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HARCOURT Instructor in Forge Practice. Leland Stanford Junior University Stanford University. Cal. STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS -f 0390 1 1917 8 .Elementary Forge Practice A Text-Book For Technical and Vocational Schools BY ROBERT H.

Copyright. Harcourt . 1917 by Robert H.

together with a set of forgings showing the actual Its use has clearly demonstrated the following adsteps. To this end a series of exercises has been arranged. thus saving time. Taking of notes during a lecture is partially climated. 1. . and in a shorter per- iod of time. it being realized that many applications of these operations can be learned only thru connection with commercial work. Students are able to proceed with the exercises without instruction. It is not intended that a student be required to make all of them. vantages.. The writer has found that in most cases a student can instruction if make the simpler exercises with very little given a drawing showing the different steps to be taken. remember a demonstrated point. They are arranged with the intention of meeting the demands of all classes of students. Students make the exercises better much 3. Instruction should be given on the first few exercises and on those parts of the more difficult ones which may be hard for the student to understand. The text is a ready reference in case he does not 2. so that a student has the fullest opportunity for watching the entire demonstration. but there are certain ones which must be mastered before he can make some of those that follow. The subject matter contained herein has been used at Leland Stanford Junior University for a number of years as a syllabus.TT it 5 e PREFACE The purpose practice in this book is to give the student of forge an understanding of fundamental operations em- ployed.

Lesley of Leland Stanford Junior University for his assistance in reading the to Mr.work on the manuscript . P. Jr. May 1917. STANFORD UNIVERSITY. R. for his valuable suggestions and assistance in the preparation of the drawings. thanks are due to Professor E. P. HARCOURT.4. Rifenberick for his.. H. . The initiative of the student as well as his ability to is work from drawings Many developed. H. L. W. preliminary syllabus: and to Mr. Miller.

. Cone.. . raphy Forge. Fullers. DRAWING-OUT. Making Coke. Angle Weld. Swage Block Vise. . Coal. Banking Fire. AND TWISTING Fire .or Belt-Hammer. Cross. HAMMER WORK Steam-Hammer Flat-Jawed .73 Butt Weld. Tool Rack Hammer.. . High-Speed Steel Emery-wheel Test Weight of Iron Shrinkage Bibliog. Forged Hook. Fitting Tongs to the . .Punch. Clinker. .. Indications of a Welding Heat. Shears. Common Hinge. of 26 Oxidizing Iron To Prevent the Formation Scale . Punching. Sledges. Bob. Twisting. or Truing-up. Chapter IV. or PAGE 9 Materials. High-Carbon Steel. Work Measuring Chisels. BENDING. Swedish Iron. Lap-weld. SPECIAL WELDS Split . Cutting Hot Stock. Grinding Chisels. Band Ring. Hammer. Scarfing. . Forged Wrench. Link Tongs. Split Weld. Plate. Flat Ring. Cleaning Fire at End of Period Anvil.Bit Tongs. Tongs. CutDrawing-out. Squaring. and Marking Tools SetFlatter. Burned . Backing Hammer. Weld Chapter V. Hollow. Method of Using Flux. ' . Necking Tool. Heavy Stock. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT .. Machinery Steel. Cupping Tool. Fire Tools. Upsetting. Finishing Allow- ance. T-Weld. Wrought . . Heading Tool. Coke.Peen Hammer. . Surface . Bolts.. Swages. Work ting Cold Stock. Common Eye-Bolt.. Chapter III.. Chapter II. for V-Weld. Building Fire. Jump Weld.CONTENTS Chapter I. COMMON WELDS 42 Use of Fluxes in Welding. Iron. Welding Heat. Tongs. Norway .82 Trip. . Welded Rings.

