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" PLOTINUS. but not know. nature being a thing which doth only do. . M DCCC XXXVI. BOSTON: JAMES MUNROE AND COMPANY.NATURE. " Nature is but an imago or imitation of wisdom. the last thing of the soul.
in the year 1836. Ballou. . By JAMES MUNROS & in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. according to the Act of Congress. Torry. Co.Entered. &. Cambridge Press : Metcalf.
59 CHAPTER SPIRIT. INTRODUCTION. III. VI. . IV. 46 CHAPTER IDEALISM. CHAPTER DISCIPLINE. CHAPTER COMMODITY. VIII. II. CHAPTER NATURE. I. 76 CHAPTER PROSPECTS. 15 CHAPTER BEAUTY. 82 . V. 19 CHAPTER LANGUAGE. VII.CONTENTS.
writes biographies. or put the living generation into masquerade out of faded wardrobe ? The sun shines to-day also.INTRODUCTION. why should we its grope among the dry bones of the past. also enjoy an Why should not we original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philoso phy of insight and not of tradition. and criticism. theirs 1 and not the history of a season in nature. . Embosomed for whose us. to action proportioned to nature. through their eyes. and a relig ion by revelation to us. OUR age is retrospective. histories. The foregoing gene . It It builds the sep ulchres of the fathers. floods of life stream around and through invite and us by the powers they supply. rations beheld God and nature face to face we. flax There is more wool and in the fields.
in its forms and tendencies.6 INTRODUCTION. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. that religious teachers dispute and hate each other. that shines so peacefully around us. He acts it as life. new thoughts. and are esteemed speculative men unsound and . but scarcely yet a remote approximation to an idea of creation. what end is nature 1 All science has one aim. nature already. We must trust the perfection of the creation so far. namely. in our minds. to find a theory of nature. before he apprehends is it as its truth. describing own design. In like manner. as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened satisfy. Let us interrogate the great apparition. demand our own works and laws and lands. We have theories of races and of functions. new worship. are There Let us new men. to Let us inquire. We are now so far from the road to truth. the order of things can is Every man's condition a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put.
unchanged by man the will leaf.INTRODUCTION. In inquiries so gene not ral as our present one. both nature and art. NATURE. that explain phe nomena. as in with the same a housCj a . 7 But is to a sound judgment. that is. sleep. Art is applied to the mixture of his things. the most abstract truth the most practical. will will be own all evi dence. Philosophically considered. un explained but inexplicable as language. beasts. all all Strictly that is separate from us. refers to essences air. must be ranked under this name. speaking. use the in word its in both senses . frivolous. in the common . it it Whenever its a true theory appears. all other men and my own body. Its test is. Nature. the the river. the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. in its common and is philosophical import. dreams. In enumerating the values of I shall nature and casting up their sum. the inaccuracy . which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME. therefore. space. sense. Now many are thought not only . sex. material no confusion of thought will occur.
that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind. a statue. a chip ping. taken together are so insignificant. and washing. patching. baking. a picture. they do not vary the result. .8 INTRODUCTION. But his operations little canal.
a though nobody be alone. might think the atmosphere was made trans parent with this design. at But if man would The rays will him look those the stars. go into solitude. the perpetual presence of the sublime. in the heavenly bodies. a man needs as to retire much from his chamber whilst from society. am not solitary is I read and write. how would 1 men . to give man. how great they are If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years. Seen ! in the streets of cities. that let with me. CHAPTER To as I I.NATURE. One separate between him and vulgar things. come from heavenly worlds.
It is made by manifold which distinguishes the wood-cutter. all the animals. The flowers. Nature never wears a mean does the wisest appearance. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit.l(f believe NATURE. sion this speak of nature in this manner. When we we have the mind. extort all Neither man her secret. stick of timber of the from the tree of the poet. and lose his curiosity by all finding out her perfection. and light the universe with their admonishing smile. they are always inaccessible . and adore. . be cause though always present. the and preserve for many city generations remembrance of the ! of God which had been shown come out But every night these preachers of beauty. when the mind their open to influence. reflected the wisdom of his best hour. The stars awaken a certain reverence. a distinct but most poetical sense in We mean the integrity of impres natural objects. the mountains. but all natural objects is make a kindred impression. as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood.
The sun illuminates only the eye of the man. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate that is. To nature. he in spite of real is sorrows. But none of them owns the landscape. His intercourse with heaven and earth. still each who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. speak truly. yet to this them no title.NATURE. Locke that. a wild delight runs through the man. Miller owns this field. Nature says. few adult persons can see Most persons do not see the sun. In the presence of nature. and Manning the woodland beyond. becomes part of his daily food. . The charming is 11 I landscape which saw this indubitably made up of some twenty morning. The other lover of nature is he whose inward and truly adjusted to outward senses are . all the parts. but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. the poet. my creature. or thirty farms. At least they have a very superficial seeing. This is the best part of these their land-deeds give men's farms.
In the woods too. twilight. faith. in snow puddles. we return to reason and There I feel that nothing can befal me in . a man casts at off his years. is always a child. decorum and sanctity reign. Not the sun or the summer its but every . in my under a clouded sky. without having thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune. all and maugre his impertinent griefs. alone. hour and season yields for every tribute of delight hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind. In the woods. and life. the air is mourning piece. Almost I fear to think how glad I am. a perennial Bf festival is dressed. and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. at Crossing a bare common. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a health. is what period soever of In the woods. per petual youth.12 NATURE. Within these plantations of God. he shall be glad with me. as the snake his slough. In good a cordial of incredible virtue. from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration.
I is acquaintances. in the distant man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. Universal part Being circulate through me I or particle of God. Standing on the bare ground.) no disgrace. and especially line of the horizon. I become I see a transpa all. To be brothers. mean egotism rent eye-ball. life.NATURE. am to not alone and unacknowledged. They nod me and I to them. am the lover of the uncontained wilderness. blithe air. I and find immortal beauty. 1* The waving of the boughs . no calamity. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental. a trifle* master or then and a disturbance. In something more dear In the and connate than in streets or villages. vanishes. tranquil landscape. to be servant. (leaving me my which nature cannot repair. The woods relation greatest minister. delight is which the fields and the suggestion of an occult I between man and the vegetable. 13 eyes. am am nothing. The currents of the . and uplifted my I head bathed by the all into infinite space.
new to me is and old. is NATURE. Yet it is certain that the power to produce does not reside in nature. when I deemed was thinking justly or doing right. or m a harmony of both. man.14 in the storm. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. is not always tricked in holiday but the same scene which yesterday frolic breathed perfume and glittered as for the of the nymphs. . spirit. nature attire. today. is overspread with melancholy Nature always wears the colors of the To is a man laboring under calamity. For. The sky less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. Then. and yet is not unknown. the heat of his there felt own who fire hath sadness in it. It takes Its me by surprise. effect like that of a higher thought or a better emotion I coming over me. a kind of contempt of the landscape by him has just lost by death a dear is friend. but in this delight.
like its service to the soul. it is Yet although low. is rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. and the only use of nature which men apprehend. a benefit which temporary and mediate. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes. Language. WHOEVER world. II. The misery of man appears like childish petulance. when we on explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been this made ball for his support and delight green which floats him through the . is This. of course. and Discipline. Beauty. not ultimate. Under the general I name of Commodity. is perfect in its all kind. will considers the final cause of the discern a multitude of uses that enter as parts into that result.CHAPTER COMMODITY. Commodity.
. his play-ground. bed. of man. at and his corn serve his his him." Nature. water. and the All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands the for the profit . . this zodiac of this 1 this tent of dropping this clouds. ? firmament of earth between lights. also the process is not only the result. the rain feeds the plant . seed the sun evaporates to the field the wind blows the vapor the ice. work-yard. fire. What angels invented these splendid this ornaments. fourfold year Beasts. on the other side of the planet. of air ocean this above. these rich conveniences. the plant feeds the animal and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. striped coat of climates. COMMODITY. condenses rain on this . in material. and " More servants wait on man Than he'll take notice of. The wind sows the sea . field is stones. but its is ministry to man. this ocean of water beneath. The once floor.16 heavens. . his garden.
