ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT

Shweta Nair Roll No 29

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Q1. WHAT IS OD AND CHARACTERISTICS OF OD Organisation development deals with the gamut of “ people problems” and work system problems” in organisations : poor morale, low productivity, poor quality, interpersonal conflict, intergroup conflict, unclear or inappropriate goals, inappropriate leadership styles, poor team performance, inappropriate organisation structure, poorly designed tasks, inadequate response to environmental demands, poor customers relations, inadequate alignment among the organisation’s strategy, structure , culture, and processes and the like, In short, where individuals teams, and organisations are not realizing their potential, OD can improve the situation. Organization development (OD) is a planned, organization-wide effort to increase an organization's effectiveness and viability. Warren Bennis, has referred to OD as a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, marketing and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. OD is neither "anything done to better an organization" nor is it "the training function of the organization"; it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. OD can involve interventions in the organization's "processes," using behavioural science knowledge as well as organizational reflection, system improvement, planning, and self-analysis. At the core of OD is the concept of organization, defined as two or more people working together toward one or more shared goal(s). Development in this context is the notion that an organization may become more effective over time at achieving its goals. OD is a long range effort to improve organization's problem solving and renewal processes, particularly through more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture, often with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science. Although behavioral science has provided the basic foundation for the study and practice of organizational development, new and emerging fields of study have made their presence known. Experts in systems thinking, leadership studies, organizational leadership, and organizational learning (to name a few) whose perspective is not steeped in just the behavioral sciences, but a much more multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approach have emerged as OD catalysts. These emergent expert perspectives see the organization as the holistic interplay of a number of systems that impact the process and outputs of the entire organization. More importantly, the term change agent or catalyst is synonymous with the notion of a leader who is engaged in doing leadership, a transformative or effectiveness process as opposed to management, a more incremental or efficiency based change methodology. Organization development is a "contractual relationship between a change agent and a sponsoring organization entered into for the purpose of using applied behavioral science and or other organizational change perspectives in a systems context to improve organizational performance and the capacity of the organization to improve itself Organization development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective change in an organization. Organization development is known as both a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and as a field of

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OD practitioners are facilitators. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. An important goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learing through self – analytical methods. Participation and involvement in problem solving and decision making by all levels of the organization are hall marks of OD. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organisation and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. and theories of motivation. learning. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organisation.scientific study and inquiry. It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology. psychology. Attemption to create “win – win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs 3 . and co – learners with the client system. and personality. collaborators. OD programs are identifiable flows of interrelated events moving over time toward the goals of organisational improvement and individual development CHARACTERISTICS OF OD OD focuses on culture and processes OD encourges collaboration between organisation leaders and members in managing culture and processes.

Development of better methods of conflict resolution. give autonomy. compromise. listen. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. and are capable of making. First assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. encourage risk taking. challenge. 6. Most people want to develop their potential. EARLY STATEMENTS OF OD VALUES AND ASSUMPTIONS Warren Bennis proposed that Od practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic / democratic philosophy. Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Mechanical systems rely on “authority obedience relationships” while organic systems rely on “mutual confidence and trust” Q3. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently 5. and unprincipled power. IMPLICATIONS OF OD VALUES AND ASSUMPTIONS Implications for dealing with individuals : Two basic assumptions about individuals in organisations pervade (pass through) organisational development. set high standards and reward success. 4. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought.Q2. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organisations realize and act on these assumptions. The implication of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. support. a greater contribution to attaining organisational goals than most organisational environment permit. give responsibility. Development of more effective “ team management”. A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate (rightful) 3. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organisations as mechanisms which managers “work on” like pushing buttons For eg. permit failure. Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. remove obstacles and barriers. that is . The second assumption is that most people desire to make. 4 . He listed these normative goals as follows : 1. Improvement in interpersonal competence 2.

5 . they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. By implication. The implication is that people are an organisation’s most important resource. emphasis on top – down directives. Evidence from this assumption comes from numerous examples where “ putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. quality of output. A key assumption in od is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reason for organised effort in society. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organisation and its members. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. it is possible to create organisations that on the one hand are human. IMPLICATIONS FOR DESIGNING AND RUNNING ORGANISATIONS Traditional hierarchical forms of organisation – fairly steep pyramid. and profitability. an optimistic. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. developmental and empowering. Finally. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organisational competency tends to produce that results.Q4. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important.

