most projects this involves a meeting where the Project Sponsor and/or department managers acknowledge completion or sign a statement of satisfactory completion.

• •

Even for relatively short projects, use the Project Close Report to finalize the project with a final status report detailing: o What was accomplished o Any justification for tasks expected but not completed o Recommendations Prepare for the close by considering what the project team has learned about the environments, procedures, data integration design, data architecture, and other project plans. Formulate the recommendations based on issues or problems that need to be addressed. Succinctly describe each problem or recommendation and if applicable, briefly describe a recommended approach.

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Description Configuring security is one of the most important components of building a Data Warehouse. and data – in order to ensure system integrity and data confidentiality. Knowledge of PowerCenter’s security facilities is also a prerequisite to security design. and end users’ access requirements. In most implementations. it is critical for protecting the production environment. While this is less important in a development/unit test environment. Security should be implemented with the goals of easy maintenance and scalability. batches. it is imperative to answer the following basic questions: • • • • • • • • Who needs access to the Repository? What do they need the ability to do? Is a central administrator required? What permissions are appropriate for him/her? Is the central administrator responsible for designing and configuring the repository security? If not. There should be a limit to the number of administrator accounts for PowerCenter. sessions. the administrator takes care of maintaining the Repository. folders. data content. Before implementing security measures.Configuring Security Challenge Configuring a PowerCenter security scheme to prevent unauthorized access to mappings. Determining an optimal security configuration for a PowerCenter environment requires a thorough understanding of business requirements. repositories. has a security administrator been identified? What levels of permissions are appropriate for the developers? Do they need access to all the folders? Who needs to start sessions manually? Who is allowed to start and stop the Informatica Server? How will PowerCenter security be administered? Will it be the same as the database security scheme? Do we need to restrict access to Global Objects? The following pages offer some answers to the these questions and some suggestions for assigning user groups and access privileges. PAGE BP-210 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

The Server Manager provides another level of security for this purpose. with users then added to each group. Global Objects include Database Connections. It is used to assign read. Global Object permissions. since there are generally few groups and many users. modify. pmcmd. write. FTP Connections and External Loader Connections. and delete sessions and batches in Server Manager. All security management is performed through the Repository Manager. The Repository may be connected to sources/targets that contain sensitive information. in addition to privileges and permissions assigned using the Repository Manager. This means that the permissions for Global Objects can be changed after enabling Enhanced Security. Choosing the Enable Security option activates the following set of default privileges: User Owner Owner Group World Default Global Object Permissions Read. groups. and folders. The internal security enables multi-user development through management of users. Can create and modify folders. and execute permissions for global objects. privileges. Can browse repository contents through the Repository Manager. not database users. affect the ability to perform tasks in the Server Manager. This approach is simpler than assigning privileges on a user-by-user basis. Every user ID must be assigned to one or more groups. and any user can belong to more than one group. all password information is encrypted and stored in the repository. These are PowerCenter users. Write and Execute Read and Execute No Permissions Enabling Enhanced Security does not lock the restricted access settings for Global Objects. Only the owner of the Object or a Super User can manage permissions for a Global Object. and the command line program. Can create. regardless of folder level permissions. Can edit metadata in the Designer.PowerCenter’s security approach is similar to database security environments. The Server Manager also offers an enhanced security option that allows you to specify a default set of privileges that applies restricted access controls for Global Objects. The following table summarizes some possible privileges that may be granted: Privilege Session Operator Use Designer Browse Repository Create Sessions and Batches Administer Repository Administer Server Description Can run any sessions or batches. the Repository Manager. privileges are commonly assigned to groups. Can configure connections on the server and INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-211 . Although privileges can be assigned to users or groups.

Business end users who run reports off of the data warehouse. copy. For each folder. Browse Repository Super User Administrator Users with Administer Repository or Super User privileges may edit folder properties. that folder inherits the properties of the object.e. Create Sessions and Batches Browse Repository End User Operator Session Operator. Data warehouse Administrators who maintain the entire warehouse environment. thereby enabling object reuse. and repository (i. any user). meaning that shortcuts can be created pointing to objects within the folder.Privilege Super User Description stop the server through the Server Manager or the command-line interface. Can perform all tasks with the repository and the server The next table suggests a common set of initial groups and the privileges that may be associated with them: Group Developer Description PowerCenter developers who are creating the mappings. Can run sessions using mappings in the folder. Can edit metadata in the folder. and to place all reusable objects within that sharable folder. A recommended practice is to create only one shareable folder per repository. and create shortcuts to repository objects in the folder.. privileges are set for the owner. Use Designer. and Execute: Privilege Read Description Can read. Privileges Session Operator. Write. PAGE BP-212 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and also determine whether the folder is shareable. Operations department that runs and maintains the environment in production. group. Browse Repository. Write Execute Allowing shortcuts enables other folders in the same repository to share objects such as source/target tables. The following table details the three folder level privileges: Read. When other folders create a shortcut from a shareable folder. and mappings. this property cannot be changed. After a folder is flagged as shareable. so changes to common logic or elements can be managed more efficiently. Administer Server. which must identify a folder owner and group. Users without read permissions cannot see the folder. transformations.

You might also wish to add a group specific to each application if there are many application development tasks being performed within the same repository. regardless of folder level permissions. it is difficult to identify which developer is making (or has made) changes to an object. while everyone else should have the appropriate privileges within the folders they use. it cannot be opened and modified by anyone but that user. However members within the folder’s group may contain only Read/Write. and the Allow Shortcuts option. if multiple individuals share a common login ID.Users who own a folder or have Administer Repository or Super User privileges can edit folder properties to change the owner. if any at all. if you have two projects. A folder owner should be allowed all three folder level permissions. When a session is in use by a developer. Informatica recommends creating individual User IDs for all developers and administrators on the system rather than using a single shared ID. Tight security is recommended in the production environment to ensure that the developers and other users do not accidentally make changes to production. This enables you to assign folder level security to the group and keep the two projects from accidentally working in folders that belong to the other project team. you may assign group level security for all of the ABC folders to the ABC group. only members of the ABC group can make changes to those folders. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-213 . For example. ABC and XYZ. Note that users with the Session Operator privilege can run sessions or batches. In this example. it may be appropriate to create a group for ABC developers and another for XYZ developers. One of the most important reasons for this is session level locking. Repository privileges should be restricted to Read permissions only. the three levels of privileges. Only a few people should have Administer Repository or Super User privileges. depending on the desired level of security. Also. the group assigned to the folder. In this way. Locks thus prevent repository corruption by preventing simultaneous uncoordinated updates. or possibly all three levels.

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