The useful arts are but reproductions or 17 new combinations by the wit of man. he darts through the country. and cut a path for him. He sets his house upon the road. from town to town. to the court-house. and the human race read all and write of that happens. He no longer waits for favoring gales. office. and nations repair his wrongs. and the human race run on his errands to the book-shop. ships. from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon ! The private poor man hath cities. -- ' 1 ** s> " * . and merchandise behind him. of the same natural benefactors. and shovel ^ out the snow. animals. air. but by means of steam.COMMODITY. he and carries realizes the fable of ^Bolus's bag. canals. for him . he paves the road with iron bars. built for him. bridges. To diminish friction. mounting a coach with a ship-load of men. He goes to the post. like the is an eagle or a swallow through aids. and. and the * human race go forth every morning. the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. By the aggregate of these how the face of the world changed.
less. but that he work. A man may is fed. . that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. with the general remark.18 COMMODITY. no need of specifying particu The catalogue is end I shall and the examples so obvious. not that he may be fed. But there is lars in this class of uses. that leave them to the reader's reflection.
or such the plastic power of the human eye. the Jove of Beauty. the moun from tain. The beauty. the animal.CHAPTER BEAUTY. give us a delight in and for outline. . so that into of objects. a well colored and shaded globe. Such is the constitution of all things. III. itself. round and . namely. a pleasure arising motion. By the mutual action of structure and of the laws of light. perspec tive is produced. that the primary forms. where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting. A NOBLER want of man is served by nature. is the landscape which they compose. as the sky. which integrates every mass of what character soever. ancient Greeks called the world xoej^o?. themselves color. This eye seems partly owing to the eye is its The the best of artists. and grouping. the tree.
leaves. the grape. clouds. the egg. space and time. And foul as the eye is the best first symmetrical. that. flames. the the pine-cone. To the body and mind . and a sort of infinitude which like hath.20 ^ is BEAUTY. so light is the of painters. and the forms of many trees. The is influence of the forms and ac so needful to it tions in nature. almost all the individual is forms are agreeable to the eye. sea-shells. we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner. beauty. the simple perception of natural forms a delight. tions of some of them. man. as proved by our endless imita as the acorn. is First. com poser. wheat-ear. in its lowest functions. lion's claw. the wings and forms of most birds. 1. Even the corpse own But beside this general grace diffused over nature. that intense light will not make And the stimulus it affords to it the sense. There no object so beautiful. as the palm. buds. seems to lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. For better consideration. the the serpent. the butterfly. make hath its all matter gay.
does Nature deify us with a few and ! cheap elements Give me health and a day. and their and sees the again.BEAUTY. is a man In eternal calm. of corporeal I have seen the hill-top spectacle against of morning from the over my house. The tradesman. I look out From the earth. and I How and conspire with the morning wind. The see far health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired. I into that silent sea. so long as we can enough. and without any mix benefit. But in other hours. of the din and craft of the sky and the woods. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. with emotions which an angel might share. 2 . : seem active dilate to partake its rapid transformations the enchantment reaches my dust. as a shore. its Nature satisfies the soul purely by ture loveliness. the attorney comes out street. nature is medicinal and restores their tone. from day-break to sun-rise. 21 which have been cramped by noxious work or company. he finds himself.
evening. the ridicu sun-set and moon-rise realms of faerie my . make the pomp of emperors The dawn is my Assyria. the night shall be my Germany of mystic philoso phy and dreams. it was a pain it come within ? What was that nature would say Was there no meaning in the live repose of the or ? valley behind the mill. I will BEAUTY.22 and lous. and every withered stem and stubble frost. and the stars of the dead calices of flowers. Paphos. except for our less sus last ceptibility in the afternoon. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with softness. that doors. of a January sunset. Not less excellent. with the blue east for their back ground. was the charm. rimed with contribute something to the mute music. . and unimaginable shall broad noon be my Eng land of the senses and the understanding. and which Homer in Shakspeare could not re-form for me words The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset. and the air tints of unspeakable life had so much to and sweetness.
and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. will make even divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed . The tribes of birds and insects. every hour. like the plants punctual to their time. it as by the genial influences To it the attentive eye. follow each other. In July. The succes sion of native plants in the pastures and road sides. and the year has room for all. and believe that we are as much touched by of summer.BEAUTY. in the state of the crop surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The The heavens change every moment. By water blooms in courses. which make the tells silent clock by which time the the summer hours. The 23 inhabitants of cities suppose that the is country landscape pleasant only half the year. the variety is greater. beholds. each its moment of the year has own beauty. I please myself with observing the graces of the winter scenery. a picture shall which was never seen before. and which never be seen again. and in the same field.
Indeed the river boasts a per and each month a new ornament. of day. But felt as this beauty of Nature which is is seen and beauty. and the hunted. in moun too orchards in blossom. become shows merely. moonlight. Art cannot rival this pomp is of purple and gold. of the is spiritual element essential to its perfection. and mock us with their unreality. the The shows rainbow. The high and divine beauty which can be loved . and will not please as mere it when its light shines upon your necessary journey. if shadows eagerly water. 2. the tains. house to see the moon. The presence of a higher. tinual motion. gone : 't is only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. and swarms with yellow butterflies in con large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river. namely. 't is Go out of the tinsel . it 1 who and ever could clutch it is Cio forth to find it. dewy morning.24 BEAUTY. the least part. still stars. like. petual gala. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October.
" moon and noble act all the stars of heaven. and causes the place and the bystanders to shine. waves. as most men do. " All those things sail." said Gibbon. We is are taught by great actions that the universe the property of every individual in ture has is his. three when Leonidas and his in hundred martyrs consume one day 2* . heroic act also decent. and abdicate his kingdom. found in combination with the human separate. he takes up the world into himself. if all it. When a is done. nature for his dowry and estate. Every rational crea It it . and never sets Beauty is the mark God is upon Every Every natural action is graceful. but he is entitled to the world by his constitution. he He may divest himself of he may creep into a corner.BEAUTY. for which men plough. ancient historian. In proportion to the energy of his thought and will. The winds and " are always on the side So are the sun and " of the ablest navigators. without effeminacy. said an build. perchance in a scene of great natural beauty. is 25 is that which will. or " obey virtue. virtue. will.
. under the shadow of the avalanche. one of the multitude cried out to him. moon come each and of Ther in the high at dying. to intimidate the citi zens of London. gath ers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to for his break the line comrades . as the cham pion of the English laws. are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed ? When the bark of . and envelope great actions. in the steep defile mopylae when Arnold Winkelried. the sea behind ." Charles II. " You never sate on so glori ous a seat. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill. fleeing out of their huts of all cane . can we separate the man from the liv purple ing picture his fit ? Does not the New World clothe form with her palm-groves and savannahs as drapery 1 Ever does natural beauty steal in like air. Columbus it. and the sun and look them once . nears the shore of America before the beach lined with savages. sitting on a sled.26 BEAUTY. and the mountains of the Indian Archipelago around. Alps. to suffer death. caused the patriot Lord Rus- .
sel to <J7 be drawn in an open coach. an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw its to itself the sky as its temple. associate memory with the whole geography and climate of Greece. in our Phocion. tral figure and makes the cen of the visible sphere. fitly Socrates. Pin themselves dar. is in unison with her works. among sordid objects. and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. The visible heavens in and earth sympathize with Jesus. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. and the frame will suit the picture. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet." In private places. And com mon ful whosoever has seen a person of power character and happy genius. ." to use the simple narrative of " the multitude imagined they sitting saw liberty and virtue by his side. A virtuous man. Homer. the sun as to candle. way to the " his biographer. on his scaffold. But. will have relife.BEAUTY. Nature stretcheth out her arms only Jet embrace man. through the principal streets of the city. his thoughts be of equal greatness.