Thirdly. such as a work group. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. at both the formal and informal levels. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. Implications of these assumptions are several Let team flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and in addition are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. What occurs in work groups. and so on. Also. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. leaders should invest in groups. 6 . a church or club group. Leaders should adopt a team leadership style not a one – on – one leadership. IMPLICATION DEALING WITH GROUP Several assumptions related to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. not individuals. To do this leader should give important work to teams. Second. the family. including peers and boss. most people wish to b e accepted and to interact cooperatively with at least one small reference group. and usually with more than one group\.Q5. one of the most psychologically relevant reference group for most people is the work group. First. Invest the time in group development. invest training time and money to increase group member’s skills.

that first step can be very scary. Talking about the future thus is seldom enough to move them from this 'frozen' state and significant effort may be required to 'unfreeze' them and get them moving. A classic trap in change is for the leaders to spend months on their own personal journeys and then expect everyone else to cross the chasm in a single bound.' People become comfortable in temporary situations where they are not accountable for the hazards of normal work and where talking about change may be substituted for real action. Although transition may be hard for the individual. as Robert Louis Stephenson said. will cause discomfort. the final goal is to 'refreeze'. Leadership is often important and when whole organizations change. often the hardest part is to start. psychologist Kurt Lewin identified three stages of change that are still the basis of many approaches today. This creates a comfortable stasis from which any alternatives. In establishing themselves. counseling or other psychological support will often be very helpful also. Some people come ready for change whilst others take a long time to let go of their comfortable current realities. 7 . after which Pull methods can be used to keep them going. Some form of coaching. putting down roots again and establishing the new place of stability. Unfreeze A basic tendency of people is to seek a context in which they have relative safety and feel a sense of control. is a journey rather than a simple step. the one-eyed person may be king. Transition A key part of Lewin's model is the notion that change. 'It is better to travel hopefully than arrive. they attach their sense of identity to their environment. Transition can also be a pleasant trap and. even at the psychological level. Refreeze At the other end of the journey. Transitioning thus requires time. This usually requires Push methods to get them moving. The term 'change ready' is often used to describe people who are unfrozen and ready to take the next step.KURT LEWIN'S FREEZE PHASES In the early 20th century.Q6. Even when a person is unfrozen and ready for change. This journey may not be that simple and the person may need to go through several stages of misunderstanding before they get to the other side. even those which may offer significant benefit.

There are good and bad things about this.In practice. In modern organizations. but go more in fits and starts with a long tail of bits and pieces. The danger with this that many organizations have found is that people fall into a state of change shock. 8 . this stage is often rather tentative as the next change may well be around the next corner. is more of a state of 'slushiness' where freezing is never really achieved (theoretically making the next unfreezing easier). refreezing may be a slow process as transitions seldom stop cleanly. 'It's not worth it' is a common phrase when asked to improve what they do. where they work at a low level of efficiency and effectiveness as they await the next change. then. What is often encouraged.

that is. JEANNE WATSON. Phases 3.Q7. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase Phase 7 : Achieving a terminal relationship. establishing goals and intentions of action Phase 5 : Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Phase 3 : Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. Phase 2 : Establishing a change relationship. Phase 6 : Generalizing and stabilizing change. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. terminating the client consultant relationship. 4 . This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase.RONALD LIPPITT. Phase 4 : Examining alternative routes and goals. Their seven stages are as follows : Phase 1 : Developing a need for change. 5 correspond to Lewin’s moving phase. 9 . BRUCE WESTLEY They expanded the three stage into a seven – stage model representing the consulting process.

The management skill track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. The team building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit. problem solving sessions. work groups. Scheduling and implementing the tracks involve intervening in five critical leverage points called tracks. 1. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organisation. and willingness to change among members. KILMANN’S FIVE TRACKS ARE 1. Diagnosing the problems 3. The management skill track 3. information sharing. departments. cause the organisation to be successful. and all resources with the new strategic direction. Culture track 2. The strategy structure track 5. The reward system track establishes a performance based rewards system that sustains all improvements 10 . Implementing the tracks 5. Scheduling the tracks 4. when functioning properly. Evaluating the results -----change programs take from one to five years to complete Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. that. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Initiating the program 2. critique of current practices and procedures and so forth Culture track – trust communication.RALPH KILMANN – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE MODEL This model has five sequential stages. jobs.Q8. The reward system track Interventions include training programs. The strategy structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. The team building track 4.

