Best Practices: Table of Contents

Best Practices Configuration Management Migration Procedures Development Techniques Development FAQs Data Cleansing Data Connectivity Using PowerConnect for BW Integration Server Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for Mainframe Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for MQSeries Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for SAP Incremental Loads Mapping Design Metadata Reporting and Sharing Naming Conventions Session and Data Partitioning Using Parameters, Variables and Parameter Files Error Handling A Mapping Approach to Trapping Data Errors Design Error Handling Infrastructure Documenting Mappings Using Repository Reports Error Handling Strategies Using Shortcut Keys in PowerCenter Designer Object Management Creating Inventories of Reusable Objects & Mappings Operations

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Updating Repository Statistics Daily Operations Load Validation Third Party Scheduler Event Based Scheduling Repository Administration High Availability Performance Tuning Recommended Performance Tuning Procedures Performance Tuning Databases Performance Tuning UNIX Systems Performance Tuning Windows NT/2000 Systems Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Tuning Sessions for Better Performance Determining Bottlenecks Platform Configuration Advanced Client Configuration Options Advanced Server Configuration Options Platform Sizing Recovery Running Sessions in Recovery Mode Project Management Developing the Business Case Assessing the Business Case Defining and Prioritizing Requirements Developing a WBS Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan Managing the Project Lifecycle Security Configuring Security

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Migration Procedures

Challenge To develop a migration strategy that ensures clean migration between development, test, QA, and production, thereby protecting the integrity of each of these environments as the system evolves. Description In every application deployment, a migration strategy must be formulated to ensure a clean migration between development, test, quality assurance, and production. The migration strategy is largely influenced by the technologies that are deployed to support the development and production environments. These technologies include the databases, the operating systems, and the available hardware. Informatica offers flexible migration techniques that can be adapted to fit the existing technology and architecture of various sites, rather than proposing a single fixed migration strategy. The means to migrate work from development to production depends largely on the repository environment, which is either: • • Standalone PowerCenter, or Distributed PowerCenter

This Best Practice describes several migration strategies, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each. It also discusses an XML method provided in PowerCenter 5.1 to support migration in either a Standalone or a Distributed environment. Standalone PowerMart/PowerCenter In a standalone environment, all work is performed in a single Informatica repository that serves as the shared metadata store. In this standalone environment, segregating the workspaces ensures that the migration from development to production is seamless. Workspace segregation can be achieved by creating separate folders for each work area. For instance, we might build a single data mart for the finance division within a

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corporation. In this example, we would create a minimum of four folders to manage our metadata. The folders might look something like the following:

In this scenario, mappings are developed in the FINANCE_DEV folder. As development is completed on particular mappings, they will be copied one at a time to the FINANCE_TEST folder. New sessions will be created or copied for each mapping in the FINANCE_TEST folder. When unit testing has been completed successfully, the mappings are copied into the FINANCE_QA folder. This process continues until the mappings are integrated into the production schedule. At that point, new sessions will be created in the FINANCE_PROD folder, with the database connections adjusted to point to the production environment. Introducing shortcuts in a single standalone environment complicates the migration process, but offers an efficient method for centrally managing sources and targets. A common folder can be used for sharing reusable objects such as shared sources, target definitions, and reusable transformations. If a common folder is used, there should be one common folder for each environment (i.e., SHARED_DEV, SHARED_TEST, SHARED_QA, SHARED_PROD). Migration Example Process Copying the mappings into the next stage enables the user to promote the desired mapping to test, QA, or production at the lowest level of granularity. If the folder where the mapping is to be copied does not contain the referenced source/target tables or transformations, then these objects will automatically be copied along with the mapping. The advantage of this promotion strategy is that individual mappings can be promoted as soon as they are ready for production. However, because only one mapping at a time can be copied, promoting a large number of mappings into production would be very time consuming. Additional time is required to re-create or copy all sessions from scratch, especially if pre- or post-session scripts are used. On the initial move to production, if all mappings are completed, the entire FINANCE_QA folder could be copied and renamed to FINANCE_PROD. With this approach, it is not necessary to promote all mappings and sessions individually. After the initial migration, however, mappings will be promoted on a “case-by-case” basis.

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and drag and drop the mapping from the development folder into the test folder. first delete the old shortcut before linking the output ports. follow the copy session wizard. one for each migration stage COMMON_TEST. open it in the Designer and bring in the newly copied shortcut. 3. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-3 . Copy the shortcut objects into the COMMON_TEST folder. open the appropriate test folder. 2. Using the newly copied mapping. first follow these substeps. if not using shortcuts. Copy the mapping from Development into Test. • If copying the mapping. if any of the objects are active. Using the old shortcut as a model. follow these substeps. Using the old shortcut as a model. • In the PowerCenter Designer. link all of the input ports to the new shortcut.Follow these steps to copy a mapping from Development to Test: 1. 4. If using shortcuts. Create or copy a session in the Server Manager to run the mapping (make sure the mapping exists in the current repository first). However. COMMON_PROD). If using shortcuts. link all of the output ports to the new shortcut. if not using shortcuts. skip to step 4: • • • • Open the mapping that uses shortcuts. skip to step 2 • • Create four common folders. (COMMON_DEV. COMMON_QA.

QA. In Test and Quality Assurance. enter all the appropriate information in the Session Wizard. In Production. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. such as: • • • • In Development. 5. the owner of the folders should be a user in the development group. Implement appropriate security. Performance Implications in the Single Environment A disadvantage of the single environment approach is that even though the Development. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. If Development or Test loads are running simultaneously with PAGE BP-4 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . they all reside on the same server.• If creating the mapping. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. This can have negative performance implications. and Production “environments” are stored in separate folders. Test.

There are three main techniques to migrate from Development to Production. FINANCE_QA. ready or not. in our Finance example we would have four repositories.Production loads. However. Production loads run late at night. FINANCE_DEV.e. or Production. Another disadvantage is the need to adjust server variables. Test. separate repositories provide the same function as the separate folders in the standalone environment described previously. including source and target tables. sequences. QA. the server machine may reach 100 percent utilization and Production performance will suffer. and Production. contending with the pre-scheduled Production runs. The mappings are created in the Development repository. For instance. each involving some advantages and disadvantages: • • • Repository Copy Folder Copy Object Copy Repository Copy The main advantage to this approach is the ability to copy everything at once from one environment to another. hardware and software) for Development. Distributed PowerCenter In a distributed environment. independent environments (i. The 10 unready mappings are moved into production along with the 40 production-ready maps. With a fully distributed approach. This is the preferred method for handling Development to Production migrations. Another advantage is the ability to automate this process without having users perform this process. The final advantage is that everything can be moved without breaking/corrupting any of the objects. etc. and then eventually into the Production environment. FINANCE_TEST. There are. QA. however. The trouble with this is that everything is moved. situations do arise where performance benchmarking with large volumes or other unusual circumstances can cause test loads to run overnight. and most Development and Test loads run during the day so this does not pose a problem. The first is that everything is moved at once (also an advantage).. For example. there may be 50 mappings in QA but only 40 of them are production-ready. and FINANCE_PROD. Often. transformations. three distinct disadvantages to the repository copy method. There are three ways to accomplish the Repository Copy method: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-5 . there are separate. parameters/variables. database connections. work performed in Development cannot impact Test. and sessions. mappings. Everything will need to be set up correctly on the new server that will now host the repository. Because each environment is segregated from the others.namely that maintenance is required to remove any unwanted or excess objects. Each repository has a similar name for the folders in the standalone environment. moved into the Test repository. which leads to the second disadvantage -.

then the TEST repository must first be deleted using the Delete option in the Repository Manager to create room for the new repository. PAGE BP-6 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The following screen shot shows the dialog box used to input the new location information: To successfully perform the copy. be sure to first delete any matching destination repositories.• • • Copying the Repository Repository Backup and Restore PMREP Copying the Repository The repository copy command is probably the easiest method of migration. go to the File menu in the Repository Manager and select Backup Repository. Repository Backup and Restore The Backup and Restore Repository is another simple method of copying an entire repository. To restore the repository simply open the Repository Manager on the destination server and select Restore Repository from the File menu. From there the user is prompted to choose the location to which the repository will be copied. PMREP Using the PMREP commands is essentially the same as the Backup and Restore Repository method except that it is run from the command line. Select the created . This will create a . Then the Copy Repository routine must be run.REP file to automatically restore the repository in the destination server.REP file containing all repository information. To perform this function. To perform this one needs to go the file menu of the Repository Manager and select Copy Repository. since the Restore Repository option does not delete the current repository. For example. The PMREP utilities can be utilized both from the Informatica Server and from any client machines connected to the server. the user must delete the current repository in the new location. To ensure success. if a user was copying a repository from DEV to TEST.

backup. follow these steps to convert the repository to Production: 1. etc: After following one of the above procedures to migrate into Production. and then clearing the Enable checkbox under the General tab. restore. Delete the sessions in the Server Manager and the mappings in the Designer. Disable sessions that schedule mappings that are not ready for Production or simply delete the mappings and sessions. scripts can be written to be run on a daily basis to perform functions such as connect. • • Disable the sessions in the Server manager by opening the session properties. Using the code example below as a model.The following table documents the available PMREP commands: The following is a sample of the command syntax used within a batch file to connect to and backup a repository. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-7 .

and sessions are promoted at once.2. developers (or the Repository Administrator) must manually delete these mappings from the new folder.and post-session scripts. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders.and post-session commands as necessary. for example. In Production. then the connect string will need to be modified appropriately. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. follow these substeps. Implement appropriate security. • In the Server Manager. and from the General tab make the required changes to the pre. then after the folder is copied. select Database Connections from the Server Configuration menu. If certain mappings are not ready. 3. reusable transformations. mappings. The disadvantages of Folder Copy are: • • User needs to be logged into multiple environments simultaneously. The advantages of Folder Copy are: • • • Easy to move the entire folder and all objects in it Detailed Wizard guides the user through the entire process There’s no need to update or alter any Database Connections. sequences or server variables. and so forth. such as: • • • • In Development. from QA to Production. otherwise skip to step 2: PAGE BP-8 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Modify the pre. All source and target tables. 4. Folder Copy Copying an entire folder allows you to quickly promote all of the objects in the Development folder to Test. Edit each database connection by changing the connect string to point to the production sources and targets. Modify the database connection strings to point to the Production sources and targets. The repository is locked while Folder Copy is being performed. open the session properties. • • • In the Server Manager. In Test and Quality Assurance. follow these steps: 1. ensure that the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. If using shortcuts. If copying a folder. Therefore. everything in the folder must be ready to migrate forward. If using lookup transformations in the mappings and the connect string is anything other than $SOURCE or $TARGET.

drag and drop the folder icon just under the repository level. create a common folder using exactly the same name and case as in the “source” repository. If a folder with that name already exists.• • • In each of the dedicated repositories. Follow the Copy Folder Wizard steps. it must be renamed. (To copy the entire folder. Open and connect to either the Repository Manager or Designer. 4. Drag and drop the folder onto the production repository icon within the Navigator tree structure. 2.) 3. Copy the shortcut objects into the common folder in Production and make sure the shortcut has exactly the same name. Point the folder to the correct shared folder if one is being used: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-9 .

ensure the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. Object Copy Copying mappings into the next stage within a networked environment has many of the same advantages and disadvantages as in the standalone environment. open the session properties.and post-session commands as necessary: • In the Server Manager. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. For additional information. In Production. and from the General tab make the required changes to the pre. but the process of handling shortcuts is simplified in the networked environment. Modify the pre. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group.and post-sessions scripts. see the previous description of Object Copy for the standalone environment. In Test and Quality Assurance.After performing the Folder Copy method. be sure to remember the following steps: 1. 2. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. Additional advantages and disadvantages of Object Copy in a distributed environment include: Advantages: • More granular control over objects PAGE BP-10 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Implement appropriate security: • • • • In Development.

Copy the mapping from quality assurance (QA) into production. otherwise skip to step 2: In each of the dedicated repositories. 3. 2. Drag and drop the mapping from QA into Production. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-11 . create a common folder with the exact same name and case. If creating the mapping. Copy the shortcuts into the common folder in Production making sure the shortcut has the exact same name. follow these substeps.Disadvantages: • • 1. • • If copying the mapping follow the copy session wizard. enter all the appropriate information in the Session Wizard. • • In the Designer. Create or copy a session in the Server Manager to run the mapping (make sure the mapping exists in the current repository first). connect to both the QA and Production repositories and open the appropriate folders in each. • • Much more work to deploy an entire group of objects Shortcuts must exist prior to importing/copying mappings If using shortcuts.

ensure the owner of the folders is a user in the Development group. see the steps outlined in the Object Copy section. In Production. Revoke all rights to Public other than Read for the Production folders. • • • • Implement appropriate security. PAGE BP-12 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . For recommendations on performing this copy procedure correctly. Recommendations Informatica recommends using the following process when running in a three-tiered environment with Development. In Development.4. Informatica recommends using the Object Copy method. change the owner of the folders to a user in the Production group. This method gives you total granular control over the objects that are being moved. change the owner of the Test/QA folders to a user in the Test/QA group. In Test and Quality Assurance. and Production servers: For migrating from Development into Test. It ensures that the latest development maps can be moved over manually as they are completed. Test/QA.

Before performing this migration.When migrating from Test to Production. you could edit that file to find everything within the <Session> tag. as it allows you to copy sources. For example. When you imported that XML file back into your folder. Informatica recommends using the Repository Copy method. This method is more useful in the distributed environment because it allows for backup into an XML file to be moved across the network. there will be minimal or no changes required to sessions that are created or copied to the production server. two sessions will be created. and paste that text within the XML file. Objects are exported into an XML file: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-13 . After the Test code is cleared for production. (Refer to the steps outlined in the Repository Copy section for recommendations to ensure that this process is successful. Once the XML file has been created. and sessions. that XML file can be changed with a text editor to allow more flexibility. use one of the repository copy methods. mappings. you would export that session to an XML file. Then. The XML Object Copy Process works in a manner very similar to the Repository Copy backup and restore method. copy that text. The following demonstrates the import/export functionality: 1. You would then change the name of the session you just pasted to be unique. all code in the Test server should be frozen and tested. targets. If similar server and database naming conventions are utilized.). XML Object Copy Process Another method of copying objects in a distributed (or centralized) environment is to copy objects by utilizing PM/PC’s XML functionality. if you had to copy one session many times. reusable transformations.

Sessions can be exported and imported into the Server Manager in the same way (the corresponding mappings must exist for this to work). PAGE BP-14 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Objects are imported into a repository from the corresponding XML file: 3.2.

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but they can also be run concurrently and make use of more system resources. what is the impact of having multiple targets populated by a single map?) With PowerCenter. Q: How does source format affect performance? (i. Backup Strategies.. However. Description The following pages summarize some of the questions that typically arise during development and suggest potential resolutions. Not only is it easier to debug a mapping with a limited number of objects. Q: What are some considerations when designing the mapping? (i.Development FAQs Challenge Using the PowerCenter product suite to most effectively to develop. which allows the PowerCenter mappings to access the data in an optimized fashion by using filters and custom SQL SELECTs where appropriate. It provides answers in a number of areas. is it more efficient to source from a flat file rather than a database?) In general. Server Administration. if there is an intent to perform intricate transformations before loading to target.e. name. this Best Practice addresses some questions that are commonly raised by project teams. This minimizes disk seeks and applies to a PAGE BP-16 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and document components of the analytic solution. consider writing to multiple disks or file systems simultaneously. While the most effective use of PowerCenter depends on the specific situation. it is possible to design a mapping with multiple targets. a flat file that is located on the server machine loads faster than a database located on the server machine. When using multiple output files (targets). and Metadata. Refer to the product guides supplied with PowerCenter for additional information. You can then load the targets in a specific order using Target Load Ordering. The recommendation is to limit the amount of complex logic in a mapping.e. Fixed-width files are faster than delimited files because delimited files require extra parsing. it may be advisable to first load the flat-file into a relational database. including Scheduling.

which simplifies the operations tasks associated with loading the targets. consult your Database User Guide. The Operations group can then work with twenty batches to load the warehouse. a hundred individual sessions can be logically grouped into twenty batches. The most expensive use of the DTM is passing unnecessary data through the mapping. For other database-specific errors. For example. This is the SQL equivalent of the WHERE clause. or to stop on errors. o A sequential batch simply runs sessions one at a time. Q: What documentation is available for the error codes that appear within the error log files? Log file errors and descriptions appear in Appendix C of the PowerCenter User Guide. Sequential batches help ensure that dependencies are met as needed. keeping all log files in the same directory. It is best to use filters as early as possible in the mapping to remove rows of data that are not needed. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-17 . Scheduling Techniques Q: What are the benefits of using batches rather than sessions? Using a batch to group logical sessions minimizes the number of objects that must be managed to successfully load the warehouse. Using the filter condition in the Source Qualifier to filter out the rows at the database level is a good way to increase the performance of the mapping. The business requirement is always the first consideration. etc. For example. and so on. Q: What are some considerations for determining how many objects and transformations to include in a single mapping? There are several items to consider when building a mapping.session writing to multiple targets. Log File Organization Q: Where is the best place to maintain Session Logs? One often-recommended location is the default /SessLogs/ folder in the Informatica directory. in a linear sequence. Error information also appears in the PowerCenter Help File within the PowerCenter client applications. There are two types of batches: sequential and concurrent. a sequential batch ensures that session1 runs before session2 when session2 is dependent on the load of session1. regardless of the number of objects it takes to fulfill the requirement. and to multiple sessions running simultaneously. It's also possible to set up conditions to run the next session only if the previous session was successful.

o

A concurrent batch groups logical sessions together, like a sequential batch, but runs all the sessions at one time. This can reduce the load times into the warehouse, taking advantage of hardware platforms' Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) architecture. A new batch is sequential by default; to make it concurrent, explicitly select the Concurrent check box.

Other batch options, such as nesting batches within batches, can further reduce the complexity of loading the warehouse. However, this capability allows for the creation of very complex and flexible batch streams without the use of a third-party scheduler. Q: Assuming a batch failure, does PowerCenter allow restart from the point of failure? Yes. When a session or sessions in a batch fail, you can perform recovery to complete the batch. The steps to take vary depending on the type of batch: If the batch is sequential, you can recover data from the session that failed and run the remaining sessions in the batch. If a session within a concurrent batch fails, but the rest of the sessions complete successfully, you can recover data from the failed session targets to complete the batch. However, if all sessions in a concurrent batch fail, you might want to truncate all targets and run the batch again. Q: What guidelines exist regarding the execution of multiple concurrent sessions / batches within or across applications? Session/Batch Execution needs to be planned around two main constraints: • • Available system resources Memory and processors

The number of sessions that can run at one time depends on the number of processors available on the server. The load manager is always running as a process. As a general rule, a session will be compute-bound, meaning its throughput is limited by the availability of CPU cycles. Most sessions are transformation intensive, so the DTM always runs. Also, some sessions require more I/O, so they use less processor time. Generally, a session needs about 120 percent of a processor for the DTM, reader, and writer in total. For concurrent sessions: • • One session per processor is about right; you can run more, but all sessions will slow slightly. Remember that other processes may also run on the PowerCenter server machine; overloading a production machine will slow overall performance.

Even after available processors are determined, it is necessary to look at overall system resource usage. Determining memory usage is more difficult

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than the processors calculation; it tends to vary according to system load and number of Informatica sessions running. The first step is to estimate memory usage, accounting for: • • • Operating system kernel and miscellaneous processes Database engine Informatica Load Manager

Each session creates three processes: the Reader, Writer, and DTM. • • If multiple sessions run concurrently, each has three processes More memory is allocated for lookups, aggregates, ranks, and heterogeneous joins in addition to the shared memory segment.

At this point, you should have a good idea of what is left for concurrent sessions. It is important to arrange the production run to maximize use of this memory. Remember to account for sessions with large memory requirements; you may be able to run only one large session, or several small sessions concurrently. Load Order Dependencies are also an important consideration because they often create additional constraints. For example, load the dimensions first, then facts. Also, some sources may only be available at specific times, some network links may become saturated if overloaded, and some target tables may need to be available to end users earlier than others. Q: Is it possible to perform two "levels" of event notification? One at the application level, and another at the PowerCenter server level to notify the Server Administrator? The application level of event notification can be accomplished through postsession e-mail. Post-session e-mail allows you to create two different messages, one to be sent upon successful completion of the session, the other to be sent if the session fails. Messages can be a simple notification of session completion or failure, or a more complex notification containing specifics about the session. You can use the following variables in the text of your post-session e-mail: E-mail Variable %s %l %r %e Description Session name Total records loaded Total records rejected Session status

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%t

Table details, including read throughput in bytes/second and write throughput in rows/second Session start time Session completion time Session elapsed time (session completion time-session start time) Attaches the session log to the message Attaches the named file. The file must be local to the Informatica Server. The following are valid filenames: %a<c:\data\sales.txt> or %a</users/john/data/sales.txt> On Windows NT, you can attach a file of any type. On UNIX, you can only attach text files. If you attach a non-text file, the send might fail. Note: The filename cannot include the Greater Than character (>) or a line break.

%b %c %i %g %a<filename>

The PowerCenter Server on UNIX uses rmail to send post-session e-mail. The repository user who starts the PowerCenter server must have the rmail tool installed in the path in order to send e-mail. To verify the rmail tool is accessible: 1. Login to the UNIX system as the PowerCenter user who starts the PowerCenter Server. 2. Type rmail <fully qualified email address> at the prompt and press Enter. 3. Type . to indicate the end of the message and press Enter. 4. You should receive a blank e-mail from the PowerCenter user's e-mail account. If not, locate the directory where rmail resides and add that directory to the path. 5. When you have verified that rmail is installed correctly, you are ready to send post-session e-mail. The output should look like the following: Session complete. Session name: sInstrTest Total Rows Loaded = 1 Total Rows Rejected = 0 Completed

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Rows Loaded Status 1

Rows Rejected 0

Read Throughput (bytes/sec) 30

Write Throughput Table Name (rows/sec) 1 t_Q3_sales

No errors encountered. Start Time: Tue Sep 14 12:26:31 1999 Completion Time: Tue Sep 14 12:26:41 1999 Elapsed time: 0:00:10 (h:m:s) This information, or a subset, can also be sent to any text pager that accepts e-mail. Backup Strategy Recommendation Q: Can individual objects within a repository be restored from the back-up or from a prior version? At the present time, individual objects cannot be restored from a back-up using the PowerCenter Server Manager (i.e., you can only restore the entire repository). But, It is possible to restore the back-up repository into a different database and then manually copy the individual objects back into the main repository. Refer to Migration Procedures for details on promoting new or changed objects between development, test, QA, and production environments. Server Administration Q: What built-in functions, does PowerCenter provide to notify someone in the event that the server goes down, or some other significant event occurs? There are no built-in functions in the server to send notification if the server goes down. However, it is possible to implement a shell script that will sense whether the server is running or not. For example, the command "pmcmd pingserver" will give a return code or status which will tell you if the server is up and running. Using the results of this command as a basis, a complex notification script could be built. Q: What system resources should be monitored? What should be considered normal or acceptable server performance levels? The pmprocs utility, which is available for UNIX systems only, shows the currently executing PowerCenter processes. Pmprocs is a script that combines the ps and ipcs commands. It is available through Informatica Technical Support. The utility provides the following information: - CPID - Creator PID (process ID)

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Use the pmserver. Today. Cognos. Informatica does not recommend accessing the repository directly. even for SELECT access. but the amount of metadata that you enter should be determined by the business requirements.Last PID that accessed the resource . you should first check to see if the Repository Database is able to come back up successfully. Business Objects. Rather. expression. this decision should be made on the basis of how much metadata will be required by the systems that use the metadata.Semaphores . variable. views have been created to provide access to the metadata stored in the repository. PAGE BP-22 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . including Brio. The decision on how much metadata to create is often driven by project timelines. Metadata Q: What recommendations or considerations exist as to naming standards or repository administration for metadata that might be extracted from the PowerCenter repository and used in others? With PowerCenter. You can also use ps -ef | grep pmserver to see if the server process (the Load Manager) is running.. datatypes. are effectively using the MX views to report and query the Informatica metadata. The motivation behind the original Metadata Exchange (MX) architecture was to provide an effective and easy-to-use interface to the repository.0 or 1 . transformations. then you should try to start the PowerCenter server. Q: What procedures exist for extracting metadata from the repository? Informatica offers an extremely rich suite of metadata-driven tools for data warehousing applications.used to sync the reader and writer . You can also drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary.LPID .shows slot in LM shared memory (See Chapter 16 in the PowerCenter Administrator's Guide for additional details. you can enter description information for all repository objects. and MicroStrategy. All of these tools store. Therefore.) Q: What cleanup (if any) should be performed after a UNIX server crash? Or after an Oracle instance crash? If the UNIX server crashes. Informatica and several key Business Intelligence (BI) vendors. etc. If this is the case. and manage their metadata in Informatica's central repository. retrieve. While it may be beneficial for a developer to enter detailed descriptions of each column.err log to check if the server has started correctly. and primary keys are stored in the repository. it is also very time consuming to do so. targets. etc. sources. All information about column size and scale.

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Provides tools that are run before the data extraction and load process to clean source data. Available tools are : • • • DMDataFuse . TM . PAGE BP-24 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . DMUtils . The partners and respective tools include the following: DataMentors . Description Informatica has several partners in the data cleansing arena. The online interface (ACE Library) integrates the TrueName Library and Merge/Purge Library of FirstLogic.a data cleansing and householding system with the power to accurately standardize and match data. at the point of entry into the data warehouse or operational data store (ODS). enhancement. cleansing. Thus. data analysis system that profiles and DMValiData identifies inconsistencies between data and metadata. TM FirstLogic – FirstLogic offers direct interfaces to PowerCenter during the extract and load process as well as providing pre-data extraction data cleansing tools like DataRight and Merge/Purge. these components can be invoked for parsing. standardization. as Transformation Components. to ensure that the warehouse provides consistent and accurate data for business decision making. The challenge is therefore to cleanse data online. or incorrect. and matching of the name and address information during the PowerCenter ETL stage of building a data mart or data warehouse. If users discover data inconsistencies. it is not unusual to discover that as many as half the records in a database contain some type of information that is incomplete. inconsistent.Data Cleansing Challenge Accuracy is one of the biggest obstacles blocking the success of many data warehousing projects. using the Informatica External Procedures protocol.a powerful non-compiled scripting language that operates on flat ASCII or delimited files. However. the user community may lose faith in the entire warehouse’s data. It also provides a way to reformat and summarize files. It is primarily used as a query and reporting tool.an effective.

Informatica users can invoke Trillium’s four data quality components through an easy-to-use graphical desktop object. FirstLogic – ACE The following graphic illustrates a high level flow diagram of the data cleansing process. As a result.. Datagration supports relational database systems and flat files as data sources and any application that runs in batch mode. flexible data quality system that can repair any type of data (in addition to its name and address) by incorporating custom business rules and logic.e. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-25 . Integration Examples This following sections describe how to integrate two of the tools with PowerCenter. Vality – Provides a product called Integrity. Trillium – Trillium’s eQuality customer information components (a web enabled tool) are integrated with Informatica’s Transformation Exchange modules and reside on the same server as Informatica’s transformation engine. words. Delivery of this bridge was originally scheduled for May 2001. The four components are : • • • • Converter: data analysis and investigation module for discovering word patterns and phrases within free form text Parser: processing engine for data cleansing. which identifies business relationships (such as households) and duplications. reveals undocumented business practices. It offers data analysis and investigation. Data Discovery enables Datagration to search through a field of free form data and re-arrange the tokens (i. conditioning. but no further information is available at this time.Paladyne – The flagship product. data elements) into a logical order. and unique probabilistic and fuzzy matching capabilities. Vality is in the process of developing a "TX Integration" to PowerCenter. Datagration's Data Discovery Message Gateway feature assesses data cleansing requirements using automated data discovery tools that identify data patterns. elementizing and standardizing customer data Geocoder: an Internationally-certified postal and census module for address verification and standardization Matcher: a module designed for relationship matching and record linking. and discovers metadata/field content discrepancies. Datagration is an open.

Use the Informatica Advanced External Transformation process to interface with the FirstLogic module by creating a “Matching Link” transformation. That process uses the Informatica Transformation Developer to create a new Advanced External Transformation, which incorporates the properties of the FirstLogic Matching Link files. Once a Matching Link transformation has been created in the Transformation Developer, users can incorporate that transformation into any of their project mappings: it's reusable from the repository. When an Informatica session starts, the transformation is initialized. The initialization sets up the address processing options, allocates memory, and opens the files for processing. This operation is only performed once. As each record is passed into the transformation it is parsed and standardized. Any output components are created and passed to the next transformation. When the session ends, the transformation is terminated. The memory is once again available and the directory files are closed. The available functions / processes are as follows. ACE Processing There are four ACE transformations available to choose from. They will parse, standardize and append address components using Firstlogic’s ACE Library. The transformation choice depends on the input record layout. A fourth transformation can provide optional components. This transformation must be attached to one of the three base transformations. The four transforms are: 1. ACE_discrete - where the input address data is presented in discrete fields 2. ACE_multiline - where the input address data is presented in multiple lines (1-6). 3. ACE_mixed - where the input data is presented with discrete city/state/zip and multiple address lines(1-6). 4. Optional transform – which is attached to one of the three base transforms and outputs the additional components of ACE for enhancement.

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All records input into the ACE transformation are returned as output. ACE returns Error/Status Code information during the processing of each address. This allows the end user to invoke additional rules before the final load is completed. TrueName Process TrueName mirrors the ACE transformation options with discrete, multi-line and mixed transformations. A fourth and optional transformation available in this process can be attached to one of the three transformations to provide genderization and match standards enhancements. TrueName will generate error and status codes. Similar to ACE, all records entered as input into the TrueName transformation can be used as output. Matching Process The matching process works through one transformation within the Informatica architecture. The input data is read into the Informatica data flow similar to a batch file. All records are read, the break groups created and, in the last step, matches are identified. Users set-up their own matching transformation through the PowerCenter Designer by creating an advanced external procedure transformation. Users are able to select which records are output from the matching transformations by editing the initialization properties of the transformation. All matching routines are predefined and, if necessary, the configuration files can be accessed for additional tuning. The five predefined matching scenarios include: individual, family, household (the only difference between household and family, is the household doesn't match on last name), firm individual, and firm. Keep in mind that the matching does not do any data parsing, this must be accomplished prior to using this transformation. As with ACE and TrueName, error and status codes are reported. Trillium Integration to Trillium’s data cleansing software is achieved through the Informatica Trillium Advanced External Procedures (AEP) interface. The AEP modules incorporate the following Trillium functional components. • Trillium Converter – The Trillium Converter facilitates data conversion such as EBCDIC to ASCII, integer to character, character length modification, literal constant and increasing values. It may also be used to create unique record identifiers, omit unwanted punctuation, or translate strings based on actual data or mask values. A user-customizable parameter file drives the conversion process. The Trillium Converter is a separate transformation that can be used standalone or in conjunction with the Trillium Parser module. Trillium Parser – The Trillium Parser identifies and/or verifies the components of free-floating or fixed field name and address data. The primary function of the Parser is to partition the input address records

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into manageable components in preparation for postal and census geocoding. The parsing process is highly table- driven to allow for customization of name and address identification to specific requirements. Trillium Postal Geocoder – The Trillium Postal Geocoder matches an address database to the ZIP+4 database of the U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Trillium Census Geocoder – The Trillium Census Geocoder matches the address database to U.S. Census Bureau information.

Each record that passes through the Trillium Parser external module is first parsed and then, optionally, postal geocoded and census geocoded. The level of geocoding performed is determined by a user-definable initialization property. • Trillium Window Matcher – The Trillium Window Matcher allows the PowerCenter Server to invoke Trillium’s deduplication and house holding functionality. The Window Matcher is a flexible tool designed to compare records to determine the level of likeness between them. The result of the comparisons is considered a passed, a suspect, or a failed match depending upon the likeness of data elements in each record, as well as a scoring of their exceptions.

Input to the Trillium Window Matcher transformation is typically the sorted output of the Trillium Parser transformation. The options for sorting include: • • • Using the Informatica Aggregator transformation as a sort engine. Separate the mappings whenever a sort is required. The sort can be run as a pre/post session command between mappings. Pre/post sessions are configured in the Server Manager. Build a custom AEP Transformation to include in the mapping.

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Data Connectivity Using PowerConnect for BW Integration Server

Challenge Understanding PCISBW to load data into the SAP BW. Description PowerCenter supports SAP Business Information Warehouse (BW) as a warehouse target only. PowerCenter Integration Server for BW enables you to include SAP Business Information Warehouse targets in your data mart or data warehouse. PowerCenter uses SAP’s Business Application Program Interface (BAPI), SAP’s strategic technology for linking components into the Business Framework, to exchange metadata with BW. Key Differences of Using PowerCenter to Populate BW Instead of a RDBMS • BW uses the pull model.BW must request data from an external source system, which is PowerCenter before the source system can send data to BW. PowerCenter uses PCISBW to register with BW first, using SAP’s Remote Function Call (RFC) protocol. External source systems provide transfer structures to BW. Data is moved and transformed within BW from one or more transfer structures to a communication structure according to transfer rules. Both, transfer structures and transfer rules, must be defined in BW prior to use. Normally this is done from the BW side. An InfoCube is updated by one communication structure as defined by the update rules. Staging BAPIs (an API published and supported by SAP) is the native interface to communicate with BW. Three PowerCenter product suites use this API. PowerCenter Designer uses the Staging BAPIs to import metadata for the target transfer structures. PCISBW uses the Staging BAPIs to register with BW and receive requests to run sessions. PowerCenter Server uses the Staging BAPIs to perform metadata verification and load data into BW. Programs communicating with BW use the SAP standard saprfc.ini file to communicate with BW. The saprfc.ini file is similar to the tnsnames file in Oracle or the interface file in Sybase. The PowerCenter Designer reads metadata from BW and the PowerCenter Server writes data to BW.

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2) ODS only 3) InfoCubes then ODS and 4) InfoCubes and ODS in parallel. The BW administrator or project manager should tell you the name of the external source system and the InfoSource targets. 2. BW only supports insertion of data into BW. Build the BW Components Step 1: Create an External Source System Step 2: Create an InfoSource Step 3: Assign an External Source System Step 4: Activate the InfoSources Hint: You do not normally need to create an external Source System or an InfoSources. you have four options for the data target when you execute the InfoPackage: 1) InfoCubes only. BW must control all scheduling. 3.ini file Required for PowerCenter and PCISBW to connect to BW. There is no concept of update or deletes through the staging BAPIs. BW supports two different methods for loading data: IDOC and TRFC (Transactional Remote Functional Call). Informatica recommends installing PCISBW client tools in the same directory as the PowerCenter Client. You need the same saprfc. Configure the saprfc. all of the processing required to move data from a transfer structure to an InfoCube (transfer structure to transfer rules to communication structure to update rules to InfoCubes) is done synchronously with the InfoPackage. 4. For more details on installation and configuration refer to the Installation Guide. Key Steps To Load Data Into BW 1. When using TRFC method. The definition must be imported to Designer.ini on both the PowerCenter Server and the PowerCenter Client). The methods have to be chosen in BW. Due to its use of the pull model. An active structure is the target for PowerCenter mappings loading BW.• • • • • • • BW requires that all metadata extensions be defined in the BW Administrator Workbench. BW invokes the PowerCenter session when the InfoPackage is scheduled to run in BW. Install and Configure PowerCenter and PCISBW Components The PCISBW server must be installed in the same directory as the PowerCenter Server. (Lots of customers choose this option) You can update the InfoCubes later. Start the PCISBW server PAGE BP-30 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Loading into the ODS is the fastest since less processing is performed on the data as it is being loaded into BW. When using IDOC. On NT you can have only one PCISBW.

