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1.

1 If certain gasoline weighs 7,000 N/m, what are


the values of its density, specific volume, and
specific gravity relative to water at 15°C?
Use Appendix 3

Solution:
Given that,
Specific weight of gasoline =7000 N/m³

We have to find,
Density, ρ =? At 15°C
Specific volume, V =? At 15°C
Specific Gravity, S=? At 15°C

Density, ρ =999.1 kg/m³at 15°C


&
Specific Volume, V =1/ρ
V =1/999.1
V =0.001 m³/kg
&
Specific gravity, S =гs/гw
S=7000/9.810×1000 (As гw=9810 N/m³ at 15°C for water)
S=0.714

1.2 A certain gas weighs 16 N / m ³ at a certain


temperature and pressure. What are the values of its
density, specific volume, and specific gravity relative
to air weighing 12 N / m ³?

Solution:
Given that,
Specific Weight of gas, г gas=16 N/m³
Specific Weight of air, гair =12 N/m³

We have to find,
Density of gas relative to air, ρ =?
Specific Volume of gas relative to air, V=?
Specific Gravity of gas relative to air, S=?

a)
As,
г=ρg
ρ= г/g
ρ=16/9.81
ρ=1.63 Kg/m³

b)
As,
V=1/ ρ
V=1/1.63=0.613 m³/kg

c)
As,
S= г gas/ гair
S=16/12
S=1.33

1.3 The specific gravity of glycerin is 1.26 .compute


its density and specific weight.

Solution:
Given that,
Specific Gravity, S =1.26

We have to find,
Density, ρ =?
Specific Gravity, гs/гw =?

As,
Specific Gravity, S = гs/гw
гs= гw ×s
гs =9810×1.26 (As гw=9810 N/m³ at 15°C for water)
гs =12360.6 N/m³

As,
г=ρg
In our case,
гs =ρg
ρ= гs /g
ρ=12360.6/9.81
ρ=1260 kg/m³

1.4 If the specific weight of a liquid is 8.0 kN / m ³,


what is its density?

Solution:
Given that,
Specific Weight, гs =8 KN/m³ = 8000 N/m³

We have to find,
Density, ρ =?

As,
г=ρg
ρ= гs /g
ρ=8000/9.81
ρ=815.5 kg/m³
1.5 If the specific volume of a gas is 0.72 m ³/ kg,
what is its specific weight in N / m ³?

Solution:
Given that,
Specific Volume, V =0.72 m³/kg

We have to find,
Specific Weight, гs =?

As,
V=1/ρ
ρ=1/V
ρ=1/0.72
ρ=1.38 kg/m³

As,
г=ρg
г=1.38×9.81
г=13.54 N/m³

1.6 Initially when 1000.00 m L of water at 10 ˚ C are


poured into a glass cylinder the depth of the water
column is 100.00 cm .The water and its container are
heated to 80 ˚ C .Assuming no evaporation, what
then will be the depth of the water column if the
coefficient of thermal expansion for the glass is 3.6 x
10 ^ -6 mm/ mm per ˚ C?

Solution:
Given that,
Volume of water, V=1000mL =0.001 m³
Specific Weight, г1 at 10°C =9840 N/m³
Specific Weight, г2 at 80°C =9530 N/m³
Height of Cylinder, h =100cm=1m

As,
Weight =Specific weight×Volume
W=гV
(г1V1)at 10°C=(г1V1)at 80°C
V2=г1V1/г2
V2=9804×0.001/9530
V2=0.001028 m³

At 10°C,
Volume of Cylinder, V=πr²h
r²=v1/πh=0.001/π×1
r=0.01784m

Now at 80°C,
Volume of Cylinder, V=πr²h
h=v1/πr²
h=.001028/π×(0.01784)²
h=1.028m=1028mm

1.7 Water in a hydraulic press is subjected to a


pressure of 100 MN / m ², abs at 20 ˚ C. If the initial
pressure is 100 kN / m ², abs, what will be the
percentage decrease in specific volume? Use table
1.1.