they have a relation to thought. and without the tion. in relation to actions.28 marked how him. BEAUTY. easily he took all things along with the persons. and comes because sought. colors of affec The to intellectual and the active powers seem succeed each other in man. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God. of the intellect the active and then again. remain for the . each prepares and certainly be followed by the other. as we have it is seen comes unsought. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world as it becomes an object of the may be viewed. the opinions. unfriendly in There is something each to the other. to a and nature became ancillary 3. un apprehension and pursuit in its turn. but they are and work will like the alternate periods of feeding ing in animals . namely. of power. Nothing divine All . Therefore does beau which. generates the exclu sive activity of the other. and the ex clusive activity of the one. Be side the relation of things to virtue. and the day. dies. intellect. ty. man.
the ocean. of nature. itself in The beauty of nature reforms the mind. The production of a work light of art throws a upon is the mystery of humanity. The creation of beauty is Art. the totality of nature . A work of art an abstract or epitome of the world. that. a sun-beam. a landscape. they seek to embody it in new forms. Others have the same love in such excess. but for All new creation. fore the standard of beauty. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. This love of beauty is Taste. make an analogous impression on the mind. men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world. and not for barren contemplation. What is common is is to them all. .BEAUTY. There the entire circuit of natural forms. good is 29 eternally reproductive. Some men even to delight. that perfectness and harmony. not content with admiring. the result or the ature. beauty. in mini It is the result or expression For although the works of nature are innumerable and all different. A leaf. expression of them all is similar and single.
the architect seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point. Extend it this element to the uttermost. Thus is Art. God But is the all-fair. are but different faces of the same All. and goodness. The poet. in nature is beauty herald not ultimate. the pain the sculptor. . it A sug single object only so far beautiful as gests this universal grace. It the is of inward and eternal beauty. satisfy the The world thus exists to the soul to desire of beauty. Truth." : Nothing is is quite beautiful alone nothing but is beautiful in the whole. and I call an ultimate end. and each in his several work lates to satisfy the love of beauty which stimu him to produce. art. 30 BEAUTY. sense. is is why the soul seeks Beauty. the musician. and * 4 . ter. No reason can be asked or given beauty. Italians expressed by defining beauty which the " il piu nelF uno. Thus in does nature work through the will of a with the beauty of her first man filled works. a nature passed through the alembic of man. and beau ty.. in its largest and profoundest one expression for the universe.
not alone a solid and satisfactory good. M * 1* .BEAUTY. 31 It : must therefore stand as a part and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature.
1. and degree. Particular natural facts are symbols of par ticular facts. in a simple. wrong means Spirit primarily means wind.CHAPTER LANGUAGE. if traced to its root. means straight . Right originally twisted. history is The in use of natural supernatural creation is to give us aid history. and threefold Words are signs of natural facts. The use of the outer to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. trans- . Every word which is used to express a moral or intel lectual fact. is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Words are signs of natural facts. to man that of Nature is the vehicle of thought. 2. Nature is the symbol of spirits. double. A is THIRD use which Nature subserves Language. 3. IV. 1.
is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed . words borrowed from sensible things. say the heart head denote thought. the crossing of a line. An enraged 3 - / * - . the raising of the eye-brow. which are emblematic. symbol of some Every appearance state of the in nature corresponds to some mind. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import. into verbs. the 33 gression. but the same tendency in may be daily observed children. to express emotion. so conspicuous a fact in the is history of language. which they continually convert apply to analogous 2. - iv . Most of the process by which this transformation is made. and mental acts. spiritual Every natural fact. in and thought and emotion their turn. our least debt to nature. and now appropriated to spiritual nature. supercilious . We to are.LANGUAGE. It it is is not words only that are emble things fact is a matic .?**. and that state of the that mind can only be described by presenting natural appearance as its picture. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things.
Freedom. a snake subtle spite flowers express us the delicate affections.34 LANGUAGE. Who and is looks upon a river in a meditative hour. is the type of Reason. : This universal soul. Love. considered in rela- . as in a firmament. all things? Throw that and the circles the beautiful propagate themselves all are is type of influence. and And is the blue sky in which its buried. respectively our image of memory and hope. wherein. it is not its mine or thine or but we we are property and men. and heat for love. a firm man lamb a rock. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance . the private earth eternal calm. intellectually considered. Reason are its . is Visible distance behind and before us. A . not reminded of the flux of a stone into the stream. the sky with full of everlasting orbs. innocence to . Truth. the natures of Justice. Man conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life. calls arise and shine. he his. is is is man a lion. a learned a torch. we call Reason. a cunning man man is is is a fox. That which.
the habit of a plant. All the facts in natural history taken by themselves. tion to nature. as the It is easily FATHER. affects . and studies relations in all objects. it to human all and it is full of Whole Floras. These are not the dreams of a few poets. catalogues but the most trivial of these facts. or noise of an insect. is seen that there nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies. life the Creator. but that they are constant. embodies in his language. and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. Linnaeus' and BufFon's volumes. but man is an analogist. But marry life.IF* LANGUAGE. are but dry of facts . or work. but are bar ren like a single sex. And man it ages and countries. in any way associated to human nature. applied to the illus tration of a fact in intellectual philosophy. He is placed in the centre of beings. in all Spirit hath in itself. and pervade nature. here and there. And neither can man be under stood without these objects. 35 Spirit is we call Spirit. nor these objects without man. history. the organs. have no value. or.
in us in the most lively and agreeable manner. Because of tween ges. then all body with a mighty its habits. The motion of the earth round and round the sun. discourse. and the year. light These are heat. this radical correspondence be visible things and human thoughts." its axis. and the little little drudge is seen to be a monitor. . sava is who have only what necessary. The gies to what affecting analo is the nature of man.36 LANGUAGE. become sublime. in all that little fruit made use Paul. even that said to be it recently observed. converse . certain amounts of brute is and But there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy ? The instincts of the ant . a heart. makes the day. " It sown a natural body it is raised a spiritual body. that never sleeps. up to the voice of who is calls the human corpse a seed. of. seed of a plant. are very unimportant considered as the ant's but the moment it a ray of relation is seen to ex tend from to man.
and so utter simplicity of his character. his fellow by whose means man converses with men. depends on the is. has moreover been all observed. that the idioms of languages ap proach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. which men relish. so is it And last. all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols.LANGUAGE. it. The same ele symbols are found to all make It the original ments of languages. until its becomes more picturesque. The 3* corruption of man is follow- . As we go back all in history. in figures. upon his communicate it that love of truth and his desire to without loss. A its man's power to connect his thought with proper symbol. when it is poetry . language. as this is the first the This immediate de this pendence of language upon nature. Thus is nature an interpreter. sion of an outward conver phenomenon life. into a type of its somewhat in human never loses power to affect us. 37 language infancy. It is this which gives that piquan of a strong-natured all cy to the conversation farmer or back-woodsman. or.
the power over nature is in as an .38 LANGUAGE. the fraud all manifest. the desire of plea sires. namely. and words lose power to stimulate the understanding or the affections. a paper currency is employed when there is no is bullion in the vaults. a degree lost new imagery ceases to be created. that they see and utter truths. plicity of character is and the sovereignty of ideas broken up by the prevalence of secondary de desire of riches. interpreter of the will. When sim ed by the corruption of language. the desire of power. Hundreds of writers nation. by the primary writers of the country. and duplicity and falsehood take place of sim plicity and truth. and make others believe. the desire of praise. those. who hold . may who for be found in every long-civilized a short time believe. the sure. but who feed unconsciously upon the language created primarily on nature. In due time. who do its not of themselves clothe one thought in natural garment. and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not.
These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind. arises in his mind. over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. cotemporaneous with every thought. It is proper the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. so that picturesque language certificate that once a commanding it. a man in alliance with truth The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts. o Hence. will he watch his lectual processes. more or less luminous. But wise men pierce fasten this rotten diction 39 and words again to is visible at things . good writing and brilliant discourse are This imagery is sponta perpetual allegories. is he who employs and God. A man intel conversing earnest. terial find that always a ma image. neous.LANGUAGE. which furnishes the vestment of the thought. images. It is the blending of experience with It is the present action of the mind. and is it inflamed with passion or exalted by clothes in itself in if thought. creation. We .