To do this. RFC_INI is used to locate the saprfc. You can only start a Session from BW (Scheduler in the Administrator Workbench of BW). Set RFC_INI environment variable for all Windows NT. Used by PowerCenter Client and PowerCenter Server. go to the “Selection 3rd Party Tab and click on the “Selection Refresh” button (symbol is a recycling sign) which then prompts you for the session name.Saprfc. cannot execute stored procedure in a BW target.ini file: • Type A. Load data Create a session in PowerCenter and an InfoPackage in BW. The Server uses Type A for verify the tables and writing into BW. Register the PCISBW as a RFC server at the SAP gateway so it acts as a listener.ini as the connect string in the PowerCenter Server Manager 7.ini file. Used by the PowerCenter Integration Server for BW. Before you can start a session. Build mappings Import the InfoSource into PowerCenter Warehouse Designer and build a mapping using the InfoSource as a target. can use only one transfer structure for each mapping. you have to enter the session_name into BW. It then can receive the request from BW to run a session on PowerCenter Server. cannot partition pipelines with a BW target. Type R. open the Scheduler dialog box. Specifies the BW application server. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-31 . 6.Start PCISBW server only after you start PowerCenter server and before you create InfoPackage in BW. Pmbwserver [DEST_Entry_for_R_type] [repo_user][repo_passwd][port_for_PowerCenter_Server] Note: The & sign behind the start command doesn’t work when you start up the PCISBW in a Telnet session 5. To start the session go to the last tab.ini file. Restrictions on Mappings with BW InfoSource Targets • • • • You You You You can not use BW as a lookup table.ini. Use the DEST_for_A_type as connect string. Parameter and Connection information file . Create a Database connection Use DEST entry_for A_type of the saprfc. Notepad can corrupt the saprfc. The client uses Type A for importing the transfer structure (table definition) from BW into the Designer.ini PowerCenter uses two types of entries to connect to BW through the saprfc. • Do not use Notepad to edit this file. Windows 2000 and Windows 95/98 machines equal with saprfc.

but the PCISBW Server attempts to insert all records.trc in the PowerCenter Server directory. even those marked for update or delete. Error Messages PCISBW writes error messages to the screen. In some case PCISBW will generate a file with extension *. You cannot build update strategy in a mapping. Look for error messages there.• • You cannot copy fields that are prefaced with /BIC/ from the InfoSource definition into other transformations. It does not support updates or deletes. BW supports only inserts. PAGE BP-32 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . You can use Update Strategy transformation in a mapping.

without having to write complex extract programs. PowerCenter uses SQL to access the data – which it sees as relational tables at runtime. DDMs. The PowerConnect client agent and listener work in tandem and. Description When integrated with PowerCenter. legacy data sources residing on mainframes and AS/400 systems. IMS and IDMS. PowerConnect for Mainframe and AS400 provides fast and seamless SQL access to non-relational sources. which can directly import the following information. move the data at high-speed between the two platforms in either direction. the mainframe or AS400 data is just a regular ODBC data source. such as DB2. as well as to relational sources.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for Mainframe Challenge Accessing important. The data can also be compressed and encrypted as it is being moved. In addition. via “datamaps”. PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 has a Windows design tool. The ODBC layer works for both Windows and UNIX. the PowerConnect client agent must be installed on the same machine as the PowerCenter client or server. such as VSAM. using TCP/IP. without using FTP: • • • • • COBOL and PL/1 copybooks Database definitions (DBDs) for IMS Subschemas for IDMS FDTs. called Navigator. so that as far as PowerCenter is concerned. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-33 . flat files. PREDICT data and ADA-CMP data for ADABAS Physical file definitions (DDS’s) for AS/400 After the above information has been imported and saved in the datamaps. The PowerConnect client agent and PowerCenter communicate via a thin ODBC layer. but difficult to deal with. It is an agent-based piece of software infrastructure that must be installed on OS/390 or AS/400 as either a regular batch job or started task. ADABAS.

2. Ping the mainframe or AS/400 from Windows to ensure connectivity. This includes entering the mainframe or AS/400 license key and updating the configuration file (dbmover. adding the PowerConnect ODBC driver and setting up a client ODBC DSN. This is the physical view. Review and edit (if necessary) the default table created. 3. 4. Perform the mainframe or AS/400 install. This includes entering the Windows license key. updating the configuration file (dbmover. Create the datamap (give it a name). 4. Installing PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 Note: Be sure to complete the Pre-Install Checklist (included at the end of this document) prior to performing the install.g. such as COBOL OCCURS. Perform the Windows install. Run the import process. 5.cfg) to change various default settings.Some of the key capabilities of PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 include: • • • • • • • • • Full EBCDIC-ASCII conversion Multiple concurrent data movements Support of all binary mainframe datatypes (e. Specify the copybook name to be imported. A relational table is created. The datamap is stored on the mainframe. 1. OCCURS DEPENDING ON. This is the logical view. 3. Start the Listener on the mainframe or the AS/400 system. Perform a “row test” to source the data directly from OS/390. PAGE BP-34 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . packed decimal) Ability to handle complex data structures. the process is as follows: 1. 2.cfg) to add a node entry for communication between the client and the mainframe or AS/400. ADABAS MU and PE Support for REDEFINES Date/time field masking Multiple views from single data source Bad data checking Data filtering Steps for Using the Navigator If your objective is to import a COBOL copybook from OS/390.

This should be of type ODBC. This includes entering the UNIX or NT license key. Since the Informatica server communicates with PowerConnect via ODBC. edit the powermrt. To handle large data sources.ini file by adding this entry at the end of the ODBCDLL section: DETAIL=EXTODBC. Access sample data in Navigator as a test. • • • • • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-35 . increase the default TIMEOUT setting in the PowerConnect configuration files (dbmover. the statement must be qualified with the PowerConnect high-level qualifier (schema name). In Designer. The “import from database” option in Designer is needed to pull in sources from PowerConnect. a database connection is required to allow the server to communicate with PowerConnect. modify the Tablename prefix in the Source Options to include the PowerConnect high-level qualifier (schema name).1800). which was created when PowerConnect was installed. along with the PowerConnect ODBC DSN that was created when PowerConnect was installed. an ODBC license key is required. If entering a custom SQL override in the Source Qualifier to filter PowerConnect data. before importing a source from PowerConnect for the first time.DLL When creating sessions in the Server Manager.1800. updating the configuration file (dbmover. Guidelines for Integrating PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 with PowerCenter • In Server Manager.cfg) to change various default settings. 6.cfg) to (15. apply the PowerCenter-PowerConnect for Mainframe/AS400 ODBC EBF. To ensure smooth integration.5. The DSN name and connect string should be the same as PowerConnect’s ODBC DSN. adding the PowerConnect ODBC driver and setting up the server ODBC DSN. Perform the UNIX or NT install.

Queue Manager administers queues. Joiners. this is defined by the application. MQSeries Architecture MQSeries architecture has three parts: (1) Queue Manager. Queue Manager • • • Informatica connects to Queue Manager to send and receive messages. Description MQSeries Applications communicate by sending each other messages rather than calling each other directly. Certain considerations also necessary when using Aggregators. MQSeries Message has two components: PAGE BP-36 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for MQSeries Challenge Understanding how to use MQSeries Applications in PowerCenter mappings. as opposed to a full data set. (2) Message Queue and (3) MQSeries Message. Not Available to PowerCenter when using MQSeries • • • No Lookup on MQSeries sources. No Debug ‘Sessions’. Message Queue is a destination to which messages can be sent. Every message queue belongs to a Queue Manager. You must use actual server manager session to debug a queue mapping. and Rank transformations because they will only be performed on one queue. and controls queue operation. Because no open connections are needed between systems. MQSeries enforces No Structure on the content or format of the message. they can run independently of one another. Applications can also request data using a ‘request message’ on a message queue. creates queues.

Use mapping parameters and variables Associated SQ – either an Associated SQ (XML. design the mapping as if it were not using MQ Series. COBOL). You cannot use a MQ SQ to join two MQ sources. XML. Once the code is working correctly. Dynamic – Used for binary targets only and when loading data to a message header. Set Message Data Size – default 64. which contains data about the queue. the queue must be in a form of COBOL.000. Design the mapping as if it were not using MQ Series. Note that certain message headers in a MQSeries message require a predefined set of values assigned by IBM. MSGID is the primary key. then add the MQ Source and Source Qualifier after the mapping logic has been tested.e. MQ SQ can perform the following tasks: • • • • • Select Associated Source Qualifier . used for binary. control end of file. Loading to a Queue There are two types of MQ Targets that can be used in a mapping: Static MQ Targets and Dynamic MQ Targets. Only one type of MQ Target can be used in a single mapping. etc. which contains the application data or the ‘message body. XML. You can create a session with an MQSeries mapping using the Session Wizard in the Server Manager. MQ SQ is predefined and comes with 29 message headed fields. • Static MQ Targets – Does not load data to the message header fields. MQ SQ – Must be used to read data from an MQ source. and control syncpoint queue clean-up. A data component. Set Tracing Level . you can create and configure sessions in the Server Manager. When extracting from a queue you need to use either of two Source Qualifiers: MQ Source Qualifier (MQ SQ) or Associated Source Qualifier (SQ).• • A header. then make all adjustments in the session when using MQ Series.’ Extraction from a Queue In order for PowerCenter to extract from a queue.this is necessary if the file is not binary. Filter Data – set filter conditions to filter messages using message header ports. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-37 . flat file. (??CORRECT INTERPRETATION??) Use the target definition specific to the format of the message data (i. If an Associated SQ is used. normal. Flat File or Binary. Flat File) or Normalizer (COBOL) is required if the data is not in binary. control incremental extraction.verbose.. test by actually pulling data from the queue. • Creating and Configuring MQSeries Sessions After you create mappings in the Designer.

Once this is done. • Enter the Format of the Message Data in the Target Queue (ex. XML and COBOL source definitions. Native datatypes. Flat file. They appear in all the transformations in the mapping. • If you load data to a dynamic MQ target. For MQ Series sources. • And the number of rows per message(only applies to flat file MQ Targets). • Be sure to select the MQ checkbox in Target Options for the Associated file type. Message Queue when there is no associated source definition in the mapping. the target type is automatically set to XML. COBOL or XML format. • PAGE BP-38 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and the message data is in flat file. This indicates that the source data is coming from an MQ source. Appendix Information PowerCenter uses the following datatypes in MQSeries mappings: • • IBM MQSeries datatypes. You can alternate between the two pages to set configurations for each. • On the MQSeries page. Note that there are two pages on the Source Options dialog: XML and MQSeries. and click OK. the Source Type is set to the following: • • Heterogeneous when there is an associated source definition in the mapping. Transformation datatypes are generic datatypes that PowerCenter uses during the transformation process. select the MQ connection to use for the source message queue. Native datatypes appear in flat file.Configuring MQSeries Sources MQSeries mappings cannot be partitioned if an associated source qualifier is used. click Edit Object Properties and enter: • The Connection name of the target message Queue. or COBOL datatypes associated with an MQSeries message data. Transformation datatypes. MQSTR). select File Target type from the list. When the target is an XML file or XML message data for a target message queue. Configuring MQSeries Targets For Static MQSeries Targets. XML. the target type is automatically set to Message Queue. IBM MQSeries datatypes appear in the MQSeries source and target definitions in a mapping. Native datatypes also appear in flat file and XML target definitions in the mapping.

IBM MQSeries Datatypes MQSeries Datatypes MQBYTE MQCHAR MQLONG Transformation Datatypes BINARY STRING INTEGER INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-39 .

PAGE BP-40 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . make sure to set up the PATH environment variable to include current directory. PeopleSoft saves metadata in tables that provide a description and logical view of data stored in underlying physical database table. Description PowerConnect for PeopleSoft supports extraction from PeopleSoft systems. On UNIX. To begin. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft uses SQL to communicate with the database server. The overall process involves: Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft for the PowerCenter Server: • • Installation is simple like other Informatica products. both the PowerCenter Client and Server have to be set up and configured. Extracts data from PeopleSoft systems without compromising existing PeopleSoft security features. Log onto the Server machine on Windows NT/2000 or UNIX and run the setup program to select and install the PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Server. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft: • • • Imports PeopleSoft source definition metadata via PowerCenter Designer using ODBC to connect to PeopleSoft tables. to maintain consistent. Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Installation of PowerConnect for PeopleSoft is a multi-step process. Extracts data during a session by directly running against the physical database tables using PowerCenter server.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for PeopleSoft Challenge To maintain data integrity by sourcing/targeting transactional PeopleSoft systems. Also. Certain drivers that enable PowerCenter to extract source data from PeopleSoft systems also need to be installed. reusable metadata across various systems and to understand the process for extracting data and metadata from PeopleSoft sources without having to write and sustain complex SQR extract programs.

For example. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts source data from two types of PeopleSoft objects: • • Records Trees PeopleSoft Records A PeopleSoft record is a table-like structure that contains columns with defined datatypes. Importing Sources PowerConnect for PeopleSoft aids data integrity by sourcing/targeting transactional PeopleSoft systems and by maintaining reusable consistent metadata across various systems. The Designer uses the PS source name as the name of the source definition. PS_Record_Name. For example. It specifies how the values of a database file are grouped together for purposes of reporting or for security access. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft also imports the metadata attached to those PeopleSoft structures. PeopleSoft names the underlying database tables after the records. the Designer imports both the PeopleSoft source name and the underlying database table name. • • SQL table. A tree defines the summarization rules for a database field. When you import a PeopleSoft record. departments 10700 and 10800 report to the same manager. Key columns contain duplicate values.Installing PowerConnect for PeopleSoft for the PowerCenter Client: • • Run the setup program and select PowerConnect for PeopleSoft client from the setup list. with the option to change the location. While importing the PeopleSoft objects. PeopleSoft Trees A PeopleSoft tree is an object that defines the groupings and hierarchical relationships between the values of a database field. department 20200 is INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-41 . SQL view. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft helps in importing from the following PeopleSoft records. data for the PeopleSoft records AE_REQUEST is saved in the PS_AE_REQUEST database table. Provides an alternative view of information in one or more database tables. scale and keys. For example. Has one-to-one relationship with underlying physical tables. You can use the Tree Manager to define the organizational hierarchy that specifies how each department relates to the other departments. precision. the values of the DEPTID field identify individual departments in your organization. Client installation wizard points to the PowerCenter Client directory for the driver installation as a default. The PowerCenter Server uses the underlying database table name to extract source data.

part of a different division. and so on. but tree nodes from an existing detail tree. The Departmental Security tree in PeopleSoft HRMS is a good example of a node-oriented tree. The tree groups the nodes from a specific level in the detail tree differently from the higher levels in the detail tree itself. which organize record definitions for PeopleSoft Query security. PeopleSoft records are grouped into logical groups. the tree nodes represent the data values from the database field. The next level is made up of tree nodes that group together the detail values. It uses either of the following methods to denormalize trees. Summary Trees: In a summary tree. which provide an alternative way to group nodes from an existing detail tree. but all trees fall into these major types: • • • • Detail trees. PAGE BP-42 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . you build a treethat mirrors the hierarchy. and each subsequent level defines a higher level grouping of the tree nodes. In other words. Winter trees contain no details ranges. Winter Trees: Extracts data from loose-level and strict level node-oriented trees. the "lowest" level is the level farthest to the right in the Tree Manager window. which are represented as nodes on the tree. Node-oriented trees. the PowerCenter Server denormalizes the tree structure. in which database field values appear as tree nodes. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from loose-level and strictlevel detail trees with static detail ranges. but children can/do exist. Query access trees: are used to maintain security within the PeopleSoft implementation. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from loose-level and strict level summary trees. Node Oriented trees: In a node-oriented tree. in which database field values appear as detail values. the detail values aren't values from a database field. This way. Query access trees. This kind of tree is called a detail tree. a query written by a certain logged in user within a group can only access the rows that are part of the records that are assigned to the group the user has access to. Flattening trees When you extract data from a PeopleSoft tree. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from the following PeopleSoft tree structure types: Detail Trees: In the most basic type of tree. without duplicating the entire tree structure. There are no branches in query trees. and holds detail values. Summary trees. Types of Trees The Tree Manager enables you to create many kinds of trees for a variety of purposes.

configure an ODBC data source to connect to the Oracle database. Importing or Creating Source Definitions Before extracting data from a source. Create and run a session 1. To import a PeopleSoft source definition. if PeopleSoft system resides on Oracle database. Winter and Summary Trees Detail. you need to import its source definition. Import or create source definition 2. You can use the database system names for ODBC names. PowerCenter Client and Server require a database username and password. create an ODBC data source for each PeopleSoft system you want to access. Extracting data from PeopleSoft is a three-step process: 1. Use the Sources-Import command in PowerCenter Designer’s Source Analyzer tools to import PeopleSoft records and strict-level trees. use the PeopleSoft database connection names.• • Horizontal flattening: The PowerCenter Server creates a single row for each final branch node or detail range in the tree. Create mapping 3. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-43 . When creating an ODBC data source. Winter and Summary Trees Extracting Data from PeopleSoft PowerConnect for PeopleSoft extracts data from PeopleSoft systems without compromising existing PeopleSoft security To access PeopleSoft metadata and data. You can use vertical flattening can be used with both strict-level and loose-level trees. Vertical flattening: The PowerCenter Server creates a row for each node or detail range represented in the tree. You need a user with read access to PeopleSoft system to access the PeopleSoft physical and metadata tables via an ODBC connection. configure the data source to connect to the underlying database for the PeopleSoft system. You can either create separate users for metadata and source extraction or alternatively use one for both. For example. You can only use horizontal flattening with strict level trees. Winter and Summary Trees Detail. Flattening Method Horizontal Vertical Vertical only Tree Structure Metadata Extraction Method Import Source definition Create Source definition Create Source definition Tree Levels Strict-level tree Strict-level tree Loose-level tree Detail. Note: If PeopleSoft already establishes database connection names.

3. When you configure the session. Panels tab. However. Panels are referred to as Pages. and a Server Manager database connection to create a session. An ERP Source Qualifier like the Source Qualifier allows you to use user-defined joins and filters. An ERP Source Qualifier is used for all ERP sources like SAP. PAGE BP-44 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Application Data Tables house the actual data your users will enter and access through PeopleSoft application windows and panels. PeopleTools based applications are table-based systems. select PeopleSoft as the source database type and then select a PeopleSoft database connection as source database. Denormalization of the tables that made up the tree will be changed. the Navigator displays and organizes sources by the PeopleSoft record or tree name by default. Creating and Running a Session You need a valid mapping. you connect to an ERP Source Qualifier to represent the records the PowerCenter Server queries from a PeopleSoft source. 2.After you import or create a PeopleSoft record or tree. In PeopleSoft 8. PowerConnect for PeopleSoft uses the Panels tab to import PeopleSoft 8 Pages. so simply altering the primary-foreign key relationship within Source Analyzer can be dangerous and it is advisable to re-import the whole tree. the query created will automatically append a PS_ prefix to the PeopleSoft tables. A database for a PeopleTools application contains three major sets of tables: • • • System Catalog Tables store physical attributes of tables and views. there are certain tables that are stored on the database without that prefix. PeopleTools Tables contain information that you define using PeopleTools. Create a Mapping After you import or create the source definition. enter the table owner name in the session as a source table prefix. so an override and a user-defined join will need to be made to correct this. since changes made within Tree Manager may alter such relationships. Note: PowerConnect for PeopleSoft works with all versions of PeopleSoft systems. registered PowerCenter Server. Importing Records You can import records from two tabs in the Import from PeopleSoft dialog box: • • Records tab. Take care when using user-defined primary-foreign key relationships with trees. which your database management system uses to optimize performance. When using the default join option between two PeopleSoft tables. If the database user is not the owner of the source tables. PeopleSoft etc.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-45 . PowerCenter uses SQL to extract data directly from the physical database tables. performing code page translations when necessary. the PowerCenter Server ignores the table name prefix setting for all connected sources. you can partition the sources to improve session performance. Note: You cannot partition an ERP Source Qualifier for PeopleSoft when it is connected to or associated with a PeopleSoft tree. If you need to extract large amount of source data.Note: If the mapping contains a Source or ERP Qualifier with a SQL Override.

CPI-C communication protocol enables online data exchange and data conversion between R/3 system and PowerCenter . and Human Resources. Communication Interfaces TCP/IP is the native communication interface between PowerCenter and SAP R/3. cluster tables. build mappings. Description SAP R/3 is a software system that integrates multiple business applications. analytic applications. All of this is accomplished without writing ABAP code. The R/3 system is programmed in Advance Business Application Programming-Fourth Generation (ABAP/4. SAP R/3 requires information such as the host name of the application server and SAP gateway. SAP IDOCs and ABAP function modules. while the application server stores the logical tables. PowerConnect extracts data from transparent tables. or ABAP). extract data from SAP R/3. Pool and cluster tables are logical definitions on the application server that do not have a one-to-one relationship with a physical table on the database server. a language proprietary to SAP. The database server stores the physical tables in the R/3 system. hierarchies(Uniform & Non Uniform). Other interfaces between the two include: • Common Program Interface-Communications (CPI-C). Sales and Distribution. and run sessions to load SAP R/3 data into data warehouse. such as Financial Accounting. This information is stored on the PowerCenter Server in a configuration file PAGE BP-46 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . A transparent table definition on the application server is represented by a single physical table on the database server. To initialize CPI-C communication with PowerCenter. Materials Management. pool tables.Data Connectivity using PowerConnect for SAP Challenge Understanding how to install PowerConnect for SAP R/3. PowerConnect for SAP R/3 provides the ability to integrate SAP R/3 data into data warehouses. and other applications.

installing ABAP program. Note: if the ABAP programs are installed in the $TMP class then they cannot be transported from development to production. the SAP protocol for program-toprogram communication. There are two situations when transport system is needed: • • PowerConnect for SAP R/3 installation. You can also use joins. Extraction Process R/3 source definitions can be imported from the logical tables using RFC protocol. ABAP code blocks. 2. The PowerCenter Server accesses the file through FTP or NFS mount. Transport ABAP programs from development to production. The PowerCenter server accesses the buffers through CPI-C. The PowerCenter server uses parameters in the sideinfo file to connect to R/3 system when running the stream mode sessions. The Designer calls a function in the R/3 system to import source definitions. filters. The transport system in SAP is a mechanism to transfer objects developed on one system to another system. SAP R/3 requires information such as the connection type. 3. When creating a mapping using an R/3 source definition. Remote Function Call (RFC). INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-47 . RFC is the remote communication protocol used by SAP and is based on RPC (Remote Procedure Call).• named sideinfo. and the service name and gateway on the application server. and SAP functions to customize the ABAP program. Generate and install ABAP program. Create a mapping. Designer connects to the R/3 application server using RFC. and running file mode sessions.ini. Extracting data from R/3 is a four-step process: 1. ABAP program variables. PowerCenter makes remote function calls when importing source definitions. To execute remote calls from PowerCenter. Extract data to file. you can customize properties of the ABAP program that the R/3 server uses to extract source data. In the ERP Source Qualifier. Two ABAP programs can be installed for each mapping: • • File mode. Extract data to buffers. This information is stored on the PowerCenter Client and PowerCenter Server in a configuration file named saprfc. Import source definitions. you must use an ERP Source Qualifier. Stream Mode. Transport system.

• Create and Run Session. PowerCenter Server can process data when it is received. When the file is complete. The program extracts source data and loads it into the buffers. (File or Stream mode) Stream Mode. PAGE BP-48 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . In stream mode. With this method. Preparing R/3 for integration involves the following tasks: • • Transport the development objects on the PowerCenter CD to R/3. PowerCenter calls these objects each time it makes a request to the R/3 system. the installed ABAP program creates a file on the application server. the program streams the data to the PowerCenter Server using CPI-C.4. When a buffer fills. When running a session in file mode. The program extracts source data and loads it into the file. the PowerCenter Server accesses the file through FTP or NFS mount and continues processing the session. • Installation and Configuration Steps For SAP R/3 The R/3 system needs development objects and user profiles established to communicate with PowerCenter. the installed ABAP program creates buffers on the application server. Run transport program that generate unique Ids. the session must be configured to access the file through NFS mount or FTP. When the session runs. File Mode.

Configuring the Services File On NT.• • Establish profiles in the R/3 system for PowerCenter users. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-49 . Required Parameters for saprfc. Configure Connections to run Sessions Configure database connections in the Server Manager to access the SAP R/3 system when running a session. Required Parameters for sideinfo • • • • • • DEST – logical name of the R/3 system LU – host name of the SAP application server machine TP – set to sapdp<system number> GWHOST – host name of the SAP gateway machine. Configure the connection files: The sideinfo file on the PowerCenter Server allows PowerCenter to initiate CPI-C with the R/3 system. Configure FTP connection to access staging file through FTP. ASHOST – host name of the SAP R/3 application server. it is located in /etc • • sapdp<system number> <port# of dispatcher service>/TCP sapgw<system number> <port# of gateway service>/TCP The system number and port numbers are provided by the BASIS administrator. GWSERV – set to sapgw<system number> PROTOCOL – set to “I” for TCP/IP connection. For PowerCenter The PowerCenter Server and Client need drivers and connection files to communicate with SAP R/3. Create a development class for the ABAP programs that PowerCenter installs on the SAP R/3 system.ini file on the PowerCenter Client and Server allows PowerCenter to connect to the R/3 system as an RFC client. The saprfc.ini • • • • DEST – logical name of the R/3 system TYPE – set to “A” to indicate connection to specific R/3 system. SYSNR – system number of the SAP R/3 application server. Preparing PowerCenter for integration involves the following tasks: • • • • Run installation programs on PowerCenter Server and Client machines. it is located in \winnt\system32\drivers\etc On UNIX.

Insert ABAP Code Block to add more functionality to the ABAP program flow. Key Capabilities of PowerConnect for SAP R/3 Some key capabilities of PowerConnect for SAP R/3 include: • • • • • • Import SAP function in the Source Analyzer. R/3 does not always maintain referential integrity between primary key and foreign key relationship.ini file. edit the keys in the target definition before you build the physical targets. SAP functions and code blocks.ini Set the RFC_INI environment variable. Configure the FTP connection to access staging files through FTP. Use a text editor. If your mapping has hierarchy definitions only. do not install the dev3x transport on a 4. Creation of ABAP Program variables to represent SAP R/3 structures. If you use R/3 source to create target definitions in the Warehouse Designer. 6. to transport these objects files on the R/3 system. dev3x. The R/3 system administrator must use the transport control program tp import. and running sessions. Use of static filters to reduce return rows. Do not use Notepad to edit saprfc. Install PowerConnect for SAP R/3 on PowerCenter. Configure the database connection to run session. dev4x. you may encounter key constraint errors when you load the data warehouse.x system. 4. Configure the sideinfo file. Use of outer join when two or more sources are joined in the ERP Source Qualifier. The installation CD includes devinit. filters. production program files. such as WordPad. 3. 2. you cannot install the ABAP program. installing programs. Import IDOCS. 5. For example: qualifying table = table1field1 = table2-field2 where the qualifying table is the “last” table in the condition based on the join order. structure fields or values in the ABAP program Removal of ABAP program Information from SAP R/3 and the repository when a folder is deleted.Steps to Configure PowerConnect on PowerCenter 1. The transport process creates a development class called ZERP. profiles and userids for PowerCenter users. Configure the saprfc.x system. (MARA = MARA-MATNR = ‘189’) Customization of the ABAP program flow with joins. or dev4x transport on a 3. Be sure to note the following considerations regarding SAP R/3: You must have proper authorization on the R/3 system to perform integrated tasks. The R/3 administration needs to create authorization. To avoid these errors. • • • • • • • • PAGE BP-50 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . To avoid problems extracting metadata.

This allows you to compare R/3 data with other source data without having use the RTRIM function. depending on which environment you’re in. SAP R/3 stores all CHAR data with trailing blanks. you may not want the PowerCenter Server to trim the trailing blanks. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-51 . You cannot use an ABAP code block. you should be able to just switch your mapping to point to either the development or production instance at the session level. You cannot use dynamic filters on IDOC source definitions in the ABAP program flow. you have to add that parameter as a string value to the key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\PowerMa rt\Parameters\MiscInfo PowerCenter has the ability to generate the ABAP code for the mapping. it treats it as VARCHAR data and trims the trailing blanks. This causes the session to fail You cannot generate and install ABAP programs from mapping shortcuts. If a mapping contains both hierarchies and tables. The transport must need to be created manually within SAP and then transported to the Production environment Given that the development and production SAP systems are identical. an ABAP program variable and a source filter if the ABAP program flow contains a hierarchy and no other sources. When this ABAP code is generated however. you must generate the ABAP program using file mode. When the PowerCenter extracts CHAR data from SAP R/3. If you are upgrading and your mappings use the blanks to compare R/3 data with other data. The PowerCenter server also trims trailing blanks for CUKY and UNIT data.cfg If PowerCenter server is on NT/2000. it does not automatically create a transport for the ABAP code that it just generated. add the flag: AllowTrailingBlanksForSAPCHAR=Yes in the pmserver. To avoid trimming the trailing blanks. So for migration purposes.• • • • • • • • • Do not use the Select Distinct option for LCHR when the length is greater than 2000 and the underlying database is Oracle. all you need to do is change the database connections at the session level.

Considerations • • • • Incremental Aggregation –loading deltas into an aggregate table. and unloading data. updates and delete. reloading. Description As time windows shrink and data volumes increase. History tracking–keeping track of what has been loaded and when. Record Indicator or Flags .Records supplied by the source system include only new or changed records.Incremental Loads Challenge Data warehousing incorporates large volumes of data. The design should allow data to be incrementally added to the data warehouse with minimal impact to the overall system. In this scenario. Slowly changing dimensions– Informatica Wizards for generic mappings (a good start to an incremental load strategy). The goal is to create a load strategy that will minimize downtime for the warehouse and allow quick and robust data management. Records can be selected based upon this flag to all for inserts. Error-un/loading data– strategies for recovering. Data will be loaded into the warehouse based upon the last processing date or the effective date range. it is important to understand the impact of a suitable incremental load strategy. Source Analysis Data sources typically fall into the following possible scenarios: • • • Delta Records . Date stamped data . The following pages describe several possible load strategies. making the process of loading into the warehouse without compromising its functionality increasingly difficult.Data is organized by timestamps. all records are generally inserted or updated into the data warehouse.Records that include columns that specify the intention of the record to be populated into the warehouse. PAGE BP-52 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

timestamps. There is no additional overhead produced in moving these sources into the warehouse. If the record does not exist. This occurs in cases of delta loads. For example. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-53 . Identify Which Records Need to be Compared Once the sources are identified. lookup the keys or critical columns in the target relational database. If it does exist.• • Key values are present . Take care to ensure that the record exists for updates or deletes or the record can be successfully inserted. 2. Record indicators. Record indicators can be beneficial when lookups into the target are not necessary. All values must be checked before entering the warehouse. data must be checked against what has already been entered into the warehouse. with no overhead on processing of the sources or sorting the source records. depending on the need and volume. or removed (deleted from target or filtered out and not added to the warehouse). it is necessary to determine which records will be entered into the warehouse and how.When only key values are present. This particular strategy requires bulk loads into the warehouse. Using the lookup transformation. Here are some considerations: • Compare with the target table. • Determine the Method of Comparison 1. Joins of Sources to Targets. Records are directly joined to the target using Source Qualifier join conditions or using joiner transformations after the source qualifiers (for heterogeneous sources).Surrogate keys will be created and all data will be inserted into the warehouse based upon validity of the records. Determine if the record exists in the target table. Keep in mind the caches and indexing possibilities 3. When using joiner transformations. Lookup on target. No Key values present . insert the record as a new row. Generate a log table of records that have been already inserted into the target system. Source Based Load Strategies Complete Incremental Loads in a Single File/Table The simplest method of incremental loads is from flat files or a database in which all records will be loaded. inserted as a new record. keys or surrogate keys. You can use this table for comparison with lookups or joins. take care to ensure the data volumes are manageable. Load table log. store keys in the a separate table and compare source records against this log table to determine load strategy. determine if the record needs to be updated. More design effort may be needed to manage errors in these situations. Loading Method Data can be loaded directly from these locations into the data warehouse.

Target Based Load Strategies Load Directly into the Target Loading directly into the target is possible when the data will be bulk loaded. Loading Method With the use of relational sources. For example. For detailed instruction on how to select dates.Date Stamped Data This method involves data that has been stamped using effective dates or sequences. The incremental load can be determined by dates greater than the previous load date or data that has an effective key greater than the last key processed. Load Method It may be possible to do a join with the target tables in which new data can be selected and loaded into the target. Load into Flat Files and Bulk Load using an External Loader PAGE BP-54 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . records that contain key information such as primary keys. Changed Data based on Keys or Record Information Data that is uniquely identified by keys can be selected based upon selection criteria. alternate keys etc can be used to determine if they have already been entered into the data warehouse. The alternative is to use control tables to store the date and update the control table after each load. A router transformation or a filter can be placed after the source qualifier to remove old records. Placing the load strategy into the ETL component is much more flexible and controllable by the ETL developers and metadata. you can use mapping variables to provide the previous date processed. If they exist. refer to Best Practice: Variable and Mapping Parameters. It may also be feasible to lookup in the target to see if the data exists or not. you can also check to see if you need to update these records or discard the source record. Non-relational data can be filtered as records are loaded based upon the effective dates or sequenced keys. recovery and update strategy. the records can be selected based on this effective date and only those records past a certain date will be loaded into the warehouse. Views can also be created to perform the selection criteria so the processing will not have to be incorporated into the mappings. The mapping will be responsible for error control. To compare the effective dates.

.The mapping will load data directly into flat files. In the same screen. then select Parameters and Values. The mapping variable is used in the join condition in order to select only the new data that has been entered based on the create_date or the modify_date. whichever date can be used to identify a newly inserted record. For the Aggregation option. making the mirror the active database and the active as the mirror. Using Mapping Variables and Parameter Files A mapping variable can be used to perform incremental loading. the databases are switched. with the mapping designer open. After data has been loaded. Load into a Mirror Database The data will be loaded into a mirror database to avoid down time of the active data warehouse. state your initial value. This is a very important issue that everyone should understand. 'MM-DD-YYYY HH24:MI:SS') Step 3: Use the Mapping Variable in an Expression INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-55 . This method reduces the load times (with less downtime for the data warehouse) and also provide a means of maintaining a history of data being loaded into the target. Typically this method is only used for updates into the warehouse. in this case. Here are the steps involved in this method: Step 1: Create Mapping Variable In the Informatica Designer. The source system must have a reliable date to use. An external loader can be invoked at that point to bulk load the data into the target. This is the date at which the load should start. select MAX. Name the variable and. make your variable a date/time. The date must follow one of these formats: • • • • MM/DD/RR MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS MM/DD/YYYY MM/DD/YYYY HH24:MI:SS Step 2: Use the Mapping Variable in the Source Qualifier The select statement will look like the following: Select * from tableA Where CREATE_DATE > to_date('$$INCREMENT_DATE'. go to the menu and select Mappings.

use an expression to work with the variable functions to set and use the mapping variable. You can view the value of the mapping variable in the session log file. After the mapping completes. PAGE BP-56 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The value of the mapping variable and incremental loading is that it allows the session to use only the new rows of data. You can use the variable functions in the following transformations: • • • • Expression Filter Router Update Strategy The variable constantly holds (per row) the max value between source and variable. then the variable gets that value. In the expression create a variable port and use the SETMAXVARIABLE variable function and do the following: SETMAXVARIABLE($$INCREMENT_DATE.CREATE_DATE) CREATE_DATE is the date for which you would like to store the maximum value. If all subsequent rows are LESS than that. that is the PERSISTENT value stored in the repository for the next run of your session.For the purpose of this example. then 9/1/2001 is preserved. So if one row comes through with 9/1/2001. No table is needed to store the max(date)since the variable takes care of it.

Follow these procedures and rules of thumb when creating mappings to help ensure optimization. Session shared memory between 12M and 40MB should suffice. Only connect what is used. Calculate it once in an expression. and set a True/False flag. • • Delete unnecessary links between transformations to minimize the amount of data moved. Reduce the number of transformations • • There is always overhead involved in moving data between transformations. Use mapplets to leverage the work of critical developers and minimize mistakes when performing similar functions. This is also helpful for maintenance. use variables to calculate a value used several times. most sessions and/or mappings can benefit from the implementation of common objects and optimization procedures.. • • • Avoid calculating or testing the same value over and over. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-57 . use many times. Description Although PowerCenter environments vary widely. a Source Qualifier). particularly in the Source Qualifier.g. Calculate once. 2. General Suggestions for Optimizing 1. Within an expression. 3. if you exchange transformations (e.Mapping Design Challenge Use the PowerCenter tool suite to create an efficient execution environment. Consider more shared memory for large number of transformations.

