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the values of its density, specific volume, and

specific gravity relative to water at 15°C?

Use Appendix 3

Solution:

Given that,

Specific weight of gasoline =7000 N/m³

We have to find,

Density, ρ =? At 15°C

Specific volume, V =? At 15°C

Specific Gravity, S=? At 15°C

&

Specific Volume, V =1/ρ

V =1/999.1

V =0.001 m³/kg

&

Specific gravity, S =гs/гw

S=7000/9.810×1000 (As гw=9810 N/m³ at 15°C for water)

S=0.714

temperature and pressure. What are the values of its

density, specific volume, and specific gravity relative

to air weighing 12 N / m ³?

Solution:

Given that,

Specific Weight of gas, г gas=16 N/m³

Specific Weight of air, гair =12 N/m³

We have to find,

Density of gas relative to air, ρ =?

Specific Volume of gas relative to air, V=?

Specific Gravity of gas relative to air, S=?

a)

As,

г=ρg

ρ= г/g

ρ=16/9.81

ρ=1.63 Kg/m³

b)

As,

V=1/ ρ

V=1/1.63=0.613 m³/kg

c)

As,

S= г gas/ гair

S=16/12

S=1.33

its density and specific weight.

Solution:

Given that,

Specific Gravity, S =1.26

We have to find,

Density, ρ =?

Specific Gravity, гs/гw =?

As,

Specific Gravity, S = гs/гw

гs= гw ×s

гs =9810×1.26 (As гw=9810 N/m³ at 15°C for water)

гs =12360.6 N/m³

As,

г=ρg

In our case,

гs =ρg

ρ= гs /g

ρ=12360.6/9.81

ρ=1260 kg/m³

what is its density?

Solution:

Given that,

Specific Weight, гs =8 KN/m³ = 8000 N/m³

We have to find,

Density, ρ =?

As,

г=ρg

ρ= гs /g

ρ=8000/9.81

ρ=815.5 kg/m³

1.5 If the specific volume of a gas is 0.72 m ³/ kg,

what is its specific weight in N / m ³?

Solution:

Given that,

Specific Volume, V =0.72 m³/kg

We have to find,

Specific Weight, гs =?

As,

V=1/ρ

ρ=1/V

ρ=1/0.72

ρ=1.38 kg/m³

As,

г=ρg

г=1.38×9.81

г=13.54 N/m³

poured into a glass cylinder the depth of the water

column is 100.00 cm .The water and its container are

heated to 80 ˚ C .Assuming no evaporation, what

then will be the depth of the water column if the

coefficient of thermal expansion for the glass is 3.6 x

10 ^ -6 mm/ mm per ˚ C?

Solution:

Given that,

Volume of water, V=1000mL =0.001 m³

Specific Weight, г1 at 10°C =9840 N/m³

Specific Weight, г2 at 80°C =9530 N/m³

Height of Cylinder, h =100cm=1m

As,

Weight =Specific weight×Volume

W=гV

(г1V1)at 10°C=(г1V1)at 80°C

V2=г1V1/г2

V2=9804×0.001/9530

V2=0.001028 m³

At 10°C,

Volume of Cylinder, V=πr²h

r²=v1/πh=0.001/π×1

r=0.01784m

Now at 80°C,

Volume of Cylinder, V=πr²h

h=v1/πr²

h=.001028/π×(0.01784)²

h=1.028m=1028mm

pressure of 100 MN / m ², abs at 20 ˚ C. If the initial

pressure is 100 kN / m ², abs, what will be the

percentage decrease in specific volume? Use table

1.1.

Solution:

Given that,

Initial Pressure, P 1=100 KN/m²

Final Pressure, P 2 =100 MN/m²

We have to find,

Percentage decrease in specific Volume, -∆V/V=?

Now,

Bulk Modulus at 100 KN/m² & 20°C, E v1 =2130 MN/m²

Bulk Modulus at 100 MN/m² & 20°C, E v2 =2730 MN/m²

Ev =(2130+2730)/2

Ev=2430 MN/m²

As,

-∆V/V=∆P/Ev

-∆V/V=(P2-P1)/Ev

-∆V/V=(100-0.1)×100/2430

-∆V/V=4.11%

81.8 Mpa .Assume specific weight at the surface is

10.05 KN / m ³ and that the average volume modulus

is 2.34 * 10 ^ 9 N / m ² for that pressure range. (a)

What will be the change is specific volume between

that at the surface and at that depth? (b) What will

be the specific volume at that depth? (c) What will be

the specific weight at that depth?