We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. the orator. and we forget its presence. nature than know more from * -% we can at will communicate. But how great a language to convey such pepper corn informations! Did it need such noble . year after fair and appeasing year. politics. in the hour of revolution. these solemn images shall fit reap pear in their morning lustre. 3. without design and without heed. the spells of per suasion. and the cattle low upon in his the mountains. shall not lose their lesson al in the roar of cities or the broil of Long hereafter. bred in the woods. whose senses have been nourished by their changes. amidst agitation and terror in national councils. the river rolls and shines. again the woods wave. Its light flows into the mind evermore. together.40 LANGUAGE. the pines murmur. At the call of a noble sentiment. them And with these forms. as he saw and heard infancy. as symbols and shall words of the thoughts which the passing events awaken. The poet. the keys of power are put into his hands.
the dial plate of The axioms ethics. " " of physics trans " the whole is is greater than part . we cannot are avoid the question. speech are metaphors because the whole of ture is na a metaphor of the human mind. and nificance but what no sig we consciously give them. neither are able. whether the characters not significant of themselves. host of orbs in heaven. and waves. We it are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. it we feel that we have not yet put to its use. .LANGUAGE. Have mountains. as when we employ them thoughts ? emblems of our Parts of The world is emblematic. The is visible and the relation of the invisible. reaction equal to . to furnish 41 races of creatures. this profusion of forms." late the its parts. this man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use affairs this grand cipher to expedite the of our pot and kettle. skies. Whilst we see that always stands ready to clothe what we would say. Jaws of its Thus. " The world laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass.
the memorable words of his tory. A bird in the hand is A cripple in the right wrong . Thus. In their primary sense these are peat them port. The Long-lived trees make roots first. . Make hay full whilst the sun shines 'T is hard to carry a . " " . " and many the like pro compensated by time which have an ethical as well as phy positions. than when confined technical use. and . fables. and the like. the difference of weight being . but we re for the value is of their analogical im is What true of proverbs. is the son of wine . sical sense. A rolling stone gathers no moss worth two way. true of all parables. ally and the proverbs of nations. allegories. cup even last Vinegar ounce broke the camel's back . will beat a racer in the . the smallest weight may be made to the greatest.42 action lift LANGUAGE. In like manner. These propositions have universal sense a much more extensive and plied to when ap to human life. consist usu of a natural fact. selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. trivial facts. in the bush .
or hours does not appear. of Swedenborg. as at Ba sits There the road-side. to that of Pythagoras. fine genius since the world began from the era of the Egyptians and the Brah mins. us like a summer's cloud. the Sphinx age. of con. tries his for tune at There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material . at all other times. and from age to each prophet comes by. the wise man doubts. of Leibnitz. this miracle. Without our special wonder ? " And overcome for the universe becomes transparent. he reading her riddle. appears to men. When is in fortunate we ponder if. " Can these things be. but stands in the will of God. than its own. and so It is free to be it known by all men. This relation between the mind and matter 43 is not fancied by some poet.LANGUAGE. of Plato. and the laws is light of higher it. shines through It the standing problem which has exercised every the wonder and the study of . he not blind and deaf.
" &c. we must the aid of subtler and summon more vital expositors to Every scripture is to be inter preted by the same spirit which gave it forth. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world." This doctrine is abstruse. and day and night. which must always preserve an exact relation first to their origin . visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. in harmony with nature. " Material objects. and though the " " " scoriae." images of garment. purge the eyes to understand her to By degrees we may come know the . and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections. river and storm. the love of will truth and of virtue. " are necessarily kinds of scoria of the substantial thoughts of the Creator. acid and alkali." is the fundamental law of criticism. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. A life it make " plain. in other words. in the world of spirit. bird. preexist in beast and necessary Ideas in the mind of God. LANGUAGE.. text." mirror." said a French phi losopher. may stimulate the fancy.44 forms .
LANGUAGE. so that the 45 primitive sense of the permanent objects of na world shall be to us an open its book. be in That which was unconscious interpreted and defined comes. object rightly seen. A new interest surprises us. under the view now suggested. new amount ." new faculty of the truth. an ob a a part of the to the domain of knowledge. whilst. magazine of power. ture. and every form significant of life hidden and final cause. we contemplate the fearful since " every extent and multitude of objects . unlocks a soul. when ject.
food. The for understanding adds. IN view of this significance of nature. society. its divisibility. Meantime. day by day. that nature is a dis This use of the world includes the itself. loco motion. . its figure. divides. the mechanical forces. combines. Reason transfers its these lessons into own world of thought. the animals. inertia. ar once at a new fact. They educate both the Under standing and the Reason. we rive at cipline. preceding uses. time. V. climate.CHAPTER DISCIPLINE. measures. Every property of its matter is a school for the understanding. whose meaning is unlimited. give us sincerest lessons. as parts of Space. its extension. and finds everlast its ing nutriment and room activity in this all worthy scene. its so lidity or resistance. labor. by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind.
all and to us that form the Hand of the mind to instruct " are no better than good good thoughts . Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed. combination to one end of manifold forces. of likeness. inconveniences. in intellectual Our dealing with sensi ble objects is a constant exercise in the neces sary lessons of difference. the orphan. unless they be executed The same good perty and its filial office is performed by Pro systems of debt and credit. tuition is is the extreme care with which a care pretermitted in its provided. day after day. of being and seeming. of progressive arrange ment of ascent from particular to general of . ! " dreams. no single case. 1. dilemmas what disputing rejoicing over us of little men sense . Debt. of order. to form the common what continual reproduction of what annoyances. . . what reckonings of interest. never ending. whose iron face the widow. 47 Nature is a discipline of the understanding truths. year after year. What tedious training. . grinding debt. of prices. and the sons of genius fear and .DISCIPLINE.
which consumes so much time. culture of the understanding for example. that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped. suffer needed from it most. A and a plough have each their use. Water . Therefore Space. and most by those who over. but bell sundered and individual. debt. is a preceptor is whose lessons cannot be forgone. experience in profounder laws. wool to wear but wool cannot be . hiv ing in the foresight of the spirit. Whilst now it is it is the gymnastics of the understanding. and therefore Time. spirit which so cripples and disheartens a great with cares that seem so base." merely the surface action of internal machinery. is it will be blown into drifts to-morrow. The whole vidual is character and fortune of the indi affected by the least inequalities in the . in is the perception of differences. More which has been well compared fall to snow. " if it level to-day.48 hate. coal to burn. is good to drink. property. and neither can do the office of the other. DISCIPLINE. like the index on the face of a clock.
nature forms in us ! She pardons no mistakes. wise 49 The man shows his wisdom in separation.) teach that nature's dice are always loaded . In like manner. The foolish have no range is as in their scale. and her nay. in gradation.DISCIPLINE. and feels by knowledge the privilege refines him. but suppose every is man every other man. to BE ! His insight The 4* beauty of nature shines in is his own breast. they call the best. drunk. Man greater that he can see . the hunter. nay. first Zoology. nor coal eaten. Her yea is yea. What is not good they call the worst. How calmly one after and genially the mind apprehends ! another the laws of physics What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation. that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. what good heed. nor water spun. The first steps in Agriculture. (those steps Astronomy. and the sailor take. which the farmer. is as wide as nature. and what not hateful. and his scale of creatures and of merits.
and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. receives the dominion of ass man meekly as the on which the Saviour rode. that he can reduce will. nay the whole series of events. DISCIPLINE. Open is a point to what we do not know. Passing by of nature many particulars of the discipline we must not omit to specify two. Heat. It offers all its . and so conform is all facts to his character. and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light. under his not only particular events. Electricity. Geology. Magnetism. made as to serve. and the universe less. It is Nature It thoroughly mediate. thy will be done ! he is learning the secret.' any recent journal of science. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to " " the hour when he saith. The power exercise of the Will or the lesson of is taught in every event.50 this. but great classes. What we know. Here again we 4 are impressed and even daunt ed by the immense Universe to be explored. because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Physiolo gy.
thought. every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf. with every at last. Therefore is nature glorious with form. 2. More and more. color. He forges the subtile air into wise and melodious words. only a realized the double of the man. every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life . and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. that every globe in the remotest heaven. and motion. does his kingdom stretch over things.DISCIPLINE. until the will. Therefore . Ten Commandments. tion from the sponge up to Hercules. to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine every animal func . shall hint or thunder to and echo the man the laws of right and wrong. reflect the conscience. 51 kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. All things are moral and in their boundless spirit changes have an unceasing reference to ual nature. world becomes. Man is never weary of working and delicate it up. Sensible objects conform to the premoni tions of Reason and .