. The rule of thumb is not to cache any table over 500. 7. • • • Delete unused ports particularly in Source Qualifier and Lookups. • • • The engine automatically converts compatible types. This typically improves performance by 10-20%.048 byte row PAGE BP-58 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . one for delete and one for update/insert). PowerMart has to make a call to that stored procedure for every row so performance will be slow. Minimize data type changes between transformations by planning data flow prior to developing the mapping. use tracing levels to identify which transformation is causing the bottleneck (use the Test Load option in session properties). • • Single-pass reading is the server’s ability to use one Source Qualifier to populate multiple targets. Reducing the number of records used throughout the mapping provides better performance Use active transformations that reduce the number of records as early in the mapping as possible (i. If you have different Source Qualifiers for the same source (e. 6. Remove or reduce field-level stored procedures. Lookup Transformation Optimizing Tips • • When your source is large. Facilitate reuse. the server reads the source for each Source Qualifier. 5. cache lookup table columns for those lookup tables of 500. Use mapplets to encapsulate multiple reusable transformations. Select appropriate driving/master table while using joins.e.024 or less. If the row byte count is more than 1. aggregators as close to source as possible).4. then the 500k rows will have to be adjusted down as the number of bytes increase (i.024... The table with the lesser number of rows should be the driving/master table. Only manipulate data that needs to be moved and transformed. This is only true if the standard row byte count is 1. placing filters. a 2. Use variables. the server reads this source. 8.g.000 rows. and happens on every transformation. For any additional Source Qualifier. Watch the data types. If you use field-level stored procedures. When DTM bottlenecks are identified and session optimization has not helped. • • • Plan for reusable transformations upfront. Utilize single-pass reads. • • 9. Sometimes conversion is excessive.e.000 rows or less.

so the lookup table will not be cached in this case). less than 5. || vs. consider replacing with an unconnected. For fewer number of lookup calls. replace with string. Web Logs) consider using the Sorter Advanced External Procedure. Test expression timing by replacing with constant. Suggestions for Using Mapplets INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-59 . If processing intricate transformations. Use Flat Files Using flat files located on the server machine loads faster than a database located in the server machine. CONCAT).. Cache only lookup tables if the number of lookup calls is more than 10-20% of the lookup table rows.e. Operators are faster than functions (i. Avoid date comparisons in lookup. Examine mappings via Repository Reporting. 15. improve lookup performance by placing all conditions that use the equality operator ‘=’ first in the list of conditions under the condition tab. For small lookup tables. Minimize aggregate function calls. Optimize IIF expressions.• • • • can drop the cache row count to 250K – 300K. 12. 11. cache for more than 5-10 lookup calls. • • • • • • 14. 11. • • • Operations and Expression Optimizing Tips Numeric operations are faster than string operations. do not cache if the number of lookup table rows is big. 13. If caching lookups and performance is poor.g. uncached lookup Review complex expressions. trim spaces before comparing).. Replace lookup with decode or IIF (for small sets of values). Fixed-width files are faster to load than delimited files because delimited files require extra parsing.e. which allows the PowerCenter mappings to access the data in an optimized fashion by using filters and custom SQL Selects where appropriate. consider loading first to a source flat file into a relational database. Replace Aggregate Transformation object with an Expression Transformation object and an Update Strategy Transformation for certain types of Aggregations. 10. If working with data that is not able to return sorted data (e. Optimize char-varchar comparisons (i..000 rows. When using a Lookup Table Transformation.

A mapplet can be active or passive depending on the transformations in the mapplet. nonreusable sequence generator. Source data for a mapplet can originate from one of two places: • Sources within the mapplet. 1. data passes through the mapplet as part of the mapping data flow. target definitions. add. joiner. When you use the mapplet in a mapping. Use one or more source definitions connected to a Source Qualifier or ERP Source Qualifier transformation. normalizer. For example. if you have several fact tables that require a series of dimension keys. All uses of a mapplet are all tied to the ‘parent’ mapplet. PAGE BP-60 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Being aware of this property when using mapplets can save time when debugging invalid mappings. you can create a mapplet containing a series of Lookup transformations to find each dimension key. you can use it in a mapping to represent the transformations within the mapplet. Passive mapplets only contain passive transformations. all changes made to the parent mapplet logic are inherited by every ‘child’ instance of the mapplet.A mapplet is a reusable object that represents a set of transformations.5 style lookup functions 5. Hence. There are several unsupported transformations that should not be used in a mapplet. Each port in an Output transformation connected to another transformation in the mapplet becomes a mapplet output port. it expands the mapplet. 3. You can then use the mapplet in each fact table mapping. and configure transformations to complete the desired transformation logic. the mapplet provides source data for the mapping and is the first object in the mapping data flow. The server then runs the session as it would any other session.or post-session stored procedures. connect. pre. Create a mapplet when you want to use a standardized set of transformation logic in several mappings. Sources outside the mapplet. Active mapplets contain at least one active transformation. rather than recreate the same lookup logic in each mapping. passing data through each transformation in the mapplet as designed. To pass data out of a mapplet. When you use a mapplet in a mapping. you use an instance of the mapplet. When you use the mapplet in a mapping. and PowerMart 3. When the server runs a session using a mapplet. After you save a mapplet. To create a mapplet. create mapplet output ports. 4. Do not reuse mapplets if you only need one or two transformations of the mapplet while all other calculated ports and transformations are obsolete 6. these include: COBOL source definitions. It allows you to reuse transformation logic and can contain as many transformations as necessary. 2. Use a mapplet Input transformation to define input ports. • 7.

You need one target in the mapping for each Output transformation in the mapplet. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-61 . Reduce to one Output Transformation otherwise you need one target in the mapping for each Output transformation in the mapplet. This means you cannot use only one data flow of the mapplet in a mapping. Passive mapplets with more than one Output transformations.• • Active mapplets with more than one Output transformations. You cannot use only one data flow of the mapplet in a mapping.

Informatica offers two recommended ways for accessing the repository metadata. Because Informatica does not support or recommend direct reporting access to the repository. The Metadata Reporter is a web-based application that allows you to run reports against the repository metadata. transformations. Description The levels of metadata available in the Informatica tool suite are quite extensive. The Metadata Reporter allows report access to every Informatica object stored in the repository. Informatica PowerCenter contains a Metadata Reporter. • Effective with the release of version 5. The architecture of the Metadata Reporter is web-based. While it may be beneficial for a developer to enter detailed descriptions of each column. etc. expression. this decision should be made on the basis of how much metadata will be required by the systems that use the metadata. The decision on how much metadata to create is often driven by project timelines. These views can be found in the Informatica Metadata Exchange (MX) Cookbook. • Metadata Reporter The need for the Informatica Metadata Reporter arose from the number of clients requesting custom and complete metadata reports from their repositories. variable. and primary keys are stored in the repository. all information about column size and scale. Also. sources.Metadata Reporting and Sharing Challenge Using Informatica’s suite of metadata tools effectively in the design of the end-user analysis application. with an Internet PAGE BP-62 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . it will also require a substantial amount of time to do so. Therefore. etc. targets.0. data types. The amount of metadata that is entered is dependent on the business requirements. even for Select only queries. the second way of repository metadata reporting is through the use of views written using Metadata Exchange (MX). You also can drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. Description information can be entered for all repository objects.

3 (Note: The Metadata Reporter will not run directly on Microsoft IIS because IIS does not directly support servlets.1 or higher Apache 1.1 Jrun 2. your sources or targets or PowerMart or PowerCenter The reports in the Metadata Reporter are customizable. Syntax . even without the other Informatica Client tools being installed on that computer. • • • The Metadata Reporter provides 15 standard reports that can be customized with the use of parameters and wildcards.browser front end. The reports provide information about all types of metadata objects. The currently supported web servers are: • • • iPlanet 4. The Metadata Reporter connects to your Informatica repository using JDBC drivers. The name of any metadata object that displays on a report links to an associated report. The Metadata Reporter is easily accessible. You can run reports on any repository.) The Metadata Reporter is accessible from any computer with a browser that has access to the web server where the Metadata Reporter is installed.3. the Metadata Reporter has several benefits: • The Metadata Reporter is comprehensive. you can generate reports from any machine that has access to the web server where the Metadata Reporter is installed. The Metadata Reporter allows you to set parameters for the metadata objects to include in the report.jdbc:odbc:<data_source_name>) Although the Repository Manager provides a number of Crystal Reports.3 with Jserv 1. The reports are as follows: • • • • Batch Report Executed Session Report Executed Session Report by Date Invalid Mappings Report INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-63 . The Metadata Reporter allows you to go easily from one report to another. Make sure the proper JDBC drivers are installed for your database platform. (Note: You can also use the JDBC to ODBC bridge to connect to the repository. you can generate reports for objects on which you need more information. You do not need direct access to the repository database. As you view a report. The Metadata Reporter contains servlets that must be installed on a web server that runs the Java Virtual Machine and supports the Java Servlet API. Ex. You can install the Metadata Reporter on a server running either UNIX or Windows that contains a supported web server. Because the Metadata Reporter is web-based.

are effectively using the MX views to report and query the Informatica metadata. Although SQL provides a powerful mechanism for accessing and manipulating records of data in a relational paradigm. thus leading to the development of a self-contained API Software Development Kit that can be used independently of the client or server products. Furthermore. or Visual Basic. C++. consult the Metadata Reporter Guide included in your PowerCenter Documentation. Business Objects.• • • • • • • • • • • Job Report Lookup Table Dependency Report Mapping Report Mapplet Report Object to Mapping/Mapplet Dependency Report Session Report Shortcut Report Source Schema Report Source to Target Dependency Report Target Schema Report Transformation Report For a detailed description of how to run these reports. Extensive metadata content. especially multidimensional models for OLAP. it’s not suitable for procedural programming tasks that can be achieved by C. PAGE BP-64 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Cognos. Informatica currently supports the second generation of Metadata Exchange called MX2. the requirements and objectives of MX2 supersede those of MX. including Brio. One of the key advantages of MX views is that they are part of the repository database and thus could be used independent of any of the Informatica’s software products. Self-contained Software Development Kit (SDK). levels. Although the overall motivation for creating the second generation of MX remains consistent with the original intent. the increasing popularity and use of object-oriented software tools require interfaces that can fully take advantage of the object technology. Metadata Exchange: The Second Generation (MX2) The MX architecture was intended primarily for Business Intelligence (BI) vendors who wanted to create a PowerCenter-based data warehouse and then display the warehouse metadata through their own products. Informatica and several key vendors. Today. and MicroStrategy. MX2 is implemented in C++ and offers an advanced object-based API for accessing and manipulating the PowerCenter Repository from various programming languages. such as hierarchies. The same requirement also holds for MX2. and various relationships. Java. The primary requirements and features of MX2 are: Incorporation of object technology in a COM-based API. A number of BI tools and upstream data warehouse modeling tools require complex multidimensional metadata. The result was a set of relational views that encapsulated the underlying repository tables while exposing the metadata in several categories that were more suitable for external parties.

MX2 interfaces comply with Microsoft’s Component Object Model (COM) interoperability protocol. synchronizing changes and updates ensures the validity and integrity of the metadata. MX2 offers the object-based interfaces needed to develop more sophisticated procedural programs that can tightly integrate the repository with the third-party data warehouse modeling and query/reporting tools. As a result. Framework to support a component-based repository in a multi-tier architecture. This also facilitates robust metadata exchange with the Microsoft Repository and other software that support this repository. As a result. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-65 . Complete encapsulation of the underlying repository organization by means of an API. Because of the limitations associated with relational views. The Microsoft Repository and its OIM schema. maintenance of the MX views and direct interfaces becomes a major undertaking with every major upgrade of the repository. The MX2 interfaces provide metadata write capabilities along with the appropriate verification and validation features to ensure the integrity of the metadata in the repository. Therefore. One of the main challenges with MX views and the interfaces that access the repository tables is that they are directly exposed to any schema changes of the underlying repository database. could become a de facto general-purpose repository standard. Integration with third-party tools. any existing or future program that is COMcompliant can seamlessly interface with the Informatica Repository by means of MX2. The object-based technology of MX2 supports a multi-tier architecture so that a future Informatica Repository Server could be accessed from a variety of thin client programs running on different operating systems. Informatica has worked in close cooperation with Microsoft to ensure that the logical object model of MX2 remains consistent with the data warehousing components of the Microsoft Repository. Given that metadata will reside in different databases and files in a distributed software environment. based on the standard Unified Modeling Language (UML). The object-based technology used in MX2 provides the infrastructure needed to implement automatic metadata synchronization and change propagation across different tools that access the Informatica Repository. MX2 alleviates this problem by offering a set of object-based APIs that are abstracted away from the details of the underlying relational tables. Synchronization of metadata based on changes from up-stream and downstream tools. multi-tier architectures are becoming more widely accepted for accessing and managing metadata and data. Ability to write (push) metadata into the repository. Interoperability with other COM-based programs and repository interfaces. With the advent of the Internet and distributed computing.This type of metadata was specifically designed and implemented in the repository to accommodate the needs of our partners by means of the new MX2 interfaces. Support for Microsoft’s UML-based Open Information Model (OIM). MX could not be used for writing or updating metadata in the Informatica repository. such tasks could only be accomplished by directly manipulating the repository’s relational tables. thus providing an easier mechanism for managing schema evolution.

its interfaces are automatically registered and available to any software through standard COM programming techniques. MX2 can be automatically installed on Windows 95. The MX2 COM APIs support the PowerCenter XML Import/Export feature and provide a COM based programming interface in which to import and export repository objects.MX2 Architecture MX2 provides a set of COM-based programming interfaces on top of the C++ object model used by the client tools to access and manipulate the underlying repository. This architecture not only encapsulates the physical repository structure. but also leverages the existing C++ object model to provide an open. 98. PAGE BP-66 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . or Windows NT using the install program provided with its SDK. extensible API based on the standard COM protocol. After the successful installation of MX2.

g. the object should be stored in a shared work area so each of the individual projects can utilize a shortcut to the object. Whenever an object is shared between projects. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-67 . Choosing a convention and sticking with it is the key point .and sometimes the most difficult in determining naming conventions. Q: What naming convention is recommended for Repository Folders? • Something specific (e.Naming Conventions Challenge Choosing a good naming standard for the repository and adhering to it. Company_Department_Project-Name_Prod) is appropriate if multiple repositories are expected for various projects and/or departments. FAQs The following paragraphs present some of the questions that typically arise in naming repositories and suggest answers: Q: What are the implications of numerous repositories or numerous folders within a repository. Mappings are listed in alphabetical order. the suggestions in this document focus on the former. and each group works independently? • One consideration for naming conventions is how to segregate different projects and data mart objects from one another. Description Repository Naming Conventions Although naming conventions are important for all repository and database objects. given that multiple development groups need to use the PowerCenter server.. It is important to note that having a good naming convention will help facilitate a smooth migration and improve readability for anyone reviewing the processes.

sessions.) and repository objects (e..Note that incorporating functions in the object name makes the name more descriptive at a higher level. Router: rtr_TARGETTABLE that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done Group Name: Function_TargetTableName(s) (e. targets. The following tables illustrate some naming conventions for transformation objects (e. Use descriptive names cautiously and at a high enough level. mappings. Transformation Objects Naming Convention Advanced External aep_ProcedureName Procedure Transform: Aggregator Transform: agg_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. The drawback is that when an object needs to be modified to incorporate some other business logic. INSERT_EMPLOYEE or UPDATE_EMPLOYEE) nrm_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done.g. sources.g. Normalizer Transform: Sequence Generator: Source Qualifier Transform: Stored Procedure Update Strategy Repository Objects Mapping Name: Session Name: Batch Names: PAGE BP-68 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Rank Transform: rnk_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. Joiner Transform: jnr_SourceTable/FileName1_ SourceTable/FileName2 Lookup Transform: lkp_LookupTableName Mapplet: mplt_Description Mapping Variable: $$Function or Process that is being done Mapping Parameter: $$Function or Process that is being done Normalizer Transform: nrm_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. seq_Function sq_SourceTable1_SourceTable2 SpStoredProcedureName UpdTargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the procession being done Naming Convention m_TargetTable1_TargetTable2 s_MappingName bs_BatchName for a sequential batch and bc_BatchName for a concurrent batch. External Procedure ext_ProcedureName Transform: Filter Transform: fil_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. joiners. It is not advisable to rename an object that is currently being used in a production environment..g. etc.). etc. the name no longer accurately describes the object. Expression Transform: exp_TargetTableName(s) that leverages the expression and/or a name that describes the processing being done. lookups.

Reject. promotion group. if a mapping has four instances of CUSTOMER_DIM table according to update strategy (Update. Delete). usually because of different actions. A prefix. failed rows. Incremental Load is a update of the target and normally run periodically indicates a weekly run of this session / batches indicates a monthly run of this session / batches Shared Objects INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-69 . When you bring a source port into a lookup or expression. For variables inside a transformation. the port should be prefixed with the appropriate name. Target Table Names There are often several instances of the same target. For example. In that case. Batch init_load incr_load wkly mtly Session Postfixes Initial Load indicates this session should only be used one time to load initial data to the targets. Insert. It is a good idea to prefix generated output ports.Folder Name Folder names should logically group sessions and mappings. you should use the prefix 'var_' plus a meaningful name. such as 'b_' should be used and there should be a suffix indicating if the batch is serial or concurrent. This will help the user immediately identify the ports that are being inputted without having to line up the ports with the input checkbox. etc. subject area. This helps trace the port value throughout the mapping as it may travel through many other transformations. targets should be named according to the action being executed on that target. The grouping can be based on project. To make observing a session run easier. or some combination of these. the tables should be named as follows: • • • • CUSTOMER_DIM_UPD CUSTOMER_DIM_INS CUSTOMER_DIM_DEL CUSTOMER_DIM_REJ Port Names Ports names should remain the same as the source unless some other action is performed on the port. there will be the several instances with own successful rows. the port should be prefixed with “IN_”. When looking at a session run. Batch Names Batch names follow basically the same rules as the session names.

TableA gets analyzed in on machine 2. if you are creating a session in your QA repository using connection User1_DW. To share objects in a folder. TableA gets analyzed in on machine 1. Also. If ODBC DSNs are different across multiple machines. like an Expression transformation that calculates sales tax. For example. to prod. TableA is uniquely identified as Name1. Database Connection names must be very generic to be understandable and enable a smooth migration. When you use Copy Folder. As you migrate objects from dev.TableA in the repository. the folder must be designated as shared. Using a convention like User1_DW allows you to know who the session is logging in as and to what database. to test.TableA in the repository. and even in your PAGE BP-70 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . ODBC Data Source Names Set up all Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) data source names (DSNs) the same way on all client machines. creating confusion for developers. and mapplets. SC_DUAL.Any object within a folder can be shared. You can then use the object in other folders by creating a shortcut to the object in this case the naming convention is ‘SC_’ for instance SC_mltCREATION_SESSION. ODBC database names should clearly describe the database they reference to ensure that users do not incorrectly point sessions to the wrong databases. These objects are sources. they will eventually wind up in your QA. PowerCenter uniquely identifies a source by its Database Data Source (DBDS) and its name. So. Be careful not to include machine names or environment tokens in the Database Connection Name. mappings. you can place the object in a shared folder. TableA is uniquely identified as Name0. If the Database Connection information does not already exist in the folder you are copying to. based on which repository environment. the session will write to the QA DW database because you are in the QA repository. You should know which DW database. If you have an object that you want to use in several mappings or across multiple folders. you are working in. transformations. machine1 has ODBS DSN Name0 that points to database1. session information is also copied. there is a risk of analyzing the same table using different names. refrain from using environment tokens in the ODBC DSN. Using this convention will allow for easier migration if you choose to use the Copy Folder method. do not call it dev_db01. Database Connection Information A good convention for database connection information is UserName_ConnectString. targets. you are likely to wind up with source objects called dev_db01 in the production repository. the users are allowed to create shortcuts to objects in the folder. For example. Machine2 has ODBS DSN Name1 that points to database1. testers. it is also copied. and potentially end users. The result is that the repository may refer to the same object by multiple names. The DBDS is the same name as the ODBC DSN since the PowerCenter Client talks to all databases through ODBC. For example. if you use connections with names like Dev_DW in your development repository. Once the folder is shared.

when you copy a folder from Dev to QA. user names. your sessions are ready to go into the QA repository with no manual intervention required. Manual intervention would then be necessary to change connection names. passwords. Instead. Now.Production repository as you migrate folders. and possibly even connect strings. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-71 . your sessions will automatically hook up to the connection that already exists in the QA repository. if you have a User1_DW connection in each of your three environments.

and by coordinating the interaction between sessions. and CPUs. Description On hardware systems that are under-utilized.Session and Data Partitioning Challenge Improving performance by identifying strategies for partitioning relational tables. However. Parallel execution benefits systems that have the following characteristics: • Under utilized or intermittently used CPUs. First. Follow these three steps when partitioning your session. determine if you should partition your session. the iterative process of adding partitions can begin. 1. check the CPU usage of your machine: UNIX–type VMSTAT 1 10 on the command line. COBOL and standard flat files.1. (The Designer client tool is used to implement session partitioning. Continue adding partitions to the session until the desired performance threshold is met or degradation in performance is observed. If there are CPU cycles PAGE BP-72 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . partitions. These strategies take advantage of the enhanced partitioning capabilities in PowerCenter 5. and mapping design. see the Partitioning Rules and Validation section of the Designer Help). target type. XML. there are several other factors to consider when determining if a session is an ideal candidate for partitioning. The column “ID” displays the percentage utilization of CPU idling during the specified interval without any I/O wait. Besides hardware. When these factors have been considered and a partitioned strategy has been selected. it may be possible to improve performance through parallel execution of the Informatica server engine. parallel execution may impair performance on over-utilized systems or systems with smaller I/O capacity. To determine if this is the case. These considerations include source and target database setup.

If you must set this value to a value greater than zero. If the session is paging.available (twenty percent or more idle time) then this session’s performance may be improved by adding a partition. To determine if the session is paging. follow these steps: UNIX – type VMSTAT 1 10 on the command line. Set DTM Buffer Memory. Partition the source data evenly. Check to see that you’re using as much memory as you can. it may be necessary to allocate more memory. The column “%idle” displays the total percentage of the time that the CPU spends idling (i. The next step is to set up the partition. you will receive a memory allocation error. The source data should be partitioned into equal sized chunks for each partition. using an external loader may increase session performance. Partition tables. increase the memory. Sufficient memory.) • NT – check the task manager performance tab. • • • Add one partition at a time. NT – check the task manager performance tab. PO displays the number of pages swapped out to the page space during the specified interval. • NT – check the task manager performance tab. the unused capacity of the CPU. there should be no need to use the “Number of Cached Values” property of the sequence generator. Work with the DBA to discuss the partitioning of source and target tables. The column “%IOWAIT” displays the percentage of CPU time spent idling while waiting for I/O requests.e. You can only use • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-73 . PI displays number of pages swapped in from the page space during the specified interval. As with any session. Sufficient I/O. If too much memory is allocated to your session. 2. To best monitor performance. if possible. To determine the I/O statistics: UNIX– type IOSTAT on the command line. add one partition at a time. The following are selected hints for session setup. Set cached values for Sequence Generator. and note your session settings before you add each partition. Consider Using External Loader. If these values indicate that paging is occurring. For a session with n partitions. For a session with n partitions. and the setup of tablespaces. see the Session and Server Guide for further directions on setting up partitioned sessions. this value should be at least n times the original value for the non-partitioned session. A notable increase in performance can also be realized when the actual source and target tables are partitioned.. make sure it is at least n times the original value for the non-partitioned session.

in order to reduce network overhead and delay. Source files are located on the same physical machine as the PMServer process when partitioning flat files. Assumptions The following assumptions pertain to the source and target systems of a session that is a candidate for partitioning. If the memory is not bumped up. Refer to the Session and Server Guide for more information on using and setting up the Oracle external loader for partitioning. the memory requirements will grow for each partition. Check the session statistics to see if you have increased the write throughput. These conditions can help to maximize the benefits that can be achieved through partitioning. Paging. The third step is to monitor the session to see if the partition is degrading or improving session performance. 3. All possible constraints are dropped or disabled on relational targets. • • • • • • • Indexing has been implemented on the partition key when using a relational source. Therefore. If the session performance is improved and the session meets the requirements of step 1. All possible indexes are dropped or disabled on relational targets. add another partition. • • Write throughput. Target files are written to same physical machine that hosts the PMServer process. When you partition a session and there are cached lookups. COBOL and XML. the Informatica Server creates one memory cache for each partition and one disk cache for each transformation. When you partition a source that uses a static lookup cache. Oracle External Loaders are utilized whenever possible (Parallel Mode). PAGE BP-74 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . you must make sure that DTM memory is increased to handle the lookup caches. Table Spaces and Database Partitions are properly managed on the target system. Check to see if the session is now causing the system to page. the system may start paging to disk. to reduce network overhead and delay. causing degradation in performance.Oracle external loaders for partitioning.

Transformation variables were defined as variable ports in a transformation and could only be used in that specific Transformation object (e. data type.x. Informatica added four functions to affect change to mapping variables: • • • • SetVariable SetMaxVariable SetMinVariable SetCountVariable INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-75 .x has made variables and parameters available across the entire mapping rather than for a specific transformation object. After mapping variables are selected. aggregation type. and parameter files work and using them for maximum efficiency. precision and scale. you use the pop-up window to create a variable by specifying its name. etc. the only variables inherent to the product were defined to specific transformations and to those Server variables that were global in nature. global parameters defined within Server Manager would affect the subdirectories for Source Files. Mapping Variables You declare mapping variables in PowerCenter Designer using the menu option Mappings -> Parameters and Variables.Using Parameters. Variables. Target Files. Using parameter files. In addition.. are objects that can change value dynamically. This is similar to creating a port in most transformations. it provides built-in parameters for use within Server Manager. PowerCenter 5. Aggregator and Rank Transformations). Similarly. these values can change from session-run to session-run. variables. Description Prior to the release of PowerCenter 5. Log Files. Expression. Variables and Parameter Files Challenge Understanding how parameters.g. initial value. by definition.

If no initial value is identified. Initial Value This value is used during the first session run when there is no corresponding and overriding parameter file. a user-defined initial value for the variable. 2. A typical variable name is: $$Procedure_Start_Date. For example. 4. the value stored in the repository would be the max value across ALL session runs until the value is deleted.A mapping variable can store the last value from a session run in the repository to be used as the starting value for the next session run. Order of Evaluation The start value is the value of the variable at the start of the session. or the default value based on the variable data type. a value saved in the repository from the previous run of the session. with an aggregation type of Max. 3. This value is also used if the stored repository value is deleted. Is configured for a test load. Name The name of the variable should be descriptive and be preceded by ‘$$’ (so that it is easily identifiable as a variable). Runs in debug mode and is configured to discard session output. Variable values are not stored in the repository when the session: • • • • Fails to complete. then a data type specific default value is used. the value used is based on: • • • Value in session parameter file Initial value Default value PAGE BP-76 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Value in session parameter file Value saved in the repository Initial value Default value Mapping Parameters and Variables Since parameter values do not change over the course of the session run. Aggregation Type This entry creates specific functionality for the variable and determines how it stores data. Is a debug session. The start value can be a value defined in the parameter file for the variable. The PowerCenter Server looks for the start value in the following order: 1.

with each section defined within brackets as FOLDER. either within the session properties.s_m_subscriberstatus_load] $$Post_Date_Var=10/04/2001 [USER1.com . A line can be ‘REMed’ out by placing a semicolon at the beginning. Parameters or variables must be defined in the mapping to be used.s_test_var1] $$PMSuccessEmailUser=XXX@informatica. The naming is case sensitive.Once defined. at the outer-most batch a session resides in. The following parameters and variables can be defined or overridden within the parameter file: Parameter & Variable Type Parameter & Variable Name Desired Definition String Mapping Parameter $$State MA Datetime Mapping Variable $$Time 10/1/2000 00:00:00 Source File (Session $InputFile1 Sales.$$Help_User A parameter file is declared for use by a session. Parameter files have a very simple and defined format.txt Parameter) Database Connection $DBConnection_Target Sales (database (Session Parameter) connection) Session Log File (Session $PMSessionLogFile d:/session INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-77 . and source filter sections. Some parameter file examples: [USER1. mapping parameters and variables can be used in the Expression Editor section of the following transformations: • • • • Expression Filter Router Update Strategy Mapping parameters and variables also can be used within the Source Qualifier in the SQL query. they are divided into session-specific sections. or as a parameter value when utilizing PMCMD command.SESSION_NAME. or to define Server-specific values for a session run. Parameter files do not globally assign values. user-defined join. Parameter Files Parameter files can be used to override values of mapping variables or mapping parameters.

Schema/Owner names within Target Objects/Session Properties. Sample Solution Create a mapping with source and target objects. and a parameter file for restarting. From the menu create a new mapping variable named $$Post_Date with the following attributes: • • • • TYPE – Variable DATATYPE – Date/Time AGGREGATION TYPE – MAX INITIAL VALUE – 01/01/1900 PAGE BP-78 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Process will run once every twenty-four hours.txt Lookup SQL Override. Lookup Location (Connection String).Parameter) Parameters and variables cannot be used in the following: • • • logs/firstrun. The following example uses a mapping variable. an expression transformation object. The environment data has an inherent Post_Date that is defined within a column named Date_Entered that can be used. Example: Variables and Parameters in an Incremental Strategy Variables and parameters can enhance incremental strategies. Scenario Company X wants to start with an initial load of all data but wants subsequent process runs to select only new information.

it is necessary to use the native RDBMS function to convert (e. The next step is to $$Post_Date and Date_Entered to an Expression transformation. However. use the following in the Source_Filter Attribute: DATE_ENTERED > to_Date(' $$Post_Date'. An output port named Post_Date is created with data type of date/time.DATE_ENTERED) The function evaluates each value for DATE_ENTERED and updates the variable with the Max value to be passed forward. For example: DATE_ENTERED 9/1/2000 10/30/2001 9/2/2000 Resultant POST_DATE 9/1/2000 10/30/2001 10/30/2001 Consider the following with regard to the functionality: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-79 . Within the Source Qualifier Transformation. hence the need to convert the parameter to a date time. In the expression code section place the following function: SETMAXVARIABLE($$Post_Date.g. if this value is used within the Source Qualifier SQL.'MM/DD/YYYY HH24:MI:SS') Also note that the initial value 01/01/1900 will be expanded by the PowerCenter Server to 01/01/1900 00:00:00.Note that there is no need to encapsulate the INITIAL VALUE with quotation marks. TO DATE(--.. This is where the function for setting the variable will reside.--)).

but it must go to another Expression Transformation. The first time this mapping is run the SQL will select from the source where Date_Entered is > 01/01/1900 providing an initial load. make the session Data Driven and add an Update Strategy after the transformation containing the SETMAXVARIABLE function. 2. based on the variable in the Source Qualifier Filter. the Max Date_Entered was 02/03/1998. the rows have to be marked for insert. To view the current value for a particular variable associated with the session. Treat Rows As is set to Update in the session properties) the function will not work. Upon successful completion of the session. The reason is that that memory will not be instantiated unless it is used in a downstream transformation object. If the intent is to store the original Date_Entered per row and not the evaluated date value. the variable gets updated to the Max Date_Entered it encounters. In this case. but before the Target. 3. It need not go to the target.e. The next time this session is run. then add an ORDER BY clause to the Source Qualifier. PAGE BP-80 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL ..1. In order for the function to work correctly. the variable is updated in the Repository for use in the next session run. The following graphic shows that after the initial run. the port must be connected to a downstream object. In order for the function to assign a value and ultimately store it in the repository. If the mapping is an update only mapping (i. only sources where Date_Entered > 02/03/1998 will be processed. That way the dates are processed and set in order and data is preserved. As data flows through the mapping. right-click on the session and choose View Persistent Values.

view the persistent value from Server Manager (see graphic above) and press Delete Values. use a parameter file. A session may (or may not) have a variable. after the initial session is run the parameter file contents may look like: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-81 . causing the Order of Evaluation to use the Initial Value declared from the mapping. Run PMCMD for that session but declare the specific parameter file within the PMCMD command. To override the variable. There are two basic ways to accomplish this: • Create a generic parameter file. uncomment or delete the variable in the parameter file. In this example. and point all sessions to that parameter file. • Parameter files can be declared in Session Properties under the Log & Error Handling Tab. place it on the server. This will delete the stored value from the Repository.Resetting or Overriding Persistent Values To reset the persistent value to the initial value declared in the mapping. either change. If a session run is needed for a specific date. and the parameter file need not have variables and parameters defined for every session ‘using’ the parameter file.

[Test. NULL. NULL. schemas. After successful completion. NULL. in the subsequent run. the order of evaluation looks to the parameter file first. the data processing date needs to be set to a specific date (for example: 04/21/2001). All instances have a common table definition for sales orders.$$Post_Date= By using the semicolon. the variable override is ignored and the Initial Value or Stored Value is used. run another script to reset the parameter file.s_Incremental] . If. regardless of differing environmental definitions (e. Scenario Company X maintains five Oracle database instances. NULL (28) (28) (5.4) (28) PAGE BP-82 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . user/logins). DB Instance ORC1 ORC99 HALC UGLY GORF Schema aardso environ hitme snakepit gmer Table orders orders order_done orders orders User Sam Help Hi Punch Brer Password max me Lois Judy Rabbit Each sales order table has a different name. but the same definition: ORDER_ID DATE_ENTERED DATE_PROMISED DATE_SHIPPED EMPLOYEE_ID CUSTOMER_ID SALES_TAX_RATE STORE_ID Sample Solution NUMBER DATE DATE DATE NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER (28) NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NULL. instances. then a simple Perl Script can update the parameter file to: [Test. NULL.s_Incremental] $$Post_Date=04/21/2001 Upon running the sessions. are required in a multiple database environment.g. sees a valid variable and value and uses that value for the session run. NULL. schema and login. Example: Using Session and Mapping Parameters in Multiple Database Environments Reusable mappings that can source a common table definition across multiple databases. but each instance has a unique instance name. NULL.

create multiple connection strings. the strings are named according to the DB Instance name. Using Designer create the mapping that sources the commonly defined table. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-83 . the initial value is not required as this solution will use parameter files. In this example. Then create a Mapping Parameter named $$Source_Schema_Table with the following attributes: Note that the parameter attributes vary based on the specific environment.Using Server Manager. Also. Open the source qualifier and use the mapping parameter in the SQL Override as shown in the following graphic.

drop down place the following parameter: $DBConnection_SourcePoint the target to the corresponding target and finish.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] PAGE BP-84 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . there will be five separate parameter files. Parmfile1.txt [Test. Now create the parameter file. In this example.orders $DBConnection_Source= ORC1 Parmfile2. Using Server Manager. Within the Source Database connection.Open the Expression Editor and select Generate SQL. create a session based on this mapping.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=aardso. The generated SQL statement will show the columns.txt [Test. Override the table names in the SQL statement with the mapping parameter.

0.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=hitme.orders $DBConnection_Source= GORF Use PMCMD to run the five sessions in parallel.txt ‘ 1 1 INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-85 .s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table=snakepit.$$Source_Schema_Table=environ.order_done $DBConnection_Source= HALC Parmfile4.txt [Test.0.txt [Test.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\Parmfile1.orders $DBConnection_Source= UGLY Parmfile5.orders $DBConnection_Source= ORC99 Parmfile3.s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES] $$Source_Schema_Table= gmer.txt [Test. The syntax for PMCMD for starting sessions is as follows: pmcmd start {user_name | %user_env_var} {password | %password_env_var} {[TCP/IP:][hostname:]portno | IPX/SPX:ipx/spx_address} [folder_name:]{session_name | batch_name}[:pf=param_file] session_flag wait_flag In this environment there would be five separate commands: pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.

txt ‘ 1 1 Alternatively.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile4. PAGE BP-86 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .0.0.0.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile2.0.0.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.0.txt ‘ 1 1 pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.pmcmd start tech_user pwd 127.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile5.0. a pre.or post-session script would change the parameter file for the next session.1:4001 Test: s_Incremental_SOURCE_CHANGES:pf=’\$PMRootDir\ParmFiles\ Parmfile3. In this case. you could run the sessions in sequence with one parameter file.0.