Box Annealing. Geologist's Pick. Tempering Shear Blades. V-Fullers. the Fire. Forging Heat. HARDENING. Hardening at a Rising ing Heat. Cutting Stock. Threading Tool. Round-Nose Cape Chisel. Cutting-off Tool. Dolly. Guide for Hard- Tempering only the Cutting-edges of Tools. Thin Flat Warping in Cooling. Treatment of High-Speed Articles. Tempering Springs. Water Annealing . Forging Heat of Tool Steel.6 Chapter VI. Heating Steel for Hardening. Tempering Carving Knives. 96 Annealing. Refining Heat. Cold Eye-Chisel. ' Chapter VII. 113 Selection of Steel for Tools. Drift-Pin. Hot Eye-Chisel. Wing Swage. Small Cross-Peen Hammer. Heating for Hardening. Hardening Tempering Taps. Recalescence. Annealing. ening. Boring Tool. Center-Punch. Methods of Cooling. AND TEMPERING STEEL . Ball-Peen Hammer. Cape Chisel. Hardening. . Cross-Peen Hammer. Lathe Tools. Ma- chine Rock-Drill. Restoring the Grain. Eye-Punch. Importance of Uniform Heating. Side Tool. Hardenand Tempering Tools thruout. CONTENTS ANNEALING. Steel. Hand Rock-Drill. TOOL FORGING . Pack-Hardening. Round-Nose Tool. Cold Chisel. Cooling. Tempering. CaseHardening.

33- Round-Nose Tool Cutting-Off Tool XXIX XXIX 34. 42. Beam Strap IV Fagot Twisted Gate-Hook Practice 6. XXXIX Machine Rock-Drill XXXX . 5. 22. Welds . Round Lap. XXIV -XXV XXVI XXVII XXVII Chisel Cape Chisel Round-Nose Cape Center-Punch XXVIII XXVIII 30. 16. Hand Rock-Drill . V VI . XXIII 24. 7. Band Ring Upset-Head Bolt Welded-Head Forged Bolt Bolt 20. 26.Weld Flat Lap-Weld Links of Chain VII VIII IX 10. 13. 18. 12. 11. . 3940. 28. 37. Common Eye-Bolt Common Hinge . 9.EXERCISES PLATE 1. S-Hook Staples II 3.. 31. 19. T-Weld Angle Weld Forged Open-End Wrench Flat-Jawed Tongs Link Tongs Hollow-Bit Tongs Cold Chisel XIX XX XXI XXII - 23. Hot Eye-Chisel Cold Eye-Chisel Geologist's Pick 41. 38. 21. 17.. 8. Ring Round Lap-Weld Ring Link Scarf Forged Hook X XI XII . Threading Tool Side Tool Boring Tool Cross-Peen Hammer Small Cross-Peen Hammer Ball-Peen XXX XXXI XXXII XXXIII XXXIV Hammer XXXV XXXVI XXXVII XXXVIII . 25.. Ill 4. 15. 27. XIII XIV Flat Ring XV XVI XVII XVIII XVIII ' . 32. 35- 36. Drawing-out and Bending Ring I 2. 29. 14.

.

is made in a charcoal furnace. Wrought Iron is made by the Puddling Process. steel. but they differ in the amount of carbon and other elements that are mixed or alloyed with the iron. Norway iron. for forgings that are exposed to the weather. as imported from Norway and Sweden. Their main constituent is iron. The best grades of crucible steel produced in this country are also made from this kind of iron.04%. tool steel. since it rusts very slowly. as the ore from which it is made is pracIt is used mainly tically free from phosphorus and sulphur. or Swedish Iron. It is the purest soft iron on the market. These seams cause high-speed the stringy. much when cold it will burst thru the slag seams. machine steel. as obtained from iron ore. but they also weaken the iron. in common wrought iron is very Norway. . It may not If hammered too be hardened to any appreciable extent. and make it crack. The percentage of carbon low. and steel. for intricate work involving much bending and.Elementary Forge Practice CHAPTER I. and differs from other kinds of iron mainly because of the slag seams introduced during its manufacture. being about . wrought The Materials most commonly used in forging are: iron. They are helpful when welding. fibrous appearance of the iron when it is broken or cut cold. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT. Wrought iron is much easier to weld than machine it may be heated without injury because the range of temperature thru which is much greater. since the slag acts as a flux liable to .

10

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

Machinery Steel, also known as machine steel, low-carbon and mild steel, contains from about .05% to .5% of carbon, and is made by the Open-Hearth or Bessemer Process.
steel,

It may be easily welded with the aid of a flux, and can be welded without one. Being stronger, more homogeneous and cheaper than wrought iron, it is well adapted for forgings. It cannot be hardened to any very great extent. A piece of good

grade ^-inch thick

may

be bent cold 180

flat

on

itself

with-

out rupture. In general it is found that increasing the carbon content will increase the strength, elasticity and hardening quality, and decrease the ductility and weldability.

This grade of

steel differs

from wrought iron

in that

it

It does not become soft and plastic at the welding heat. burns or wastes away at a lower temperature than wrought

iron,

making

it

more

difficult

to weld.