wholly new is for an ulterior ser In God. Thus by itself. Jesus. vice. good only so far as that a conspiring of parts and efforts to is the production of an end. and ted. it namely.52 is DISCIPLINE. regarded mean and squalid. being. Whatever private purpose part. have drawn deeply from this source. as to seem the end for which is it was made. truth. every end converted into a new means. Prophet and David. in corn and meat . never omit its first Nothing in nature is exhausted in use. priest. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature. that a thing serves . this is is answered by any member or its public and universal function. is Commodity. When it a thing has served an end to the is uttermost. : nature always the ally of Religion lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. in first values and wants. Isaiah. essential to any The is and gross manifestation of this our inevitable and hated training*. But it is to the in the great doctrine is the use of mind an education of Use.
i The moral is fluence of nature upon amount of truth which every individual it that illustrates to him. have each an experience precisely parallel and leading to the same conclusions. blight. in treating of the significance of material things. the takes in the fields. is but a version of a moral sen lies at The moral law the centre of na It is ture and radiates to the circumference. in their several resorts. a emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter over sailor. rain. pith and tion.DISCIPLINE. the merchant. caught by in- man and sinks into his soul. every rela All things with which us. the miner. this moral sentiment which thus and grows in the grain. But the shepherd. Because all organizations are radically alike. the and every process. sun. weeds insects. What is a farm but a mute gospel sacred The chaff and the wheat. It 53 has already been illustrated. we and deal. Nor can it be doubted that scents the air. that every natural process tence. and im is pregnates the waters of the world. / . preach to 'I marrow of every substance. it is plants.
The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. in his Xeno- phanes complained old age. Every particular in nature. All the endless variety of things make a unique. Unity. that. and partakes of the perfection of the whole. look where he would. which meets us everywhere. of time is related to the whole. an identical impression. Each particle is a mi . stain ? and leave no wrin industry kle or how much and pro the vidence and affection we have caught from pantomime of brutes er of ? What a searching preach self-command ! is the varying phenomenon of Health Herein Nature. a momenj. over whose unspotted deeps the flocks winds forevermore drive of stormy clouds. 54 DISCIPLINE. how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky. a leaf. is especially apprehended the Unity of the Unity in Variety. a crystal. all things hastened back to He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms./t. can estimate this? Who much Who can guess how firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught 1 the fisherman . a drop.
as. in its The granite is differenced laws only by the more or less of heat. from it the river that wears flows.^ DISCIPLINE. only a modification of the other the likeness in them is more than the difference/ and . essen In Haydn's oratorios. and the world. to is religion. the notes present to only the imagination not motions. The river. Each . but colors also. of the snake. ' A Gothic church/ said Coleridge. faithfully 55 renders the likeness of Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious. the stag. crocosm. resembles the air away. air that flows over the resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents. and the elephant. a knowledge of anatomy tial. an architect. but also in objects wherein there superficial great is unlikeness. as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the is fossil saurus. the light resembles the it heat which rides with creature is through Space.' Michael Angelo maintained. Thus architecture called ' ' frozen music/ by De Stael and Goethe. is a petrified that. as it it . as the green grass.
is it the absolute Ens seen from one more conspic- But has innumerable sides.56 DISCIPLINE. such truth side. in doing one thing. he sees the likeness of which is done rightly. chop. and comprise in like manner. one and the same. holds true throughout nature. it per vades Thought Every universal truth which we express every other truth. comprising possible circles . in words. and impoverish An action the perfection to and publication of thought. one thing he does all or." . sions of what in truth. They is break. it is easily seen. and to be related to all nature. under the undermost garment of nature. " The wise man. that. art. A right action seems fill the eye. may be Every drawn. central Unity is still The same infinite ous in actions. Words are finite organs of the mind. timate is this Unity. it. however. For. which. They cannot cover the dimen is it. Hence So it it that a rule of one or a law of one organ in lies ization. also. does all . in the rightly. implies or supposes Omne verum vero consonat' It is like a great circle all on a sphere. and be trays its source in universal Spirit. their radical law is is.
far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them. the spirit pre From such as have I drawn joy and knowledge. Unfortunately. Nevertheless. of ganizations. found and beheld myself. these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of all thought and virtue whereto they alone. I It In such I will as this. is alive. All other or ganizations appear to be degradations of the human among fers this. every one of them bears the marks some injury . or 5 . ' appears many all that surround It says. so to When others. is marred and superficially defective. It can yield In fact. This the human. me thought already formed and the mind.' the eye. that singular form They introduce us to all which predominates over is other forms. attributes of mute and brute nature. by these forms. male and female and these are of the incomparably the richest informations lie at power and order that as of the heart of things. are the entrances. Words and 57 actions are not the. this organization it. speak to can speak again.DISCIPLINE. it form. always accompanied . have it.
is all its unconscious converted in the mind into solid and it is sweet wisdom. become an object of thought. a real person to outgo our ideal when he moreover. who. our desire on that side whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us. whilst his character retains effect. and waters. thus sends has. . course with a friend standard of excellence.5g It tail DISCIPLINE. and. that we can mend or even analyze them. like skies . . are coextensive with our idea answering each satisfy who. to a certain affection of the soul. but where it would stop life ? We are associated in adolescent and adult with some friends. is a sign to us that his office closing. When much inter has supplied us with a and has increased our respect for the resources of God who . and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. were a pleasant inquiry to follow into de their ministry to our education. We can not chuse but love them.
that it God will teach a human mind. perpetually suggests itself. whether Universe end be not the Final Cause of the exists. the immortal pupil. p and whether nature outwardly It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World. in every object of sense. whether Orion is up there in heaven. test the authenticity my utter impotence to of the report of my senses. to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with it outlying objects. In which we call man and woman. A noble doubt this . what difference does make. all parts of na ture conspire. and so makes the receiver of a certain sensations.CHAPTER IDEALISM. To this one end of Discipline. THUS is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man. number of congruent sun and moon. house and trade. VI. or some .
Any distrust of the permanence of laws. whether land the dif and sea interact. or only in the apocalypse of the mind. me. by per any inconsequence in its mitting procession. God never jests with us.60 IDEALISM. balancing galaxy. as if consequences were bur of nature. throughout absolute space. the same appearances are inscribed in the con stant faith of man. as if it affected the stability It surely does not. without relations of time and space. whether. so long as cannot try the accuracy of my The senses. and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end. and will not compromise the end of nature. and galaxy or. would Their perma- paralyze the faculties of man. frivolous make themselves merry its with the Ideal theory. deep yawning under deep. ideal to it is it alike useful and it is Be I what it may. alike venerable to me. lesque . Whether nature enjoy is a substantial existence without. . what ference. in god paints the image soul ? the firmament of the The relations of parts and the end of is the whole remaining the same.
that. We are not built like a ship to be toss It is a natural ed. and his faith therein perfect. The toll broker. the man. entirely in the per But whilst we acquiesce manence of natural laws. the question of the still absolute existence of nature. nence is all QI is sacredly respected. not to shake our particular faith in the stability phenomena. the uniform effect of culture on the human of j mind. The wheels and springs of man are set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. as of heat. . not a substance . consequence of this structure. are much displeased at the intimation. so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective. belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the 5* . but like a house to stand. azote but to lead us to regard nature as a phenome non. water. It is remains open. to attribute necessary existence to spirit to esteem nature as an acci dent and an effect. the carpenter. we is resist with indignation any hint that nature more short-lived or mutable than spirit. the wheelwright.IDEALISM. To the senses and the unrenewed understand ing.