and work climate.There is a feedback loop: the organizational performance can directly effect the external environment. which in turn affects performance. The model distinguishes between organisational climate and organisational culture STEPS IN THE MODEL BY BURKE AND LITWIN. or continuous change. STRENGTHS OF THE BURKE-LITWIN MODEL. or discontinous change. incremental. The hierarchy and causality between the elements. strategy. leadership and culture of the organization. transformational level). . PROCESS Burke and Litwin distinguish between transformational factors (yellow boxes) and transactional factors (green boxes). which directly affects the mission. radical. transactional level) and those influenced by organizational culture (fundamental. These transformational and transactional factors together affect motivation. adaptive. management practices. BENEFITS Overview: the framework integrates many major change factors. External environment is the main factor (although not necessarily the starting point). LIMITATIONS OF THE MODEL BY BURKE AND LITWIN. First order change goes by many different labels : transactional. The model is a bit complex (although still an oversimplification of the reality). Transformational change happens in response to the external environment. evolutionary. some features of organisation change but the fundamental nature of organisation remains the same. Second order change goes by many different labels : transformational. revolutionary. The model distinguishes between the set of variables that influence and are influenced by organizational climate (everyday.Q9.THE BURKE LITWIN MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE Warner Burke and George Litwin This model shows how to create first order and second order change (which author calls transactional and transformational change) In the first order change. the transactional factors are affected: structure. Some organizational changes may be initiated by leadership or by internal factors rather than by the external environment 11 . systems. In turn.

Eg. 2001). action. Action planning by the client group 6. taking action. Evaluation and assessment of the results of the actions by the client group Action Research Yields Both Change And New Knowledge OD is a response to change. In his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems” he described action research as “a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps. rediagnosing and taking new action. Banks want to merge for strategic business advantage. the consultant role of collaborator and co – learner. and challenges (Bennis. and fact-finding about the result of the action” Action research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and organizational change (Reason & Bradbury. each of which is composed of a circle of planning. Data feedback to the client group 4. values and structure of organisations so that they can better adapt to new technologies. markets. Data gathering from the client group 3. Useage of computers in Nationalized banks – training provided to employees. many methodologies have evolved that adjust the balance to focus more on the actions taken or more on the research that results from the reflective understanding of the actions.Q10. As designers and stakeholders. Exploration of the data by the client group 5. with the aim of improving their strategies. then a professor at MIT. practices. the highly participative nature of OD. and the interactive process of diagnosis and action. Action research is essentially a mixture of three ingredients . attitudes.1969). a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. This tension exists between 12 . Eg. researchers work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community improve its work practices (Center for Collaborative Action Research). assisted or guided by professional researchers. first coined the term “action research” in about 1944. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions. Action taking by the client group 7. Kurt Lewin.THE ACTION RESEARCH MODEL OD as a process of diagnosing. then changing the attitude of the employees is very important Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. After six decades of action research development. The action research model as applied in OD consists of : 1 a preliminary diagnosis 2.

“Knowledge is always gained through action and for action.1. to 3rd-person research. aimed primarily at personal change. to question the validity of social knowledge is to question. or societal transformation. to 2nd-. and ‘scholarly’ research aimed primarily at theoretical generalization and/or large scale change. 1st-. Action research challenges traditional social science. From this starting point. our research on our group (family/team). organizational. but how to develop genuinely well-informed action — how to conduct an action science” (Torbert 2001). aimed primarily at improving the group. 2. by moving beyond reflective knowledge created by outside experts sampling variables to an active moment-to-moment theorizing. and inquiring occurring in the midst of emergent structure. those who are more driven by the researcher’s agenda to those more driven by participants. 13 . my research on my own action. not how to develop a reflective science about action. and 3. that is. data collecting. those who are motivated primarily by instrumental goal attainment to those motivated primarily by the aim of personal.