The

crystalline,

or

appearance of the fracture, the absence of slag seams, and the emery-wheel test described later, are used to
granular,
it from wrought iron. High-Carbon Steel, or tool steel, the best grade's of which are made by the Crucible Process, contains carbon in amounts varying from .5% to 1.6%. Steel with a higher carbon con-

distinguish

is seldom used. High-carbon steel is generally distinguished from low-carbon steel by the fact that it becomes very hard when heated to a red heat and suddenly cooled. It snaps off when cut cold, on account of the hardness of the

tent

ordinary commercial stock.

As with

mild, or low-carbon steel,

the hardening quality varies directly with the carbon content. There are, however, some brands of steel containing less than .5% carbon which harden considerably when heated and cooled

quickly
classes.

;

so there

is

High-carbon

no well marked division between the two steel is most difficult to weld.
is

High-Speed Steel
shop on account of a cutting edge at a
its

of special importance in the machine

red hardness, or property of retaining Tools made from ordivisible red heat.

IRON AND STEEL

11

nary high-carbon steel, if heated by friction or otherwise to a temperature of about 400 F., begin to lose their hardness while high-speed steel tools may be heated up to about 1200
;

F. before they break

down from

softening.

This property

13%

to

19%

due to the presence in the steel of from tungsten. Other elements are present in approxis
:

imately the percentages given
Tungsten
16.87

Chromium
2.99

Carbon
0.65

Manganese
0.31

Vanadium
0.85

Silicon
0.27

The Emery- Wheel

Test.

The most

satisfactory

shop

method for distinguishing between the different kinds and grades of iron and steel consists in observing the sparks
given off when a bar of the material is brought in contact with a rapidly revolving emery-wheel. In general it is found that the more carbon there is present the brighter the sparks
will be.

Sparks obtained from wrought iron are light-straw color, Machine steel gives off sparks and follow straight lines. that are much the same in character except that they explode, or fork, to some extent. White sparks which explode much more frequently are obtained from high-carbon steel. Those
given off by high-speed steel follow straight lines, similarly to sparks from wrought iron, but give off much less light, and

end abruptly

in

Weight

of

a chrome-yellow, pear-shaped flame. Iron. It is often necessary to know

the

weight of material used in an iron or steel forging. This can be computed if it is remembered that a cubic foot of steel

weighs about 490 pounds, or that a i-inch square bar I foot long weighs 3.40 pounds and a i-inch round bar of the same
length weighs 2.67 pounds. Shrinkage. When iron or steel
direct proportion to the
to
is heated, it expands in change in temperature. A bar heated a good forging heat will have each of its linear dimensions

increased about
tract about the

^

inch to the foot.

Upon

cooling

it

will con-

same amount.

12

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

Bibliography. For a complete description of the various processes employed in making iron and steel, the student is referred to the following books
:

Stoughton:
Co.,

The Metallurgy
York.

of Iron

and

Steel.

Hill Publishing

New
:

Metcalf

Steel.

John Wiley of the

&

Sons,

New

York.

commonest types of forge used in Forge. universities and technical schools is shown in Fig. i. It consists of a cast-iron hearth (\A) mounted on a suitable base (H) and having at its center a fire-pot (B). This fire-pot is made in various shapes and sizes, and is sometimes lined with fire-brick. At the bottom of the fire-pot is an opening,

One

Fig.
; ;

i.

THE

FORGE.
; ;

C, tuyere lever D, blast-gate lever E, A, hearth B, fire-pot adjustable hood; F, adjusting lever; G, exhaust pipe; H, base; 7,

coal-box

;

/,

coke-box.

It can in general be distinguished by the crumbling of the lumps when hit with a hammer . or steam-coal. dirty fire. thru 13 forced.. dipper. removing enough of the . The position of coke respectively. or brittle when Building Fire. fire rake. make a hole about 8 inches in diameter at the center of the hearth. Ordinary soft coal. i. as these elements are absorbed by the iron. Some are arranged so that the coal and ashes which do drop thru can be shaken out by means of the tuyere lever (C). The best "blacksmith's" coal for use in a forge is a high grade of soft or bituminous coal. brittle while hot cold. It Coal containing either sulphur or phosphorus avoided.FIRE called the tuyere. is to be makes the iron phorus makes it hot-short. a separate tank for water being advisable. on the building and care of the fire. When dampened and put on a should cake up. . but the most reliable test is to note its characterisfire it tics in actual use. Sulphur and phos- cold-short. the smoke and gases from the and down hood can be changed by means of the adjusting lever (F). to a large extent. e. When a fresh fire is to be built. The tools required at each forge in order to fire take proper care of the are : coal shovel. which the blast is Tuyeres are constructed so as to admit the air readily and at the same time prevent coal from dropping thru them. The success of welding and forging de- pends. In commercial shops the forges are generally circular and made of light sheet-steel. forming good coke and leaving very little clinker when burned. The air blast is controlled by means of The forge shown fire is the blast-gate lever (D). makes a very much smoke and leaving a great deal of very disagreeable to work with. Fire Tools. The boxes (/) and (/) should be used for holding coal and the () being drawn under the adjustable hood thru the exhaust pipe (G). Coal. and poker. of the down-draft type. on account both of the smoke and of the hot gases given off. giving off is clinker.