Solution:
Given that,
Initial Pressure, P 1=100 KN/m²
Final Pressure, P 2 =100 MN/m²

We have to find,
Percentage decrease in specific Volume, -∆V/V=?
Now,
Bulk Modulus at 100 KN/m² & 20°C, E v1 =2130 MN/m²
Bulk Modulus at 100 MN/m² & 20°C, E v2 =2730 MN/m²

Mean of Bulk Modulus, Ev=(Ev1+Ev2)/2


Ev =(2130+2730)/2
Ev=2430 MN/m²
As,
-∆V/V=∆P/Ev
-∆V/V=(P2-P1)/Ev
-∆V/V=(100-0.1)×100/2430
-∆V/V=4.11%

1.8 At a depth of 8 km in the ocean the pressure is


81.8 Mpa .Assume specific weight at the surface is
10.05 KN / m ³ and that the average volume modulus
is 2.34 * 10 ^ 9 N / m ² for that pressure range. (a)
What will be the change is specific volume between
that at the surface and at that depth? (b) What will
be the specific volume at that depth? (c) What will be
the specific weight at that depth?

Solution:
Given that,
Depth of ocean=8Km
Pressure at 8Km, P2=81.8 MPa
Pressure at top surface of ocean, P1=0Pa
Specific weight at surface of ocean,гs=10.05 kN/m³=10050
N/m³
Bulk modulus,Ev=2.34 GN/m²
We have to find,
a) Change in specific volume,∆V=?
b) Specific Volume at 8km,V2=?
c) Specific Weight at 8km,гw=?

a)
As,
V1=1/ρ=g/г=9.81/10050
V1=0.000976 m³/Kg

As,
-∆V/V=∆P/Ev
∆V=-∆P×V/Ev
∆V=-(81800000-0)×0.000976/2340000000
∆V=-0.00003412 m³/Kg

b)
As,
∆V=V2-V1
V2=∆V+V1
V2=0.00003412+0.000976
V2=0.000942 m³/Kg

c)
As,
г=ρg
&
ρ=1/V
Then,
гw=g/V2
гw=9.81/0.000941
гw=10425.08 N/m³
1.9 (a) what is the percentage change in the specific
volume in Prob. 1.8? (b)What is the percentage
change in the specific weight Prob.1.8?

Solution:
a)
We have to find Percentage change in Specific Volume,
As
-∆V/V=∆P/Ev
-∆V/V=(81800000×100)/2340000000
-∆V/V=3.5%
b)
We have to find change in Percentage change in Specific
Weight,
As,
Percentage change in г = (гw-гs) ×100/гw
Percentage change in г = (10425.08-10050)×100/10425.08
Percentage change in г =3.6%

1.10 To two significant figures what is the bulk


modulus of water in MN/m ² at 50˚C under a pressure
of 30 MN/m ²? Use table 1.1.

Solution:
Given that,
Bulk Modulus, Ev=? At 50°C & P=30 MN/m²
Now using table 1.1,
Bulk modulus,Ev=2410 MN/m²

1.11 Approximately what pressure in N/m ² must be


applied to water to reduce its volume 2 percent?

Solution:
Given that,
Percentage decrease in water, -∆V/V=2%=0.02
Bulk Modulus for Cold water, Ev= 2200 MN/m²
As
-∆V/V=∆P/Ev
∆P=-∆V×Ev/V
∆P=0.02×2200
∆P=44 MN/m²

1.12 A vessel contains 85 L of water at 10˚C and


atmospheric pressure .If it is heated to 70˚C what
will be the percentage change in volume? What
weight of water must be removed to maintain the
volume at the original value? Use Fig. 1.1. Or
Appendix 3

Solution:
Given that,
Volume of vessel at 10°C,V1 =85L=0.085 m³
Specific Weight at 10°C ,г1 =9804 N/m³
Specific Weight at 70°C ,г2=9589 N/m³

We have to find,
Percentage change in Volume, ∆V/V1=?
Weight of water required to be removed, W=?