TEAM INTERVENTIONS Collaborative management of work team culture is a fundamental emphasis of organisational development programs. Leaders might cling to the idea of success being based on individuals. Intra-team conflicts should be resolved in the early stages Unresolved conflicts caused due to employees’ mutual bickering can kill office morale and productivity. Practices to facilitate development of Teams in organizations Organization Development facilitators should enable firms to hire team players by putting all job candidates through demanding office-wide scrutiny. A team is a form of group. Organizations are deploying paid ombudsmen to help staffers get along and stifle office conflicts As conflicts often arise in work teams. institution of a peer-to-peer award system. sending greeting cards or gift certificates from websites dedicated to these purposes. but the value of a great group must not be ignored by the leader. including a higher commitment to common goal and a higher degree of interdependency and interaction. usually reporting to a common superior and having some face to face interaction. Organizations adopt several ways to achieve this. work team culture exerts a significant influence on individual behaviour. Accomplishments must be acknowledged and celebrated. A good team relationship requires nurturing from a strong leader.Q 11. The reality is that much of the organisation’s work is accomplished directly or indirectly through teams. The principles of managing teams well are similar to the principles of managing anybody or anything well. such as creating a periodic newsletter and email with a section in it for accolades. timely interventions to diffuse tensions and strengthen members’ interpersonal commitment should be introduced. Performance Incentives should be designed in such a manner that they are group-based and performance appraisals should include team working as a criterion. 14 . A work group is a number of persons. as a group when possible and appropriate. but has some characteristics in greater degree than ordinary groups. Effective interpersonal interaction would take place among team players communicate more effectively. who have some degree of interdependence in carrying out tasks for the purpose of achieving organisational goals.

overcoming the phenomenon of groupthink which occurs out of excessive demand for unanimity.OD process should result in the development of a comprehensive and sustainable in-house leadership training program that would foster teamwork.prevention of polarization (cause of division of opinion) of members into opposing factions. escaping the trap of cliques . perpetrating (responsible) the value of teams. Involve members in clear problem-solving and decision makingprocedures Respect and understand each others' "diversity" Value synergism and interdependence Emphasize and support team goals Reward individual performance that supports the team. understanding the power of group synergy and social-facilitation in raising and socialfacilitation in raising an organization’s productivity are qualities of the members of winning teams. regularly and consistently Practice continuous improvement Creating a team environment 15 . team members should be capable of avoiding reciprocal rudeness and maintenance of unconditional politeness. Communicate effectively Practice effective dialogue instead of debate Identify and resolve groupconflicts Vary levels and intensity of work Provide a balance between work and home. Critique the way they work as a team. The training programs should enable employees to learn how to handle different types of personalities. Team building interventions are typically directed toward four main area : Diagnosis Task Accomplishments Team Relationships Team and organisation processes Characteristics of High Performing Teams’ member Share a common purpose / goals Build relationships for trust and respect Balance task and process Plan thoroughly before acting. Towards the completion phase of team building intervention.

• Conflict relevant acts. or judges. who work privately or with a government agency.Q 12. facilitators. • The consequences of the conflict. What specific objective third-party interventions aim to achieve? Third parties can: • Provide breathing space (i. or even nations (in an international perspective) who enter a conflict to try to help the parties de-escalate or resolve it (Burgess. 16 . 2004). THIRD PARTY PEACE MAKING INTERVENTIONS Third-party intermediaries are people. Formal intermediaries are people who are professional conflict resolvers and who are hired specifically to do that job. interpersonal conflict.e. A major feature of these mechanisms is the ability to diagnose the problem accurately. organizations. Informal intermediaries are people who find themselves in an intermediary role. reduce tension) • Re-establish communication between two parties • Refocus on substantiative issues • Repair stained relationships • Recommend time limits • Salvage sunk costs of stalled negotiations • Increase level of negotiator satisfaction So. The diagnostic model: The model is based on four elements: • The conflict issues. arbitrators. • Precipitating circumstances. WALTON’S METHOD has a lot in common with group interventions but it is directed more towards. They may be professional mediators. when do you need third-party intervention? • Deadlock or impasse between two-parties • Unproductive tension and hostility • Anger and resentment overwhelm negotiators • Mistrust and suspicion are high WALTON’S APPROACH TO THIRD PARTY PEACEMAKING Walton has presented a statement of theory and practice for third-party peace making interventions that is important in its own right and important for its role in organization development. Third party interventions involve confrontation and Walton outlines confrontation mechanisms. but it is not something they usually do as a profession.