For example. The following questions should be considered: • • • • • • • • • • What types of errors are likely to be encountered? Of these errors. The database still enforces the foreign key constraints. which ones should be captured? What process can capture the possible errors? Should errors be captured before they have a chance to be written to the target database? Should bad files be used? Will any of these errors need to be reloaded or corrected? How will the users know if errors are encountered? How will the errors be stored? Should descriptions be assigned for individual errors? Can a table be designed to store captured errors and the error descriptions? Capturing data errors within a mapping and re-routing these errors to an error table allows for easy analysis for the end users and improves performance. but erroneous data will not be written to the target table. suppose it is necessary to identify foreign key constraint errors within a mapping. Also.A Mapping Approach to Trapping Data Errors Challenge Addressing data content errors within mappings to facilitate re-routing erroneous rows to a target other than the original target table. One strategy for handling errors is to maintain database constraints. Referential integrity is assured by including this functionality in a mapping. if constraint errors are captured within INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-87 . This can be accomplished by creating a lookup into a dimension table prior to loading the fact table. Another approach is to use mappings to trap data errors. Description Identifying errors and creating an error handling strategy is an essential part of a data warehousing project. data must be checked and validated prior to entry into the data warehouse. In the production environment. The first step in using mappings to trap errors is understanding and identifying the error handling requirement.

These two tables might look like the following: The error handling functionality must assigned to a unique description for each error in the rejected row. enabling the user to trace the error rows back to the source. Data content errors also can be captured in a mapping. Any row containing an error (or errors) will be separated from the valid data and uniquely identified with a composite key consisting of a MAPPING_ID and a ROW_ID. The composite key allows developers to trace rows written to the error tables. This table is designed to hold all error descriptions for all mappings within the repository for reporting purposes. Mapping logic can identify data content errors and attach descriptions to the errors. the PowerCenter server will not have to write the error to the session log and the reject/bad file. The TARGET_NAME_ERR table provides the user with the entire row that was rejected. and a description of the error. we want to capture null values before they enter into a target field that does not allow nulls. the two error tables are ERR_DESC_TBL and TARGET_NAME_ERR. null values intended for not null target fields. such as the mapping name. The TARGET_NAME_ERR table will be an exact replica of the target table with two additional columns: ROW_ID and MAPPING_ID.the mapping. Use the Router Transformation to create a stream of data that will be the error route. After we’ve identified the type of error. In this example. the next step is to separate the error from the data flow. Error tables are important to an error handling strategy because they store the information useful to error identification and troubleshooting. The ERR_DESC_TBL table will hold information about the error. any null value intended for a not null target PAGE BP-88 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . This approach can be effective for many types of data content errors. including: date conversion. The MAPPING_ID refers to the mapping name and the ROW_ID is generated by a Sequence Generator. Error Handling Example In the following example. These two columns allow the TARGET_NAME_ERR and the ERR_DESC_TBL to be linked. the ROW_ID. In this example. and incorrect data formats or data types.

This step can be done in an Expression Transformation.field will generate an error message such as ‘Column1 is NULL’ or ‘Column2 is NULL’. For example. one row of data may have as many as three errors. with each containing the same content except for a different error description. TARGET_NAME_ERR Column1 NULL Column2 NULL Column3 NULL ROW_ID 1 MAPPING_ID DIM_LOAD ERR_DESC_TBL FOLDER_NAME MAPPING_ID ROW_ID ERROR_DESC LOAD_DATE SOURCE Target CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 1 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 2 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL CUST DIM_LOAD 1 Column 3 is SYSDATE DIM FACT NULL The solution example would look like the following in a mapping: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-89 . but in this case. After field descriptions are assigned. we can link this row to the row in the TARGET_NAME_ERR table using the ROW_ID and the MAPPING_ID. You can use the Normalizer Transformation A mapping approach to break one row of data into many rows After a single row of data is separated based on the number of possible errors in it. we need to break the error row into several rows. When the row is written to the ERR_DESC_TBL. Focus on the bold selections in both tables. The following chart shows how the two error tables can be linked. we need to filter the columns within the row that are actually errors. the row actually has only one error so we need to write only one error with its description to the ERR_DESC_TBL.

This gives business analysts an opportunity to evaluate and correct data imperfections while still allowing the records to be processed for end-user reporting. This makes error detection easy to implement and manage in a variety of mappings. is its flexibility.The mapping approach is effective because it takes advantage of reusable objects. the error handling logic can be placed anywhere within a mapping. Once an error type is identified. thereby using the same logic repeatedly within a mapplet. business organizations need to decide if the analysts should fix the data in the reject table or in the source systems. A record flagged as a hard error is written to the error route. By adding another layer of complexity within the mappings. A ‘hard’ error can be defined as one that would fail when being written to the database. By using the mapping approach to capture identified errors. data warehouse operators can effectively communicate data quality issues to the business users. such as a constraint error. while a record flagged as a soft error can be written to the target system and the error tables. A ‘soft’ error can be defined as a data content error. errors can be flagged as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’. The mapping approach also reports errors based on projects or categories by identifying the mappings that contain errors. PAGE BP-90 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Ultimately. The most important aspect of the mapping approach however. The advantage of the mapping approach is that all errors are identified as either data errors or constraint errors and can be properly addressed.

. it is critical to have a notification process in place. the typical requirement of an error handling system is to address data quality issues (i. and restart capabilities. You should prepare a high level data flow design to illustrate the load process and the role that error handling plays in it. then devise an infrastructure to resolve the errors.e. Therefore. stop. and provide a mechanism for reload. Implementing an error handling strategy requires a significant amount of planning and understanding of the load process. PowerCenter includes a post-session e-mail functionality that can trigger the delivery of e-mail. at some point a record with incorrect data will be introduced into the data warehouse from a source system. Stop and restart processes can be managed through the preand post. provide a place to put the rejected rows. Error handling is an integral part of any load process and directly affects the process when it starts and stops. especially if a response is critical to the continuation of the process. identifying potential errors. correction of data or a rerun of the process. dirty date). Although error handling varies from project to project. and determining an optimal plan for error handling. Post-session scripts can be written to increase the functionality of the notification process to send detailed messages upon receipt of an error or file. Description It important to realize the need for an error handling strategy. It also should report on the rows that are rejected by the load process.session shell scripts for each PowerCenter session. Although source systems vary widely in functionality and data quality standards. and set a limit on how many errors can occur before the load process stops. Regardless of whether an error requires manual inspection. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-91 . the owner needs to know if any rows were loaded or changed during the load. The error handling strategy should reject these rows. An error handling strategy should be capable of accounting for unrecoverable errors during the load process and provide crash recovery.Design Error Handling Infrastructure Challenge Understanding the need for an error handling strategy.

1) E-mail If the required Tablespace is not available.SENT file. If they do not match. named <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD with two additional columns.SENT Files.DAT and . ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL captures descriptions for all errors committed during loading. do a rollback of the records loaded in the target. then send an e-mail notification to Product Support. The two tables look like the following: PAGE BP-92 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the system load for all the loads that are part of the system are aborted. Infrastructure Overview A better way of identifying and trapping errors is to create tables within the mapping to hold the rows that contain errors. Match the Hash Total and the Column Totals loaded in the target tables with the contents of the .DAT files or . Timer to check if If the . 1) E-mail 2) Page Load the rejected records to a reject file and send an e-mail notification to Production Support. 1) E-mail 2) Page If the Hash total and the total number of records do not match. 1) E-mail 2) Page Timer to check if the load has completed by 5:00 If the load has not completed within the 2-hour AM. by 5:00 AM. MAPPING_NAME and SEQ_ID. An additional error table. window. send an e-mail notification to Production Support and 2:00 PM Saturday for weekly loads on-call resource.SENT file do not arrive by 3:00 the files have arrived by 3:00 AM for daily loads AM. rollback the data load and send notification to Production Support.The following table presents examples of one company’s error conditions and the associated notification actions: Error Condition Notification Action Arrival of . A Sample Scenario: Each target table should have an identical error table. 1) E-mail 2) Page Tablespace check and Database constraints check for creating Target Tables The rejected record number crosses the error threshold limit OR Informatica PowerCenter session fails for any other reason. and notification is sent to the DBA and Production Support.

By looking at the first row in the ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL. we can determine that the row of data in the TARGET_RELOAD table with the SEQ_ID of 1 had three errors. The following examples illustrate what is necessary for successful error handling. By looking at the data rows stored in ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL. Since rows in TARGET_RELOAD have a unique SEQ_ID. The entire process of defining the error handling strategy within a particular mapping depends on the type of errors that you expect to capture. By using the MAPPING_NAME and SEQ_ID. we can know that (‘test’) is the failed value in LKP1.The <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD table is target specific. we can identify that mapping DIM_LOAD with the SEQ_ID of 1 had 3 errors. The ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL is a target table in each mapping that requires error capturing. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-93 . Thus. <TARGET_TABLE_NAME>_RELOAD Fields: Values: LKP1 test LKP2 OCC LKP3 VAL ASOF_DT 12/21/00 SEQ_ID 1 MAPPING_NAME DIM_LOAD ENTERPRISE_ERR_TBL FOLDER_NAME Values: Project_1 Project_1 Project_1 MAPPING_NAME DIM_LOAD DIM_LOAD DIM_LOAD SEQ_ID 1 1 1 ERROR_DESC LKP1 Invalid LKP2 Invalid LKP3 Invalid LOAD_DATE SYSDATE SYSDATE SYSDATE SOURCE Target DIM DIM DIM DIM DIM DIM LKP_TBL SAL CUST DEPT The TARGET(<TARGET_TABLE_NAME>)_RELOAD captures rows of data that failed the validation tests. the error description states that ‘LKP1 was Invalid’. we can determine which values failed the lookup.

you can enter description information for all repository objects. and primary keys are stored in the repository.rpt). sources. and click Reports.) You can choose from the following four reports: Mapping report (map. transformations. One way of doing this is through the generic Crystal Reports that are supplied with PowerCenter. (Open the Repository Manager. from the mapping itself. You can also drill down to the column level and give descriptions of the columns in a table if necessary. Shows the source and target dependencies as well as the transformations performed in each mapping. but the amount of metadata that you enter should be determined by the business requirements. Target table report (Trg_tbl. Provides information about executed sessions (such as the number of successful rows) in a particular folder. Description It is crucial to take advantage of the metadata contained in the repository in to document your Informatica mappings. Lists source column and transformation details for each mapping in each folder or repository. PAGE BP-94 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . it is important to develop a plan for extracting this metadata. All information about column size and scale. targets. but the Informatica mappings must be properly documented to take full advantage of this metadata.Documenting Mappings Using Repository Reports Challenge Documenting and reporting comments contained in each of the mapping objects. Once the mappings and sessions contain the proper metadata. With PowerCenter. These reports are accessible through the Repository Manager. This means that comments must be included at all levels of a mapping. Executed session report (sessions. etc. datatypes. and comments for each target table.rpt).rpt). Source and target dependencies report (S2t_dep.rpt). PowerCenter provides several ways to access the metadata contained within the repository. descriptions. Provides target field transformation expressions. down to the objects and ports within the mapping.

You will have to use the MX2 Views to access the repository. or the Metadata Reporter Guide included with the PowerCenter documentation. consult Metadata Reporting and Sharing. these will not be displayed in the generic Crystal Reports. In PowerCenter 5. A printout of the mapping object flow is also useful for clarifying how objects are connected. The Metadata Reporter allows for customized reporting of all repository information without direct access to the repository itself. arrange the mapping in Designer so the full mapping appears on the screen. To produce such a printout.1. you can develop a metadata access strategy using the Metadata Reporter. or create custom SQL view. Use Ctrl+V to paste the copy into a Word document. For more information on the Metadata Reporter. then use Alt+PrtSc to copy the active window to the clipboard. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-95 .Note: If your mappings contain shortcuts.

When the source system data does not meet these rules. Description When loading data into an EDW or DM. Once the corrected rows have been loaded. the use of data profiles. and alternatives for addressing the most common types of problems. Both dimensional and factual data are rejected when any errors are encountered. This provides a very reliable EDW that the users can count on as being correct. methods for handling data errors. This is the simplest to implement since all errors are rejected from entering the EDW when they are detected. The business needs to be aware of the consequences of either permitting invalid data to enter the EDW or rejecting it until it is fixed. the factual data will be reprocessed and PAGE BP-96 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the loading process must validate that the data conforms to known rules of the business. an alternate method for identifying data errors. Dimensional errors cause valid factual data to be rejected because a foreign key relationship cannot be created. The business must decide what is acceptable and prioritize two conflicting goals: • • The need for accurate information The ability to analyze the most complete information with the understanding that errors can exist. These errors need to be fixed in the source systems and reloaded on a subsequent load of the EDW. This Best Practice describes various loading scenarios. the process needs to handle the exceptions in an appropriate manner. although it may not be complete.Error Handling Strategies Challenge Efficiently load data into the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) and Data Mart (DM). Both approaches present complex issues. there are three methods for handling data errors detected in the loading process: • Reject All. Reports indicate what the errors are and how they affect the completeness of the data. Data Integration Process Validation In general.

and 2) as Inserts or Updates. With Reject None. Once the EDW is fixed. The development effort to fix this scenario is significant. restoring backup tapes for each night’s load. since the rejected data can be processed through existing mappings once it has been fixed. This approach gives users a complete picture of the data without having to consider data that was not available due to it being rejected during the load process. Key elements are required fields that maintain the data integrity of the EDW and allow for hierarchies to be summarized at different levels in the organization. Inserts are important for dimensions because subsequent factual data may rely on the existence of the dimension data row in order to load properly. a new loading process needs to correct both the EDW and DM. assuming that all errors have been fixed.loaded. resulting in grand total numbers that are correct. and it would then be loaded into the data mart using the normal process. Attributes provide additional descriptive information per key element. This approach involves examining each row of data. these changes need to be loaded into the DM. • Reject None. Factual data can be allocated to dummy or incorrect dimension rows. This approach requires categorizing the data in two ways: 1) as Key Elements or Attributes. but incorrect detail numbers. The development effort required to fix a Reject All scenario is minimal. but the data may not support correct aggregations. data integrity is intact. Rejected elements are reported as errors so that they can be fixed in the source systems and loaded on a subsequent run of the ETL process. After the data is fixed. which can be a time-consuming effort based on the delay between an error being detected and fixed. reports may change. Minimal additional code may need to be written since the data will only enter the EDW if it is correct. and determining the particular data elements to be rejected. Both the EDW and DM may contain incorrect information that can lead to incorrect decisions. After the errors are corrected. Updates do not affect the data integrity as much because the factual data can usually be loaded with the existing dimensional data unless the update is to a Key Element. The problem is that the data may not be accurate. This delay may cause some user dissatisfaction since the users need to take into account that the data they are looking at may not be a complete picture of the operational systems until the errors are fixed. • Reject Critical. This method provides a balance between missing information and incorrect information. All changes that are valid are processed into the EDW to allow for the most complete picture. The development strategy may include removing information from the EDW. and reprocessing the data. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-97 . with detail information being redistributed along different hierarchies.

and developing logic to update the EDW and flag the fields that are in error. it would be desirable to update the existing Profile rather than creating a new one. Informatica generally recommends using the Reject Critical strategy to maintain the accuracy of the EDW. Profile records are created with date stamps that indicate when the change took place. and Field 2 changes from Black to BRed. The first method produces a new Profile record each time a change is detected in the source. On 1/10/2000 Field 3 changes from Open 9-5 to Open 24hrs. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Field 1 Value Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Black BRed BRed Red Field 3 Value Open Open Open Open 9–5 9–5 24hrs 24hrs Three methods exist for handling the creation and update of Profiles: 1. When this error is fixed. The first value passes validation. this method allows the greatest amount of valid data to enter the EDW on each run of the ETL process. while at the same time screening out the unverifiable data fields. This allows power users to analyze the EDW using either current (As-Is) or past (As-Was) views of dimensional data. On 1/5/2000. The following hypothetical example represents three field values in a source system. it is difficult for the ETL process to produce a reflection of data changes since there is now a question whether to update a previous Profile or create a new one. Using Profiles Profiles are tables used to track history of dimensional data in the EDW. Date 1/1/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 Closed Sunday Field 2 Value Black Field 3 Value Open 9 – 5 PAGE BP-98 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Profiles should occur once per change in the source systems. but the logic needed to perform this UPDATE instead of an INSERT is complicated. Field 2 is finally fixed to Red. When the second field is fixed. while the second value is rejected and is not included in the new Profile. the correction process cannot be automated. On 1/15/2000. Problems occur when two fields change in the source system and one of those fields produces an error.The development effort for this method is more extensive than Reject All since it involves classifying fields as critical or non-critical. If a third field is changed before the second field is fixed. but Field 2 is still invalid. However. The effort also incorporates some tasks from the Reject None approach in that processes must be developed to fix incorrect data in the EDW and DM. The first row on 1/1/2000 shows the original values. and also that some of the information in the EDW may be at least temporarily allocated to the wrong hierarchies. which produces a new Profile record. As the source systems change. Field 1 changes from Closed to Open. which is invalid. then the original field value is maintained. business management needs to understand that some information may be held out of the EDW. By providing the most fine-grained analysis of errors. If a field value was invalid.

This incorrectly shows in the EDW that two changes occurred to the source information when. even if we create the algorithms to handle these methods. we simplify the process by directly applying all changes to the source system directly to the EDW.Date 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Black Black Red Field 3 Value Open 9 – 5 Open 24hrs Open 24hrs By applying all corrections as new Profiles in this method. causing an automated process to update old Profile records.regardless if it is a fix to a previous error -. 3. If an error is never fixed in the source system. in reality. The third method creates only two new Profiles. we run the risk of losing Profile information. which incorrectly reflects the changes in the source system. When the second field was fixed it would also be added to the existing Profile. which loses the Profile record for the change to Field 3. we would identify it as a previous error. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-99 . we need to create complex algorithms that handle the process correctly. we show the third field changed at the same time as the first. we still have an issue of determining if a value is a correction or a new value. The second method updates the first Profile created on 1/5/2000 until all fields are corrected on 1/15/2000. as in this method.is applied as a new change that creates a new Profile. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/5/2000 (Update) 1/5/2000 (Update) Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Field 3 Value Black Black Black Red Open 9 – 5 Open 9 – 5 Open 24hrs Open 24hrs If we try to apply changes to the existing Profile. The second Profile should not have been created. If the third field changes before the second field is fixed. but then causes an update to the Profile records on 1/15/2000 to fix the Field 2 value in both. Each change . And. as in this option. 2. It involves being able to determine when an error occurred and examining all Profiles generated since then and updating them appropriately. when in reality a new Profile record should have been entered. but a new value is entered. a mistake was entered on the first change and should be reflected in the first Profile. Date 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/15/2000 1/15/2000 Profile Date Field 1 Value 1/1/2000 1/5/2000 1/10/2000 1/5/2000 (Update) 1/10/2000 (Update) Closed Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Open Sunday Field 2 Value Field 3 Value Black Black Black Red Red Open Open Open Open 9–5 9–5 24hrs 9-5 Open 24hrs If we try to implement a method that updates old Profiles when errors are fixed.

The file or record would be sent to a reject queue. If the file or record is illegible. correct value it flags it as part of the load strategy as a potential fix that should be applied to old Profile records. Data Quality Edits Quality indicators can be used to record definitive statements regarding the quality of the data received and stored in the EDW. However. A data quality indicator code is included in the DQ fields corresponding to the original fields in the record where the errors were encountered. In this case. This method only delays the As-Was analysis of the data until the correction method is determined because the current information is reflected in the new Profile. This record would be sent to a reject queue. The indicators can be append to existing data tables or stored in a separate table linked by the primary key. the corrected data enters the EDW as a new Profile record. wrong data type/format.. The source file or record is illegible. is delayed until the data is examined and an action is decided. it is likely that individual unique records within the file are not identifiable. In this way. one field for every field in the record. Metadata indicating that x number of invalid records were received and could not be processed may or may not be available for a general notice to be sent to the sending system. While information can be provided to the source system site indicating there are file • PAGE BP-100 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Quality indicators can be used to: • • • show the record and field level quality associated with a given record at the time of extract identify data sources and errors encountered in specific records support the resolution of specific record error types via an update and resubmission process. but the process of fixing old Profile records. missing data in a required field. Metadata will be saved and used to generate a notice to the sending system indicating that x number of invalid records were received and could not be processed. no tracking is possible to determine whether the invalid record has been replaced or not. Quality indicators may be used to record several types of errors – e.Recommended Method A method exists to track old errors so that we know when a value was rejected. Records containing a fatal error are stored in a Rejected Record Table and associated to the original file name and record number. The following types of errors cannot be processed: • A source record does not contain a valid key. These records cannot be loaded to the EDW because they lack a primary key field to be used as a unique record identifier in the EDW. when the process encounters a new. and potentially deleting the newly inserted record.g. Then. fatal errors (missing primary key value). another process examines the existing Profile records and corrects them as necessary. or invalid data value. in the absence of a primary key. due to the nature of the error. Once an action is decided. no tracking is possible to determine whether the invalid record has been replaced or not. data quality (DQ) fields will be appended to the end of the record. If a record contains even one error.

When an error is detected during ingest and cleansing. At the same time. These indicators provide the opportunity for operations staff. The business needs to decide whether analysts should be allowed to fix data in the reject tables. systemic issues. The value in a field does not fall within the range of acceptable values identified for the field. If errors are fixed in the reject tables. and then reloading the information correctly. In these error types. “2”-Missing Data from a Required Field. the records can be processed. specific problems may not be identifiable on a record-by-record basis. these indicators provide the information necessary to identify acute data quality problems.errors for x number of records. But how often should these corrections be performed? The correction process can be as simple as updating field information to reflect actual values. The value in a numeric or date field is non-numeric. the EDW will not be synchronized with the source systems. or as complex as deleting data from the EDW. apply a concise indication of the quality of the data within specific fields for every data type. these indicators provide the level of detail necessary for acute quality problems to be remedied in a timely manner. but they contain errors: • • • A required (non-key) field is missing. implementation. restoring previous loads from tape. data quality analysts and users to readily identify issues potentially impacting the quality of the data. Aggregated and analyzed over time. This can present credibility problems when trying to track INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-101 . or whether data fixes will be restricted to source systems. Quality Indicators (Quality Code Table) The requirement to validate virtually every data element received from the source data systems mandates the development. Although we try to avoid performing a complete database restore and reload from a previous point in time. Reject Tables vs. business process problems and information technology breakdowns. The quality indicators: “0”-No Error. “3”-Wrong Data Type/Format. the identified error type is recorded. Handling Data Errors The need to periodically correct data in the EDW is inevitable. Source System As errors are encountered. “1”-Fatal Error. they are written to a reject file so that business analysts can examine reports of the data and the related error messages indicating the causes of error. a reference table is used for this validation. “4”-Invalid Data Value and “5”Outdated Reference Table in Use. These are used to indicate the quality of incoming data at an elemental level. Typically. we cannot rule this out as a possible solution. capture and maintenance of quality indicators.

Problems occur when the new key is actually an update to an old key in the source system. This type of error causes a separation of fact data. then the location number is changed due to some source business rule such as: all Warehouses should be in the 5000 range. to find specific patterns for market research). it is corrected in the EDW. (e. we use the value that represents off or ‘No’ as the default. we use the ‘Unknown’ value. When a source value does not translate into a reference table value. If all fixes occur in the source systems. Primary Key Errors The business also needs to decide how to handle new dimensional values such as locations. When errors are encountered in translating these values. the attributes are most useful as qualifiers and filtering criteria for drilling into the data. Other values. When attribute errors are encountered for a new dimensional value. Attribute errors can be fixed by waiting for the source system to be corrected and reapplied to the data in the EDW. An analyst would be unable to get a complete picture. a location number is assigned and the new location is transferred to the EDW using the normal process. Some rules that have been proposed for handling defaults are as follows: Value Types Reference Values Small Value Sets Other Description Default Attributes that are foreign keys to other Unknown tables Y/N indicator fields No Any other type of attribute Null or Business provided value Reference tables are used to normalize the EDW model to prevent the duplication of data.) The business should provide default values for each identified attribute. Attributes include things like the color of a product or the address of a store.g. Attribute errors are typically things like an invalid color or inappropriate characters in the address. Fields that are restricted to a limited domain of values (e. (All reference tables contain a value of ‘Unknown’ for this purpose. with some data being attributed to the old primary key and some to the new. the data integration process is set to populate ‘Null’ into these fields. Attribute Errors and Default Values Attributes provide additional descriptive information about a dimension concept. default values can be assigned to let the new record enter the EDW. along with the related facts. Fixing this type of error involves integrating the two records in the EDW. In many cases. On/Off or Yes/No indicators). For example. are handled on a case-by-case basis. The process assumes that the change in the primary key is actually a new warehouse and that the old warehouse was deleted. These types of errors do not generally affect the aggregated facts and statistics in the EDW. which means “undefined” in the EDW.the history of changes in the EDW and DM. are referred to as small value sets. After a source system value is corrected and passes validation. Integrating the two rows involves combining the Profile PAGE BP-102 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .g. then these fixes must be applied correctly to the EDW. like numbers.

information. New entities in dimensional data include new locations. If we reject the facts when these types of errors are encountered. etc. and designating one primary data source when multiple sources exist. Reference data and translation tables enable the EDW to maintain consistent descriptions across multiple source systems. Each table contains a short code value as a primary key and a long description for reporting purposes. it is necessary to restore the source information for both dimensions and facts from the point in time at which the error was introduced. the process to fix the DM can be time consuming and difficult to implement. This involves updating the measures in the DM to reflect the changed data. two primary keys mapped to the same EDW ID really represent two different IDs). Data Stewards Data Stewards are generally responsible for maintaining reference tables and translation tables. deleting affected records from the EDW and reloading from the restore to correct the errors. we need to create processes that update the DM after the dimensional data is fixed.e. Reference Tables The EDW uses reference tables to maintain consistent descriptions. If facts were loaded using both primary keys. After the errors are fixed. creating new entities in dimensional data. Multiple source data occurs when two source systems can contain different data for the same dimensional entity. If two Profile records exist for the same day. the fix process becomes simpler. Initial and periodic analyses should be performed on the errors to determine why they are not being loaded. In this case. then the related fact rows must be added together and the originals deleted in order to correct the data. If we let the facts enter the EDW and subsequently the DM. regardless of how the source system stores the data. A translation table is associated with each reference table to map the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-103 . then when we encounter errors that would cause a fact to be rejected. taking care to coordinate the effective dates of the Profiles to sequence properly. hierarchies. then a manual decision is required as to which is correct. This nightly reprocessing continues until the data successfully enters the EDW. The situation is more complicated when the opposite condition occurs (i. we would like to reject the fact until the value is corrected. we save these rows to a reject table for reprocessing the following night. If we load the facts with the incorrect data. DM Facts Calculated from EDW Dimensions If information is captured as dimensional data from the source. products. After they are loaded.. the affected rows can simply be loaded and applied to the DM. Fact Errors If there are no business rules that reject fact records except for relationship errors to dimensional data. but used as measures residing on the fact records in the DM. they are populated into the DM as usual. we must decide how to handle the facts. From a data accuracy view.

‘S’ or ‘W’. this is straightforward. Using both of these tables. at a minimum. (Other similar translation issues may also exist. These translation tables map the source system value to the EDW value. Correcting the above example could be complex (e. The data steward would be responsible for entering in the Translation table the following values: Source Value O S W Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE These values are used by the data integration process to correctly load the EDW. Dimensional data uses the same concept of translation as Reference tables. but over time. The translation tables contain one or more rows for each source value and map the value to a matching row in the reference table. but Products serves as a good example for error handling. The only way to determine which rows should be changed is to restore and reload source data from the first time the mistake was entered.g. Processes should be built to handle these types of situations. New entities in the EDW may include Locations and Products. The data steward would make the following entries into the translation table to maintain consistency across systems: Source Value OF ST WH Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE The data stewards are also responsible for maintaining the Reference table that translates the Codes into descriptions. Other source systems that maintain a similar field may use a two-letter abbreviation like ‘OF’. products may have multiple source system values that map to the same product in the EDW. Dimensional Data New entities in dimensional data present a more complex issue.) PAGE BP-104 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .. For example. ‘ST’ and ‘WH’.codes to the source system values. The ETL process uses the Reference table to populate the following values into the DM: Code Translation OFFICE STORE WAREHSE Code Description Office Retail Store Distribution Warehouse Error handling results when the data steward enters incorrect information for these mappings and needs to correct them after data has been loaded. include correction of the EDW and DM. the ETL process can load data from the source systems into the EDW and then load from the EDW into the DM. if the data steward entered ST as translating to OFFICE by mistake). the SOURCE column in FILE X on System X can contain ‘O’. For location.

while the second lets the ETL process create the translation. both sources have the ability to update the same row in the EDW. Either require the data steward to enter the translation data before allowing the dimensional data into the EDW. When this is fixed. the fact rows for the various SKU numbers need to be merged and the original rows deleted. A problem specific to Product is that when it is created as new. In this case. it creates a new Profile indicating the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-105 . The situation is more complicated when the opposite condition occurs (i. Manual Updates Over time. it is really just a changed SKU number. If the changed system is loaded into the EDW. it is difficult to decide which source contains the correct information. data accuracy and Profile problems are likely to occur. but marks the record as ‘Pending Verification’ until the data steward reviews it and changes the status to ‘Verified’ before any facts that reference it can be loaded.e. For example. or create the translation data through the ETL process and force the data steward to review it. A method needs to be established for manually entering fixed data and applying it correctly to the EDW. If we update the shared information on only one source system. Affected records from the EDW should be deleted and then reloaded from the restore to correctly split the data. a log of these fixes should be maintained to enable identifying the source of the fixes as manual rather than part of the normal load process. Facts should be split to allocate the information correctly and dimensions split to generate correct Profile information. Profiles would also have to be merged. The first option requires the data steward to create the translation for new entities. This requires the data stewards to review the status of new values on a daily basis. Further. which produces an inaccurate view of the product when reporting. Because they share Store information. requiring manual intervention. but really represent two different products). Multiple Sources The data stewards are also involved when multiple sources exist for the same data. facts may be rejected or allocated to dummy values. it is necessary to restore the source information for all loads since the error was introduced. one system may contain Warehouse and Store information while another contains Store and Hub information. These dates are useful for both Profile and Date Event fixes. When the dimensional value is left as ‘Pending Verification’ however.. A potential solution to this issue is to generate an e-mail each night if there are any translation table entries pending verification. and subsequently to the DM. This causes additional fact rows to be created. When this happens. The data steward then opens a report that lists them. the two systems then contain different information. any system is likely to encounter errors that are not correctable using source systems. two products are mapped to the same product. This occurs when two sources contain subsets of the required information.There are two possible methods for loading new dimensional entities. including beginning and ending effective dates. If both sources are allowed to update the shared information.

the process causes two Profiles to be loaded every day until the two source systems are synchronized with the same information. One solution to this problem is to develop a system of record for all sources. While this sounds simple. a primary source where information can be shared from multiple sources. only if the field changes on the primary source would it be changed. it compares its old unchanged value to the new Profile. PAGE BP-106 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If the two systems remain different. this requires additional effort by the data stewards to mark the correct source fields as primary and by the data integration team to customize the load process. When the second system is loaded. Developers can use the field level information to update only the fields that are marked as primary. Then. Another solution is to indicate. assumes a change occurred and creates another new Profile with the old. To avoid this type of situation. the source that should be considered primary for the field. at a field level. knowing that there are no conflicts for multiple sources. the business analysts and developers need to designate.information changed. However. unchanged value. This allows developers to pull the information from the system of record. because multiple sources can provide information toward the one Profile record created for that day. it requires complex logic when creating Profiles. at the field level.

be sure to start in the Foreign Key table and drag the key/field to the Primary Key table. To delete customized icons. To use a Docking\UnDocking window such as Repository Navigator. Be sure the box touches every object you want to select. From here you can either add new icons to your toolbar by “dragging and dropping” them from the toolbar menu or you can “drag and drop” an icon from the current toolbar if you no longer want to use it. use an icon in the toolbar rather than a command from a drop down menu. If possible. double click on it’s the window’s title bar. Set the Key Type value to “NOT A KEY” prior to dragging. To start the Debugger. press <F9>. go into customize toolbars under the tools menu. To expedite mapping development. Alternatively. • • • • • • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-107 . To use Create Customized Toolbars to tailor a toolbar for the functions you commonly perform. When using the "drag & drop" approach to create Foreign Key/Primary Key relationships between tables. press <Alt> <T> then <C>. then scroll down and click on “open”. without holding <Ctrl> creates a Shortcut to an object. To copy a mapping from a shared folder. press and hold <Ctrl> and highlight the mapping with the left mouse button. The same action. Description General Suggestions • • To Open a folder with workspace open as well. use multiple fields/ports selection to copy or link.Using Shortcut Keys in PowerCenter Designer Challenge Using shortcut keys in PowerCenter Designer to edit repository objects. click on an Open folder icon (rather than double-clicking on it). then drag and drop into another folder or mapping and click OK. right click on the folder name. hold the mouse down and drag to view a box. To quickly select multiple transformations.

To move the current field in a transformation Up. The box must be highlighted in order to check/uncheck the port type. press <Ctrl><C>. just begin typing. press <Alt><O>. then press <Alt><u> and click OK. When moving about the expression fields via arrow keys: o Use the SPACE bar to check/uncheck the port type. PAGE BP-108 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . then press <Alt><v> and click OK). To select PowerCenter functions and ports during expression creation. To delete a selected field or port from the grid. simply press OK to initiate the parsing/validation of the expression. then move the cursor to the character you want to edit and click OK. To cancel an edit in the grid. The expression must be highlighted. To paste a selected row from the grid. press <F2. To copy a selected row from the grid. press <Alt><C>. then press <Alt><w> and click OK. To add a new field or port. first highlight the port you want to validate. first highlight an existing field or port. o Press <F2> then <F3> to quickly open the Expression Editor of an OUT/VAR port.. first highlight it. press <Alt><P> . use the Functions and Ports Tab. To copy a selected item in the grid. To past a selected item from the Clipboard to the grid. For all combo/dropdown list boxes. To validate the Default value. then press <Alt><f> to insert the new field/port below it and click OK. just type the first letter on the list to select the item you want. To move the current field in a transformation Down. press <Ctrl><V>. then press OK once again in the “Expression parsed successfully” pop-up. press <Esc> then click OK.Edit Tables/Transformation • • • • • • • To edit any cell in the grid. When adding a new port. • • • • • • • Expression Editor • • To expedite the validation of a newly created expression. You don't need to press DEL first to remove the ‘NEWFIELD’ text. then click OK when you have finished. first highlight it.

carefully consider whether the effort to create. expression.. Evaluate potential reusable objects by two criteria: • • Is there enough usage and complexity to warrant the development of a common object? Are the data types of the information passing through the reusable object the same from case to case or is it simply the same high-level steps with different fields and data? Common objects are sometimes created just for the sake of creating common components when in reality. if there is a simple calculation like subtracting a current rate from a budget rate that will be used for two different mappings. creating and testing the object does not save development time or future maintenance. For example. Often. update strategy) in two INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-109 . These common routines are excellent candidates for reusable objects. including identifying potential economies of scale in loading multiple sources to the same target. Many times developers see a situation where they may perform a certain type of high-level process (e. if the calculation were to be performed in a number of mappings. and if all occurrences would be updated following any change or fix – then this would be an ideal case for a reusable object. it is simpler to add the calculation to both mappings. etc. if it was very difficult. However. filters.) or even a string of transformations (mapplets). and document the common object is worthwhile. Description Reusable Objects The first step in creating an inventory of reusable objects is to review the business requirements and look for any common routines/modules that may appear in more than one data movement. reusable objects can be single transformations (lookups.g. test.Creating Inventories of Reusable Objects & Mappings Challenge Successfully creating inventories of reusable objects and mappings. The second criterion for a reusable object concerns the data that will pass through the reusable object. filter. In PowerCenter.