The moments of life. higher agency intervened. afloat. and they never look beyond sphere. grace and expression. . sharp outlines and col ored surfaces. with wonderful accuracy. which binds us to if nature as we were a part of it it. the happiest them. are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers. and surface are once added. faith. Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision. and shows us Until this nature aloof. to outline When the eye of at Reason opens. the animal eye sees. and.62 absolute IDEALISM. and are no longer seen . tion These proceed from imagina and affection. and the reverential withdrawing of na ture before its God. Things their this are ultimates. * In their view ' "* man and nature are iadissolubly joined. as were. causes and spirits are seen through best. existence of nature. and abate somewhat of the If the angular distinctness of objects. outlines and surfaces become transparent. The The presence of Reason mars first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses.
un wholly detached from all relation to the observer. (make a very slight change in the point of vis- . are realized at once. earnest mechanic. or through the tints of an unusual sky. the beggar. tering. We the shore from a moving ship. a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a are strangely affected by seeing dualism. in the rapid movement of rail-road car ! Nay. bar fighting. the boys. gives the whole world a pictorial air. What new coun the thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of try quite familiar. to turn the street into a puppet-show. from a balloon. 63 effects of cul Our first institution in the Ideal philo sophy is a hint from nature herself. or. A man who seldom rides. needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town. the women. the dogs. made to conspire with spirit to eman Certain mechanical changes. running.IDEALISM. and seen as ap parent. 1. The men. is Nature cipate us. Let us proceed to indicate the ture. the most wonted objects. not substantial beings. the talking. at least. The least change in our point of view. the lounger.
and the figure of one of our family amuse us. the camp. the hero. the sion. between man and . butcher's cart.) please us most. something in himself 2. own So a protrait of a well-known face gratifies us. as on air. not differ lifted ent from what we know them. but only afloat before the eye. nature. I Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe is felt may say. Turn the eyes upside down. though you ! any time these twenty years In these cases. the same By a few strokes he deli neates. the sun. is sug gested the difference between the observer and the spectacle. that. whilst the world is a spectacle. the maiden. from the ground and He dis- unfixes the land and the sea. In a camera obscura. is stable. makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought. is and how agreeable have seen it the picture. the city. by mechanical means.64 IDEALISM. the poet communicates pleasure. In a higher manner. from the probably. the mountain. a low degree of the sublime fact. by looking at the landscape through your legs. that man is hereby apprized. and .
to embody any capricious shade of thought that is uppermost in his mind. and makes them the words of the defined to Reason. he uses matter as symbols of The sensual man conforms as thoughts to things . the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The remotest spaces of nature are visited. in his . We are made aware is that magnitude relative. the world is ductile and flexible. beyond tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand. His imperial muse expression. the use which the Reason makes of the Shakspeare possesses the power nature all material world. The . and the farthest things are sundered brought together.IDEALISM. The imagination may be be. serve the passion of the Thus. roic passion. poses them anew. of subordinating for the purposes of poets. rooted and fast the and impresses his being thereon. of material things merely and all objects shrink and expand to poet. he invests dust and stones with hu manity. one esteems nature other. as fluid. refractory To him. by a subtile spiritual connexion. 65 Possessed himself by a he it.
it swells. that heretic. That works on leases of short numbered hours. all alone stands hugely politic. her ornament The ornament of beauty flies in is Suspect. *.66 IDEALISM. as he speaks. . It suffers not in smiling pomp. is is his chest the suspicion she has awakened. air. Lights that do mislead the morn. No. A crow which is heaven's sweetest His passion not the fruit of chance. or a state. the lays of birds. In the strength of his constancy. . : ^. Which so sweetly And those eyes. the break of day. . it was builded far from accident . nor falls Under the brow of thralling discontent. the Pyra mids seem to him recent and the freshness of youth and transitory. And love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. he finds to be the shadow of his beloved . lips Take those away were forsworn . the scents and dyes of flowers. It fears not policy. to a city. sonnets. But . which keeps her from him. time.
Now Again . so their rising senses Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle Their clearer reason. Have The I The strong based promontory the spurs plucked made shake. to micrify the great. to magnify the small. might be illustrated by a thousand examples from his Plays.IDEALISM. calls Prospero for music to . k ARIEL. power which he any moment. in literature. . sooth the frantic Alonzo. The charm And. as the dissolves apace morning steals upon the night. cure thy brains useless. I have before me the Tempest. would not be easy to match This transfiguration which undergo this all material objects through the passion exerts. at of the poet. and will " cite only these few lines. and his companions A solemn air. and the best comforter To an unsettled fancy. in passing. boiled within thy skull. may say. The wild beauty of it 67 I this hyperbole. Melting the darkness. and by up pine and cedar.
with his own thoughts. . of philosophy. herein." proceeds on the faith that a law determines phenomena. the philosopher. perception (that is of between for to say. soul. which being known. But. he differs from the philosopher only that the one proposes Beauty as his main end the other Truth. the phenome na can be predicted.) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world. according to " The problem " is. postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. for that exists conditionally. Their understanding Begins to swell fill : and the approaching tide Will shortly the reasonable shores That now lie foul and muddy. and to assert the pre dominance of the 3.* * 68 IDEALISM." all Plato. real affinities The events. to It all find a ground unconditioned and absolute. not less than the poet. when in the . Whilst thus the poet delights us by animat- ing nature like a creator. That law. of ideal affinities. those only are real.
and a beauty. rely on their irrefragable analysis. the memory of its cumbrous catalogues of and carries centuries of observation formula. harmony. seized their law. is 69 infinite. the material is ever degraded before the spiritual. " This will be found contrary to all experience. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's like that is. In physics. The astronomer. that is. definitions. mind. 6 . strictly ? of the Antigone of Sophocles life It in both cases. that this feeble human being itself in has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an their . and recognised - ? . is the aim of both. that a spiritual .fc f IDEALISM. has been p ^ imparted to nature that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought . Thus even ***"'**' in physics. an idea. and a truth. * . in a single '" when itself this is attained. Its beauty is The true philosopher and the true poet are one. and disdain the results of observation. disburthens particulars. the geometer. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches. which is truth. j. which is beauty. informing soul.
Whilst we wait think in this Olympus of gods. and know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. of nature as an We ascend into their region. doubted the existence of matter. that their beautiful upon Ideas . they were there when he established the clouds above. When he prepared the heavens. uncreated natures. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of " He that matter. Of them took he counsel. or ever the earth was. up from everlast " These are they ing. had already transferred nature left into the mind. . has never Turgot said." . and matter like an outcast corpse. when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. as one brought up with him.70 yet is IDEALISM. may be assured he has no aptitude It fastens for metaphysical inquiries. who were set from the beginning. we appendix to the soul. 4. and in feel and majestic presence. we is that our outward being a dream and a shade. Then they were by him. true " ." the attention upon immortal necessary is.
religion and ethics. in serene company. a virtuous will. they have no 5. and we think so. it never be or No man their fears age or misfortune is death. fitly Finally. Their influence is 71 proportionate. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth. We for apprehend first the As it were. we exist. himself divine. for the time. we learn that time and space are relations of that. Like a new soul. they renew the body. will cally nimble and lightsome. a perception of truth. we tread on life is no longer irksome. they are accessible to few men. We become physi air.IDEALISM. absolute. for he the district transported out of of change. without becoming. all Yet men are capable of being raised by piety or into their region. by passion. we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. or affinity. As objects of science. the practice of ideas. which may be called. And no man touches these divine natures. or the in life. troduction of ideas into have an analo- . We become immortal. in some degree. with matter.
in degrading its nature and suggesting dependence on herein .72 gous effect IDEALISM. the things that are unseen are eter puts an affront upon nature. Ethics does not. with all lower culture. They of are one to our present design. they are ." It . spirit. the personality of God . for which philosophy does Berkeley and Viasa. They and are both put nature under foot. The first last lesson " religion is. The uniform language that may be heard is. ignorant sects. It does that for the unschooled. the other. as the Manichean and Plotinus.' seek the realities The devotee flouts nature. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. from God. They distrusted in them selves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. In . The things that seen. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter. are temporal nal. dreams. unrealities of religion. Ethics and religion is differ that the one the system of human duties commencing from Religion includes man. in the * churches of the most the unsubstan vanities. shadows. tial Contemn shows of the world.
tend to our convictions of the reality of the ex world. only wish to indicate the true position of nature in regard to man. the frail and weary weed. of man's connexion with Culture inverts the vulgar views of na call that apparent.IDEALISM. like corn I and melons. in which God dresses the soul. Let us speak her do not wish to fling stones at my I beautiful mother. where in to establish as the man. I have it. that is. to attain is the object of human nature. and that real. they 73 what " it is might all better say of matter. in ternal But I own there is something ungrateful expanding too curiously the par general proposition." It appears that motion. ture. all. intellectual affect and religion. physical and science. nor soil my gentle nest. and brings the mind to it which uses to call real. Michael Angelo said of external beauty. short. no hostility to nature. all right education tends . ground which life. that all ticulars of the cul ture tends to imbue us with idealism. which 6* . but a child's love to I expand and live in the warm day fair. which he has called into time. poetry.