Reliable communicative signals. etc. scarce resources. Balance of power. which refers to the willingness on both parties t resolve the conflict. options and criteria. 3. 6. Ury and Patton. 4. The two parties must address the conflict simultaneously. They involve approaches to people. Optimum tension in the situation. Criteria for evaluating the success of the intervention ought to be clear and objective. People have different feelings and perceptions therefore it is important to separate people from feelings. Walton has outlined the ingredients of a productive confrontation( the process of addressing conflict). This means that the stress experienced by both parties ought to be sufficient to motivate them but not too excessive. This statement refers to using language that is understood by the parties involved in the confrontation. GENERAL PRINCIPLES ON NEGOTIATION These principles were outlined by Fischer. Conditions that promote openness should be created. involve feelings between the parties. Emotional issues. Interest. 5. There ought not be any power differentials between the parties involved in a confrontation. Sources: Substantive issues. Synchronization of confrontation efforts. resentment.It is also important to know the source of the conflict. interests. The intervention must allow sufficient time for this process to take place. which is conflict related to practices. 2. 17 . This could be done through setting appropriate norms and creating a structure that encourages openness. The latter require restructuring perceptions and working through negative feelings. Mutual positive motivation. such as anger. The former require bargaining and problem solving. and differing conceptions of roles and responsibilities. Looking at party interests provide a vehicle for resolving conflict rather sticking to inflexible positions that entrench the conflict. Options ought to be generated in order to come up with best option for resolving conflict. 7. fear. they are: 1. The intervention involves working through negative feelings and ambivalent positive feeling. Differentiation and integration of different phases of the intervention must be well paced. hurt.

are known as OD techniques or OD interventions. OD will become a part of organizational operations and OD skills will be acquired by employees at every level in the organization. The sets of structured/planned activities adopted by groups or individuals in an organization as a part of the organization development program. large-scale systems change. The research and practice in the field of OD has led to the emergence of new concepts and interventions. In the future. and process reengineering. Therefore. the importance given by management to training employees in OD skills. Quality of work life (QWL) projects. OD practitioners will be required to resolve the dilemma within themselves regarding the focus of OD interventions. team interventions and intergroup interventions. These include nature of organizational leadership and the values of top management. and structural interventions. The changes in global economy. integration of techniques in the field of OD with those in other fields and the recording and maintenance of the history of OD. there are certain factors that have the potential to make the future of OD uncertain. The most widely used structural interventions are parallel learning structures. FUTURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Organization Development (OD) is a unique organizational improvement strategy. dissemination of OD techniques. OD is a continuously growing field. survey feedback. OD will focus on learning and innovation and its interdisciplinary nature will increase. third party peace making interventions. they will need to develop the required competence. process consultation. The Future of OD • • • • • • • More embedded in the organization’s culture More technologically enabled Shorter OD cycle times More interdisciplinary More diverse client organizations More cross-cultural Greater focus on ecological sustainability 18 . interdisciplinary nature of OD. OD processes will use advanced technology and the duration of OD interventions will be reduced. OD interventions mostly involve external consultants. Though OD seems to have a promising future. While change programs may involve either external or internal consultants. technology and nature of workforce have significant implications for the future of OD. organizational transformation. Some OD interventions include sensitivity training. Total Quality Management (TQM). Management by Objectives (MBO). Prior to solving the value dilemmas of modern organizations. Quality Circles. The factors that add to the strength of OD include soundness of its processes.Q 13. the emphasis of OD interventions on democratic processes and on bringing about a simultaneous change in people as well as technology. self-managed teams. As OD practitioners have to work with diverse client organizations and crosscultural teams. knowledge of management about OD.