Solution:

Given that,

Depth of ocean=8Km

Pressure at 8Km, P2=81.8 MPa

Pressure at top surface of ocean, P1=0Pa

Specific weight at surface of ocean,гs=10.05 kN/m³=10050

N/m³

Bulk modulus,Ev=2.34 GN/m²

We have to find,

a) Change in specific volume,∆V=?

b) Specific Volume at 8km,V2=?

c) Specific Weight at 8km,гw=?

a)

As,

V1=1/ρ=g/г=9.81/10050

V1=0.000976 m³/Kg

As,

-∆V/V=∆P/Ev

∆V=-∆P×V/Ev

∆V=-(81800000-0)×0.000976/2340000000

∆V=-0.00003412 m³/Kg

b)

As,

∆V=V2-V1

V2=∆V+V1

V2=0.00003412+0.000976

V2=0.000942 m³/Kg

c)

As,

г=ρg

&

ρ=1/V

Then,

гw=g/V2

гw=9.81/0.000941

гw=10425.08 N/m³

1.9 (a) what is the percentage change in the specific

volume in Prob. 1.8? (b)What is the percentage

change in the specific weight Prob.1.8?

Solution:

a)

We have to find Percentage change in Specific Volume,

As

-∆V/V=∆P/Ev

-∆V/V=(81800000×100)/2340000000

-∆V/V=3.5%

b)

We have to find change in Percentage change in Specific

Weight,

As,

Percentage change in г = (гw-гs) ×100/гw

Percentage change in г = (10425.08-10050)×100/10425.08

Percentage change in г =3.6%

modulus of water in MN/m ² at 50˚C under a pressure

of 30 MN/m ²? Use table 1.1.

Solution:

Given that,

Bulk Modulus, Ev=? At 50°C & P=30 MN/m²

Now using table 1.1,

Bulk modulus,Ev=2410 MN/m²

applied to water to reduce its volume 2 percent?

Solution:

Given that,

Percentage decrease in water, -∆V/V=2%=0.02

Bulk Modulus for Cold water, Ev= 2200 MN/m²

As

-∆V/V=∆P/Ev

∆P=-∆V×Ev/V

∆P=0.02×2200

∆P=44 MN/m²

atmospheric pressure .If it is heated to 70˚C what

will be the percentage change in volume? What

weight of water must be removed to maintain the

volume at the original value? Use Fig. 1.1. Or

Appendix 3

Solution:

Given that,

Volume of vessel at 10°C,V1 =85L=0.085 m³

Specific Weight at 10°C ,г1 =9804 N/m³

Specific Weight at 70°C ,г2=9589 N/m³

We have to find,

Percentage change in Volume, ∆V/V1=?

Weight of water required to be removed, W=?

As,

Weight =Specific weight×Volume

W=гV

(г1V1)at 10°C=(г2V2)at 70°C

V2=г1V1/г2

V2=(9804×0.085)/9589

V2=0.087 m³

As,

∆V=V2-V1

∆V=0.087-0.085=0.002m³

∆V/V1=(0.002×100)/0.085=2.3% increase

W2=9589×0.085

W2=815.065 N

Similarly, W1=г1×V1

W1=9804×0.085

W1=833.34 N

As,

∆W=W1-W2

∆W=833.34 - 815.065

∆W=18.28 N (This weight should be removed from water)

5.00 m) contains water at 20˚C and is brimful. If the

water is heated to 50˚C, how much water will spill

over the edge of the tank? Use Appendix 3.

Solution:

Given that,

Diameter of Cylinder,D =10 m

Depth of Cylinder,d =5 m

TemperatureT1=20°C

Temperature after HeatingT2=30°C

We have to find,

Change in Volume, ∆V =?

As,

Volume of Cylinder, V1=πD²h/4

V1=π×(10)²×5/4

V1=392.7m³

Specific Weight at 20°C, гw1=9789 N/m³

Specific Weight at 50°C, гw2=9689 N/m³

As,

W=г×V

In our case,

W=гw1×V1

W=(9789)(392.7)

W=3.84 MN

As,

W=г×V

In our case,

V2=W/гw2

V2=3840000/9689

V2=396.75 m³

Now,

Change in Volume, ∆V=V2-V1

∆V= 396.75 - 392.7

∆V= 4.05 m³

water at 10 ˚ C and at atmospheric pressure. If the

temperature of the water and the chamber is raised

to 30 ˚ C, what will be the new pressure of the water?

The coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel is

1.7 x 10-5 per ˚ C. assume the chamber is unaffected

by the water pressure .Use fig.1.1.

Solution:

Given That,

Initial temperature of Water in Steel chamber,T1 = 10°C

Temperature After Heating,T2 = 30°C+273=300k

We have to find,

Pressure after Heating, P=?

As we know that,

г=gP/RT

Or

P=гRT/g--------- (i)

R=8314/18

R=462 Nm/Kg k

P=гRT/g

P=9764×462×303/9.81

P=139.32 MPa

relative to air at 1000 mbar, abs and 15 ˚ C, what is

its specific weight and specific volume at that same

pressure and temperature .What is the value of R for

the gas?

Solution:

Given that,

Specific Gravity of Natural gas, S=0.6

Pressure of air, P=1000 mbar, abs=100000 Pa

Temperature, T=15°C+273=288K

We have to find,

a) Specific Weight of gas, г gas =?

b) Specific Volume of gas, V gas =?

c) Value of R=?

a)

As,

г=gP/RT

then,

гair=(9.81)(100000)/(287)(288) (As value of R=287 NM/KgK for air)

гair=11.87 N/m³

As,

S= г gas/ гair

Or гgas=S г air

г gas = (0.6)(11.87)

г gas = 7.12 N/m³

b)

As,

г=ρg

or г=g/V

or V=g/г

V= 9.81/7.12

V=1.3776 m/Kg

c)

As,

г gas =gp/RT

R=gp/ г gasT

R=(9.81)(100000)/(7.12)(288)

R=478.4 Nm/Kgk

water at 10 ˚ C and at atmospheric pressure. If the

temperature of the water and the chamber is raised

to 30 ˚ C, what will be the new pressure of the water?

The coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel is

1.7 x 10-5 per ˚ C. assume the chamber is unaffected

by the water pressure .Use fig.1.1.

Solution:

a) viscosity of water at 20 ˚ C = 1.002 * 1000 N-s / m²

Viscosity of water at 90 ˚ C = 0.315 * 1000 N-s / m²

at 90 ˚ C

= 1.002 x 1000/ 0.315 x 1000 = 3.181

˚ C = 0.11 N-s / m²

0.00032 N-s / m²

(c) Viscosity of SAE 30 western oil at 150 ˚ C = 0.03 N-s /

m²

Viscosity of SAE 30 eastern oil at 150 ˚ C = 0.05 N-

s / m²

Viscosity of SAE 30 western oil at 25 ˚ C = 2.5 N-s /

m²

Viscosity of SAE 30 eastern oil at 25 ˚ C = 2 N-s / m²

eastern oil at 150 ˚ C) / (µ of SAE 30 western oil at 25 ˚ C

- µ of SAE 30 eastern oil at 25 ˚ C)

the gasoline in Fig.1.3, the specific gravity of

which is 0.680?

Solution:

Given that,

T=15˚C

Specific gravity = 0.680

Kinematic viscosity = 4.5 x 10-7 m²/ s

1.30 To what temperature must the fuel oil with

the higher specific gravity in Fig. 1.3 be heated in

order that its kinematic viscosity may be reduced

to three times that of water 4 ˚ C?

Solution:

kinematic viscosity of fuel oil = kinematic viscosity of

water at 4˚C / 3

= (1.527 x 10-6) / 3 = 5 x 10-7

m²/ s

and see the temperature which comes to be

approximately 375 ˚ C

0.0107 cP while its kinematic VISCOSITY IS 164 cSt,

both measure at 1.013 mbar, abs and 95 ˚ C

.Calculate its approximate molecular weight, and

suggest what gas it may be?

Solution:

kinematic viscosity = 164 cSt = 164 x 10 -6 m² / s

Pressure = 1.013 mbar = 1.013 x 105 m / m²

Temperature = 95˚C

Density = Viscosity / kinematic

= (1.07 x 10-5)/ (164 x 10-6)

= 0.5944 kg / m³

We know that,

г=gP/RT

R = Pressure / (Density x Temperature)

= 101300/ (368 x 0.5944)

= 4631.08 N-m/ kg K

Now,

R=Ř/molecular mass

Molecular mass x R = 8312

Molecular mass = 8312 / 4631.08 = approx. 2

hydrogen

1.32 Compare the ratio of the absolute viscosities of

air and water at 20 ˚ C with that of their kinematic

viscosities at the same temperature and at 100 kN.