As,
Weight =Specific weight×Volume
W=гV
(г1V1)at 10°C=(г2V2)at 70°C
V2=г1V1/г2
V2=(9804×0.085)/9589
V2=0.087 m³
As,
∆V=V2-V1
∆V=0.087-0.085=0.002m³
∆V/V1=(0.002×100)/0.085=2.3% increase

Weight of Original Volume of water,W2=г2×V1


W2=9589×0.085
W2=815.065 N
Similarly, W1=г1×V1
W1=9804×0.085
W1=833.34 N
As,
∆W=W1-W2
∆W=833.34 - 815.065
∆W=18.28 N (This weight should be removed from water)

1.13 A cylinder tank (diameter = 10 m and depth =


5.00 m) contains water at 20˚C and is brimful. If the
water is heated to 50˚C, how much water will spill
over the edge of the tank? Use Appendix 3.

Solution:
Given that,
Diameter of Cylinder,D =10 m
Depth of Cylinder,d =5 m
TemperatureT1=20°C
Temperature after HeatingT2=30°C

We have to find,
Change in Volume, ∆V =?

As,
Volume of Cylinder, V1=πD²h/4
V1=π×(10)²×5/4
V1=392.7m³

Now From Appendix 3,


Specific Weight at 20°C, гw1=9789 N/m³
Specific Weight at 50°C, гw2=9689 N/m³

Consider water at 20°C,


As,
W=г×V
In our case,
W=гw1×V1
W=(9789)(392.7)
W=3.84 MN

Consider water at 50°C,


As,
W=г×V
In our case,
V2=W/гw2
V2=3840000/9689
V2=396.75 m³
Now,
Change in Volume, ∆V=V2-V1
∆V= 396.75 - 392.7
∆V= 4.05 m³

1.14 A closed heavy steel chamber is filled with


water at 10 ˚ C and at atmospheric pressure. If the
temperature of the water and the chamber is raised
to 30 ˚ C, what will be the new pressure of the water?
The coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel is
1.7 x 10-5 per ˚ C. assume the chamber is unaffected
by the water pressure .Use fig.1.1.

Solution:

Given That,
Initial temperature of Water in Steel chamber,T1 = 10°C
Temperature After Heating,T2 = 30°C+273=300k
We have to find,
Pressure after Heating, P=?

As we know that,
г=gP/RT
Or
P=гRT/g--------- (i)

& R=Ř/molecular mass

For water molecular mass is 18


R=8314/18
R=462 Nm/Kg k

Specific Gravity at 30°C,г=9764 N/m³

Putting required values in equation (i)


P=гRT/g
P=9764×462×303/9.81
P=139.32 MPa

1.16 If Natural gas has a specific gravity of 0.6


relative to air at 1000 mbar, abs and 15 ˚ C, what is
its specific weight and specific volume at that same
pressure and temperature .What is the value of R for
the gas?

Solution:

Given that,
Specific Gravity of Natural gas, S=0.6
Pressure of air, P=1000 mbar, abs=100000 Pa
Temperature, T=15°C+273=288K

We have to find,
a) Specific Weight of gas, г gas =?
b) Specific Volume of gas, V gas =?
c) Value of R=?

a)
As,
г=gP/RT
then,
гair=(9.81)(100000)/(287)(288) (As value of R=287 NM/KgK for air)
гair=11.87 N/m³

As,
S= г gas/ гair
Or гgas=S г air
г gas = (0.6)(11.87)
г gas = 7.12 N/m³

b)
As,
г=ρg
or г=g/V
or V=g/г
V= 9.81/7.12
V=1.3776 m/Kg

c)
As,
г gas =gp/RT
R=gp/ г gasT
R=(9.81)(100000)/(7.12)(288)
R=478.4 Nm/Kgk

1.28 A closed heavy steel chamber is filled with


water at 10 ˚ C and at atmospheric pressure. If the
temperature of the water and the chamber is raised
to 30 ˚ C, what will be the new pressure of the water?
The coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel is
1.7 x 10-5 per ˚ C. assume the chamber is unaffected
by the water pressure .Use fig.1.1.