While the business may consider a fact table and its three related dimensions as a single ‘object’ in the data mart or warehouse.. Efficiencies can sometimes be realized by loading multiple tables from a single source. if a single source of data populates multiple tables. The latter is especially true for mainframe data sources where COBOL OCCURS statements litter the landscape. the focus is on the target tables. one for each of the dimension tables and two for the fact table. However.e. a single source table would populate a single target table. the developers may realize that the actual data or ports passing through the high level logic are totally different from case to case. While often true. The goal here is to create an inventory of the mappings needed for the project. Remember. Thus.or more mappings. create two rows for the target each with the same number. and list the additional source(s) of data. The remainder will be discovered while building the data integration processes. In the case of multiple source tables per target. Typically. the actual object will be replicated in one to many mappings. at first look. A more comprehensive approach to creating the inventory of mappings is to create a spreadsheet listing all of the target tables. Document the list of the reusable objects that pass this criteria test. this is usually not the case. list the source file or table that will be used to populate the table. with an assumption that each target table has its own mapping. each OCCURS statement decomposes to a separate table. The Table would look similar to the following: PAGE BP-110 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . each from a different source system). the same size and number of ports must pass into and out of the mapping/reusable object. when creating an inventory of mappings. Sometimes multiple sources of data need to be combined to create a target table. Create a column with a number next to each Target table. in each mapping using the mapplet or reusable transformation object. in another column. Keep in mind that it will be impossible to identify 100 percent of the reusable objects at this point. five mappings may be needed to populate the corresponding star schema with data (i. in practice. this approach yields multiple mappings. when creating a reusable object. providing a high-level description of what each object will accomplish. this seems like a great candidate for a mapplet. however. In a typical warehouse or data mart model. or sometimes multiple mappings. these efficiencies can be overlooked. Mappings A mapping is an individual movement of data from a source system to a target system. so that it can be successfully applied to multiple cases. after performing half of the mapplet work. However. the goal here is to create an inventory of as many as possible. For each of the target tables. Consider whether there is a practical way to generalize the common logic. By simply focusing on the target tables. In a simple world. and sometimes a single source of data creates many target tables. thus making the use of a mapplet impractical. For this exercise. and hopefully the most difficult ones. but at this point the intent is to identify the number and functionality of reusable objects that will be built for the project. The detailed design will occur in a future subtask. the challenge is to think in individual components of data movement.

When merging targets into one mapping in this manner. merge the data back into a single row to generate the inventory of mappings. be sure to keep restartabilty/reloadability in mind. or Low number of target rows. give each mapping a name. so there will be no easy way to rerun a single table. give both targets the same number. with each number representing a separate mapping. Next. Medium. For the mappings with multiple sources or targets. re-sort the spreadsheet by number. it is often helpful to record some additional information about each mapping to help with planning and maintenance. Apply the naming standards generated in 2.000 rows High – 100.000 to 100. determine for the project a threshold for a High.000 rows + INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-111 . First. the following thresholds might apply: Low – 1 to 10.2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ARCHITECTURE. Sorting by source table can help determine potential mappings that create multiple targets. the spreadsheet can be sorted either by target table or source table.000 rows Med – 10. In this example.Number 1 2 3 4 4 Target Table Customers Products Customer_Type Orders_Item Orders_Item Source Cust_File Items Cust_File Tickets Ticket_Items When completed. potentially the Customers table and the Customer_Type tables can be loaded in the same mapping. Then. in a warehouse where dimension tables are likely to number in the thousands and fact tables in the hundred thousands. For example. When using a source to populate multiple tables at once for efficiency. These names can then be used to distinguish mappings from each other and also can be put on the project plan as individual tasks. The mapping will always load two or more target tables from the source. The inventory would look similar to the following: Number 1 2 4 Target Table Customers Customer_Type Products Orders_Item Source Cust_File Items Tickets Ticket_Items At this point.

Med or Low) to each of the mappings based on the expected volume of data to pass through the mapping. initial estimate. actual completion time. PAGE BP-112 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . These high level estimates will help to determine how many mappings are of ‘High’ volume. such as a high-level description of the mapping functionality.Assign a likely row volume (High. resource (developer) assigned. Add any other columns of information that might be useful to capture about each mapping. these mappings will be the first candidates for performance tuning. or complexity rating.

choosing a sub-optimal query plan can drastically affect performance. Database servers do not update these statistics continuously. ' compute statistics. The following information is useful for generating scripts to update distribution statistics. INDEX_NAME. Description The Database Administrator needs to continually update the database statistics to ensure that they remain up-to-date. In large repositories. For the repository tables. it is helpful to understand that all PowerCenter repository tables and index names begin with "OPB_" or "REP_". ' compute statistics. it is useful for Database Administrators to create scripts to automate the task. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-113 .' analyze table OPB_ANALYZE_DEP compute statistics. so they quickly become outdated in frequently-used repositories. Oracle Run the following queries: select 'analyze table '. Because the statistics need to be updated table by table. and SQL query optimizers may choose a less-than-optimal query plan. Most databases keep and use column distribution statistics to determine which index to use in order to optimally execute SQL queries.' from user_indexes where INDEX_NAME like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like: 'ANALYZETABLE' TABLE_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS. analyze table OPB_ATTR compute statistics.' from user_tables where table_name like 'OPB_%' select 'analyze index '.Updating Repository Statistics Challenge The PowerCenter repository has more than eighty tables. the repository becomes slower and slower over time. The frequency of updating depends on how heavily the repository is used. As a result. table_name. and nearly all use one or more indexes to speed up queries.

This updates statistics for the repository tables. Save the output to a file.e. the lines that look like: 'ANALYZEINDEX' INDEX_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS. (i. . the top two lines) and add a 'go' at the end of the file.' analyze index OPB_DBD_IDX compute statistics. . This updates statistics for the repository tables. 'ANALYZEINDEX' INDEX_NAME 'COMPUTESTATISTICS. . MS SQL Server Run the following query: select 'update statistics '. then edit the file and remove the header information (i. Run this as a SQL script. . name from sysobjects where name like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like name update statistics OPB_ANALYZE_DEP update statistics OPB_ATTR update statistics OPB_BATCH_OBJECT PAGE BP-114 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .e. analyze index OPB_EXPR_IDX compute statistics. Save the output to a file. edit the file and remove all the headers. .. name from sysobjects where name like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like : name update statistics OPB_ANALYZE_DEP update statistics OPB_ATTR update statistics OPB_BATCH_OBJECT . analyze index OPB_DIM_LEVEL compute statistics.' Run this as a SQL script. . Then..analyze table OPB_BATCH_OBJECT compute statistics. Sybase Run the following query: select 'update statistics '.

.OPB_BATCH_OBJECT INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-115 . runstats on table PARTH.' from systables where tabname like 'opb_%' or tabname like 'OPB_%'. the top line that looks like: (constant) tabname (constant) Run this as a SQL script.')||tabname. Run this as a SQL script. update statistics low for table OPB_BATCH_OBJECT . update statistics low for table OPB_ATTR . the top two lines). .' from sysstat. (rtrim(tabschema)||'.e. runstats on table PARTH. DB2 Run the following query : select 'runstats on table '.e. . then edit the file and remove the header information (i. Save the output to a file. and add a 'go' at the end of the file. tabname. Save the output to a file. ' .OPB_ATTR and indexes all. This will produce output like : (constant) tabname (constant) update statistics low for table OPB_ANALYZE_DEP . ' and indexes all. . Informix Run the following query: select 'update statistics low for table '... This updates statistics for the repository tables. then remove the header information (i. . This updates statistics for the repository tables. .tables where tabname like 'OPB_%' This will produce output like: runstats on table PARTH.OPB_ANALYZE_DEP and indexes all.

Run this as a SQL script to update statistics for the repository tables. Save the output to a file.and indexes all. PAGE BP-116 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . . . .

the Production Support team needs two documents. the most important task is keeping the system running and available for the end users. the day-to-day operation of the data warehouse is the responsibility of a Production Support Team. This team is typically involved with the support of other systems and has expertise in database systems and various operating systems. To that end. the components of the system. Service Level Agreement The Service Level agreement outlines how the overall data warehouse system will be maintained. This is a high-level document that discusses the system to be maintained. a Service Level Agreement and an Operations Manual. The Data Warehouse Development team. to help in the support of the production data warehouse. becomes in effect. At a minimum. it should contain the following information: • • • • • • • Times when the system should be available to users Scheduled maintenance window Who is expected to monitor the operating system Who is expected to monitor the database Who is expected to monitor the Informatica sessions How quickly the support team is expected to respond to notifications of system failures Escalation procedures that include data warehouse team contacts in the event that the support team cannot resolve the system failure Operations Manual INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-117 . a customer to the Production Support team. Description In most organizations. and identifies the groups responsible for monitoring the various components of the system.Daily Operations Challenge Once the data warehouse has been moved to production.

their frequency (daily. At a minimum. weekly. monthly. This manual should be self-contained. and the average run times Who to call in the event of a component failure that cannot be resolved by the Production Support team PAGE BP-118 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .).The Operations Manual is crucial to the Production Support team because it provides the information needed to perform the maintenance of the data warehouse system. the Operations Manual should contain: • • • • • Information on how to stop and re-start the various components of the system Ids and passwords (or how to obtain passwords) for the system components Information on how to re-start failed PowerCenter sessions A listing of all jobs that are run. providing all of the information necessary for a production support operator to maintain the system and resolve most problems that may arise. etc. This manual should contain information on how to maintain all components of the data warehouse system.

Then. the need for load validation varies. beginning with a fairly simple solution and moving toward the more complex: 1. Description Methods for validating the load process range from simple to complex. depending on the extent of error checking.Load Validation Challenge Knowing that all data for the current load cycle has loaded correctly is essential for good data warehouse management. The first step is to determine what information you need for load validation (e. successful rows and failed rows). data validation or data cleansing functionality inherent in the your mappings. All this information is stored as metadata in the repository.. session start times. Post-session e-mails on either success or failure Post-session e-mail is configured in the session. Do you want it stored as a flat file? Do you want it e-mailed to you? Do you want it available in a relational table. you must determine the source of this information. you must determine how you want this information presented to you. under the General tab and ‘Session Commands’ A number of variables are available to simplify the text of the e-mail: %s Session name %e Session status %b Session start time %c Session completion time %i Session elapsed time %l Total records loaded INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-119 . batch names. The following paragraphs describe three possible solutions for load validation.g. session names. but you must have a means of extracting this information. Finally. However. so that history easily be preserved? All of these factors weigh in finding the correct solution for you. session completion times.

successful rows and session duration: select subject_area.- %r Total records rejected %t Target table details %m Name of the mapping used in the session %n Name of the folder containing the session %d Name of the repository containing the session %g Attach the session log to the message TIP: One practical application of this functionality is the situation in which a key business user waits for completion of a session to run a report. Query the repository Almost any query can be put together to retrieve data about the load execution from the repository. and the most customizable. (session_timestamp . session end time. is to create a PowerCenter mapping to populate a table or flat file with desired information.session_name) order by subject_area. The MX view. is a great place to start . You can configure email to this user. Use a mapping A more complex approach. This view is likely to contain all the information you need. successful_rows. 2. session name. session_name The sample output would look like this: Folder Name Web Analytics Web Analytics Finance Finance HR Session Name Session End Time 5/8/2001 7:49:18 AM 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 5/8/2001 7:53:01 8:06:01 8:10:32 8:15:27 AM AM AM AM Successful Rows 12900 125000 35987 45 5 Failed Session Rows Duration (sec’s) 0 0 0 0 0 126 478 178 12 10 S M W DYNMIC KEYS FILE LOAD SMW LOAD WEB FACT SMW NEW LOANS SMW UPD LOANS SMW NEW PERSONNEL 3. You can do this by sourcing the MX view REP_SESS_LOG and then performing lookups to other repository tables or views for additional information. session_name. The following graphic illustrates a sample mapping: PAGE BP-120 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The following sample query shows how to extract folder name. REP_SESS_LOG. session_timestamp. notifying him/her that the session was successful and the report can run.actual_start) * 24 * 60 * 60 from rep_sess_log a where session_timestamp = (select max(session_timestamp) from rep_sess_log where session_name =a.

This enables you to compare the current execution time with to the minimum and maximum durations.This mapping selects data from REP_SESS_LOG and performs lookups to retrieve the absolute minimum and maximum run times for that particular session. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-121 .

This Best Practice describes various levels to integrate a third-party scheduler. PAGE BP-122 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . many companies require the use of a third-party scheduler that is the company standard. This type of integration is very simple and should only be used as a loophole to fulfill a corporate mandate on a standard scheduler. In this level of integration. and High Level. That initial PowerCenter process subsequently kicks off the rest of the sessions and batches. Low Level Low level integration refers to a third-party scheduler kicking off only one Informatica session or a batch. The third-party scheduler is not adding any functionality that cannot be handled by the PowerCenter scheduler.Third Party Scheduler Challenge Successfully integrate a third-party scheduler with PowerCenter. The PowerCenter scheduler handles all processes and dependencies after the third-party scheduler has kicked off the initial batch or session. The correct level of integration depends on the complexity of the batch/schedule and level and type of production support. Medium Level. Third Party Scheduler Integration Levels In general. A low level of integration is very simple to implement because the third-party scheduler kicks off only one process. there are three levels of integration between a third-party scheduler and Informatica: Low Level. Because PowerCenter has a scheduler. nearly all control lies with the PowerCenter scheduler. Description When moving into production. there are several levels at which to integrate a third-party scheduler with PowerCenter. A third-party scheduler can start and stop an Informatica session or batch using the PMCMD commands.

Thus. Thus. the control is shared between PowerCenter and a third-party scheduler. but not all sessions. Medium level integration requires Production Support personnel to have a fairly good knowledge of PowerCenter. Because the PowerCenter sessions are not part of any batches. This reduces the integration chores because the third-party scheduler is only communicating with a limited number of PowerCenter batches. but not necessarily the specific session. Thus. PowerCenter is controlling the dependencies within those batches. to reduce total amount of work required to integrate the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. Medium Level Medium level integration is when a third-party scheduler kicks off many different batches or sessions.Low level integration requires production support personnel to have a thorough knowledge of PowerCenter. This type of integration is more complex than low level integration because there is much more interaction between the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. High Level High level integration is when a third-party scheduler has full control of scheduling and kicks off all PowerCenter sessions. one of the main disadvantages of this level of integration is that if a batch fails at some point. the Production Support personnel may not be able to determine the exact breakpoint. the third-party scheduler controls all dependencies among the sessions. Because Production Support personnel in many companies are knowledgeable only about the company’s standard scheduler. the production support burden is shared between the Project Development team and the Production Support team. the production support burden lies with the Production Support team. However. the Production Support personnel are usually able to determine the exact breakpoint. many of the PowerCenter sessions may be left in batches. Thus. They are probably able to determine the general area. PowerCenter may have several sessions defined with dependencies. the majority of the production support burden falls back on the Project Development team. one of the main advantages of this level of integration is that if the batch fails at some point. This type of integration is the most complex to implement because there are many more interactions between the third-party scheduler and PowerCenter. High level integration allows the Production Support personnel to have only limited knowledge of PowerCenter. Because the Production Support personnel in many companies are knowledgeable only about the company’s standard scheduler. one significant disadvantage of this level of integration is that if the batch fails at some point. Because many companies only have Production Support personnel with knowledge in the company’s standard scheduler. the Production Support personnel may not be able to determine the exact breakpoint. A third-party scheduler may kick off several PowerCenter batches and sessions but within those batches. Therefore. In this level of integration. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-123 . The thirdparty scheduler controls all dependencies between the sessions.

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This file can be an empty. the PowerCenter Server will look for the existence of this file and will remove it when it sees it. When the session starts. It is. much like a flat file source.Event Based Scheduling Challenge In an operational environment. or dummy. is the use of indicator files. The mere existence of the dummy file is enough to indicate that the session should start. the start of a session needs to be triggered by another session or other event. the FTP process should be scripted so that it creates the indicator file upon successful completion of the source file FTP. therefore. The file used as the indicator file must be able to be located by the PowerCenter Server. Description The indicator file configuration is specified in the session configuration. essential that you do not use your flat file source as the indicator file. file. If the session is waiting on its source file to be FTP’ed from another server. The dummy file will be removed immediately after it is located. The best method of event-based scheduling with the PowerCenter Server. under advanced options. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-125 .

the native PowerCenter backup provides a clean backup that can be restored to a new database. is extremely important. Removing unnecessary data from these tables will expedite the repository backup process as well as the folder copy operation. the OPB_SESSION_LOG and/or OPB_SESS_TARG_LOG tables may be being transferred. If database corruption occurs. if folder copies are taking an unusually long time. and (2) the traditional database backup method.Repository Administration Challenge The task of managing the repository. thereby increasing performance. although both are not essential. you may need to analyze the tables in the repository to facilitate data retrieval. including connectivity to the PowerCenter repository. Analyzing Tables in the Repository If operations in any of the client tools. either in development or production. execute the following select statement to retrieve the sessions with the most entries in OPB_SESSION_LOG: PAGE BP-126 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The native PowerCenter backup is required. A number of best practices are available to facilitate the tasks involved with this responsibility. are slowing down . Description The following paragraphs describe several of the key tasks involved in managing the repository: Backing Up the Repository Two back-up methods are advisable for repository backup: (1) either the PowerCenter Repository Manager or ‘pmrep’ command line utility. Purging Old Session Log Information Similarly. To determine which logs to eliminate. and Informatica recommends using both methods.

It is not currently available for UNIX. opb_load_session c where a. then selecting Delete from the Edit menu. When you select one of the sessions.0 to facilitate repository administration and server level administration. The following examples illustrate the use of pmrep: Example 1: Script to backup PowerCenter Repository echo Connecting to repository <Informatica Repository Name>. then delete original session. It is a standalone utility that installs in the PowerCenter Client installation directory. the entries in the tables are deleted. When you delete the session. all of the session logs will appear on the righthand side of the screen. Log into Repository Manager and expand the sessions in a particular folder.subj_id=c. Command line mode is useful for batch files or scripts. eliminating all rows for an individual session. opb_subject b. • • Command line mode lets you execute pmrep commands from the windows command line... the entries in the repository tables do not duplicate. This utility is a command-line program for Windows 95/98 or Windows NT/2000 to update session-related parameters in a PowerCenter repository. sessname. When a session is copied. count(*) from opb_session_log a. You can manually delete any of these by highlighting a particular log.session_id and b.select subj_name. This mode invokes and exits each time a command is issued. d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep connect -r <Informatica Repository Name> -n <Repository User Name> -x <Repository Password> -t <Database Type> -u <Database User Name> -p < Database Password> -c <Database Connection String> echo Starting Repository Backup. d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep backup -o Output File Name> echo Clearing Connection… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep cleanup echo Repository Backup is Complete... Interactive mode invokes pmrep and allows you to issue a series of commands from a pmrep prompt without exiting after each command. The pmrep utility has two modes: command line and interactive mode. Respond ‘Yes’ when the system prompts you with the question “‘Delete these logs from the Repository?” pmrep Utility The pmrep utility was introduced in PowerCenter 5.. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-127 . Copy the original session. 2.session_id=c.. sessname order by count(*) desc 1.subj_id group by subj_name.

To simplify the process of setting up client machines.Example 2: Script to update database connection information echo Connecting to repository Informatica Repository <Informatica Repository Name>. the connection fails. If you import a registry containing a DSN that does not exist on that client system. d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep connect -r <Informatica Repository Name> -n <Repository User Name> -x <Repository Password> -t <Database Type> -u <Database User Name> -p < Database Password> -c <Database Connection String> echo Begin Updating Connection Information for <Database Connection Name>… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep\pmrep updatedbconfig –d <Database Connection Name> –u <New Database Username> –p <New Database Password> –c <New Database Connection String> -t <Database Type> echo Clearing Connection… d:\PROGRA~1\INFORM~1\pmrep cleanup echo Completed Updating Connection Information for <Database Connection Name>… Export and Import Registry The Repository Manager saves repository connection information in the registry. PAGE BP-128 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Be sure to have the appropriate data source configured under the exact same name as the registry you are going to import.. The section of the registry that you can import and export contains the following repository connection information: • • • • Repository name Database username and password (must be in US-ASCII) Repository username and password (must be in US-ASCII) ODBC data source name (DSN) The registry does not include the ODBC data source. and then import it to a different client machine (as long as both machines use the same operating system). for each imported DSN. you can export the connection information..

but only by one server at a time One of the Sun 4500’s serves as the primary data integration server.cfg file is needed. load schedules cannot be impacted by the failure of physical hardware. the PowerCenter Server ‘thinks’ it is physically hosted by the primary server and uses the resources of the primary server. This is best accomplished in a clustered environment. Thus. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-129 . If the machine hosting the PowerCenter Server goes down.cfg file instead of the physical IP addresses of the servers. Description While there are many types of hardware and many ways to configure a clustered environment. this example is based on the following hardware and software characteristics: • • • • 2 Sun 4500. This logical IP address is specified in the pmserver. When the primary server goes down. To facilitate this. The PowerCenter Server must be running at all times. another machine must recognize this and start another Server and assume responsibility for running the sessions and batches. running Solaris OS Sun High-Availability Clustering Software External EMC storage.High Availability Challenge In a highly available environment. a logical IP address can be created specifically for the PowerCenter Server. only one pmserver. Under normal operations. although it is physically located on its own server. In addition. the Sun high-availability software automatically starts the PowerCenter Server on the secondary server using the basic auto start/stop scripts that are used in many UNIX environments to automatically start the PowerCenter Server whenever a host is rebooted. with each server owning specific disks PowerCenter installed on a separate disk that is accessible by both servers in the cluster. the Sun highavailability software changes the ownership of the disk where the PowerCenter Server is installed from the primary server to the secondary server. while the other server in the cluster is the secondary server.

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Tune the source system and target system based on the performance details.. it should immediately be apparent if the system is paging memory or if the CPU load is too high for the number of available processors.g. Perform Benchmarking.Recommended Performance Tuning Procedures Challenge Efficient and effective performance tuning for PowerCenter products. 6. increasing the physical memory available on the machine) can greatly improve performance. and target have been tuned to their peak performance should the mapping be analyzed for tuning. Re-run the session and monitor the performance details. Only minor tuning of the session can be conducted at this point and usually has only a minor effect. Benchmark the sessions to set a baseline to measure improvements against 2. When the source and target are optimized. the DTM should be the slowest portion of the session details. source. Only after the server. the target is inserting the data quickly. Use the performance details. 1. re-run the session to determine the impact of the changes. Description Performance tuning procedures consist of the following steps in a pre-determined order to pinpoint where tuning efforts should be focused. and the actual application of the business rules is the slowest portion. This is the optimum desired performance. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-131 . After the tuning achieves a desired level of performance. By running a session and monitoring the server. correcting the system to prevent paging (e. This indicates that the source data is arriving quickly. 4. 3. 5. If the system is paging. This time look at the details and watch for the Buffer Input and Outputs for the sources and targets. Monitor the server.

Finally. comparing the new performance with the old performance. re-run the sessions that have been identified as the benchmark. optimizing one or two sessions to run quickly can have a disastrous effect on another mapping and care should be taken to ensure that this does not occur. In some cases.7. PAGE BP-132 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

carefully consider which users should be granted the privilege to query these views. You can grant viewing privileges with either the ‘SELECT’ privilege. with each query having an immediate hit. The SQL in a source qualifier or in a lookup that is running INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-133 . SQL Server and Teradata. only SYS can query them. SQL Trace. • V$ Views V$ views are dynamic performance views that provide real-time information on database activity. Explain Plan allows the DBA or developer to determine the execution path of a block of SQL code. Using the SELECT ANY TABLE option requires the ‘O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY’ parameter be set to ‘TRUE’. which allows the user to view all V$ views. and TKPROF are powerful tools for revealing bottlenecks and developing a strategy to avoid them. so we’ve included only a short description of some of the major ones here. • Explain Plan Explain Plan. Keep in mind that querying these views impacts database performance.Performance Tuning Databases Challenge Database tuning can result in tremendous improvement in loading performance. With this in mind. Most DBAs are already familiar with these tools. which allows a user to view for individual V$ views or the ‘SELECT ANY TABLE’ privilege. which allows the ‘ANY’ keyword to apply to SYS owned objects. This Best Practice covers tips on tuning several databases: Oracle. Oracle Performance Tuning Tools Oracle offers many tools for tuning an Oracle instance. enabling the DBA to draw conclusions about database performance. Because SYS is the owner of these views.

Database files should be separated and identified. Memory and Processing Memory and processing configuration is done in the init. Disk I/O Disk I/O at the database level provides the highest level of performance gain in most systems. both loading and querying). Co-locate tables that are heavily used with tables that are rarely used to help minimize disk contention.. Run this utility after the database has been up and running (for hours or days). Review the PowerCenter session log for long initialization time (an indicator that the source qualifier may need tuning) and the time it takes to build a lookup cache to determine if the SQL for these transformations should be tested.e. PAGE BP-134 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . a standard set of parameters to optimize PowerCenter is not practical and will probably never exist.txt. Separate indexes so that when queries run indexes and tables.’ This report should give the DBA a fairly complete idea about the level of usage the database experiences and reveal areas that should be addressed.for a long time should be generated and copied to SQL*PLUS or other SQL tool and tested to avoid inefficient execution of these statements. they are not fighting for the same resource. Accumulating statistics may take time. While this type of planning is time consuming. ‘UTLESTAT’ ends the statistics collection process and generates an output file called ‘report. • UTLBSTAT & UTLESTAT Executing ‘UTLBSTAT’ creates tables to store dynamic performance statistics and begins the statistics collection process.ora file. Because each database is different and requires an experienced DBA to analyze and tune it for optimal performance. Also be sure to implement disk striping. • SQL Trace SQL Trace extends the functionality of Explain Plan by providing statistical information about the SQL statements executed in a session that has tracing enabled. • TKPROF The output of SQL Trace is provided in a dump file that is difficult to read. TKPROF formats this dump file into a more understandable report. Rollback files should be separated onto their own disks because they have significant disk I/O. the payoff is well worth the effort in terms of performance gains. this. This utility is run for a session with the ‘ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE = TRUE’ statement. or RAID technology can help immensely in reducing disk contention. so you need to run this utility for a long while and through several operations (i.

o Maximum number of query servers or parallel recovery processes for an instance. If this parameter is not set. Cost-based optimization is always used for queries that reference an object with a nonzero degree of parallelism.TIP: Changes made in the init. • parallel_max_servers=40 o Used to enable parallel query. A value of 100 means that the optimizer uses each object's degree of parallelism in computing the cost of a full table scan operation. o Initially not set on Install. while high values favor table scans. Low values favor indexes. a RULE hint or optimizer mode or goal is ignored. (Note: ALTER SESSION refers to the Database Administration command issued at the svrmgr command prompt.3. The default of 0 means that the optimizer chooses the best serial plan. The settings presented here are those used in a 4-CPU AIX server running Oracle 7. Parallel_min_servers=8 o Used to enable parallel query. its value defaults to twice the value of the SORT_AREA_SIZE parameter. The value of this parameter can be changed without shutting down the Oracle instance by using the ALTER SESSION command.4 set to make use of the parallel query option to facilitate parallel processing of queries and indexes.) Optimizer_percent_parallel=33 This parameter defines the amount of parallelism that the optimizer uses in its cost functions. o The value of this parameter can be changed without shutting down the Oracle instance by using the ALTER SESSION command. to be used for the hash join. Use of a FIRST_ROWS hint or optimizer mode overrides a nonzero setting of OPTIMIZER_PERCENT_PARALLEL. • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-135 . • HASH_AREA_SIZE = 16777216 o Default value: 2 times the value of SORT_AREA_SIZE o Range of values: any integer o This parameter specifies the maximum amount of memory. We’ve also included the descriptions and documentation from Oracle for each setting to help DBAs of other (nonOracle) systems to determine what the commands do in the Oracle environment to facilitate setting their native database commands and settings in a similar fashion. in bytes. Use svrmgr to issue the commands “shutdown” and “startup” (eventually “shutdown immediate”) to the instance. For such queries.ora file will take effect after a restart of the instance.

particularly the CREATE INDEX statements. of Program Global Area (PGA) memory to use for a sort.armafix = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL =TCP) (HOST = armafix) (PORT = 1526) ) ) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=DW) ) ) PAGE BP-136 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . o The default is usually adequate for most database operations. However. a fact mapping that was using a lookup to get five columns (including a foreign key) and about 500. there is only one memory area of SORT_AREA_SIZE for each user process at any time. For example. After the sort is complete and all that remains to do is to fetch the rows out. 500. In another mapping. Performance went from about 2Mb/min (280 rows/sec) to about 10Mb/min (1360 rows/sec). if one process is doing all database access. Changing the connection type to IPC reduced this to 45 seconds.000 row write (array inserts). Multiple allocations never exist. After the last row is fetched out. primary key with unique index in place. In one case.ora would look like this: DW. if very large indexes are created. all memory is freed. Minimum number of query server processes for an instance. then an increased value for this parameter may speed the import. not to the operating system. The memory is released back to the PGA. the total time decreased from 24 minutes to 8 minutes for ~120130 bytes/row. the memory is released down to the size specified by SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE. this parameter may need to be adjusted. A normal tcp (network tcp/ip) connection in tnsnames. using an IPC connection can significantly reduce the time it takes to build a lookup cache. PMServer and Oracle target on same box).o o Initially not set on Install. as in a full database import.. in bytes.000 rows from a table was taking 19 minutes. IPC as an Alternative to TCP/IP on UNIX On an HP/UX server with Oracle as a target (i. This is also the number of query server processes Oracle creates when the instance is started. o Increasing SORT_AREA_SIZE size improves the efficiency of large sorts.e. • SORT_AREA_SIZE=8388608 o Default value: Operating system-dependent o Minimum value: the value equivalent to two database blocks o This parameter specifies the maximum amount.

then generate SQL statements as output to disable and enable these indexes. With this in mind.' FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') AND CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'R' This produces output that looks like: ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011075 . INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-137 .' || TABLE_NAME || ' DISABLE CONSTRAINT ' || CONSTRAINT_NAME || ' .armafix = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=ipc) (KEY=DW) ) (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=DW)) ) Improving Data Load Performance • Alternative to Dropping and Reloading Indexes Dropping and reloading indexes during very large loads to a data warehouse is often recommended but there is seldom any easy way to do this. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. then writing another SQL statement to rebuild it can be a very tedious process. Oracle stores the name of each index in a table that can be queried. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. it is an easy matter to write a SQL statement that queries this table.Make a new entry in the tnsnames like this.CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011060 . writing a SQL statement to drop each index. and use it for connection to the local Oracle instance: DWIPC. Run the following to generate output to disable the foreign keys in the data warehouse: SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' || OWNER || '. Oracle 7 (and above) offers an alternative to dropping and rebuilding indexes by allowing you to disable and re-enable existing indexes.AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011077 . For example.

CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011070 .CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011059 .ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE PRIMARY KEY . Run the results of this SQL statement after disabling the foreign key constraints: SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' || OWNER || '. Finally. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011133 .AGREEMENT_DIM DISABLE PRIMARY KEY .' || TABLE_NAME || ' DISABLE PRIMARY KEY . Save the results in a single file and name it something like ‘DISABLE. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_DIM DISABLE PRIMARY KEY . ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011131 .' || TABLE_NAME || ' DISABLE PRIMARY KEY .' FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') AND CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'U' ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. disable any unique constraints with the following: SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' || OWNER || '. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011071 .CUSTOMER_SALES_FACT DISABLE CONSTRAINT SYS_C0011134 .' FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') AND CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'P' This produces output that looks like: ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV. Dropping or disabling primary keys will also speed loads.SQL’ PAGE BP-138 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . ALTER TABLE MDDB_DEV.

merely add ‘OPTIONS (OPTION = TRUE) to beginning of the control file. you need a control file. Re-enable the unique constraints first. If you use lookups and updates (especially on large tables). such as ‘OPTIONS (DIRECT = TRUE)’. This performs like a typical INSERT statement that updates indexes. TIP: Dropping or disabling foreign keys will often boost loading. but this also slows queries (such as lookups) and updates. and evaluates constraints. Re-enable constraints in the reverse order that you disabled them.To re-enable the indexes. The CONVENTIONAL path is the default method for SQL*Loader. SQL*Loader has several options that can improve data loading performance and are easy to implement. SQL*Loader • Loader Options SQL*Loader is a bulk loader utility used for moving data from external files into the Oracle database. The DIRECT path obtains an exclusive lock on the table being loaded and writes the data blocks directly to the database files. If you do not use lookups or updates on your target tables you should get a boost by using this SQL statement to generate scripts.SQL’ and run it as a post-session command. and re-enable primary keys before foreign keys. bypassing all SQL INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-139 . rerun these queries after replacing ‘DISABLE’ with ‘ENABLE. To use the Oracle bulk loader. fires triggers. These options are: • • • • DIRECT PARALLEL SKIP_INDEX_MAINTENANCE UNRECOVERABLE A control file normally has the following format: LOAD DATA INFILE <dataFile> APPEND INTO TABLE <tableName> FIELDS TERMINATED BY '<separator>' (<list of all attribute names to load>) To use any of these options. which specifies how data should be loaded into the database. You may want to experiment to determine which method is faster.’ Save the results in another file with a name such as ‘ENABLE. you can exclude the index that will be used for the lookup from your script.

But it is important to note that when a bitmap-indexed column is PAGE BP-140 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . bitmaps will be smaller and faster to create than a b-tree index on the same column. but not PRIMARY KEY. Oracle will default to btree. Note that no other users can write to the loading table due to this exclusive lock and no SQL transformations can be made in the control file during the load. Also note that for certain columns. for example). Optimizing Query Performance • Oracle Bitmap Indexing With version 7. then you can bypass index updates by using the SKIP_INDEX_MAINTENANCE option.x. that b-tree indexing is still the Oracle default. Recoverability should not be an issue since the data file still exists. the performance time can be reduced to that of loading a single partition. and can significantly improve query performance. Oracle added bitmap indexing to supplement the traditional b-tree index. You will have to rebuild the indexes after the load. If the CONVENTIONAL path must be used (i. If the partitions are located on separate disks. UNIQUE KEY and NOT NULL constraints. size. A b-tree index can greatly improve query performance on data that has high cardinality or contains mostly unique values.. Disabling these constraints with the SQL scripts described earlier will benefit performance when loading data into a target warehouse. however. by create the Oracle target table with the same number of partitions as the session. but is not much help for low cardinality/highly duplicated data and may even increase query time. the space savings is dramatic. Since most dimension tables in a warehouse have nearly every column indexed. Keep in mind. but overall performance may improve significantly. The UNRECOVERABLE option in the control file allows you to redo log writes during a CONVENTIONAL load. The PARALLEL option can be used with the DIRECT option when loading multiple partitions of the same table. If you don’t specify an index type when creating an index. Loading Partitioned Sessions To improve performance when loading data to an Oracle database using a partitioned session. and ability to create and drop very quickly. The DIRECT option automatically disables CHECK and foreign key REFERENCES constraints. This kind of data is an excellent candidate for a bitmap index.processing. A typical example of a low cardinality field is gender – it is either male or female (or possibly unknown).e. transformations are performed during the load. Bitmap indexes are suited to data warehousing because of their performance.3.

drop index emp_gender. drop index emp_gender_bit. which can make loads very slow.2. every row associated with that bitmap entry is locked. With a b-tree index on the Fact table. For this reason. it is a good idea to drop or disable bitmap indexes prior to the load and recreate or re-enable them after the load. a query processes by joining all the Dimension tables in a Cartesian product based on the WHERE clause.g.ora file and if there are single column bitmapped indexes on the fact table foreign keys. Creating bitmap indexes is similar to creating b-tree indexes. The relationship between Fact and Dimension keys is another example of low cardinality. Information for bitmap indexes in stored in the data dictionary in dba_indexes. you must set the following items in the instance initialization file: • • • compatible = 7. • Bitmap indexes: drop index emp_active_bit. • B-tree indexes: drop index emp_active. all_indexes. create index emp_gender on emp (gender). inserts and updates). This ‘star query’ access method is only used if the STAR_TRANSFORMATION_ENABLED parameter is equal to TRUE in the init. With a bitmapped index on the Fact table. create index emp_active on emp (active_flag). All other syntax is identical. To enable bitmap indexes.0.3. To specify a bitmap index.updated. a ‘star query’ may be created that accesses the Fact table first followed by the Dimension table joins.. create bitmap index emp_active_bit on emp (active_flag). add the word ‘bitmap’ between ‘create’ and ‘index’. making bitmap indexing a poor choice for OLTP database tables with constant insert and update traffic.’ Bitmap indexes cannot be unique. create bitmap index emp_gender_bit on emp (gender).0 # or higher event = "10111 trace name context forever" event = "10112 trace name context forever" INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-141 . Also. then joins back to the Fact table. bitmap indexes are rebuilt after each DML statement (e. and user_indexes with the word ‘BITMAP’ in the Uniqueness column rather than the word ‘UNIQUE. avoiding a Cartesian product of all possible Dimension attributes.