which is formed by the caking of the coal after the fire has burned for some time. The center of the burns out somewhat refilled fire. Care must be taken in dampening the coal not to get it too wet. Clinker. It is found that packing also helps materially in the production of coke. by removing the clinker with a poker. it can be should but top of the It not be disturbed with a poker until it has caked well.14 dirt MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT and ashes to expose the tuyere. and the space around it banked. Do not continually poke or disturb the fire. If it is Making Coke. and has to be constantly necessary to have a small the coke should be broken into small pieces. keep the center of small pieces of coke. Coke. with moist coal. Coke should be period. This is done to prevent the air-blast from coming thru at the outer edges of the fire. Dirt and dross in the coal form clinker directly above the tuyere. forming a cone. as they . fire. it should be leveled off and packed down hard with the back of a shovel. with extra coke. Care must be taken to prevent lead and babbitt metal from getting into the oxidize and prevent welding. or filled in. like a crater. when welding. or the water will seep out and run over the tuyere. When enough coal has been placed around the fire. When extra coke is required. or fire saved when cleaning out the fire or hearth at the end of a when building a second fire. This is a detriment when welding. For this reason the fire should be cleaned out every half-hour. since it full prevents air from coming thru the tuyere and causes a deposit of dirt on the pieces in the fire. More coke should then be added. Caution. After lighting the shavings. Place some shavings in and on top of them some small lumps of coke. made by placing some large lumps of wet coal on fire and allowing it to burn slowly for some time. spreading it over too large an area. turn the blast on a little and wait until this hole the coke has become red hot. thereby spoiling the fire.

The moistened with water. By placing a piece of wood on end in the and covering it with coke and some time without air-blast. G. is then clean and ready for future use. because . pritchel hole. When the fire is no in the longer needed. The horn (B) must be tough in order to withstand heavy Anvil. 2. 2. The type of anvil generally used is shown in Fig. A. clinker The forge and ashes are dug out and thrown into the ash-box. pounding and The base of is usually of the same material as the body. Cleaning Fire at coal. THE ANVIL. rounded edges. C. F. the coal should be removed and placed coal-tank. the horn (C) has a flat top which is used in preference to the face when cutting stock with a chisel. harclie hole.FIRE 15 Banking fire Fire. but for light work it is sometimes of cast iron. B. the fire will last for End of Period. E. The body (A) is usually made of wrought iron or a special grade of steel. The coke should then be loosened with the poker. horn. body. base of horn. face. D. Fig. and placed in the coke-tank.

an anvil should weigh about 150 pounds. A very good type is 'shown in Fig. TOOL-RACK. It consists which acts as a table" for pieces of stock. they should be kept on some sort of a tool-rack. of an iron top cast on one end of a piece of large The other end of the pipe is imbedded in the floor. It is carefully hardened and has a smoothly ground top. to facilitate the bending of stock. it The face (D} is a tool-steel plate ^-inch thick which is welded to the body. The is used for holding the shanks of square hardie hole while the pritchel hole (F) is very convenient in making it () tools. If intended for small work. the It /\. supplies. inch lower than the inner one. To have the blacksmith tools within easy reach while working at the forge. small bolts. to extend thru. like the exercises in this book. etc.16 is MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT not so hard and will not dull the chisel. or shanks. Slots for holding tools are provided on each side of the top. outer edge is therefore necessary to provide a base. Fig. 3. (G) are rounded for about 4 inches near the horn. This is generally of cast iron. as shown in Fig. as The two side edges of the face allows their stems. . but may consist of a large wooden block. 3. Tool-Rack. The anvil should be placed with the horn at the left of the worker and the face 26 inches above the being about l floor. 2. pipe.