The popular advantage of the ideal theory over the faith. respects the end too much. Children. in fact. which God paints on the instant the contemplation of the soul. this faith will as surely on the mind as did the first.74 it IDEALISM. the view which Reason. the world always virtue phenomenal . not as painfully accumulated. it is true. of actions and events. of country and religion. It is. both speculative and practical. but as one vast picture. eternity. is. but with cul ture. For. atom after atom. uses to call visionary. and subordinates it to the mind. it The arise belief that appears only. is this. circle beholds the whole of persons and things. in an aged creeping Past. that philoso phy and virtue. It Idealism sees the world in God. is an afterthought. that it presents the world is in precisely that view which most desirable to the mind. take. immerse itself in . act after act. for Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and mi It croscopic study of the * universal to tablet. believe in the external world. seen in the light of is thought.
as it accepts from as the pure It is God the phenomenon. and it is a doer. finds it. very incurious concerning persons or miracles. and awful form of re not hot and passionate it ligion in the world. its ac It cepts whatsoever befals. only that may the better watch. . at the appearance of what at calls its own good It or bad fortune. than the scandals of ecclesiasti cal history or the niceties of criticism . as part of is lesson. a watcher it more than a doer.IDEALISM. the means. and. and not at all it disturbed by chasms of historical evidence. It sees 75 something more important in Christianity. the union or opposition of is other persons. No man its enemy.
faithful to the It cause whence Spirit. should contain somewhat pro Uses that are exhausted or that may be. she stands with bended head. is always to the sun behind The aspect of nature devout. And an all the uses of nature admit of being one. The happiest . and facts that is end in the statement. and hands folded upon the breast. which yields the activity of scope. a great shadow pointing us. It is a per petual effect. it is to the suburbs and outskirts of things. that gressive. and wherein his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise.CHAPTER SPIRIT. VII. IT is essential to a true theory of nature it and of man. cannot be all that true of this brave lodging wherein all man is harbored. always speaks of It is It suggests the absolute. summed in man infinite Through had all its kingdoms. Like the figure of Jesus. it its origin.
but intellectually. We must add some related thoughts. as were. mat- . and we and describe himself. Of that foresee ineffable essence which we least. matter first Whence is it 1 and of these questions only. will say We can God in the coarse and. it call Spirit. Idealism saith : the ideal theory answers. the great organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual.SPIRIT. the when man has worshipped him noblest ministry of nature It is is to stand as the apparition of God. he that thinks most. we see that the the already presented do not include whole circumference of man. are Three problems put by nature to the ? What is Whereto ? The mind . both language and thought we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions. the individual to it. man is 77 he who learns* from nature the lesson of worship. distant try to define phenomena of matter. and strives to lead back When we views consider Spirit. but when desert us.
the world is divine dream. the is other. not a substance. the mind a a part of the nature of things . . incapable of any assurance . that there some thing of humanity in and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me. The one is perfect . it Yet. from which to the glories is we may presently awake and certainties of day. wander without end. human all. Nature is is so pervaded with life. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions. and the evidence of the world's being. and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. if it only deny the existence of does not satisfy the demands of the It leaves God out of me. to it. because it Then the heart resists baulks the affections in denying sub stantive being to men and women. Idealism a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry.78 ter is a SPIRIT. phenomenon. matter. Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being. spirit.
in space and time. upon us from without. build up nature around but puts it forth through us. that creates that behind nature. that spiritually. or beauty. merely a useful introductory hypothesis. that spirit one and not compound or . so a man rests . or love. entirely. invisible But when. does not us. that spirit does not act is. Whence is matter ? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. steps of we come to inquire.SPIRIT. but is in all one. following the thought. as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. and that by which they are . We learn that the highest is present to the soul of man. and each things exist. throughout is nature. As a plant upon the earth. spirit is present . spirit that for which . ourselves. that the Supreme Being. serving to apprize us distinction of the eternal between the soul and the world. that not wis all the dread universal essence. or power. in the present state of our as knowledge. which is dom. but Therefore. Let it 79 stand then. that spirit. through is.
at his need. subjected to the is It is not. It is therefore. remoter and inferior incarnation of God.80 SPIRIT. God in the But it differs from the body in one important respect. which admonishes and power me where the sources of wisdom lie. like that. and draws. inex Who ? can set bounds to the man Once we inspire the infinite. will. is upon the bosom of God. now the human Its serene order to us. The world proceeds from the same It is a the body of man. possibilities of nourished by unfailing fountains. It is a . inviolable by us. present expositor of the divine mind. a projection of uncoYiscious. by being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth. he haustible power. This view. and points to virtue as to " The golden key Which opes carries truth. and access to the entire learn that man is has mind of the Creator." upon its it face the highest certificate of because animates me to create my own spirit as world through the purification of my soul. him self the creator in the finite. the palace of eternity.
We are as much God. strangers in nature. a face of him ? Yet this may show for if us what discord is between man and nature. are digging in the field hard by.SPIRIT. We do not understand the notes of deer run The fox and the away from us the bear and tiger rend us. you can laborers not freely admire a noble landscape. fixed point 81 ure. as corn and the appJe. . until he out of the sight of men. whereby we may measure our depart As we degenerate. every glimpse of which hath a grandeur. the contrast between is us and our house more evident. The poet finds is something ridiculous in his delight. the potato and the vine. as we are aliens from birds. . Is not the land scape. uses of We do not know the more than a few plants.
will see that there remains to learn of his relation to the world. IN inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things. Empirical science apt to cloud the sight.CHAPTER VIII. and. by the very knowledge of functions and processes. savant The becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout atten tion to truth. and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far . to bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole. the highest reason is That which seems faintly always the truest. is much it and that not to be learned by any addition or subtrac tion or other comparison of known quantities. by a continual self-recovery. is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among is the eternal verities. possible it is so refined. but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit. PROSPECTS.
to recite it is When less to my all purpose position correctly the order and super strata. to is know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution. guess more fruitful than an indisputable affirma let and that a dream may us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. of botany. For. details. so I is lost a tranquil sense cannot greatly honor minuteness in is long as there no hint to explain the .PROSPECTS. the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state. behold a rich landscape. and infallibility. which ever more ing separates and classifies things. to show the relation of the forms ol . relation between things and thoughts no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology. more excellent qualities in 83 student a the that than ii preciseness often tion. of the arts. of the than to in know why thought of multitude of unity. endeavour to I reduce the most diverse to one form. It is not so pertinent to man to know as it all the individuals of the animal kingdom.
Rome. or atmospheric influence lay open. animals.84 flowers. so long as the naturalist overlooks that ful wonder congruity which subsists between man and of which he is lord. the . in every new law of color. or is surprised Peter's at on entering York Minster St. The American who has been con fined. to the sight of build ings designed after foreign models. in every self in mountain fact stratum. PROSPECTS. faint copies of an invisible archetype. and insect. and finds something of him every great and small thing. in his own country. which observation or analysis ception of this A per mystery inspires the muse of beautiful psalmist of the George Herbert. by imitations the feeling that these structures are also. is its the most subtile inhabitant. and build science net of natural history. shells. not because he the world . ideas. but because he is head and heart. to the mind. upon In a cabi sensible of a we become certain occult recognition and sympathy in re gard to the most bizarre forms of beast. architecture. Nor has science sufficient humanity. of astronomy. fish.