Solution:
a) viscosity of water at 20 ˚ C = 1.002 * 1000 N-s / m²
Viscosity of water at 90 ˚ C = 0.315 * 1000 N-s / m²

Ratio = viscosity of water at 20 ˚ C / viscosity of water


at 90 ˚ C
= 1.002 x 1000/ 0.315 x 1000 = 3.181

(b) Viscosity of crude oil at s= 0.925 from figure 1.2 at 15


˚ C = 0.11 N-s / m²

Viscosity of gasoline at s= 0.680 from figure 1.2 at 15 ˚ C =


0.00032 N-s / m²

Ratio = viscosity of crude oil / viscosity of gasoline

= 0.11/ 0.00032 = 343.75


(c) Viscosity of SAE 30 western oil at 150 ˚ C = 0.03 N-s /

Viscosity of SAE 30 eastern oil at 150 ˚ C = 0.05 N-
s / m²
Viscosity of SAE 30 western oil at 25 ˚ C = 2.5 N-s /

Viscosity of SAE 30 eastern oil at 25 ˚ C = 2 N-s / m²

Ratio= (µ of SAE 30 western oil at 150 ˚ C - µ of SAE 30


eastern oil at 150 ˚ C) / (µ of SAE 30 western oil at 25 ˚ C
- µ of SAE 30 eastern oil at 25 ˚ C)

= (0.03 – 0.05) / (2.5 – 2) = 0.04

1.29 At 15 ˚ C what is the kinematic viscosity of


the gasoline in Fig.1.3, the specific gravity of
which is 0.680?

Solution:

Given that,
T=15˚C
Specific gravity = 0.680

From fig. 1.3,


Kinematic viscosity = 4.5 x 10-7 m²/ s
1.30 To what temperature must the fuel oil with
the higher specific gravity in Fig. 1.3 be heated in
order that its kinematic viscosity may be reduced
to three times that of water 4 ˚ C?

Solution:

kinematic viscosity of water at 4˚C = 1.527 x 10-6 m²/ s


kinematic viscosity of fuel oil = kinematic viscosity of
water at 4˚C / 3
= (1.527 x 10-6) / 3 = 5 x 10-7
m²/ s

Now we see the figure 1.3 at the given viscosity of oil


and see the temperature which comes to be
approximately 375 ˚ C

1.31 The absolute viscosity of a certain gas is


0.0107 cP while its kinematic VISCOSITY IS 164 cSt,
both measure at 1.013 mbar, abs and 95 ˚ C
.Calculate its approximate molecular weight, and
suggest what gas it may be?

Solution:

Viscosity of gas = 1.07 x 10-5 N-s/ m²


kinematic viscosity = 164 cSt = 164 x 10 -6 m² / s
Pressure = 1.013 mbar = 1.013 x 105 m / m²
Temperature = 95˚C
Density = Viscosity / kinematic
= (1.07 x 10-5)/ (164 x 10-6)
= 0.5944 kg / m³

We know that,
г=gP/RT
R = Pressure / (Density x Temperature)
= 101300/ (368 x 0.5944)
= 4631.08 N-m/ kg K

Now,
R=Ř/molecular mass
Molecular mass x R = 8312
Molecular mass = 8312 / 4631.08 = approx. 2

Hence as the molecular mass comes to be 2 the gas in


hydrogen
1.32 Compare the ratio of the absolute viscosities of
air and water at 20 ˚ C with that of their kinematic
viscosities at the same temperature and at 100 kN.

Solution:

Pressure = 100000 kN abs

We have to find the ratio between,


(Viscosity of air at 20 ˚ C/ viscosity of water at 20 ˚ C):
(kinematic viscosity of air at 20 ˚ C / kinematic viscosity of
water at 20 ˚ C)
Seeing the values from Appendix 3,
(1.002 x 10-3 / 1.81 x 10 -5): (1.003 x 10-6 / 1.50 x 10-5)
833: 1

1.33 A flat plate 30 cm x 50 cm slides on oil ( µ = 0.8


N-s / m ²) over a large plane surface .What force is
required to drag the plate at 2 m/s ,if the separating
oil film is 0.4 mm thick ?