ANALYZE TABLE VENDOR_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS. a syntax error will appear in your SQL statement. The following will improve query results on Fact and Dimension tables (including appending and updating records) by updating the table and index statistics for the data warehouse: The following SQL statement can be used to analyze the tables in the database: SELECT 'ANALYZE TABLE ' || TABLE_NAME || ' COMPUTE STATISTICS. start and log into SQL*Plus. the word ‘parallel’ appears in the banner text. PAGE BP-142 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If you try to create bitmap indexes without the parallel query option. • TIP: To check if the parallel query option is installed. the keyword ‘bitmap’ won't be recognized.• event = "10114 trace name context forever" Also note that the parallel query option must be installed in order to create bitmap indexes. The following SQL statement can be used to analyze the indexes in the database: SELECT 'ANALYZE INDEX ' || INDEX_NAME || ' COMPUTE STATISTICS. ANALYZE TABLE MARKET_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS.' FROM USER_TABLES WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') This generates the following results: ANALYZE TABLE CUSTOMER_DIM COMPUTE STATISTICS. Index Statistics • Table Method Index statistics are used by Oracle to determine the best method to access tables and should be updated periodically as normal DBA procedures. If the parallel query option is installed.' FROM USER_INDEXES WHERE (TABLE_NAME LIKE '%DIM' OR TABLE_NAME LIKE '%FACT') This generates the following results: ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011125 COMPUTE STATISTICS.

The following examples demonstrate how to utilize four processors: SELECT /*+ PARALLEL(order_fact. The degree of parallelism should be identified based on the number of processors and disk drives on the server. Use ‘estimate’ instead of ‘compute’ in the above examples. • Schema Method Another way to update index statistics is to compute indexes by schema rather than by table. then you can use the following command to update the statistics: EXECUTE SYS. If data warehouse indexes are the only indexes located in a single schema. • SQL Level Parallelism Hints are used to define parallelism at the SQL statement level. Save these results as a SQL script to be executed before or after a load. we recommend running them at off-peak times when no other process is using the database. order_fact_ixl. Example of improper use of alias: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-143 . database object. with the number of processors being the minimum degree. it is often acceptable to estimate the statistics rather than compute them. In this example.ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011119 COMPUTE STATISTICS. SELECT /*+ PARALLEL_INDEX(order_fact. 'compute'). TIP: When using a table alias in the SQL Statement.4) */ …. BDB is the schema for which the statistics should be updated. Otherwise.Analyze_Schema ('BDB'.4) */ …. If you find the exact computation of the statistics consumes too much time. be sure to use this alias in the hint. For this reason. Note that the DBA must grant the execution privilege for dbms_utility to the database user executing this command.DBMS_UTILITY. the hint will not be used. or instance level for many SQL operations. Parallelism Parallel execution can be implemented at the SQL statement. especially for very large tables. TIP: These SQL statements can be very resource intensive. ANALYZE INDEX SYS_C0011105 COMPUTE STATISTICS. and you will not receive an error message.

to execute the ENABLE.and post-session commands. 4) */ EMPNO. . TEMPORARY TABLESPACE . The correct way is: SELECT /*+PARALLEL (A. . ENAME FROM EMP A Here. PAGE BP-144 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The following example demonstrates how to set a table’s degree of parallelism to four for all eligible SQL statements on this table: ALTER TABLE order_fact PARALLEL 4.SQL file created earlier (assuming the data warehouse is on a database named ‘infadb’). .SELECT /*+PARALLEL (EMP. the Informatica id “pmuser” is used to log onto the Oracle database.SQL In some environments.sql For example. Additional Tips • Executing Oracle SQL Scripts as Pre and Post Session Commands on UNIX You can execute queries as both pre. this may be a security issue since both username and password are hard-coded and unencrypted. For a UNIX environment. the format of the command is: sqlplus –s user_id/password@database @ script_name. To avoid this. 4) */ EMPNO. In the following example. you would execute the following as a post-session command: sqlplus -s pmuser/pmuser@infadb @ /informatica/powercenter/Scripts/ENABLE. Ensure that Oracle is not contending with other processes for these resources or you may end up with degraded performance due to resource contention. the parallel hint will not be used because of the used alias “A” for table EMP. use the operating system’s authentication to log onto the database instance. Create the Oracle user “pmuser” with the following SQL statement: CREATE USER PMUSER IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY DEFAULT TABLESPACE . ENAME FROM EMP A • Table Level Parallelism Parallelism can also be defined at the table and index level. .

• • • • • • Manage system memory usage (RAM caching) Create and maintain good indexes Partition large data sets and indexes Monitor disk I/O subsystem performance Tune applications and queries Optimize active data Manage RAM Caching Managing random access memory (RAM) buffer cache is a major consideration in any database server environment. “pmuser” (the id Informatica is logged onto the operating system as) is automatically passed from the operating system to the database and used to execute the script: sqlplus -s /@infadb @/informatica/powercenter/Scripts/ENABLE. If database I/O (input/output operations to the physical disk subsystem) can be reduced to the minimal required set of data and index pages. use the ‘Generate SQL’ option in the source qualifier and include the ‘driving_site’ hint in the SQL statement as: SELECT /*+ DRIVING_SITE */ …. • DRIVING_SITE ‘Hint’ If the source and target are on separate instances. then processes everything on the target instance. Managing performance on an SQL Server encompasses the following points.In the following pre-session command. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-145 . moves the data across the network to the target instance. Too much unneeded data and index information flowing into buffer cache quickly pushes out valuable pages. If either data source is large. Accessing data in RAM cache is much faster than accessing the same Information from disk. For example.SQL You may want to use the init. The primary goal of performance tuning is to reduce I/O so that buffer cache is best utilized. To force the Oracle optimizer to process the join on the source instance. However. the Source Qualifier transformation should be executed on the target instance. Oracle fetches all of the data from both tables. you want to join two source tables (A and B) together. SQL Server Description Proper tuning of the source and target database is a very important consideration to the scalability and usability of a business analytical environment. these pages will stay in RAM longer. this causes a great deal of network traffic.ora parameter “os_authent_prefix” to distinguish between “normal” oracle-users and “external-identified” ones. which may reduce the number of selected rows.

The cost refers to an estimated elapsed time in seconds required to execute the serial plan on a specific hardware configuration. Set the value to a number greater than 1 to restrict the maximum number of processors used by a single query execution . Set this option to 1 to suppress parallel plan generation. SQL Server creates and executes a parallel plan for a query only when the estimated cost to execute a serial plan for the same query is higher than the value set in cost threshold for parallelism. Optimizing Disk I/O Performance PAGE BP-146 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . which is a priority base of seven. It will vary dynamically between min server memory and max server memory. Priority Boost Option Use this option to specify whether SQL Server should run at a higher scheduling priority than other processors on the same computer. If you set this option to one. The default value is 0. Only set cost threshold for parallelism on symmetric multiprocessors (SMP). Max Degree of Parallelism Option Use this option to limit the number of processors (a max of 32) to use in parallel plan execution. which uses the actual number of available CPUs. Setting ‘set working set’ size means the operating system will not attempt to swap out SQL Server pages even if they can be used more readily by another process when SQL Server is idle. these include: Full Recovery Bulk-Logged Recovery Simple Recovery Cost Threshold for Parallelism Option Use this option to specify the threshold where SQL Server creates and executes parallel plans.Several settings in SQL Server can be adjusted to take advantage of SQL Server RAM usage: • • Max async I/O is used to specify the number of simultaneous disk I/O operations (???) that SQL Server can submit to the operating system. The server memory setting is configured automatically by SQL Server based on workload and available resources. Note that this setting is automated in SQL Server 2000 SQL Server allows several selectable models for database recovery. SQL Server runs at a priority base of 13. Set Working Set Size Option Use this option to reserve physical memory space for SQL Server that is equal to the server memory setting. The default is 0.

000 you could have saved significant recovery time. An advantage of using BULK INSERT is that it can copy data into instances of SQL Server using a Transact-SQL statement. those 999. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-147 . it is necessary to drive configuration around maximizing SQL Server disk I/O performance by load-balancing across multiple hard drives.000 rows of new data into a table. RAID partitioning) and applying various data configuration mechanisms in SQL Server such as files. TIP: Both of these mechanisms enable you to exercise control over the batch size. which will contain hundreds of gigabytes or even terabytes of data and/or that can sustain heavy read/write activity (as in a DSS application).999 rows will need to be rolled back out of the database before you attempt to reload the data. • • Bcp is a command prompt utility that copies data into or out of SQL Server. By specifying a batch size of 10. tables and views. disk.. you need not be particularly concerned with the subject of disk I/O and balancing of SQL Server I/O activity across hard drives for maximum performance. rather than having to shell out to the command prompt. The first mechanism is the bcp utility. The second is the BULK INSERT statement. To build larger SQL Server databases however. file groups. you attempt to load 1. Methods for creating and managing partitions include configuring your storage subsystem (i.When configuring a SQL Server that will contain only a few gigabytes of data and not sustain heavy read or write activity. Partitioning can be done using a variety of techniques. it is good to get in the habit of specifying a batch size for recoverability reasons.000. Unlike bcp. BULK INSERT is a Transact-SQL statement that can be executed from within the database environment. BULK INSERT can only pull data into SQL Server. For example. because SQL Server would have only had to rollback 9999 rows instead of 999.e. If none is specified. Unless you are working with small volumes of data.999. SQL Server commits all rows to be loaded as a single batch. When the server recovers. performance can be improved by partitioning the data to increase the amount of disk I/O parallelism. The server suddenly loses power just as it finishes processing row number 999. Some possible candidates for partitioning include: • • • • • Transaction log Tempdb Database Tables Non-clustered indexes Using bcp and BULK INSERT Two mechanisms exist inside SQL Server to address the need for bulk movement of data.999. Partitioning for Performance For SQL Server databases that are stored on multiple disk drives.

General Guidelines for Initial Data Loads While loading data: • • • • • • Remove indexes Use Bulk INSERT or bcp Parallel load using partitioned data files into partitioned tables Run one load stream for each available CPU Set Bulk-Logged or Simple Recovery model Use TABLOCK option While loading data • • • Create indexes Switch to the appropriate recovery model Perform backups General Guidelines for Incremental Data Loads • • Load Data with indexes in place Performance and concurrency requirements should determine locking granularity (sp_indexoption). · Change from Full to Bulk-Logged Recovery mode unless there is an overriding need to preserve a point–in time recovery.1. Teradata Description Teradata offers several bulk load utilities including FastLoad. Read operations should not affect bulk loads. the data is first written to file. With PowerCenter 5. MultiLoad supports inserts. such as online users modifying the database during bulk loads. Other areas to analyze when performing a MultiLoad job include estimating space requirements and monitoring MultiLoad performance. Tuning MultiLoad There are many aspects to tuning a Teradata database. MultiLoad. FastLoad is used for loading inserts into an empty table. One of TPump’s advantages is that it does not lock the table that is being loaded.x several aspects of tuning can be controlled by setting MultiLoad parameters to maximize write throughput. Note: In PowerCenter 5.0.x can auto-generate MultiLoad scripts and invoke the MultiLoad utility per PowerCenter target. MultiLoad Parameters PAGE BP-148 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . deletes. updates. and TPump. the Informatica server transfers data via a UNIX named pipe to MultiLoad. This best practice will focus on MultiLoad since PowerCenter 5. and “upserts” to any table. whereas in PowerCenter 5.

In addition to the space that may be required by target tables. Here are the MultiLoad-specific parameters that are available in PowerCenter: • • TDPID. A checkpoint interval is similar to a commit interval for other databases.1. Load Mode. Delete. assuming no fallback protection. By using permanent space for the MultiLoad tables. To maximize write speed to the database. Spool space is freed at each restart. try to limit the number of checkpoint operations that are performed. selecting the one that will be most efficient for each target table. Use the following formula to prepare the preliminary space estimate for one target table.x. each MultiLoad job needs permanent space for: • • • Work tables Error tables Restart Log table Note: Spool space cannot be used for MultiLoad work tables. this parameter specifies the number of minutes that MultiLoad waits before retrying a logon operation. Work tables. but also allows you to set performance options. This value should not exceed one per working amp (Access Module Process). and no non-unique secondary indexes: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-149 . this parameter specifies the maximum number of sessions that are allowed to log on to the database. Drop Error Tables. Available only in PowerCenter 5. Allows you to specify whether to drop or retain the three error tables for a MultiLoad session. in particular. This not only enhances development. no journals. Available load methods include Insert. you can auto-generate MultiLoad scripts. Also validate that your date format is compatible with the date format specified in the Teradata database. Max Sessions. A client based operand that is part of the logon string. Interval in hours between MultiLoad attempts to log on to the database when the maximum number of sessions are already running. If the checkpoint is set to a value greater than 60. and Upsert. Checkpoint. require a lot of extra permanent space. When you set the checkpoint value to less than 60. error tables. or the restart log table. Also remember to account for the size of error tables since error tables are generated for each target table. Set this parameter to 1 to drop error tables or 0 to retain error tables. Date Format. Consider creating separate external loader connections for each method. Available only in PowerCenter 5. it represents the interval in minutes between checkpoint operations. data is preserved for restart operations after a system failure. Sleep. Update.With PowerCenter 5. Ensure that the date format used in your target flat file is equivalent to the date format parameter in your MultiLoad script. • • • • • • Estimating Space Requirements for MultiLoad Jobs Always estimate the final size of your MultiLoad target tables and make sure the destination has enough space to complete your MultiLoad job. Tenacity. it represents the number of records to write before performing a checkpoint operation.1.

Determine which phase of the MultiLoad job is causing poor performance. 7. Determine whether the target tables have non-unique secondary indexes (NUSIs). Monitoring MultiLoad Performance Here are some tips for analyzing MultiLoad performance: 1. which is much slower than normal MultiLoad tasks. Use the Teradata RDBMS Query Session utility to monitor the progress of the MultiLoad job. Write operations to the fallback error tables are performed at normal SQL speed. as data is applied to the target tables. then the issue may be with the client system. NUSIs degrade MultiLoad performance because the utility builds a separate NUSI change row to be applied to each NUSI sub-table after all of the rows have been applied to the primary table. Non-unique primary indexes can cause severe MultiLoad performance problems. If it is during the application phase.Resusage table for problem areas. such as data bus or CPU capacities at or near 100 percent for one or more processors. 5. then the issue is not likely to be with the client system. 4. Check for locks on the MultiLoad target tables and error tables. • 2. Verify that the primary index is unique. The MultiLoad job output lists the job phases and other useful information. 3. 6. Check the DBC. • If the performance bottleneck is during the acquisition phase.PERM = (using data size + 38) x (number of rows processed) x (number of apply conditions satisfied) x (number of Teradata SQL statements within the applied DML) Make adjustments to your preliminary space estimates according to the requirements and expectations of your MultiLoad job. Check the size of the error tables. Save these listings for evaluation. as data is acquired from the client system. PAGE BP-150 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

What processes are using most of the memory? This may help you distribute the workload better. Some swapping will normally occur regardless of the tuning settings. Description Running ps-axu Run ps-axu to check for the following items: • • • • Are there any processes waiting for disk access or for paging? If so check the I/O and memory subsystems. What processes are using most of the CPU? This may help you distribute the workload better. use pstat and swap. If the swap space is too small for the intended applications. On a memory-starved and I/O-bound server. all are worthy of consideration. To check swap space availability.Performance Tuning UNIX Systems Challenge The following tips have proven useful in performance tuning UNIX-based machines. Check the system to ensure that swapping does not occur at any time during the session processing. Swapping. If page swapping does occur at any time. you can get a snapshot of page swapping. By using sar 5 10 or vmstat 1 10. on any database system. it should be increased. While some of these tips will be more helpful than others in a particular environment. this can effectively shut down the PowerCenter process and any databases running on the server. Identifying and Resolving Memory Issues Use vmstat or sar to check swapping actions. This occurs because some processes use the swap space by their design. Does ps show that your system is running many memory-intensive jobs? Look for jobs with a large set (RSS) or a high storage integral. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-151 . increase memory to prevent swapping. causes a major performance decrease and increased I/O.

your system may perform satisfactorily. • PAGE BP-152 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . number of processes. if your system has one. if single-file throughput is important. If you have statically allocated STREAMS buffers. If only one memory-intensive job is running at a time.Run vmstate 5 (sar –wpgr ) for SunOS. add more memory. you are short of memory. This may limit the system’s capacity (number of files. Are there a high number of address translation faults? (System V only) This suggests a memory shortage. Try running jobs requiring a lot of memory in a batch queue. vmstat –S 5 to detect and confirm memory problems and check for the following: • • • Are pages-outs occurring consistently? If so. look at the w and de fields of vmstat. Using iostat permits monitoring the load on specific disks. The buffer cache is not used in system V. Alternatively. etc. this will almost certainly have the heaviest activity.). Try running jobs requiring a lot of memory at night. If you don’t have vmsta –S. but netstat-m should give you an idea of how many buffers you really need.and 4096-byte) buffers.X systems. Put performance-critical files on a filesystem with a large block size: 16KB or 32KB (BSD). Iostat can be used to monitor the I/O load on the disks on the UNIX server. Identifying and Resolving Disk I/O Issues Use iostat to check i/o load and utilization. These should ALWAYS be zero. Making the buffer cache smaller will hurt disk I/O performance. but you may not care about them as much. This may reduce network performance. reduce the number of large (2048. Take notice of how fairly disk activity is distributed among the system disks. spread evenly across the disk (tolerable). try following remedial steps: • • • • • • • Reduce the size of the buffer cache. Try to limit the time spent running sendmail. or in two welldefined peaks at opposite ends (bad)? • • • Reorganize your file systems and disks to distribute I/O activity as evenly as possible. as well as CPU load. Using symbolic links helps to keep the directory structure the same throughout while still moving the data files that are causing I/O contention. BSD systems swap-out inactive jobs. If it is not. If you don’t see any significant improvement. Long bursts of swap-outs mean that active jobs are probably falling victim and indicate extreme memory shortage. Is activity concentrated in one area of the disk (good). you are extremely short of memory. Occasional swap-outs are normal. Are swap-outs occurring consistently? If so. If memory seems to be the bottleneck of the system. This may not help the memory problems. Use your fastest disk drive and controller for your root filesystem. by decreasing BUFPAGES. which is a memory hog. are the most active disks also the fastest disks? Run sadp to get a seek histogram of disk activity. put performance-critical files into one filesystem and use the fastest drive for that filesystem.4 and SunOS 4. Reduce the size of your kernel’s tables.

object modules. Check memory statistics again by running vmstat 5 (sar-rwpg). replacing it. • • • Eliminate unnecessary daemon processes. If you are using NFS and using remote files. using nice is really only a temporary solution. provided the work is done in the morning. using nice to raise the priority of CPU-bound jobs will expedite them but will hurt interactive performance.• • • • Increase the size of the buffer cache by increasing BUFPAGES (BSD). In general though. but if it is always busy 100 percent of the time. or buying another system to share the load. but any savings will help. editor backup and auto-save files. try the following actions: • • • Write a find script that detects old core dumps. Is the idle time always 0. When you run iostat 5above. You don’t have local disk I/O problems. %sys (system). and other trash and deletes it automatically. This points to CPU overload. Rebuild your file systems periodically to eliminate fragmentation (backup. A target goal should be %usr + %sys= 80 and %wio = 10 leaving %idle at 10. You may not care if the CPU (or the memory or I/O system) is overloaded at night.4. and restore). If the system shows a heavy load of %sys. If your system is paging or swapping consistently. the disk and I/O contention should be investigated to eliminate I/O bottleneck on the UNIX server. and %usr has a high %idle. Get users to run jobs at night with at or any queuing system that’s available always for help. %wio (waiting on I/O). also observe for CPU idle time. it will soon become insufficient.. If your system has disk capacity problem and is constantly running out of disk space. and %idle (% of idle time).g. Consider upgrading your system. and small data files). work must be piling up somewhere. Use nice to lower the priority of CPU-bound jobs will improve interactive performance. In this case. rwhod and routed are particularly likely to be performance problems. without letup? It is good for the CPU to be busy. you have memory problems. Use a smaller block size on file systems that are mostly small files (e. it is necessary to make memory changes to reduce the load on the system server. If you are running BSD UNIX or V. use the disk quota system to prevent individual users from gathering too much storage. If your workload grows. this is indicative of memory and contention of swapping/paging problems. This provides the %usr (user). If %wio is higher. Swapping makes performance worse. Run the script through cron. This may hurt your system’s memory performance. Identifying and Resolving CPU Overload Issues Use sar –u to check for CPU loading. Also. fix memory problem first. look at your network situation. build a new filesystem. Identifying and Resolving Network Issues INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-153 . source code files.

suspect an overloaded network. If badmixis roughly equal to timeout. some part of the network between the NFS client and server is overloaded and dropping packets. Avoid ps. If not. but badxidis low. Instead. Use spray to send a large burst of packets to the slow system.0 or System V. Try to prevent users from running I/O. If the number of collisions is large. Run netstat-s on the remote system. the network may be faulty. memory or disk I/O problems on the remote system. If the retransfield is more than 5 percent of calls. Run nfsstat and look at the client RPC data. Minimize the number of files per directory. the system may just not be able to tolerate heavy network workloads. at least one NFS server is overloaded. A large number of output errors suggests problems with your system and its interface to the network. at least one NFS server is overloaded. figure out which system appears to be slow. avoid long search paths. If you are short of STREAMS data buffers and are running Sun OS 4. A large number of dropped packets may also indicate data corruption. If collisions and network hardware are not a problem. the network or an NFS server is overloaded. have users log into the remote system to do their work. If the increase of UDP socket full drops (as indicated by netstat) is equal to or greater than the number of drop packets that spray reports. The greputility is a good example of an I/O intensive program. or one or more servers may have crashed. Try to reorganize the network so that this system isn’t a file server. suspect hardware problems. A large number of input errors indicate problems somewhere on the network.intensive programs across the network. Look at netsat-i.You can suspect problems with network capacity or with data integrity if users experience slow performance when they are using rlogin or when they are accessing files via NFS. If timeout is high. If the number of dropped packets is large. If timeoutand retrans are high. Use systems with good network performance as file servers.3 (or earlier). PAGE BP-154 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Reorganize the computers and disks on your network so that as many users as possible can do as much work as possible on a local system. then spray the remote system from the local system and run netstat-s again. look for network errors. the remote system most likely cannot respond to incoming data fast enough. If you use sh. General Tips and Summary of Other Useful Commands • • • • • Use dirs instead of pwd. Look to see if there are CPU. the remote system is slow network server If the increase of socket full drops is less than the number of dropped packets. Use vi or a native window editor rather than emacs. reconfigure the kernel with more buffers. If the number of input or output errors is large.

Current Semaphore Resources ---------------> INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-155 . vxfs. Maxuproc is the setting to determine the maximum level of user background processes. Be sure to check the database vendor documentation to determine the best file system for the specific machine. The “UNIX File System” derived from Berkeley (BSD).powermar pm4 5000000 1421 2714 m 8003 00000000 --rw------.cfg 0 202 1:30 pmserver 0:08 dtm pmserver. proprietary file systems from the UNIX vendor are most efficient and well suited for database work when tuned properly. Typical choices include: s5. and lastly raw devices that.oradba dba 21749760 1331 2478 m 202 00000000 --rw------.powermar pm4 25000000 2711 2711 m 4 00000000 --rw------. ufs.cfg 0 202 0:04 dtm pmserver. The UNIX System V File System.• • • Use egrep rather than grep: it’s faster. in reality are not a file system at all.cfg 0 202 11 18:13:17 ? 1 08:39:19 ? 17 18:13:17 ? 11 18:13:20 ? 12 18:13:27 ? 8 18:13:27 ? 0:05 dtm pmserver.oracle dba 20979712 1254 1273 m 1 0x0927e9b2 --rw-rw---. to view the current Informatica processes. Avoid raw devices. For example: harmon 125: pmprocs <-----------.powermar pm4 25000000 2714 2714 <-----------. Don’t run grep or other I/O.Current Shared Memory Resources ---------------> IPC status from <running system> as of Tue Feb 16 18:13:55 1999 T ID KEY MODE OWNER GROUP SEGSZ CPID LPID Shared Memory: m 0 0x094e64a5 --rw-rw---. this is defaulted to 40 but should be increased to 250 on most systems. On most UNIX environments. Use rlogin rather than NFS to access files on remote systems.cfg 1 202 0:04 dtm pmserver.cfg 1 202 0:02 dtm pmserver. lsattr –E –l sys0 is used to determine some current settings on most UNIX environments. Use PMProcs Utility ( PowerCenter Utility).Current PowerMart processes ---------------> UID PID PPID C powermar 2711 1421 289406976 powermar 2713 2711 289406976 powermar 1421 1 powermar 2712 2711 289406976 powermar 2714 1421 289406976 powermar 2721 2714 289406976 powermar 2722 2714 289406976 STIME TTY TIME CMD 16 18:13:11 ? 0:07 dtm pmserver. Of particular attention is maxuproc.cfg 1 202 - <-----------. In general. The Veritas File System.intensive applications across NFS.

you also tune the system for PowerCenter. Because PowerCenter processes data in a similar fashion as SMP databases.3. References: System Performance Tuning (from O’Reilly Publishing) by Mike Loukid. when tuning UNIX environments. by tuning the server to support the database. For detailed information on each of the parameters discussed here and much more on performance tuning of the applications running on UNIX-based systems refer this book. Most database systems provide a special tuning supplement for each specific version of UNIX.used to sync the reader and writer 0 or 1 . there is a specific IBM Redbook for Oracle 7.There are 19 Semaphores held by PowerMart processes • • • • • • Pmprocs is a script that combines the ps and ipcs commands Only available for UNIX CPID . is the main reference book for this Best Practice. PAGE BP-156 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . For example. the general rule of thumb is to tune the server for a major database system.Last PID that accessed the resource Semaphores .shows slot in LM shared memory Finally.3 running on AIX 4.Creator PID LPID .

Memory: pages/second. If the system is “maxed out” (i. The Performance tab (hit ctrl+alt+del. one CPU may be at 100% utilization while the other CPUs are at 0% utilization. all are worthy of consideration. The following tips have proven useful in performance tuning NT-based machines. Unfortunately. with differences for Windows 2000 noted in the last section. NT is considered a “selftuning” operating system because it attempts to configure and tune memory to the best of its ability. running at 100 percent for all CPUs).Performance Tuning Windows NT/2000 Systems Challenge The Microsoft Windows NT/2000 environment is easier to tune than UNIX environments. Note: Tuning is essentially the same for both NT and 2000 based systems. this does not mean that the NT system administrator is entirely free from performance improvement responsibilities. Thus. Also keep in mind NT’s inability to split processes across multiple CPUs. However. While some are likely to be more helpful than others in any particular environment. and click on the Performance tab). There is currently no solution for optimizing this situation.e. When using the Performance Monitor. look for these performance indicators to check: Processor: percent processor time. it may be necessary to add processing power to the server. If the number is much higher. choose task manager. although Microsoft is working on the problem. Description The two places to begin when tuning an NT server are: • • The Performance Monitor. For SMP environments you need to add one monitor for each CPU. NT scalability is quite limited. especially in comparison with UNIX environments. but offers limited performance options. In this comparison. there is a need to tune the memory INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-157 . a number of five pages per second or less is acceptable.

Some connections may be fast while others are slow. Before adding memory. Memory and services. PAGE BP-158 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . files should be moved to less utilized disk devices to optimize overall performance. This setting is used to determine the number of users sitting idle waiting for access to the same disk device. and hubstacks is critical for optimal server performance when moving data across the network. Resolving Typical NT Problems The following paragraphs describe some common performance problems in an NT environment and suggest tuning solutions. and some background processes. and very possibly resulting in a false sense of security. This is. moving files to less frequently used disk devices should level the load of the disk device. Thus. The device drivers for some types of hardware are notorious for wasting CPU clock cycles. High I/O settings indicate possible contention for I/O. check the Services in Control Panel because many background applications do not uninstall the old service when installing a new update or version. making it difficult to identify real problems. Physical disks: percent time. such as a mail server or web server running on the same machine. Careful analysis of the network card (or cards) and their settings. level the load across the disk devices by moving files. In situations where there are multiple controllers. Remember that this is only a guideline. Although adding memory to NT is always a good solution. can eliminate bottlenecks and improve throughput of network traffic at a magnitude of 10 to 1000 times depending on the hardware. If this number is greater than two. Device Drivers. both the unused old service and the new service may be using valuable CPU memory resources. Load reasonableness. It is nebulous because it bundles multiple network connections together. connections. Server: bytes total/second. the best tuning option for database applications in the NT environment. I/O Optimization. Intimate knowledge of the network card.to make better use of hardware rather than virtual memory. By analyzing the disk I/O. Assume that some software will not be well coded. the load on the database can be leveled across multiple disks. If necessary. Physical disks: queue length. can potentially starve the CPUs on the machine. it is also expensive and usually must be planned to support the BANK system for EISA and PCI architectures. and the recommended setting may be too high for some systems. by far. This is a very nebulous performance indicator. Off-loading CPU hogs may be the only recourse. combined with the use of a Network Analyzer. This is the best place to tune database performance within NT environments. It monitors the server network connection. Be sure to get the latest drivers from the hardware vendor to minimize this problem. be sure to level the load across the controllers too.

The alerting function allows you to define a counter value that will trigger actions such as sending a network message. Using this type of product is a good idea whether the disk is formatted for FAT or NTFS. memory. With Windows 2000. or thread activity. Windows 2000 provides the following tools (accessible under the Control Panel/Administration Tools/Performance) for monitoring resource usage on your computer: • • System Monitor Performance Logs and Alerts These Windows 2000 monitoring tools enable you to analyze usage and detect bottlenecks at the disk. Monitoring System Performance In Windows 2000 In Windows 2000 the Informatica server uses system resources to process transformation. The Performance Logs and Alerts tool provides two types of performance-related logs—counter logs and trace logs—and an alerting function. be sure to implement disk stripping to split single data files across multiple disk drives and take advantage of RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks) technology. and reading and writing of data. NT. You can copy counter paths and settings from the System Monitor display to the Clipboard and paste counter paths from Web pages or other sources into the System Monitor display. The System Monitor displays a graph which is flexible and configurable. processor. on NT servers. rank. Trace logs collect event traces that measure performance statistics associated with events such as disk and file I/O. or starting a log. and cached lookup tables. you can use system monitor in the Performance Console of the administrative tools. not Performance Monitor.exe at the command prompt causes the system to start System Monitor. The System Monitor is portable. or system tools in the task manager. Therefore they can be viewed in System Monitor.Using electrostatic devices and fast-wide SCSI can also help to increase performance. session execution. running a program. page faults. Finally. Alerts are INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-159 . joiner. Also increase the priority of the disk devices on the NT server. Counter logs record sampled data about hardware resources and system services based on performance objects and counters in the same manner as System Monitor. This is useful in monitoring other systems that require administration. The Informatica server also uses system memory for other data such as aggregate. and network level. Typing perfmon. Change the disk priority setting in the Registry at service\lanman\server\parameters and add a key for ThreadPriority of type DWORD with a value of 2. to monitor the amount of system resources used by the Informatica server and to identify system bottlenecks. and fragmentation can be eliminated by using a Windows NT/2000 disk defragmentation product. sets the disk device priority low. Data in counter logs can be saved as comma-separated or tab-separated files that are easily viewed with Excel. by default.

If you want to create your own log setting press the right mouse on one of the log types. If you start logging with these settings. PAGE BP-160 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . but want to be notified when it exceeds or falls below a specified value so that you can investigate and determine the cause of the change. Disk Queue Length. and Processor(_Total)\ % Processor Time.useful if you are not actively monitoring a particular counter threshold value. (The subkey is HKEY_CURRENT_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SysmonLog\Log_Qu eries.) The predefined log settings under Counter Logs named System Overview. are configured to create a binary log that. updates every 15 seconds and logs continuously until it achieves a maximum size. Note:You must have Full Control access to a subkey in the registry in order to create or modify a log configuration. Some other useful counters include Physical Disk: Reads/sec and Writes/sec and Memory: Available Bytes and Cache Bytes. You might want to set alerts based on established performance baseline values for your system. PhysicalDisk(_Total)\Avg. after manual start-up. data is saved to the Perflogs folder on the root directory and includes the counters: Memory\ Pages/sec.

INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-161 . source and target for peak performance. Lookup Transformation. if a mapping moves data from an Integer port to a Decimal port. Consolidate separate mappings into one mapping with either a single Source Qualifier Transformation or one set of Source Qualifier Transformations as the data source for the separate data flows. a PowerCenter mapping is the biggest ‘bottleneck’ in the load process as business rules determine the number and complexity of transformations in a mapping. Scrutinize Datatype Conversions PowerCenter Server automatically makes conversions between compatible datatypes. Similarly. Consider Single-Pass Reading If several mappings use the same data source. Optimize SQL Overrides When SQL overrides are required in a Source Qualifier. consider a single-pass reading. This Best Practice offers some guidelines for tuning mappings. When these conversions are performed unnecessarily performance slows. then back to an Integer port. or in the update override of a target object. Description Analyze mappings for tuning only after you have tuned the system.Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Challenge In general. a single-pass reading will reduce the number of times that function will be called in the session. The extent to which and how SQL can be tuned depends on the underlying source or target database system. if a function is used in several mappings. be sure the SQL statement is tuned. the conversion may be unnecessary. For example.

the PowerCenter Server caches the lookup table and queries the lookup cache during the session. and logs the error in the session log. Practices regarding memory and cache sizing for Lookup transformations are covered in Best Practice: Tuning Sessions for Better Performance. the PowerCenter Server engine pauses to determine the cause of the error. NOTE: All the tuning options mentioned in this Best Practice assume that memory and cache sizing for lookups are sufficient to ensure that caches will not page to disks. conflicting mapping logic. removes the row causing the error from the data flow. During transformation errors. if the lookup table needs less than 300MB of memory. lookup caching should be enabled. In general. The session log can help point out the cause of these errors. any condition that is specifically set up as an error. Eliminate Transformation Errors Large numbers of evaluation errors significantly slow performance of the PowerCenter Server. Optimize Lookup Transformations There are a number of ways to optimize lookup transformations that are setup in a mapping. When this option is not enabled. datatype conversions can help improve performance. This is especially true when integer values are used in place of other datatypes for performing comparisons using Lookup and Filter transformations. If errors recur consistently for certain transformations. In Mapping X. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table on a row-by-row basis. consider the following example. re-evaluate the constraints for these transformation. For example. When to Cache Lookups When caching is enabled. and so on. A better rule of thumb than memory size is to determine the ‘size’ of the potential lookup cache with regard to the number of rows expected to be processed.In some instances however. Any source of errors should be traced and eliminated. Transformation errors can be caused by many things including: conversion errors. the source and lookup contain the following number of records: ITEMS (source): MANUFACTURER: DIM_ITEMS: Number of Disk Reads 5000 records 200 records 100000 records PAGE BP-162 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

In the non-cached log. In the cached log. If the lookup table is not cached. 7.000 rows. Consider the case where DIM_ITEMS is the lookup table.000. then the disk reads would total 10. 8. Run the mapping with caching turned off and save the log. 4.Cached Lookup LKP_Manufacturer Build Cache Read Source Records Execute Lookup Total # of Disk Reads LKP_DIM_ITEMS Build Cache Read Source Records Execute Lookup Total # of Disk Reads 100000 5000 0 105000 200 5000 0 5200 Un-cached Lookup 0 5000 5000 100000 0 5000 5000 10000 Consider the case where MANUFACTURER is the lookup table. it will take a total of 5200 disk reads to build the cache and execute the lookup. it will result in 105. 5. If your expected source records is more than X. Thus the lookup should not be cached. Use the following eight step method to determine if a lookup should be cached: 1. it is better to not cache the lookup. If the lookup table is not cached. In this case the number of records in the lookup table is not small in comparison with the number of times the lookup will be executed. the number of records in the lookup table is small in comparison with the number of times the lookup is executed. Look in the cached lookup log and determine how long it takes to cache the lookup object. In this case. 6. Note this time in seconds: LOOKUP TIME IN SECONDS = LS. Code the lookup into the mapping. Run the mapping with caching turned on and save the log to a different name than the log created in step 3.000 total disk reads to execute the lookup. If the lookup table is cached. take the time from the last lookup cache to the end of the load in seconds and divide it into number or rows being processed: CACHED ROWS PER SECOND = CRS. 3. then it will take a total of 10. For example. it is better to cache the lookup. This is the more likely scenario.000 total disk reads to build and execute the lookup. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-163 . Use the following formula to find the breakeven row point: (LS*NRS*CRS)/(CRS-NRS) = X Where X is the breakeven point. If your expected source records is less than X. take the time from the last lookup cache to the end of the load in seconds and divide it into the number or rows being processed: NON-CACHED ROWS PER SECOND = NRS. 2. Select a standard set of data from the source. So this lookup should be cached. If the lookup table is cached. add a where clause on a relational source to load a sample 10.