they result of a close relationship between a consultant and an executive. only to disappear when managers become interested in the next new thing.Taylor. while it robbed the coal mover of some control over their own work. Unfortunately. They may be well-intentioned efforts by well-trained HR groups who do not have the power or resources to get the results they need. to be fair. Pay-forperformance systems were constantly adjusted so that the faster people moved. Some of these stories are outlined in Brave New Workplace. For decades. non-management side of the story. pushing power upwards instead of downwards. 19 . used every possible means to take away individual decision-making. he would change the size of a coal mover's shovel. either. so that employees think nothing has happened. but still damaging. where a change effort purporting to help everyone turns into a traditional time and motion study or an excuse to eliminate jobs or speed up the line (whether the line is real or figurative). Taylor's system . but a waste of time for everyone else.was abused by many managers and consultants to follow. often. the outcome of an executive with a short attention span and an interest in increasing performance. For example. The false front. the goals and ethics of organizational development are certainly laudable from a human perspective. and for good reason. but taking away the individual worker's ability to make even the simplest decisions did. energy.Q 14. many companies were actively. ETHICAL ISSUES IN OD Many people are suspicious of organizational consultants. train the mover in the best way to shovel coal (based on experimentation). Even in the heyday of job enrichment and empowerment. which takes up a lot of time and. was famous for being able to extract more performance by "scientifically" determining the best work processes. provide frequent rest breaks. Organizational development should be beyond reproach. The less common. without the knowledge of well-meaning people in HR. Frederick Winslow Taylor.perhaps by supervisors or unscrupulous managers. the less they made per unit . These pick up the reputation of being great for consulting firms. The frequent rest breaks somehow didn't often make it into practice. We have yet to hear of a true "OD" intervention being abused. sometimes engaging the enthusiasm of a number of people. false front. where employees' reactions to an initiative are used against them . Based on the idea of working with organizational culture to bring out the best in people. pushing it upwards through the organization. and set up a pay-for-performance system. fought this sort of thing. and to their own detriment. There is a long history of management consultants being used to eliminate or demean jobs.which. a good book for those wishing to hear the less-told. or ineffective processes of a large consulting firm. Many change efforts fall into three categories: • • • The fad or fly-by-night initiative. whose name has been attached to Taylorism. o A subgroup of this is the initiative which really does produce good results but whose outcome is not well publicized. sometimes in the name of scientific management. It's hard to argue with the financial results. did at least make their job easier and less physically damaging . managers.

Professionals As an O.people caring about one another and about working together to achieve results that work for everyone. worth and fundamental rights of individuals. human potential.people achieving the maximum of desired results. quality of life -. recognizing the interests that different people have in the system's results and valuing those interests fairly and justly. wide participation in system affairs.people being free and responsible in choosing how they will live their lives. in ways that coordinate their individual energies and purposes with those of the system-as-a-whole. growth and excellence -. all-win attitudes and cooperation -. aware of the fullness of their potential. living it. systemic view and stakeholder orientation -.people being satisfied with their whole life experience. societies. justice -.D. and. holistic. freedom and responsibility -. at minimum cost. the subsystems of which they are parts. individually and collectively. recognizing their power to bring that potential into being. 8. integrity.though of course components of OD . doing the best they can with it. and other human systems. 4. 6. organizations.understanding human behavior from the perspective of whole system(s) that influence and are influenced by that behavior. 5. dignity. 10. individually and collectively. 3. the ethical consultant or manager can do many things to make the lives of employees and managers better.the various tools used by OD practitioners . 7. efficiency and alignment -.can easily be subverted or ineffective in the wrong hands. 20 . Generally speaking. generally.people living lives whose results are fair and right for everyone.D. health. I acknowledge the fundamental importance of the following values both for myself and my profession: 1. and not just in financial terms. and the larger system of which their system is a part. 2. communities. effectiveness. and democratic decision making. confrontation of issues leading to effective problem solving. growing into it. professional. empowerment.people being healthy. authenticity and openness in relationship. 9. Values of O.

In addition." Organizational Development Basics OD programs usually share several basic characteristics. while OD focuses on developing the structures. Another common trait of OD programs is an emphasis on the value of teamwork and small groups. The point is that the role of the change agent is necessary for organizational development to occur. It encompasses a wide array of theories. It is also worth noting that organizational development. "Once we recognize that organizational development involves substantial changes in how individuals think. and act. The primary drawback associated with outside change agents is that they may lack an in-depth understanding of key issues particular to the company. In fact. In addition. systems. But who should play the role? Existing managers? New managers? Or individuals hired specifically for that purpose? Depending upon the situation." "It is distinguished from human resource development in that HRD focuses on the personal growth of individuals within organizations. but they are all predicated on the notion of improving organizational performance through proactive activities and techniques. processes. outside change agents may have trouble securing the trust and cooperation of key players in the organization. and processes within the organization to improve organizational effectiveness. however. DIAGNOSTIC AND INTERVENTIONS IN OD Organizational development (OD) is an application of behavioral science to organizational change. For instance. although companies sometimes utilize inside managers. they are considered long-term efforts of at least one to three years in most cases. Definitions of OD abound. any of these can be called upon to orchestrate the organizational development process. some companies employ an external-internal team approach. "Organization development is the planned process of developing an organization to be more effective in accomplishing its desired goals. believe. OD differs from traditional organizational change techniques in that it typically embraces a more holistic approach that is aimed at transforming thought and behavior throughout an entity. and activities. The advantage of bringing in outside OD consultants is that they often provide a different perspective and have a less biased view of the organization's problems and needs. OD also recognizes that every organization is unique and that the same solutions cannot necessarily be applied at different companies—this assumption is reflected in an OD focus on research and feedback. whereby managers and employees at different levels of the hierarchy cooperate to solve problems. though concerned with improving workforce performance. OD stresses collaborative management. all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations. The catalyst—whether a group or individual—that facilitates the OD process is known as the "change agent." 21 .Q 15. Generally speaking. should not be mistaken for human resource development. most OD systems use small teams—or even individuals—as a vehicle to implement broad organizational changes. For these reasons." Change agents are often outside consultants with experience managing OD programs. which seeks to combine the advantages of internal and external change agents while minimizing the drawbacks associated with the two approaches. we can appreciate the necessity of someone to play the role of change agent.