Man is all Full of proportions. the winds do blow. As our delight. part of his " little 85 The following lines are poem on Man. heaven move. brother. The earth doth rest. because Find their acquaintance there. symmetry. For head with foot hath private amity. " For us. And Each to all the world besides. prey. Nothing hath got so far But man hath caught and kept it as his star . or as our treasure is The whole either our cupboard of food. His eyes dismount the highest He is in little all the sphere. and fountains flow see. Or cabinet of pleasure.PROSPECTS. " The stars have us to bed . Music and light attend our head. that they Herbs gladly cure our flesh. part may call the farthest. : Night draws the curtain which the sun withdraws. Nothing we means our good. 7* . . but . seventeenth century. And " both with moons and tides. one limb to another.
Oh mighty Another love ! him Man is one world." The perception of this class of truths makes attraction is the eternal which draws men to sci ence. and hath to attend him." Every surmise and vaticination of the is mind entitled to a certain respect. and so . and sentences. and we learn to prefer imperfect theories. Than he '11 He treads down that which doth befriend When sickness makes him pale and wan. lost sight of in attention to In view of this half-sight of sci the ence. to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. In their descent and being . man In every path. but the end the means. which contain glimpses of truth. In their ascent and cause. - More servants wait on take notice of. All things unto our flesh are kind. we accept sentence of Plato. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announc ing undiscovered regions of thought.86 PROSPECTS. to vital that. to our mind. " poetry comes nearer truth than his tory.
is centuries are points. may be both history and prophecy.PROSPECTS. 87 activity to therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature. through hope. We are. But the element of therefore. and eating grass dethroned. which a certain poet sang to me the . new the torpid I shall spirit. But who can ? set limits to the reme dial force of spirit . and history but the epoch of one degradation. ' We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. bereft of reason. by turns. spirit. We own and disown our relation to it. spirit is eter but in nity. In the the cycle of the universal man. like an ox. and which. communicating. from whom known individuals all proceed. the oldest chronologies are young and it. To recent. longest series of events. '' The foundations of man the are not in matter. like Nebuchadnezzar. world. as they have always been in and perhaps reappear to every bard.
shall When men shall are innocent. mind. death kept in check by is and infancy. and pleads with them dise. the moon. having made for himself this fills huge shell. now corresponds to him from far and on high. the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night. his waters retired. him. it still fits fits Say. the world would be insane and rabid. Now. life be longer. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. * to return to para Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. once fitted him. Out from him sprang the sun and moon from man. he no longer the veins and veinlets he is shrunk to a drop. The laws of his . the sun from woman. into the year and the seasons. rather. if these disorganizations should last for It is hundreds of years. . But. and as pass into the immortal. . which comes into the arms of men. as gently we awake from dreams. A man is a god in ruins. . but it He him sees. that the structure colossally. Infancy the perpetual fallen Messiah.88 ' PROSPECTS.
is His relation through the na ture. his if still he have elemental power.PROSPECTS. and woman the follower in his of the moon. the economic use of wind. He perceives that if his law paramount. present. it. Now starts is man the follower of the sun. He . coal. but a half-man. as by manure . and the mariner's needle . his is mind is imbruted to and he a selfish savage. lives in it. Yet sometimes he at slumber. man applies to nature but half his He works on the world with his under standing alone. At force. his will. chemical agriculture the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the sur- . He adores timidly his gg own work. is not inferior but superior to It is Instinct." it con scious power. . and masters in it by a is penny-wisdom and he that works most it. his power over . under standing fire. and wonders himself and his house.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. and whilst his arms are strong his and digestion good. " it is riot if word is sterling yet in nature. and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt is still him and it. water. steam.
This is such a resumption of power.90 geon. but an instantaneous in-stream ing causing power. Hohenlohe. Such examples the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiqui ty of all nations. in the thick darkness. the achievements of a principle. once into Meantime. and the wisdom of children. man are upon nature with as well as with reason . the miracles of enthusiasm. self-healing. if PROSPECTS. and in the abolition of the Slave-trade . These are exam ples of Reason's tre . the history of Jesus Christ. prayer. Magnetism. many obscure and yet contested now arranged under the name of Animal . as in religious and political revolutions. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is happi- . instead of vaulting his throne. eloquence. as those reported of Swedenborg. occasional examples of the action of his entire force. as should a banished king buy his territories at inch by inch. understanding. and the Shakers facts. momentary grasp of the scep the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space. there are not wanting gleams of a better light.
solved by the redemp The ruin or the blank. vespertina cognitio. life. uttermost meaning of the words. that the is knowledge of man an evening knowledge. and thought. spirit. he is satisfies all the demands of the demand. in saying.PROSPECTS. Love as much as perception. The axis of vision not coincident with the axis of things. ly figured 91 by the schoolmen. that at nature. neither can be In the is perfect without the other. thought devotion is devout. Deep calls is unto deep. and so they appear not trans parent but opake. because man is disunited with until himself. But in actual the marriage not celebrated. The problem tion of the soul. and lies broken and in heaps. Indeed. after There are innocent men who worship God all the tradition of their fathers. The reason why the world is. but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of their . lacks unity. but that of God is a morn ing knowledge. He its cannot be a naturalist. of restoring to the world origi is nal and eternal beauty. is is we see when we look in our own eye. mat utina cognitio.
to the higher law of the mind. at fire and see in the light of the same time. to search for objects. without learning something. And there are patient naturalists. a sally of the soul ? unfound infinite No man ever prayed heartily. a .92 faculties. therefore. PROSPECTS. but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. We behold the real higher law. is But when the fact seen under the light of an idea. relations. then will God go forth anew into the creation. To the wise. these fables to it. things seem unaffecting. the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. It will not need. kindle science with the of the holiest affections. when the mind is prepared for study. The What invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common. shall. What ? is a day ? is a year is ? What child? is summer What is woman ? What make a What is sleep? To our blindness. We hide the baldness of the fact and conform as we say. resolute to But when a faith detach every object from it personal thought. ful thinker. Is not prayer also into the a study of truth.
fortune. moulds. and their fear. to pass Then Nature shall is come what my poet said not fixed it. makes is The immobility or bruteness of nature. but phenomenon hath its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. known is to you. social life. were a wise inquiry for the closet. affections. but fluid. point by point. especially at remarkable crises in life. These wonders are brought to our own door. What is is truth? and of the What good? ' . nature brings it in the con It crete to be solved by your hands. with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind. Man and woman. the absence of spirit . So shall we come It to look at the world with new eyes. poverty. it is fluid. Spirit alters. You are also are a man. to compare. by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. fact is true poetry. Learn that none of these that each things superficial.PROSPECTS. sleep. shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect. 8 . pies your Whilst the abstract question occu intellect. our daily history. it is volatile. to pure spirit. labor. 93 and the most beautiful of fables.
its and beyond house.92 it is ^PROSPECTS. though without fine names. your own world. a cobler's trade . swine. All you have and per that Adam had. a world. snakes. Rome. heaven Caesar called his house. a hundred of ploughed land or a scholar's garret. and beyond that its world. pests. and the wind exhale. therefore. Know then. exists for you. that unfold its great proportions. is the world For you the What we are. As when the summer comes from the south. the influx of the ble So fast will disagreea appearances. prisons. A correspondent revolution in things will attend spirit. and can do. the sun shall dry up. obedient. As you conform your will life to the pure idea in your mind. that only can all phenomenon per we see. fect. spiders. The of nature. and . the snow-banks melt. vanish they are temporary and sordor and filths shall be no more seen. mad-houses. for point. enemies. that Caesar could. fast as Build. haps acres call yours. Yet ion line for line is and point as your domin as great theirs. earth . . you . Adam called his house. a heaven. Every spirit builds itself a house.
acts.PROSPECTS. The kingdom of now is man over nature. until evil is around its no more seen. dominion such he shall as dream of God. the advancing its spirit create its orna it ments along beauty it it path. and the song which enchants faces. and heroic way. the face of the earth becomes green before so shall 95 it. which cometh not with obser a vation.' . beyond his enter without more feels wonder than the blind man who is gradu ally restored to perfect sight. visits. and carry with the it . shall draw beautiful and warm hearts. and wise discourse.
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