• • Reducing the Number of Cached Rows There is an option to use a SQL override in the creation of a lookup cache. Using the same lookup multiple times in the mapping will be more resource intensive with each successive instance. If the option of creating a persistent cache is set in the lookup properties.For example: Assume the lookup takes 166 seconds to cache (LS=166). PAGE BP-164 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If it has more than 66. If multiple cached lookups are from the same table but are expected to return different columns of data. set the conditions with an equal sign first in order to optimize lookup performance.603 records. Assume with a cached lookup the load is 232 rows per second (CRS=232). Optimizing the Lookup Condition In the case where a lookup uses more than one lookup condition.603. the use of an unnamed persistent cache allows multiple runs to use an existing cache file stored on the PowerCenter Server. The formula would result in: (166*147*232)/(232-147) = 66. Bringing back a common set of columns may reduce the number of disk reads. Sharing Lookup Caches There are a number of methods for sharing lookup caches. Across sessions of the same mapping. the memory cache created for the lookup during the initial run is saved to the PowerCenter Server. • Within a specific session run for a mapping. Assume with a non-cached lookup the load is 147 rows per second (NRS = 147). the lookup must be cached. if the same lookup is used multiple times in a mapping. This feature should only be used when the lookup table is not expected to change between session runs. the use of a named persistent cache allows sharing of an existing cache file. the PowerCenter Server will re-use the cache for the multiple instances of the lookup. Options can be added to the WHERE clause to reduce the set of records included in the resulting cache. the lookup should not be cached. Across different mappings and sessions. then the lookup should be cached. This can improve performance because the Server builds the memory cache from cache files instead of the database. if the source has less than 66. NOTE: If you use a SQL override in a lookup.603 records. it may be better to setup the multiple lookups to bring back the same columns even though not all return ports are used in all lookups. Thus.

Also avoid complex expressions in the Aggregator expressions. This can improve performance for both cached and un-cached lookups. as a group is passed through an aggregator. Use the Sorted Input option in the aggregator. ¨ In the case of an un-cached lookup. the PowerCenter Server assumes all data is sorted by group and. Columns used in the ORDER BY condition should be indexed. Use simple columns in the group by condition to make the Aggregator Transformation more efficient. ¨ In the case of a cached lookup. the Server must wait for all rows of data before processing aggregate calculations. Instead of using a Filter Transformation to remove a sizeable number of rows in the middle or end of a mapping. Replace multiple filter transformations with a router transformation.Indexing the Lookup Table The PowerCenter Server must query. calculations can be performed and information passed on to the next transformation. since a SQL statement created for each row passing into the lookup transformation. Without sorted input. indexes on the database table should include every column used in a lookup condition. Use of the INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-165 . especially in GROUP BY ports. Optimize Aggregator Transformations Aggregator Transformations often slow performance because they must group data before processing it. This reduces the number of transformations in the mapping and makes the mapping easier to follow. When it is used. When possible. sort and compare values in the lookup condition columns. Avoid complex expressions when creating the filter condition. an ORDER BY condition is issued in the SQL statement used to create the cache. As a result. use numbers instead of strings or dates in the GROUP BY columns. Filter transformations are most effective when a simple integer or TRUE/FALSE expression is used in the filter condition. use a filter on the Source Qualifier or a Filter Transformation immediately after the source qualifier to improve performance. Filters or routers should also be used to drop rejected rows from an Update Strategy transformation if rejected rows do not need to be saved. The Sorted Input option decreases the use of aggregate caches. performance can be helped by indexing columns in the lookup condition. Optimize Filter and Router Transformations Filtering data as early as possible in the data flow improves the efficiency of a mapping. The session log will contain the ORDER BY statement. This option requires that data sent to the aggregator be sorted in the order in which the ports are used in the aggregator’s group by.

Normal joins are faster than outer joins and the resulting set of data is also smaller. then its data would be used to continue calculating the current group function. thus increasing the Number of Cached Values property can increase performance. An Update Strategy Transformation would follow the Expression Transformation and set the first row of a new group to insert and the following rows to update. the smaller set of data should be cached and thus set as Master. External Procedures and Advanced External Procedures. to give the next set of cache values. Use the database to do the join when sourcing data from the same database schema. In order to minimize memory requirements. making calls to external procedures slows down a session.Sorted Inputs option is usually accompanied by a Source Qualifier which uses the Number of Sorted Ports option. Define the rows from the smaller set of data in the joiner as the Master rows. Use an Expression and Update Strategy instead of an Aggregator Transformation. the use of variable ports is required to hold data from the previous row of data processed. Optimize Sequence Generator Transformations Sequence Generator transformations need to determine the next available sequence number. Avoid External Procedure Transformations For the most part. The premise is to use the previous row of data to determine whether the current row is a part of the current group or is the beginning of a new group. so a SQL override or a join condition should be used when joining multiple tables from the same database schema. using this option assumes that a mapping is using an Aggregator with Sorted Input option. This property determines the number of values the Informatica Server caches at one time. The Master rows are cached to memory and the detail records are then compared to rows in the cache of the Master rows. if the row is a part of the current group. Database systems usually can perform the join more quickly than the Informatica Server. It should be noted any cached values not used in the course of a session are ‘lost’ since the sequence generator value in the repository is set. If possible. Further. when it is called next time. Thus. PAGE BP-166 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . In the Expression Transformation. Use Normal joins whenever possible. avoid the use of these Transformations. This technique can only be used if the source data can be sorted. Configuring the Number of Cached Values to a value greater than 1000 should be considered. If it is set to cache no values then the Informatica Server must query the Informatica repository each time to determine what is the next number which can be used. Optimize Joiner Transformations Joiner transformations can slow performance because they need additional space in memory at run time to hold intermediate results. which include Stored Procedures.

If a mapping performs the same logic multiple times in a mapping. move the lookup to a position before the data flow splits.Field Level Transformation Optimization As a final step in the tuning process. In the case of each aggregate function call. If the transformation expressions are complex. There are several common examples where function calls can be reduced or eliminated. Processing field level transformations takes time. Run and time the edited session. do the following: 1. Minimize Function Calls Anytime a function is called it takes resources to process. Keep in mind that there may be more than one field causing performance problems. 5. Each target requires a Social Security Number lookup. To help isolate slow expressions. Instead of performing the lookup right before each target. focus on complex expressions for possible simplification. Thus the following expression: SUM(Column A) + SUM(Column B) Can be optimized to: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-167 . Copy the mapping and replace half the complex expressions with a constant. the Informatica Server must search and group the data. Aggregate function calls can sometime be reduced. Likely candidates for optimization are the fields with the most complex expressions.20% performance improvement by optimizing complex field level transformations. moving the task upstream in the mapping may allow the logic to be done just once. then processing will be slower. Use the target table mapping reports or the Metadata Reporter to examine the transformations. Run and time the edited session. Factoring out Common Logic This can reduce the number of times a mapping performs the same logic. a mapping has five target tables. When examining expressions. expressions used in transformations can be tuned. 2. Time the session with the original expression. 3. Make another copy of the mapping and replace the other half of the complex expressions with a constant. Its often possible to get a 10. For example. 4.

For example: IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’Y’. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’N’. VAL_A+VAL_B. 3 comparisons and two additions.0)))))))) Can be optimized to: IIF(FLG_A=’Y’. 0. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’N’. VAL_B. VAL_B. VAL_C. VAL_C. Be creative in making expressions more efficient. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’N’. The following is an example of rework of an expression which eliminates three comparisons down to one: For example: IIF(X=1 OR X=5 OR X=9. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’N’. VAL_B+VAL_C. 0. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’Y’ and FLG_C=’Y’. The optimized expression results in 3 IIFs. IIF(FLG_A=’N’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’Y’.SUM(Column A + Column B) In general. not just a logical test. 'yes'.0) + IIF(FLG_B=’Y’. IIF(FLG_A=’Y’ and FLG_B=’N’ and FLG_C=’Y’. so operators should be used whenever possible. 'no') PAGE BP-168 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . 16 ANDs and 24 comparisons. operators are faster than functions.’ ‘). VAL_A+VAL_C. 0.0) The original expression had 8 IIFs. This allows many logical statements to be written in a more compact fashion. VAL_A.0) + IIF(FLG_C=’Y’. VAL_A+VAL_B+VAL_C. LAST_NAME) It can be optimized to: FIRST_NAME || ‘ ‘ || LAST_NAME Remember that IIF() is a function that returns a value. VAL_A. For example if you have an expression which involves a CONCAT function such as: CONCAT(CONCAT(FIRST_NAME. 0.

if a lookup is done on a large amount of data on two columns. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-169 . the lookup values are incorporated into the expression itself so the Informatica Server does not need to lookup a separate table.Can be optimized to: IIF(MOD(X. Thus. For example. Use DECODE instead of LOOKUP When a LOOKUP function is used. 4) = 1. configuring the lookup around EMPLOYEE_ID improves performance. When a DECODE function is used. 'yes'. it slows each time it finds trailing blank spaces in the row. If the same subexpression is used several times in a transformation. the Informatica Server must lookup a table in the database. The Treat CHAR as CHAR On Read option can be set in the Informatica Server setup so that the Informatica Server does not trim trailing spaces from the end of CHAR source fields. The local variable can be used only within the transformation but by calculating the variable only once can speed performance. Optimizing Char-Char and Char-Varchar Comparisons When the Informatica Server performs comparisons between CHAR and VARCHAR columns. Choose Numeric versus String Operations The Informatica Server processes numeric operations faster than string operations. Reduce the Number of Transformations in a Mapping Whenever possible the number of transformations should be reduced. EMPLOYEE_NAME and EMPLOYEE_ID. As there is always overhead involved in moving data between transformations. This is especially important with data being pulled from the Source Qualifier Transformation. consider making the subexpression a local variable. Along the same lines. using DECODE may improve performance. when looking up a small set of unchanging values. Use Many Times Avoid calculating or testing the same value multiple times. unnecessary links between transformations should be removed to minimize the amount of data moved. 'no') Calculate Once.

Rank and/or Lookup transformations can point to a session bottleneck. Because index and data caches are created for each of these transformations. The Aggregator. depending on the factors discussed in the following paragraphs.Tuning Sessions for Better Performance Challenge Running sessions is where ‘the pedal hits the metal’. target database and mappings. When the PowerCenter Server creates memory caches. While it is true that various specific session options can be modified to improve performance. Caches The greatest area for improvement at the session level usually involves tweaking memory cache settings. Any value other than zero for these counters may indicate a bottleneck. this should not be the major or only area of focus when implementing performance tuning. both the index cache and data cache sizes may affect performance. . Description When you have finished optimizing the sources. Joiner. Both index and data cache files can be created for the following transformations in a mapping: • • • • Aggregator transformation (without sorted ports) Joiner transformation Rank transformation Lookup transformation (with caching enabled) PAGE BP-170 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . you should review the sessions for performance optimization. Review the memory cache settings for sessions where the mappings contain any of these transformations. A common misconception is that this is the area where most tuning should occur. When performance details are collected for a session. Joiner. information about readfromdisk and writetodisk counters for Aggregator. Rank and Lookup Transformations use caches. it may also create cache files.

When a session is run. and the session is configured for incremental aggregation. The PowerCenter Server uses memory to process an INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-171 . Refer to Chapter 9: Session Caches in the Informatica Session and Server Guide for detailed information on determining cache sizes. If a cache file handles more than 2 gigabytes of data. The DTM runs out of cache memory and pages to the local cache files. o Aggregator Caches Keep the following items in mind when configuring the aggregate memory cache sizes. If the PowerCenter Server requires more memory than the configured cache size. When a session completes.The PowerCenter Server creates the index and data cache files by default in the PowerCenter Server variable directory. Informatica recommends that the cache directory be local to the PowerCenter Server. $PMCacheDir.idx1 and PMAGG*. The PowerCenter Server writes to the index and data cache files during a session in the following cases: • • • • The mapping contains one or more Aggregator transformations. The number of index and data files is limited only by the amount of disk space available in the cache directory. The naming convention used by the PowerCenter Server for these files is PM [type of widget] [generated number]. Cache files may also remain if the session does not complete successfully. The cache directory may be changed however. The DTM may create multiple files when processing large amounts of data. Since paging to disk can slow session performance. try to configure the index and data cache sizes to store the appropriate amount of data in memory. • • Allocate at least enough space to hold at least one row in each aggregate group. the DTM generally deletes the overflow index and data cache files.dat. such as PMAGG*. The mapping contains a Lookup transformation that is configured to initialize the persistent lookup cache. if disk space is a constraint. When creating these files. and the Informatica Server runs the session for the first time. it stores the overflow values in these cache files. You may encounter performance or reliability problems when you cache large quantities of data on a mapped or mounted drive. The mapping contains a Lookup transformation that is configured to use a persistent lookup cache. Remember that you only need to configure cache memory for an Aggregator transformation that does NOT use sorted ports. The session fails if the local directory runs out of disk space. the PowerCenter Server writes a message in the session log indicating the cache file name and the transformation name.idx.dat or . For example. index and data files may exist in the cache directory if the session is configured for either incremental aggregation or to use a persistent lookup cache. an aggregate data cache file would be named PMAGG31_19. However. the PowerCenter Server creates multiple index and data files. the PowerCenter Server appends a number to the end of the filename.idx2.

Refer to Best Practice: Tuning Mappings for Better Performance to determine when lookups should be cached. These files are reused for subsequent runs. not cache memory. After the memory caches are built. The result of the Lookup query and processing is the same. Mappings that have sessions which use incremental aggregation should be set up so that only new detail records are read with each subsequent run.dat and PMAGG*. Incremental aggregation can improve session performance. However. • Joiner Caches The source with fewer records should be specified as the master source because only the master source records are read into cache. regardless of whether the lookup table is cached or not. when the transformation is configured to not cache. the PowerCenter Server saves index and data cache information to disk at the end of the session. When a session is run with a Joiner transformation. Using a lookup cache can sometimes increase session performance. the PowerCenter Server reads all the rows from the master source and builds memory caches based on the master rows. which helps increase the performance of the join. If the lookup table changes. Also. the PowerCenter Server uses this historical information to perform the incremental aggregation. the PowerCenter Server reads the rows from the detail source and performs the joins.idx and saves them to the cache directory. the PowerCenter Server aligns all data for lookup caches on an eight-byte boundary which helps increase the performance of the lookup. the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table instead of the lookup cache. When the Lookup transformation is not configured for caching. • Persistent caches should be used when lookup data is not expected to change often. the PowerCenter Server automatically aligns all data for joiner caches on an eight-byte boundary.• Aggregator transformation with sorted ports. When it is used. bypassing the querying of the database for the lookup. The next time the session runs. • Lookup Caches Several options can be explored when dealing with lookup transformation caches. • • PAGE BP-172 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the PowerCenter Server queries the lookup table for each input row. you must be sure to set the Recache from Database option to ensure that the lookup cache files will be rebuilt. Just like for a joiner. Lookup caching should be enabled for relatively small tables. The PowerCenter Server names these files PMAGG*. Lookup cache files are saved after a session which has a lookup that uses a persistent cache is run for the first time.

You can tweak session properties to increase the number of available memory blocks by adjusting: • • DTM Buffer Pool Size – the default setting is 12. • Increasing the DTM Buffer Pool Size The DTM Buffer Pool Size setting specifies the amount of memory the PowerCenter Server uses as DTM buffer memory.000 bytes Default Buffer Block Size – the default size is 64. This specifies the size of a memory block that is used to move data throughout the pipeline. the combined DTM buffer memory allocated for the sessions or batches must not exceed the total memory for the PowerCenter Server system. it allocates blocks of memory to hold source and target data. If there are XML sources and targets in the mappings. the PowerCenter Server creates more buffer blocks. When the DTM buffer memory is increased.000. Increasing DTM buffer memory allocation generally causes performance to improve initially and then level off. and each target may have a different row size. Then you can calculate the buffer pool size and/or the buffer block size based on the default settings. If a session is part of a concurrent batch. • Optimizing the Buffer Block Size Within a session. then it was not a factor in session performance. the total memory available on the PowerCenter Server needs to be evaluated. use the number of groups in the XML source or target in the total calculation for the total number of sources and targets. The PowerCenter Server uses DTM buffer memory to create the internal data structures and buffer blocks used to bring data into and out of the Server. each transformation. which results in different numbers of rows that can be fit into one memory block. which can improve performance during momentary slowdowns.Allocating Buffer Memory When the PowerCenter Server initializes a session. When the DTM buffer memory allocation is increased. Row size INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-173 . If you don’t see a significant performance increase after increasing DTM buffer memory. increasing the DTM buffer pool size may improve performance. first determine the number of memory blocks the PowerCenter Server requires to initialize the session.000 bytes To configure these settings. If a session’s performance details show low numbers for your source and target BufferInput_efficiency and BufferOutput_efficiency counters. Each source. Sessions that use a large number of source and targets may require additional memory blocks. you may modify the buffer block size by changing it in the Advanced Parameters section. to create the required number of session blocks.

Ideally. mappings with only a few transformations) do not make the engine “CPU bound” . you can separate it into several simpler mappings with separate sources.. Also. This enables you to place the sessions for each of the mappings in a concurrent batch to be run in parallel. and writing. This technique should only be employed on servers with multiple CPUs available. Informatica recommends that the size of the shared memory (which determines the number of buffers available to the session) should not be increased at all unless the mapping is “complex” (i. data can be processed in parallel with a single session by partitioning the source via the source qualifier. Increasing the Target Commit Interval One method of resolving target database bottlenecks is to increase the commit interval. performance slows.4 CPUs for the first session. so it may need to be increased for optimal performance. When increasing the commit interval at the session level. and therefore use a lot less processing power than a full CPU.is determined in the server. the number of times the PowerCenter Server commits decreases and performance may improve. the more often the PowerCenter Server writes to the target database. Also. plus or minus a factor of ten. the DTM buffer pool size is split among all partitions. The buffer block size does not become a factor in session performance until the number of rows falls below 10 or goes above 1000. use the source or target with the largest row size. and the slower the overall performance. more than 20 transformations). the smaller the commit interval. and CPU). you must remember to increase the size of the database rollback segments to accommodate this larger PAGE BP-174 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . If there is a complex mapping with multiple sources. Keep in mind that each partition will compete for the same resources (i. it has been noted that simple mappings (i. The default is 64K. Running Concurrent Batches Performance can sometimes be improved by creating a concurrent batch to run several sessions in parallel on one PowerCenter Server. Each concurrent session will use a maximum of 1. If you increase the commit interval. Therefore. memory. The PowerCenter Server will spawn a Read and Write thread for each partition. If there are independent sessions that use separate sources and mappings to populate different targets. so make sure that the hardware and memory are sufficient to support a parallel session. their datatypes and precisions. disk. When calculating this. they can be placed in a concurrent batch and run at the same time.e. based on number of ports. Each time the PowerCenter Server commits.e. thus allowing for simultaneous reading..e. Partitioning allows you to break a single source into multiple sources and to run each in parallel. processing.x. and a maximum of 1 CPU for each additional session. block size should be configured so that it can hold roughly 100 rows.. Partitioning Sessions If large amounts of data are being processed with PowerCenter 5.

But be sure to weigh the importance of improved session performance against the ability to recover an incomplete session when considering this option. However. The PowerCenter Server writes recovery information in the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table during each commit. As an additional debug option (beyond the PowerCenter Debugger). One of the major reasons that Informatica has set the default commit interval to 10. you may set the tracing level to Verbose to see the flow of data between transformations. you may want to consider leaving the tracing level at Normal and focus your efforts on reducing the number of transformation errors. Disabling Decimal Arithmetic If a session runs with decimal arithmetic enabled. The Decimal datatype is a numeric datatype with a maximum precision of 28.number of rows. Do not use Verbose tracing INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-175 . it must be configured so that the PowerCenter Server recognizes this datatype by selecting Enable Decimal Arithmetic in the session property sheet. Reducing Error Tracing If a session contains a large number of transformation errors. This can decrease performance. In some cases though. session performance may be improved by disabling decimal arithmetic. If you increase both the commit interval and the database rollback segments. Terse tracing should only be set if the sessions run without problems and session details are not required. those with a precision of greater than 28) can slow the PowerCenter Server. since reading and manipulating a highprecision datatype (i. you should see an increase in performance. this will significantly affect the session performance. To reduce the amount of time spent writing to the session log file.. Note that the tracing level must be set to Normal in order to use the reject loading utility. disabling decimal arithmetic may improve session performance. if terse is not an acceptable level of detail.e. the PowerCenter Server does not write error messages or row-level information for reject data. set the tracing level to Terse. you may be able to improve performance by reducing the amount of data the PowerCenter Server writes to the session log. Disabling Session Recovery You can improve performance by turning off session recovery. just increasing the commit interval without making the appropriate database changes may cause the session to fail part way through (you may get a database error like “unable to extend rollback segments” in Oracle). At this tracing level. However. To use a high-precision Decimal datatype in a session. The PowerCenter Server setup can be set to disable session recovery.000 is to accommodate the default rollback segment / extent size of most databases. However.

Because there are only a handful of reasons why transformation errors occur. it makes sense to fix and prevent any recurring transformation errors. Always remember to switch tracing back to Normal after the testing is complete.except when testing sessions. PAGE BP-176 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The session tracing level overrides any transformation-specific tracing levels within the mapping. Informatica does not recommend reducing error tracing as a long-term response to high levels of transformation errors.

The swap method is very useful for determining the most common bottlenecks. Document the change made to the mapping/and or session and the performance metrics achieved as a result of the change. you should establish an approach for identifying performance bottlenecks. Make a temporary copy of the mapping and/or session that is to be tuned. 5. 2. 4. then tune the copy before making changes to the original. 2.Determining Bottlenecks Challenge Because there are many variables involved in identifying and rectifying performance bottlenecks. 5. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-177 . Implement only one change at a time and test for any performance improvements to gauge which tuning methods work most effectively in the environment. 3. Make appropriate tuning changes to mappings and/or sessions. Carefully consider the following five areas to determine where bottlenecks exist. Write Read Mapping Session System Before you begin. To begin. 4. investigating each area in the order indicated: 1. It involves the following five steps: 1. Delete the temporary sessions upon completion of performance tuning. 3. an efficient method for determining where bottlenecks exist is crucial to good data warehouse management. You should be able to compare the session’s original performance with that of the tuned session’s performance. The actual execution time may be used as a performance metric. use a process of elimination. Description The first step in performance tuning is to identify performance bottlenecks. attempt to isolate the problem by running test sessions.

3. the source qualifier. you probably do not have a write bottleneck. You can optimize session performance by writing to a flat file target local to the PowerCenter server. PAGE BP-178 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Create a test mapping that contains only the flat file source. you have a write bottleneck. This type of bottleneck can easily be identified with the following procedure: 1. and the target table. Copy the read query directly from the session log. Run the query against the source database with a query tool such as SQL Plus. follow these steps: 1. you can optimize the write process by dividing it among several physical drives. Make a copy of the original session Configure the test session to write to a flat file If the session performance is significantly increased when writing to a flat file.Write Bottlenecks Relational Targets The most common performance bottleneck occurs when the PowerCenter Server writes to a target database. Measure the query execution time and the time it takes for the query to return the first row. Create a session for the test mapping. 2. 2. You may also use a database query to indicate if a read bottleneck exists. Read Bottlenecks Relational Sources If the session reads from a relational source. If the local flat file is very large. If the test session’s performance increases significantly. Flat File Targets If the session targets a flat file. Using a Test Session with a Flat File Source 1. Using a Database Query To identify a source bottlenecks by executing a read query directly against the source database. Create a mapping and session that writes the source table data to a flat file. you have a read bottleneck. you should first use a read test session with a flat file as the source in the test session. 2. 3.

Low Buffer Input and Buffer Output Counters INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-179 . you may improve performance by eliminating the errors. refer to the Best Practice: Tuning Mappings for Better Performance Session Bottlenecks Session performance details can be used to flag other problem areas in the session Advanced Options Parameters or in the mapping. Follow these steps to identify mapping bottlenecks: Using a Test Mapping without transformations 1. you have a source bottleneck. and any custom joins or queries 3. Mapping Bottlenecks If you have eliminated the reading and writing of data as bottlenecks. High Rowsinlookupcache and Errorrows counters indicate mapping bottlenecks. you probably do not have a read bottleneck. retain only the sources. you may have a mapping bottleneck. Remove all transformations. If a session has large numbers in any of the Transformation_errorrows counters. Tuning the Line Sequential Buffer Length to a size large enough to hold approximately four to eight rows of data at a time (for flat files) may help when reading flat file sources. For further details on eliminating mapping bottlenecks. Ensure the flat file source is local to the PowerCenter Server. 4. source qualifiers. High Rowsinlookupcache counters: Multiple lookups can slow the session.If there is a long delay between the two time measurements. You may improve session performance by locating the largest lookup tables and tuning those lookup expressions. Flat File Sources If your session reads from a flat file source. Make a copy of the original mapping 2. In the copied mapping. After using the swap method. you can use the session’s performance details to determine if mapping bottlenecks exist. Use the swap method to determine if the bottleneck is in the mapping. Connect the source qualifiers to the target. High Errorrows counters: Transformation errors affect session performance.

Percentage reflecting how seldom the DTM waited for a free buffer when passing data to the writer. you may also consider tuning the system hosting the PowerCenter Server. For further details on eliminating session bottlenecks. increasing the session DTM buffer pool size may improve performance. mapping. you can improve session performance by increasing the index and data cache sizes. Rank. or Joiner transformations. Aggregator. examine each Trasnformation_readfromdisk and Transformation_writetodisk counter. refer to the Best Practices: Performance Tuning UNIX-Based Systems and Performance Tuning NT/2000-Based Systems. target. UNIX On UNIX. Windows NT/2000 Use system tools such as the Performance tab in the Task Manager or the Performance Monitor to view CPU usage and total memory usage. Note that these can only be found in the Session Performance Details file. refer to the Best Practice: Tuning Sessions for Better Performance. Percentage reflecting how seldom the Informatica server waited for a full buffer of data from the reader. and session. Percentage reflecting how seldom the DTM waited for a full buffer of data from the reader. If these counters display any number other than zero. For further information regarding system tuning. Transformation Source Qualifier and Normalizer Transformations Counters BufferInput_Efficiency Description Percentage reflecting how seldom the reader waited for a free buffer when passing data to the DTM. BufferOutput_Efficiency Target BufferInput_Efficiency BufferOutput_Efficiency Aggregator and Rank Aggregator/Rank_readfromdisk PAGE BP-180 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . use system tools like vmstat and iostat to monitor such items as system performance and disk swapping actions. The following table details the Performance Counters that can be used to flag session and mapping bottlenecks.If the BufferInput_efficiency and BufferOutput_efficiency counters are low for all sources and targets. and Joiner Readfromdisk and Writetodisk Counters If a session contains Aggregator. Rank. instead of using cached data. Number of times the Informatica Server read from the index or data file on the local disk. System Bottlenecks After tuning the source.

Number of rows stored in the lookup cache. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-181 . instead of using cached data.Transformations Aggregator/Rank_writetodisk Joiner Transformation (see Note below) Joiner_readfromdisk Joiner_writetodisk Lookup Transformation All Transformations Lookup_rowsinlookupcache Transformation_errorrows Number of times the Informatica server wrote to the index or data file on the local disk. Number of times the Informatica server wrote to the index or data file on the local disk. Number of rows in which the Infor matica Server encountered an error Note: The PowerCenter Server generates two sets of performance counters for a Joiner transformation. instead of using cached data. The Joiner transformation does not generate output row counters associated with the master source. Number of times the Informatica Server read from the index or data file on the local disk. The second set of counters refers to the detail source. instead of using cached data. The first set of counters refers to the master source.

choose Export Registry from the Tools drop down menu. PAGE BP-182 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and subsequently a user with a non-administrator ID attempts to run the tools. For all subsequent client installs. resolve potential missing or invalid license key issues and change the Server Manager Session Log Editor to your preferred editor. the Administrator can create a single "official" set of data sources. the software will display the message indicating that the license key is missing or invalid.’ This problem also occurs when the client software tools are installed under the Administrator account. You can then distribute this file and import the connection information for each client machine. Solution • • From Repository Manager.Advanced Client Configuration Options Challenge Setting the Registry in order to ensure consistent client installations.0 or Windows 2000 with a userid other than ‘Administrator. simply choose Import Registry from the Tools drop down menu. then use the Repository Manager to export that connection information to a file. Instead. The user who attempts to log in using the normal ‘nonadministrator’ userid will be unable to start the PowerCenter Client tools. Description Ensuring Consistent Data Source Names To ensure the use of consistent data source names for the same data sources across the domain. Resolving the Missing or Invalid License Key Issue The “missing or invalid license key” error occurs when attempting to install PowerCenter Client tools on NT 4.

(Note that the registry entries for both PowerMart and PowerCenter server and client tools are stored as PowerMart Server and PowerMart Client tools. Select the Log File Editor entry by double clicking on it.exe or Write.exe. From the menu bar. select Security/Permissions. A window appears the first time a session log is viewed from the PowerCenter Server Manager. Replace the entry with the appropriate editor entry. Under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE open Software/Informatica/PowerMart Client Tools/. Solution • • While logged in as the installation user with administrator authority. prompting the user to enter the full path name of the editor to be used to view the logs. i.Solution • • While logged in as the installation user with administrator authority. select View Tree and Data. use regedt32 to edit the registry.e. typically WordPad. Move to registry path location: HKEY_CURRENT_USER Software\Informatica\PowerMart Client Tools\[CLIENT VERSION]\Server Manager\Session Files. Users often set this parameter incorrectly and must access the registry to change it.) Changing the Server Manager Session Log Editor The session log editor is not automatically determined when the PowerCenter Client tools are installed. and grant read access to the users that should be permitted to use the PowerMart Client. Select Registry --> Exit from the menu bar to save the entry. use regedt32 to go into the registry. • • • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-183 . From the menu bar.

Create a new String value with value name of 'ThrottleReader' and value data of '10'. One technique that often helps resolve “hanging” sessions is to limit the number of reader buffers that use Throttle Reader. try adjusting the throttle reader. some adjustments at the Server level can help to alleviate issues or isolate problems. it is best to remove the partitions before adjusting the throttle reader. Note for PowerCenter 5. Solution: To limit the number of reader buffers using Throttle Reader in NT/2000: • • Access file hkey_local_machine\system\currentcontrolset\services\powermart\parameter s\miscinfo. If the session still hangs. This will cause the server to manage many buffer blocks. To do the same thing in UNIX: • • Add this line to . This is particularly effective if your mapping contains many target tables. Description Configuring the Throttle Reader If problems occur when running sessions. When a session is partitioned.Advanced Server Configuration Options Challenge Configuring the Throttle Reader and File Debugging options. or if the session employs constraint-based loading.cfg file: ThrottleReader=10 PAGE BP-184 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the server makes separate connections to the source and target for every partition.x and above ONLY: If a session is hanging and it is partitioned. This parameter closely manages buffer blocks in memory by restricting the number of blocks that can be utilized by the Reader. adjusting semaphore settings in the Unix environment. and configuring server variables.

system. The total number of available operating system semaphores is an operating system configuration parameter.Configuring File Debugging Options If problems occur when running sessions or if the PowerCenter Server has a stability issue. "DebugDTM" with all three set to "1" To do the same in UNIX: Insert the following entries in the pmserver. Refer to the operating system documentation for parameter limits: INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-185 . Select Start. depending on the number of sessions the server runs concurrently. Insert "4" as the value 5. services. such as database servers. To set the debug options on for NT/2000: 1. Go to hkey_local_machine. The method used to change the parameter depends on the operating system: • • • HP/UX: Use sam (1M) to change the parameters. then add value 4. powermart. Setting Shared Memory and Semaphore Parameters Informatica recommends setting the following parameters as high as possible for the operating system. with a limit per user and system. Solaris: Use admintool or edit /etc/system to change the parameters. but use "DebugWriter". Repeat steps 4 and 5. the machine may not boot. Run. This is in addition to any semaphores required by other software. AIX: Use smit to change the parameters. help technical support to resolve the issue by supplying them with Debug files. miscInfo 3. current_control_set. Select edit. if you set these parameters too high. However. The number of semaphores required to run a session is 7. You may need to increase these semaphore settings before installing the server. and type “regedit” 2. Place "DebugScrubber" as the value then hit OK. "DebugReader". Most installations require between 64 and 128 available semaphores.cfg file: • • • • DebugScrubber=4 DebugWriter=1 DebugReader=1 DebugDTM=1 Adjusting Semaphore Settings The UNIX version of the PowerCenter Server uses operating system semaphores for synchronization.

Maximum number of shared memory segments that can be attached by a process. Number of shared memory identifiers. SEMMNS SEMMNI 200 70 SEMMSL equal to or greater than the value of the PROCESSES initialization parameter For example. Benefits of using server variables: • • Ease of deployment from development environment to production environment. you might add the following lines to the Solaris /etc/system file to configure the UNIX kernel: set shmsys:shminfo_shmmax = 4294967295 set shmsys:shminfo_shmmin = 1 set shmsys:shminfo_shmmni = 100 set shmsys:shminfo_shmseg = 10 set semsys:shminfo_semmns = 200 set semsys:shminfo_semmni = 70 Always reboot the system after configuring the UNIX kernel.Parameter SHMMAX SHMMIN SHMMNI SHMSEG Recommended Value for Solaris 4294967295 1 100 10 Description Maximum size in bytes of a shared memory segment. Minimum size in bytes of a shared memory segment. Configuring Server Variables One configuration best practice is to properly configure and leverage Server variables. PAGE BP-186 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Must be equal to the maximum number of processes. Maximum number of semaphores in one semaphore set. Ease of switching sessions from one server machine to another without manually editing all the sessions to change directory paths. SEMMNI determines the number of semaphores that can be created at any one time. Number of semaphore set identifiers in the system. Number of semaphores in the system.

If the session log directory is specified as $PMSessionLogDir. Each registered server has its own set of variables. not userextensible. Approach In Server Manager. ‘/home/john/logs’. If you remove any variable reference from the session or the widget attributes then the server does not use that variable. etc. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-187 . the user can choose to use it or not. What if a variable is not referenced in the session or mapping? • The variable is just a convenience. Server Variable $PMRootDir $PMSessionLogDir $PMBadFileDir $PMCacheDir $PMTargetFileDir $PMSourceFileDir $PMExtProcDir $PMSuccessEmailUser $PMFailureEmailUser $PMSessionLogCount $PMSessionErrorThreshold Value (no default – user must insert a path) $PMRootDir/SessLogs $PMRootDir/BadFiles $PMRootDir/Cache $PMRootDir/TargetFiles $PMRootDir/SourceFiles $PMRootDir/ExtProc (no default – user must insert a path) (no default – user must insert a path) 0 0 Where are these variables referenced? • • Server manager session editor: anywhere in the fields for session log directory. But if the session log directory field is changed to designate a specific location. Note that this location may be different on every server. Designer: Aggregator/Rank/Joiner attribute for ‘Cache Directory’. External Procedure attribute for ‘Location’ Does every session and mapping have to use these variables (are they mandatory)? • No.g. then the logs are put in that location. then the session logs will instead be placed in the directory location as designated. The variable will be expanded only if it is explicitly referenced from another location. (The variable $PMSessionLogDir will be unused so it does not matter what the value of the variable is set to). edit the server configuration to set or change the variables.• All the variables are related to directory paths used by server. bad file directory. e. The list is fixed. This is in fact a primary purpose for utilizing variables.