Thus. feeding it back for action planning.Implementing Od Programs OD efforts basically entail two groups of activities: "action research" and "interventions. But it also encompasses the intervention component. However. 22 . applying interventions targeted primarily toward operating policies." Action research is a process of systematically collecting data on a specific organization. the results of actions are measured and evaluated and new action plans are devised to effect new changes. and tests. Typically. Action research can be thought of as the diagnostic component of the OD process. In general. The data is often evaluated and interpreted using advanced statistical analysis techniques. A few of the more popular interventions are briefly described below. management structures. Numerous interventions have been developed over the years to address different problems or create various results. In a continuous process. and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data. whereby the change agent uses action plans to intervene in the organization and make changes. including those designed to transform individual and group behavior and attitudes. and personnel policies. drawings. organization development programs will simultaneously integrate more than one of these interventions. worker skills. Entities attempting smaller changes will stop short of those goals. organizations that wish to achieve a high degree of organizational change will employ a full range of interventions. the intervention process can be considered a facet of action research. OD interventions are plans or programs comprised of specific activities designed to effect change in some facet of an organization. they all are geared toward the goal of improving the entire organization through change. collages. Data gathering techniques include everything from surveys and questionnaires to interviews. as discussed below.

Businesses need to be a team. That includes the finances of the job. Let all the employees know what role they play. coaches. All of the readings in this chapter had something to offer. this is a good suggestion. listening to the workers. we have Saps. and when it fails all are responsible. When everyone is aware of what is going on around him or her. one needs these qualities to survive. give them the company information. and commending them on jobs well done. In conclusion. Allow them to make decisions that will make their job easier. I feel taking a bit from each will provide a work place of splendor. they can function better. To solve their own problems managers need to be teachers. Participation doesn't always lead to empowerment. and if we want them to understand business we need to teach it to them. Finances include a variety of things: From hiring a new employee to purchasing a new tool to make the job easier. and a wealth of knowledge to be shared. They have become part of the problem. Like any relationship. PARTICIPATION & EMPOWERMENT Empowerment and Participation It is interesting how the word communication can change life at home and at work.Q 16. they may not give their full effort. The new school is saying that this philosophy is all wrong. The old school tells us not to share finances with anyone else in the company but those directly on top. 23 . It takes a supportive environment in which to nurture people's aspirations and skills for empowerment to ultimately occur. and give them a stake in the company. After all. The Lightening of Empowerment suggests managers help their employees take ownership of their jobs. It is these decisions that can make or break a company. It is important for employees to understand the business in its entirety. This requires trust. why work if one can't reap the benefits of their work? It also suggests that many employees are business illiterate. If one want an employee to do the best he or she can do. Hence. It is those decisions we make which can make difference of saving. and to this they need to share every aspect of the team. all of the readings I have done so far make management more then just problem solvers. people who lack the main ingredients of relationships discussed earlier. If one gives positive reinforcements people tend to respect them. and giving feedback. When the business succeeds all should have a share in the profit. But when people do not understand the role they really play in the company. The novel concept here is to treat people like humans. Give them the empowerment by letting them know they are valued. and feel important. spending and making money. We must let the employees know we trust them to make good positive decisions. Employers hire people everyday with the hopes and trust they will do their job. Open Book Management suggests we share our finances with the other employees no matter what their status.

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