Solution:

(Viscosity of air at 20 ˚ C/ viscosity of water at 20 ˚ C):

(kinematic viscosity of air at 20 ˚ C / kinematic viscosity of

water at 20 ˚ C)

Seeing the values from Appendix 3,

(1.002 x 10-3 / 1.81 x 10 -5): (1.003 x 10-6 / 1.50 x 10-5)

833: 1

N-s / m ²) over a large plane surface .What force is

required to drag the plate at 2 m/s ,if the separating

oil film is 0.4 mm thick ?

Solution:

Given that,

Plate = 30 cm x 50 cm

Area of the plate = 30 x 50 = 1500 cm² = 0.15 m²

µ = 0.8 N-s/ m²

y = 4 mm= 0.004 m

v = 2 m/sec

As,

Force= (A. µ. V / y)

Substituting the values,

F= (15 x 0.8 x 2) / 0.0004

= 600 N

plane surfaces is filled with SAE 30 western

lubricating oil at 25 ˚ C. (a) What force is required to

drag a very thin plate of 0.35 m ² area between the

surfaces at a speed of 0.1 m/s if this plate is equally

spaced between the two surfaces? (b)If it is at a

distance of 8.5 mm from one surface?

Solution:

Given that,

Y= 25 mm

SAE western oil

T= 50 ˚ C

A= 0.35 m²

V= 0.1 m /sec

a) As the plates are equally spaced hence ,

y1= y2 = 25 / 2 = 12.5 mm

µ = 6 x 10 -2 N-s/ m²

F= (A. µ. V / y)

Substituting the values,

F= 0.35 x 6 x 10-2 x 0.1 x (1000/ y1 + 1000/ y2)

= 0.336 N

b) F= (A. µ. V / y)

= 0.35 x 0.006 x 0.1 x (1/8.5 + 1/ 16.5)

= 0.374 N

greasing automobiles

consists of a 254 mm-diam ram which slides in a

254.15 mm-diam

cylinder, the annular space being filled with oil

having a kinematic

viscosity of 3.7 x 10-4 m ²/ s and specific gravity of

0.85. If the rate of travel

of the ram is 0.15 m/s, find the frictional resistance

when 3m of the ram is

engaged in the cylinder.

Solution:

D2 = 254.15mm = 0.25415m , r2 = 0.127075m

Kinematics viscosity v = 3.7 x 10 – 4 m 2/s

du = 0.15 m/s

Specific gravity S = 0.85

L = 3m

Frictional Resistance = ?

We know that

V=u/p

U = v /p -------- 1

Where P = Pw x S

= 1000 x 0.85=850

So, 1 becomes

U = 3.7 x 10 – 4 x 850= 0.314 m 2/s

F = u x du /dy x A ----------------- 2

Where u = 0.314 m2/s

A = 3.142 x D x L

A= 3.142 x 0.254075 x 3

A= 2.395 m2

dy = r2 – r1

dy= 7.5 x 10 –5

So, 2 becomes

F = 0.314 ( 0.15 / 7.5 x 10-5) x 2.395

F=1504.06 KN

gap of thickness Y. Determine an expression for the

torque T require to rotate the truncated cone at

constant speed ŵ. Neglect fluid stress exerted on the

circular bottom.

Solution:

As,

U= ωr

Then,

For small gap Y, du/dy=U/Y=ωr/Y

As,

=זµdu/dy=µωr/Y---------(a)

dA=2πrds=2πrdy/cos ά

df= זdA =(µωr/Y)( 2πrdy/cos ά)

dT=rdF=2πµωr3dy/Y cos ά

r = y tan ά

dT=(2πµωtan3α y3/Ycos α)dy

T= (2πµωtan3α /Ycos α) ∫ y3dy a+b

a

1.42 Distilled water at 10˚C stands in a glass tube of

8.0 mm diameter at a height if 25.0 mm. What is the

true static height?

Solution:

Given that,

T = 10 oC

D = 8 mm

Hr = 25mm

Static height, Hs =?

We know that

H = 4ơcosθ/(rD) -------- 1

Surface Tension (ơ) at 10o C = 0.0742 N/m (From Appendix # 3)

rw at 10oC =9.804 KN/m3

θ for pure water = 0o

So 1 becomes

H = 4(0.0742)cos0o / (9.804 x 1000 x 0.008)

H= 3.784 x 10 –3 m

H= 3.784 mm

So,

Hs = Hr – H

Hs = 21.216 mm.

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