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etc. In addition to requirements for PowerCenter. This is important to remember if sessions will be executed concurrently. Description This Best Practice provides general guidance for sizing computing environments. PowerCenter provides session parameters that can be set to specify the amount of required shared memory per session. it will be necessary to research the requirements of these additional software components when estimating the size of the overall environment. Each session: • Represents an active task that performs data loading. considering specific environmental and processing requirements. Uses up to 140% of CPU resources. Regardless of whether or not the server is shared. front-end engines. Technical Information Before delving into key sizing questions. other applications may share the server. Please consult the appropriate PowerCenter manuals for explanation of these terms where necessary.Platform Sizing Challenge Determining the appropriate platform size to support PowerCenter. Certain terms used within this Best Practice are specific to Informatica’s PowerCenter. It also discusses some potential questions and pitfalls that may arise when migrating to Production. as it will dictate the amount of RAM required when running concurrent sessions. the database engine. This shared memory setting is important. Environmental configurations may very greatly with regard to hardware and software sizing. let us review the PowerCenter engine and its associated resource needs. Sizing may not be an easy task because it may be necessary to configure a single server to support numerous applications. including the operating system and all of its components. • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-189 . Be sure to consider all mandatory server software components. and will also be used to provide a level of performance that meets your needs.

or joins. Use these estimates along with recommendations in the preceding Technical Information section to determine the required number of processors. and offers general guidance for estimating session resources. memory. and heterogeneous joins. Key Questions The goal of this analysis is to size the machine so that the ETL processes can complete within the specified load window. result in memory consumption commensurate with the size of the tables involved. The amount of memory can be calculated per session. the volume of data moved per session.• • Requires 20-30 MB of memory per session if there are no aggregations. PAGE BP-190 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and the caching requirements for the session’s lookup tables. disk space will need to be carefully considered: • • • • Data is staged to flat files on the PowerCenter server. lookups. However. lookups. In a join. This includes all types of data such as flat files and database tables. Data is stored in incremental aggregation files for adding data to aggregates. memory consumed depends on the size of the master. or heterogeneous data joins contained within the mapping. if the following conditions exist. May require additional memory for the caching of aggregations. Note: Sorting the input to aggregations will greatly reduce the need for memory. Aggregate caches store the individual groups. Refer to the Session and Server guide to determine the exact amount of memory necessary per session. Consider the following questions when estimating the required number of sessions. cache the master table. unless the cache requires it after filling system memory. and disk space to achieve the required performance to meet the load window. or joins. The Performance Tuning section provides additional information on factors that typically affect session performance. Temporary space is not used like a database on disk. The PowerCenter engine: Requires 20-30 MB of memory for the main server engine for session coordination. Disk space is not a factor if the machine is dedicated exclusively to the server engine. when cached in full. The space consumed is about the size of the data aggregated. Data does not need to be stripped to prevent head contention. lookups. aggregation. Note: It may be helpful to refer to the Performance Tuning section in Phase 4 of the Informatica Methodology when determining memory settings. more memory is used if there are more groups. because: • • • Lookup tables. Requires additional memory when caching for aggregation.

or both? If data is being aggregated. to maximize throughput by reading and writing data in parallel? When considering the server engine size. or will they be accessed via a network connection? What kind of network connection exists? Have you decided on the target environment (database/hardware/operating system)? If so. if any. the query/analysis tool requirements may not impose a sizing limitation. or will all tables be truncated and reloaded? Will the data processing require staging areas? What is the load plan? Are there dependencies between facts and dimensions? How often will the data be refreshed? Will the refresh be scheduled at a certain time. via flat file processing or relational tables? What is the load strategy. or driven by external events? Is there a "modified" timestamp on the source table rows. the query/analysis tool often drives the hardware requirements. It is very important to understand the performance characteristics of the environment before making any sizing conclusions. incrementally loaded. if the ETL processing is performed after business hours. in bytes? What is the largest table (bytes and rows)? Is there any key on this table that could be used to partition load sessions.g. consider platform size in light of the following questions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What sources are accessed by the mappings? How do you currently access those sources? Do the sources reside locally. if necessary? How will the data be moved. is the data updated. However. ad-hoc query tool. answer the following questions: Are there currently extract. and how long do they take? What is the total volume of data that must be moved. and load processes in place? If so. etc. enabling incremental load strategies? What is the size of the batch window that is available for the load? Does the load process populate detail data.Please note that the hardware sizing analysis is highly dependent on the environment in which the server is deployed. It is vitally important to remember that in addition to PowerCenter. what is the ratio of source/target rows for the largest result set? How large is the result set (bytes and rows)? INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-191 . PowerCenter commonly runs on a server that also hosts a database engine plus query/analysis tools. In an environment where PowerCenter runs in parallel with all of these tools. where possible. what are the processes. With these additional processing requirements in mind. cube. what is it? Have you decided on the PowerCenter server environment (hardware/operating system)? Is it possible for the PowerCenter server to be on the same machine as the target? How will information be accessed for reporting purposes (e. run on the PowerCenter server? Has the database table space been distributed across controllers.. aggregations. other applications may be vying for server resources. transform.) and what tools will you use to implement this access? What other applications or services.

5 million rows. joining several sources and utilizing several Expression. Four sessions ran after the set of 22. The source and target were both hosted locally on the ETL Server. A Sample Performance Result The following is a testimonial from a customer configuration.The answers to these questions will provide insight into the factors that impact PowerCenter's resource requirements. This processor handled just under 20. 22 sessions ran in parallel. Please note that these performance tests were run on a previous version of PowerCenter. To simplify the analysis.1. These results are offered as one example of throughput. which did not include the performance and functional enhancements in release 5. focus on large.tpc. results will definitely vary by installation because each environment has a unique architecture and unique data characteristics. All of the mappings were complex.8GB of data. The source and target database used in the tests was Oracle. In this test scenario. in less than 54 minutes. "critical path" jobs that drive the resource requirement. PAGE BP-192 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . populating various summarization tables based on the product sales table. However.org. populating a large product sales table. The performance tests were performed on a 4-processor Sun E4500 with 2GB of memory. Links The following link may prove helpful when determining the platform size:www. Lookup and Aggregation transformations. and more than 2. This website contains benchmarking reports that will help you fine tune your environment and may assist in determining processing power required.

Rather than processing the first half of the source again. If the session has file targets. but only processes from the subsequent row id. when you run the session in recovery mode. if a session fails while running in recovery mode. The server then reads all sources again. The server uses database logging to perform recovery. If a session writing to file targets fails. The server can recover committed target data if the following three criteria are met: • All session targets are relational. the server notes the row id of the last row committed to the target database. even if the session does not complete. and then passes data to the Data Transformation Manager (DTM) starting from row 1001. For example. Although recovering a large session can be more efficient • INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-193 . Description When a network or other problem causes a session whose source contains a million rows to fail after only half of the rows are committed to the target.Running Sessions in Recovery Mode Challenge Use PowerCenter standard functionality to recover data that is committed to a session's targets. But that is not the only option. When you run a session in recovery mode. delete the files. the server cannot perform recovery. Since bulk loading bypasses database logging. you can re-run the session in recovery mode until the session completes successfully. This technique is called performing recovery. one option is to truncate the target and run the session again from the beginning. you can tell the server to keep data already committed to the target database and process the rest of the source. the server can recover the same session more than once. if the server commits 1000 rows before the session fails. The session is configured for a normal (not bulk) target load. and run the session again. the server cannot recover sessions configured to bulk load targets. The server can only perform recovery on relational tables. as if the session completed successfully with one run. the server reads all source tables. This results in accurate and complete target data. This is called nested recovery. That is. When necessary.

the server creates a new log for each session run. the server logs a message in the session log stating that recovery is not supported. PAGE BP-194 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . The mapping used in the session does not use a Sequence Generator or Normalizer. the server overwrites the existing log when you recover the session. the server creates a new session log for the recovery session. the server does not write information to that table. This session is configured for a normal load. When the Disable Recovery option is checked. weigh the importance of performing recovery when choosing a target load type. Therefore. the following must be true: • • Source data does not change before performing recovery. The mapping consists of: Source Qualifier: SQ_LINEITEM Expression transformation: EXP_TRANS Target: T_LINEITEM The session is configured to save 5 session logs. and deleting source data. the server does not create the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table in the target database to store recovery-related information. In addition. If the session is not configured to archive session logs. Both the Sequence Generator and the Normalizer transformations generate source values: the Sequence Generator generates sequences. When configuring session properties for sessions processing large amounts of data. The server appends rejected rows from the recovery session (or sessions) to the session reject file. Changes in source files or tables can result in inaccurate data. If the table already exists. If you perform nested recovery. sessions using these transformations are not guaranteed to return the same values when performing recovery. and the Normalizer generates primary keys. a Microsoft SQL Server database. bulk loading increases general session performance. Example Session “s_recovery” reads from a Sybase source and writes to a target table in “production_target”.than running the session again. updating. This allows you to correct and load all rejected rows from the completed session. This includes inserting. • The server configuration parameter Disable Recovery is not selected. Session Logs If a session is configured to archive session logs. the server creates a single reject file. Reject Files When performing recovery. to ensure accurate results from the recovery. When you configure a session to load in bulk.

it creates the table.. the server appends the date and time to the log file name.] Thu Jan 14 18:42:44 1999 CMN_1022 Database driver error.log. As the following session log show. user [lchen]..) The server also creates a reject file for the target table named t_lineitem.bad.. CMN_1022 [Function Name : Execute SqlStmt : SELECT SESSION_ID FROM OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY] WRT_8017 Created OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table in target database. CMN_1039 SQL Server Event CMN_1039 [01/14/99 18:42:44 SQL Server Message 208 : Invalid object name 'OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY'. TM_6095 Starting Transformation Engine. (If the session is configured to save logs by timestamp. bulk mode [OFF] . Start loading table [T_LINEITEM] at: Thu Jan 14 18:42:50 1999 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:43:59 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 10125 INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-195 .. the server performs six target -based commits before the session fails. the server creates a session log named s_recovery.First Run The first time the session runs. The following section of the session log shows the server preparing to load normally to the production_target database.. CMN_1053 Writer: Target is database [TOMDB@PRODUCTION_TARGET]..] Thu Jan 14 18:42:44 1999 CMN_1040 SQL Server Event CMN_1040 [01/14/99 18:42:44 DB-Library Error 10007 : General SQL Server error: Check messages from the SQL Server. Since the server cannot find OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY.

Rows Applied: 10125 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:45:09 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 20250 Rows Applied: 20250 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:46:25 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 30375 Rows Applied: 30375 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:47:31 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 40500 Rows Applied: 40500 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:48:35 1999 ============================================= Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 50625 Rows Applied: 50625 Rows Rejected: 0 TARGET BASED COMMIT POINT Thu Jan 14 18:49:41 1999 ============================================= PAGE BP-196 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL .

the server sets row 60751 as the row from which to recover. In the session log below.e.bad) and appends any rejected rows to that file. To archive the existing session log. the server creates a new session log. check the Perform Recovery option on the Log Files tab of the session property sheet. the server provides more detailed information about the session. … TM_6026 Recovering from row [60751] for target instance [T_LINEITEM]. Note: Setting the tracing level to Verbose Data slows the server's performance and is not recommended for most production sessions. you can configure the session to recover the committed rows. either increase the number of session logs saved. rather than running the whole session again. As seen below. you can truncate the target and run the entire session again.log.. and writes all new session information in s_recovery. Since the session is configured to save multiple logs.log. Second Run (Recovery Session) When you run the session in recovery mode. Start the session. It opens the existing reject file and begins processing with the next row. When running the session with the Verbose Data tracing level. and then passes data to the DTM beginning with the first uncommitted row. When performing recovery. edit the session schedule and reschedule the session.0.000 rows to the target. The server reopens the existing reject file (t_lineitem. 60752. it renames the existing log s_recovery. or choose Save Session Log By Timestamp option on the Log Files tab. and states the row at which it will begin recovery (i. since the server committed more than 60. or if necessary. However.Table: T_LINEITEM Rows Output: 60750 Rows Applied: 60750 Rows Rejected: 0 When a session fails.) TM_6098 Session [s_recovery] running in recovery mode. row 60751. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-197 . the server notes the session is in recovery mode. Running a Recovery Session To run a recovery session. the server reads the source.

The server runs the session as it did the earlier recovery sessions. creating a new session log and appending bad data to the reject file. the DisableRecovery server initialization flag defaults to Yes. as if the session completed in a single run. and ‘Perform Recovery’ will not be possible unless this flag is changed to No during server configuration. PAGE BP-198 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . you can run the session in recovery mode again. return the session to its normal schedule and reschedule the session. you must edit the session properties to clear the Perform Recovery option.CMN_1053 SetRecoveryInfo for transform(T_LINEITEM): Rows To Recover From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Current Transform [SQ_lineitem]: Rows To Consume From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Output Transform [EXPTRANS]: Rows To Produce From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Current Transform [EXPTRANS]: Rows To Consume From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Output Transform [T_LINEITEM]: Rows To Produce From = [60751]: CMN_1053 Writer: Opened bad (reject) file [C:\winnt\system32\BadFiles\t_lineitem. Things to Consider In PowerCenter 5. This means the OPB_SRVR_RECOVERY table will not be created. You can run the session in recovery mode as many times as necessary to complete the session's target tables.1. You will need to have “create table” permissions in the target database in order to create this table. If necessary. When the server completes loading target tables.bad] Third Run (Nested Recovery) If the recovery session fails before completing. Returning to Normal Session After successfully recovering a session. it performs any configured postsession stored procedures or commands normally.

g. The best way to gather this type of information is by interviewing the Project Sponsor and/or the project beneficiaries. Again. • • Activity .Problem/Need Statement 3. The next step in establishing the business scope is to understand the business problem or need that the project addresses. the problem may be expressed as "a lack of information" rather than "a lack of technology" and should detail the business decisions or analysis that is required to resolve the lack of information. For example. define their business roles and project participation.Developing the Business Case Challenge Identifying the departments and individuals that are likely to benefit directly from the project implementation. Understanding these individuals. 2.Interview project sponsor to identify beneficiaries. In many cases. It may be practical to combine information gathering for the needs assessment and goals definition. using business terms to describe the problem. This information should be clearly defined in a Problem/Needs Statement. • Activity . the Project Sponsor and beneficiaries are the best sources for this type of information.Organization chart of corporate beneficiaries and participants.. Deliverable .Interview (individually or in forum) Project Sponsor and/or beneficiaries regarding problems and needs related to project. One of the first steps in establishing the business scope is identifying the project beneficiaries and understanding their business roles and project participation. • • Activity .Interview (individually or in forum) Project Sponsor and/or beneficiaries regarding business goals and objectives for the project. This information can then be summarized in an organization chart that is useful for ensuring that all project team members understand the corporate/business organization. what strategic or tactical benefits does the business expect to gain from the project. and their business information requirements. is key to defining and scoping the project. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-199 .) and should avoid any technical considerations at this point. Deliverable . This statement should be a high-level expression of the desired business solution (e. 1. Description The following four steps summarize business case development and lay a good foundation f or proceeding into detailed business requirements for the project. The next step in creating the project scope is defining the business goals and objectives for the project and detailing them in a comprehensive Statement of Project Goals and Objectives. using individual interviews or general meetings to elicit the information. the Project Sponsor can help to identify the beneficiaries and the various departments they represent.

Deliverable - Statement of Project Goals and Objectives

4. The final step is creating a Project Scope and Assumptions statement that clearly defines the boundaries of the project based on the Statement of Project Goals and Objective and the associated project assumptions. This statement should focus on the type of information or analysis that will be included in the project rather than what will not. The assumptions statements are optional and may include qualifiers on the scope, such as ass umptions of feasibility, specific roles and responsibilities, or availability of resources or data.

• •

Activity - Business Analyst develops Project Scope and Assumptions statement for presentation to the Project Sponsor.
Deliverable - Project Scope and Assumptions statement

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Assessing the Business Case

Challenge
Developing a solid business case for the project that includes both the tangible and intangible potential benefits of the project.

Description
The Business Case should include both qualitative and quantitative assessments of the project. The Qualitative Assessment portion of the Business Case is based on the Statement of Problem/Need and the Statement of Project Goals and Objectives (both generated in Subtask 1.1.1) and focuses on d iscussions with the project beneficiaries of expected benefits in terms of problem alleviation, cost savings or controls, and increased efficiencies and opportunities. The Quantitative Assessment portion of the Business Case provides specific measurable details of the proposed project, such as the estimated ROI, which may involve the following calculations:

Cash flow analysis- Projects positive and negative cash flows for the anticipated life of the project. Typically, ROI measurements use the cash flow formula to depict results. Net present value - Evaluates cash flow according to the long-term value of current investment. Net present value shows how much capital needs to be invested currently, at an assumed interest rate, in order to create a stream of payments over time. For instance, to generate an income stream of $500 per month over six months at an interest rate of eight percent would require an investment-a net present value-of $2,311.44. Return on investment - Calculates net present value of total incremental cost savings and revenue divided by the net present value of total costs multiplied by 100. This type of ROI calculation is frequently referred to as return of equity or return on capital employed. Payback - Determines how much time will pass before an initial capital investment is recovered.

The following are steps to calculate the quantitative business case or ROI:

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Step 1. Develop Enterprise Deployment Map. This is a model of the project phases over a timeline, estimating as specifically as possible customer participation (e.g., by department and location), subject area and type of information/analysis, numbers of users, numbers of data marts and data sources, types of sources, and size of data set. Step 2. Analyze Potential Benefits. Discussions with representative managers and users or the Project Sponsor should reveal the tangible and intangible benefits of the project. The most effective format for presenting this analysis is often a "before" and "after" format that compares the current situation to the project expectations. Step 3. Calculate Net Present Value for all Benefits. Information gathered in this step should help the customer representatives to understand how the expected benefits will be allocated throughout the organization over time, using the enterprise deployment map as a guide. Step 4. Define Overall Costs. Customers need specific cost information in order to assess the dollar impact of the project. Cost estimates should address the following fundamental cost components:

• • • • • • • • •

Hardware Networks RDBMS software Back-end tools Query/reporting tools Internal labor External labor Ongoing support Training

Step 5. Calculate Net Present Value for all Costs. Use either actual cost estimates or percentage-of-cost values (based on cost allocation assumptions) to calculate costs for each cost component, projected over the timeline of the enterprise deployment map. Actual cost estimates are more accurate than percentage-of-cost allocations, but much more time-consuming. The percentage-of-cost allocation process may be valuable for initial ROI snapshots until costs can be more clearly predicted. Step 6. Assess Risk, Adjust Costs and Benefits Accordingly. Review potential risks to the project and make corresponding adjustments to the costs and/or benefits. Some of the major risks to consider are:

• • • •

Scope creep, which can be mitigated by thorough planning and tight project scope Integration complexity, which can be reduced by standardizing on vendors with integrated product sets or open architectures Architectural strategy that is inappropriate Other miscellaneous risks from management or end users who may withhold project support; from the entanglements of internal politics; and from technologies that don't function as promised

Step 7. Determine Overall ROI. When all other portions of the business case are complete, calculate the project's "bottom line". Determining the overall ROI is simply a matter of subtracting net present value of total costs from net present value of (total incremental revenue plus cost savings). For more detail on these steps, refer to the Informatica White Paper: 7 Steps to Calculating Data Warehousing ROI.

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Defining and Prioritizing Requirements

Challenge
Defining and prioritizing business and functional requirements is often accomplished through a combination of interviews and facilitated meetings (i.e., workshops) between the Project Sponsor and beneficiaries and the Project Manager and Business Analyst.

Description
The following three steps are key for successfully defining and prioritizing requirements:

Step 1: Discovery
During individual (or small group) interviews with high-level management, there is often focus and clarity of vision that for some, may be hindered in large meetings or not available from lower-level management. On the other hand, detailed review of existing reports and current analysis from the company's "information providers" can fill in helpful details. As part of the initial "discovery" process, Informatica generally recommends several interviews at the Project Sponsor and/or upper management level and a few with those acquainted with current reporting and analysis processes. A few peer group forums can also be valuable. However, this part of the process must be focused and brief or it can become unwieldy as much time can be expended trying to coordinate calendars between worthy forum participants. Set a time period and target list of participants with the Project Sponsor, but avoid lengthening the process if some participants aren't available. Questioning during these session should include the following:

• • • •

What are the target business functions, roles, and responsibilities? What are the key relevant business strategies, decisions, and processes (in brief)? What information is important to drive, support, and measure success for those strategies/processes? What key metrics? What dimensions for those metrics? What current reporting and analysis is applicable? Who provides it? How is it presented? How is it used?

Step 2: Validation and Prioritization
The Business Analyst, with the help of the Project Architect, documents the findings of the discovery process. The resulting Business Requirements Specification includes a matrix linking the specific business requirements to their functional requirements.

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This document. and Architect develop consensus on a project "phasing" approach. the Architect begins the Functional Requirements Specification providing details on the technical requirements for the project. The detailed business requirements and information requirements should be reviewed with the project beneficiaries and prioritized based on business need and the stated project objectives and scope. will facilitate discussion of informational details and provide the starting point for the target model definition. Business Analyst. the Project Manager. PAGE BP-204 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . the Architect develops the Information Requirements Specification in order to clearly represent the structure of the information requirements. they develop a phased. As general technical feasibility is compared to the prioritization from Step 2. "roadmap" for the project (Project Roadmap). Items of secondary priority and those with poor near-term feasibility are relegated to subsequent phases of the project. Step 3: The Incremental Roadmap Concurrent with the validation of the business requirements. Thus.At this time also. This is presented to the Project Sponsor for approval and becomes the first "Increment" or starting point for the Project Plan. based on the business requirements findings. or incremental.

For example.. 4. but some work can (and should) begin for the DEPLOY phase long before the BUILD phase is complete. The phases.3).3. One challenge in developing a good WBS is obtaining the correct balance between enough detail. Because project time and resource estimates are typically based on the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).1 through 4. The Project Plan provides a starting point for further development of the project WBS. the Project Manager can begin to estimate the level of effort involved in completing each of the steps.Developing a WBS Challenge Developing a comprehensive work breakdown structure that clearly depicts all of the various tasks. However. One general guideline is to keep task detail to a duration of at least a day. it is not necessary to determine the critical path for completing these tasks. Tasks in the hierarchy are often completed in parallel. After the WBS has been loaded into the selected project management tool and refined for the specific project needs. individual resources can be assigned and scheduled. the BUILD phase is not complete until tasks 4. Tasks. If the Project Manager chooses not to use Microsoft Project.7 are complete. and too much detail. The Project Manager can use this WBS as a starting point. Refer to Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan for further information about the project plan. At this stage of project planning.1 through 4.g. subtasks 4. So. tasks.5 through 4.7 can . we may have multiple subtasks under a task (e. but should review it carefully to ensure that it corresponds to the specific development effort.3. removing any steps that aren't relevant or adding steps as necessary. but it does need to break the tasks down to a manageable level of detail.7 under task 4. subtasks required to complete the project.3.3. the goal is to list every task that must be completed. This sample is a Microsoft Project file that has been "pre-loaded" with the Phases. The WBS shouldn't be a 'grocery list' of every minor detail in the project. and Subtasks that make up the Informatica Methodology. it is critical to develop a thorough. It is also important to remember that the WBS is not necessarily a sequential document.3. When the estimate is complete. The end result is the Project Plan.1 through 4. simplifying the effort to develop the WBS.be completed in parallel if they do not have sequential requirements.4 may have sequential requirements that force us to complete them in order. an Excel version of the Work Breakdown Structure is available. accurate WBS. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-205 .and should . it is important to remember that a task is not complete until all of its corresponding subtasks are completed whether sequentially or in parallel.3. For example. and subtasks can be exported from Excel into many other project management tools. The WBS serves as a starting point for both the project estimate and the project plan. Many projects will require the addition of detailed steps to accurately represent the development effort. Description A WBS is a tool for identifying and organizing the tasks that need to be completed in a project. although subtasks 4.

Developing and Maintaining the Project Plan

Challenge
Developing the first-pass of a project plan that incorporates all of the necessary components but which is sufficiently flexible to accept the inevitable changes.

Description
Use the following steps as a guide for developing the initial project plan:

• • •

Define the project's major milestones based on the Project Scope. Break the milestones down into major tasks and activities. The Project Plan should be helpful as a starting point or for recommending tasks for inclusion. Continue the detail breakdown, if possible, to a level at which tasks are of about one to three days' duration. This level provides satisfactory detail to facilitate estimation and tracking. If the detail tasks are too broad in scope, estimates are much less likely to be accurate. Confer with technical personnel to review the task definitions and effort estimates (or even to help define them, if applicable). Establish the dependencies among tasks, where one task cannot be started until another is completed (or must start or complete concurrently with another). Define the resources based on the role definitions and estimated number of resources needed for each role. Assign resources to each task. If a resource will only be part-time on a task, indicate this in the plan.

• • • •

At this point, especially when using Microsoft Project, it is advisable to create dependencies (i.e., predecessor relationships) between tasks assigned to the same resource in order to indicate the sequence of that person's activities. The initial definition of tasks and effort and the resulting schedule should be an exercise in pragmatic feasibility unfettered by concerns about ideal completion dates. In other words, be as realistic as possible in your initial estimations, even if the resulting scheduling is likely to be a hard sell to c ompany management. This initial schedule becomes a starting point. Expect to review and rework it, perhaps several times. Look for opportunities for parallel activities, perhaps adding resources, if necessary, to improve the schedule.

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When a satisfactory initial plan is complete, review it with the Project Sponsor and discuss the assumptions, dependencies, assignments, milestone dates, and such. Expect to modify the plan as a result of this review.

Reviewing and Revising the Project Plan
Once the Project Sponsor and company managers agree to the initial plan, it becomes the basis for assigning tasks to individuals on the project team and for setting expectations regarding delivery dates. The planning activity then shifts to tracking tasks against the schedule and updating the plan based on status and changes to assumptions. One approach is to establish a baseline schedule (and budget, if applicable) and then track changes against it. With Microsoft Project, this involves creating a "Baseline" that remain s static as changes are applied to the schedule. If company and project management do not require tracking against a baseline, simply maintain the plan through updates without a baseline. Regular status reporting should include any changes to the schedule, beginning with team members' notification that dates for task completions are likely to change or have already been exceeded. These status report updates should trigger a regular plan update so that project management can track the effect on the overall schedule and budget. Be sure to evaluate any changes to scope (see 1.2.4 Manage Project and Scope Change Assessment ), or changes in priority or approach, as they arise to determine if they impact the plan. It may be necessary to modify the plan if changes in scope or priority require rearranging task assignments or delivery sequences, or if they add new tasks or postpone existing ones.

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Managing the Project Lifecycle

Challenge
Providing a structure for on-going management throughout the project lifecycle.

Description
It is important to remember that the quality of a project can be directly correlated to the amount of review that occurs during its lifecycle.

Project Status and Plan Reviews
In addition to the initial project plan review with the Project Sponsor, schedule regular status meetings with the sponsor and project team to review status, issues, scope changes and schedule updates. Gather status, issues and schedule update information from the team one day before the status meeting in order to compile and distribute the Status Report .

Project Content Reviews
The Project Manager should coordinate, if not facilitate, reviews of requirements, plans and deliverables with company management, including business requirements reviews with business personnel and technical reviews with project technical personnel. Set a process in place beforehand to ensure appropriate personnel are invited, any relevant documents are distributed at least 24 hours in advance, and that reviews focus on questions and issues (rather than a laborious "reading of the code"). Reviews may include:

• • • • • • • • •

Project scope and business case review Business requirements review Source analysis and business rules reviews Data architecture review Technical infrastructure review (hardware and software capacity and configuration pla nning) Data integration logic review (source to target mappings, cleansing and transformation logic, etc.) Source extraction process review Operations review (operations and maintenance of load sessions, etc.) Reviews of operations plan, QA plan, deployment and support plan

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Change Management
Directly address and evaluate any changes to the planned project activities, priorities, or staffing as they arise, or are proposed, in terms of their impact on the project plan.

• • •

Use the Scope Change Assessment to record the background problem or requirement and the recommended resolution that constitutes the potential scope change. Review each potential change with the technical team to assess its impact on the project, evaluating the effect in terms of schedule, budget, staffing requirements, and so forth. Present the Scope Change Assessment to the Project Sponsor for acceptance (with formal sign-off, if applicable). Discuss the assumptions involved in the impact estimate and any potential risks to the project.

The Project Manager should institute this type of change management process in response to any issue or request that appears to add or alter expected activities and has the potential to affect the plan. Even if there is no evident effect on the schedule, it is important to document these changes because they may affect project direction and it may become necessary, later in the project cycle, to justify these changes to management.

Issues Management
Any questions, problems, or issues that arise and are not immediately resolved should be tracked to ensure that someone is accountable for resolving them so that their effect can also be visible. Use the Issues Tracking template, or something similar, to track issues, their owner, and dates of entry and resolution as well as the details of the issue and of its solution. Significant or "showstopper" issues should also be mentioned on the status report.

Project Acceptance and Close
Rather than simply walking away from a project when it seems complete, there should be an explicit close procedure. For most projects this involves a meeting where the Project Sponsor and/or department managers acknowledge completion or sign a statement of satisfactory completion.

• •

Even for relatively short projects, use the Project Close Report to finalize the project with a final status report detailing: o What was accomplished o Any justification for tasks expected but not completed o Recommendations Prepare for the close by considering what the project team has learned about the environments, procedures, data integration design, data architecture, and other project plans. Formulate the recommendations based on issues or problems that need to be addressed. Succinctly describe each problem or recommendation and if applicable, briefly describe a recommended approach.

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has a security administrator been identified? What levels of permissions are appropriate for the developers? Do they need access to all the folders? Who needs to start sessions manually? Who is allowed to start and stop the Informatica Server? How will PowerCenter security be administered? Will it be the same as the database security scheme? Do we need to restrict access to Global Objects? The following pages offer some answers to the these questions and some suggestions for assigning user groups and access privileges. it is critical for protecting the production environment. Knowledge of PowerCenter’s security facilities is also a prerequisite to security design. it is imperative to answer the following basic questions: • • • • • • • • Who needs access to the Repository? What do they need the ability to do? Is a central administrator required? What permissions are appropriate for him/her? Is the central administrator responsible for designing and configuring the repository security? If not. batches. the administrator takes care of maintaining the Repository. In most implementations. and data – in order to ensure system integrity and data confidentiality. folders. There should be a limit to the number of administrator accounts for PowerCenter. repositories. While this is less important in a development/unit test environment. sessions. Determining an optimal security configuration for a PowerCenter environment requires a thorough understanding of business requirements. and end users’ access requirements. PAGE BP-210 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . Before implementing security measures.Configuring Security Challenge Configuring a PowerCenter security scheme to prevent unauthorized access to mappings. data content. Description Configuring security is one of the most important components of building a Data Warehouse. Security should be implemented with the goals of easy maintenance and scalability.

These are PowerCenter users. The Server Manager provides another level of security for this purpose. Every user ID must be assigned to one or more groups. Although privileges can be assigned to users or groups. This approach is simpler than assigning privileges on a user-by-user basis. not database users. Only the owner of the Object or a Super User can manage permissions for a Global Object. groups. with users then added to each group. Choosing the Enable Security option activates the following set of default privileges: User Owner Owner Group World Default Global Object Permissions Read. All security management is performed through the Repository Manager. the Repository Manager. privileges. The following table summarizes some possible privileges that may be granted: Privilege Session Operator Use Designer Browse Repository Create Sessions and Batches Administer Repository Administer Server Description Can run any sessions or batches. since there are generally few groups and many users. modify. all password information is encrypted and stored in the repository. Write and Execute Read and Execute No Permissions Enabling Enhanced Security does not lock the restricted access settings for Global Objects. Can create and modify folders. FTP Connections and External Loader Connections. Can edit metadata in the Designer. Can configure connections on the server and INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-211 . in addition to privileges and permissions assigned using the Repository Manager. Can browse repository contents through the Repository Manager. and folders. and any user can belong to more than one group. Global Object permissions. Can create. It is used to assign read. pmcmd. privileges are commonly assigned to groups. regardless of folder level permissions. write. This means that the permissions for Global Objects can be changed after enabling Enhanced Security. Global Objects include Database Connections. and the command line program. and delete sessions and batches in Server Manager.PowerCenter’s security approach is similar to database security environments. The internal security enables multi-user development through management of users. The Repository may be connected to sources/targets that contain sensitive information. The Server Manager also offers an enhanced security option that allows you to specify a default set of privileges that applies restricted access controls for Global Objects. and execute permissions for global objects. affect the ability to perform tasks in the Server Manager.

and create shortcuts to repository objects in the folder. Data warehouse Administrators who maintain the entire warehouse environment. meaning that shortcuts can be created pointing to objects within the folder. PAGE BP-212 BEST PRACTICES INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL . and repository (i. The following table details the three folder level privileges: Read. Use Designer. and also determine whether the folder is shareable. which must identify a folder owner and group. Can run sessions using mappings in the folder. any user). this property cannot be changed. and Execute: Privilege Read Description Can read. When other folders create a shortcut from a shareable folder. Write Execute Allowing shortcuts enables other folders in the same repository to share objects such as source/target tables.. Privileges Session Operator. Users without read permissions cannot see the folder. privileges are set for the owner. and mappings. that folder inherits the properties of the object. thereby enabling object reuse. Browse Repository. Write. transformations.e. copy. Can edit metadata in the folder. so changes to common logic or elements can be managed more efficiently. Can perform all tasks with the repository and the server The next table suggests a common set of initial groups and the privileges that may be associated with them: Group Developer Description PowerCenter developers who are creating the mappings. group.Privilege Super User Description stop the server through the Server Manager or the command-line interface. and to place all reusable objects within that sharable folder. Operations department that runs and maintains the environment in production. Browse Repository Super User Administrator Users with Administer Repository or Super User privileges may edit folder properties. Create Sessions and Batches Browse Repository End User Operator Session Operator. After a folder is flagged as shareable. Administer Server. Business end users who run reports off of the data warehouse. A recommended practice is to create only one shareable folder per repository. For each folder.

Users who own a folder or have Administer Repository or Super User privileges can edit folder properties to change the owner. One of the most important reasons for this is session level locking. Only a few people should have Administer Repository or Super User privileges. if you have two projects. only members of the ABC group can make changes to those folders. and the Allow Shortcuts option. it is difficult to identify which developer is making (or has made) changes to an object. it may be appropriate to create a group for ABC developers and another for XYZ developers. you may assign group level security for all of the ABC folders to the ABC group. if multiple individuals share a common login ID. Also. ABC and XYZ. When a session is in use by a developer. Locks thus prevent repository corruption by preventing simultaneous uncoordinated updates. depending on the desired level of security. Note that users with the Session Operator privilege can run sessions or batches. Tight security is recommended in the production environment to ensure that the developers and other users do not accidentally make changes to production. A folder owner should be allowed all three folder level permissions. However members within the folder’s group may contain only Read/Write. if any at all. regardless of folder level permissions. In this example. Repository privileges should be restricted to Read permissions only. INFORMATICA CONFIDENTIAL BEST PRACTICES PAGE BP-213 . it cannot be opened and modified by anyone but that user. This enables you to assign folder level security to the group and keep the two projects from accidentally working in folders that belong to the other project team. In this way. Informatica recommends creating individual User IDs for all developers and administrators on the system rather than using a single shared ID. the three levels of privileges. For example. You might also wish to add a group specific to each application if there are many application development tasks being performed within the same repository. while everyone else should have the appropriate privileges within the folders they use. the group assigned to the folder. or possibly all three levels.

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