Solution:

Given that,
Plate = 30 cm x 50 cm
Area of the plate = 30 x 50 = 1500 cm² = 0.15 m²
µ = 0.8 N-s/ m²
y = 4 mm= 0.004 m
v = 2 m/sec
As,
Force= (A. µ. V / y)
Substituting the values,
F= (15 x 0.8 x 2) / 0.0004
= 600 N

1.34 A space of 25 mm width between two large


plane surfaces is filled with SAE 30 western
lubricating oil at 25 ˚ C. (a) What force is required to
drag a very thin plate of 0.35 m ² area between the
surfaces at a speed of 0.1 m/s if this plate is equally
spaced between the two surfaces? (b)If it is at a
distance of 8.5 mm from one surface?

Solution:

Given that,
Y= 25 mm
SAE western oil
T= 50 ˚ C
A= 0.35 m²
V= 0.1 m /sec
a) As the plates are equally spaced hence ,
y1= y2 = 25 / 2 = 12.5 mm
µ = 6 x 10 -2 N-s/ m²

F= (A. µ. V / y)
Substituting the values,
F= 0.35 x 6 x 10-2 x 0.1 x (1000/ y1 + 1000/ y2)
= 0.336 N
b) F= (A. µ. V / y)
= 0.35 x 0.006 x 0.1 x (1/8.5 + 1/ 16.5)
= 0.374 N

1.35 A hydraulic lift of the type commonly used for


greasing automobiles
consists of a 254 mm-diam ram which slides in a
254.15 mm-diam
cylinder, the annular space being filled with oil
having a kinematic
viscosity of 3.7 x 10-4 m ²/ s and specific gravity of
0.85. If the rate of travel
of the ram is 0.15 m/s, find the frictional resistance
when 3m of the ram is
engaged in the cylinder.

Solution:

D1 = 254mm = 0.254m , r1 = 0.127 m


D2 = 254.15mm = 0.25415m , r2 = 0.127075m
Kinematics viscosity v = 3.7 x 10 – 4 m 2/s
du = 0.15 m/s
Specific gravity S = 0.85
L = 3m
Frictional Resistance = ?

We know that
V=u/p
U = v /p -------- 1
Where P = Pw x S
= 1000 x 0.85=850
So, 1 becomes
U = 3.7 x 10 – 4 x 850= 0.314 m 2/s

Also we know that,


F = u x du /dy x A ----------------- 2
Where u = 0.314 m2/s
A = 3.142 x D x L
A= 3.142 x 0.254075 x 3
A= 2.395 m2
dy = r2 – r1
dy= 7.5 x 10 –5

So, 2 becomes
F = 0.314 ( 0.15 / 7.5 x 10-5) x 2.395
F=1504.06 KN

1. 41 In the figure, oil of viscosity µ fills the small


gap of thickness Y. Determine an expression for the
torque T require to rotate the truncated cone at
constant speed ŵ. Neglect fluid stress exerted on the
circular bottom.

Solution:
As,
U= ωr
Then,
For small gap Y, du/dy=U/Y=ωr/Y

As,
‫=ז‬µdu/dy=µωr/Y---------(a)

dA=2πrds=2πrdy/cos ά

From equ (a)


df= ‫ז‬dA =(µωr/Y)( 2πrdy/cos ά)
dT=rdF=2πµωr3dy/Y cos ά
r = y tan ά
dT=(2πµωtan3α y3/Ycos α)dy
T= (2πµωtan3α /Ycos α) ∫ y3dy a+b
a

T=(2πµωtan3α /4Ycos α)[(a+b)4 – a4}


1.42 Distilled water at 10˚C stands in a glass tube of
8.0 mm diameter at a height if 25.0 mm. What is the
true static height?

Solution:
Given that,
T = 10 oC
D = 8 mm
Hr = 25mm
Static height, Hs =?

We know that
H = 4ơcosθ/(rD) -------- 1
Surface Tension (ơ) at 10o C = 0.0742 N/m (From Appendix # 3)
rw at 10oC =9.804 KN/m3
θ for pure water = 0o
So 1 becomes
H = 4(0.0742)cos0o / (9.804 x 1000 x 0.008)
H= 3.784 x 10 –3 m
H= 3.784 mm
So,
Hs = Hr – H
Hs = 21.216 mm.