Sledges. in order not to mark its hot material. is for ordinary work ing. weighing about 3^ pounds. for scarfing. is needed for each two forges. 6 shows a sledge of the straight-peen type. It is also useful when making a pair of tongs. .HAMMER 17 easily These racks are sometimes made of wood. Fig. 5- HAND-HAMMER. called Fig. The edge of the face nearest the worker the heel. or starting. Fig. . and edges rounded off. the heel of a scarf. used by a helper when light quick blows are necessary. and. it is rather hard to clean under them. The face. and the front edge the toe. Fig. Backing and also when backing up. but it weighs about 5 pounds. 5. or peen. since they usually have four legs and a bottom shelf. but such are burned by hot materials. etc. 4. A Cross-peen Hammer. The Hammer used most commonly by Llacksmiths is a 1 l ball-peen hammer weighing from I /? to 2 /z pounds and similar to the one shown in Fig. or large end. CROSS-PEEN A It is common Hammer generally has the same shape as the ball-peen hammer. This hammer is particularly valuable in welding steel on account of the heavier blows which can be delivered. 4. and in almost any work where one student needs the help of another. to keep them from is breaking. rivetface should be convex. The and the ball end.

The Hollow-Bit Tongs handling round. The weight of Tongs vary are in the stock handled. hollow-bits. E Fig. chisel. B. C. are employed . 7. at A in Fig. E. link. are used for in stock. flat shown (B. D. 7. square. form. 7) material. or flat Fig. The holding Flat. depending on the size and shape of Those frequently used in the forge shop shown in Fig. flat-jawed.Jawed Tongs. pick-ups.18 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT which is ordinarily used in a blacksmith shop. such sledges varies from 8 to 13 pounds. 7- A.

TONGS 19 Link Tongs are shown at C. and are very convenient for holding links or rings. 8. there . Fig. while the jaws are bent so as to avoid contact with the burred head of the to the chisel. shown at E in Fig. Tongs should always be The A ous drawback when forging or welding. which is a seriFig. 7) are intended mainly for picking up large and small pieces of different sizes of stock. In order to prevent the handles. If the handles are too far apart. because the handles will come together under the pressure of the hand. are used in dressing an eye-chisel. Fitting fitted Tongs Work. the stock placed between them. are intended to hold. To fit tongs to a piece of work the jaws should be heated red hot. Pick-up Tongs D. Fig. 7. or reins. a piece of iron should be placed between them directly behind the jaws. 8. give blows a short distance back of the eye. if them several Never leave tongs on a piece of work while it is in the fire is danger of their becoming hot. should be changed so that the jaws touch the stock for their entire length. to the poorly fitted Fig. as in B. affords a poor grip. or eye-chisel tongs. from coming too close together while doing this. Their form at work which they tongs shown at A. The projections are made to fit into the eye. Fig. When removed from the fire they will not hold the work firmly. 7. and the jaws hammered down tight around it. 8. ( The Eye Tongs.

as shown in Fig. required to Rule Center Punches Fig. is used for flattening and smoothing . In forging it is often work to a given size. square need only be a small one.20 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT Measuring and Marking Tools. 1 and should have a hand-hold. The try- For marking stock a center-punch is generally employed. since the is mark made by a chisel will start a crack if the stock bent. The Flatter. 10. The rule should be of brass in order to withstand the heat. THE SET-HAMMER. rule. Fig. 9. The 2-inch scale with enough extra room for a calipers are generally made of steel. n. MEASURING AND MARKING TOOLS. a pair of calipers. A chisel should be used only when the stock is to be cut off at the point marked. 10. and are used mainly for work done under the trip-hammer. THE FLATTER. 9. Fig. and a try-square. Fig. or to duplicate another For this reason it is necessary to have on hand a forging.

bardie. It the hardie hole in the anvil. Grinding Chisels. . 14. in Fig. 15. shown in Fig. Hardies made to cut cold stock. 13. Fig. as the heat will soften its edge. and the other for cutting hot material. 12. The Set-Hammer. If the edge is too thin it will bend. as shown at A in Fig. The cold chisel. The sides of a cold chisel should be ground to an angle of about 60 degrees with each other. 12. illustrated is it It also should be smooth and flat. 13. is made thicker in the blade than the hot chisel. hot chisel should never be used on cold material. Its face is 21 generally about 3 inches square. These are called cold and hot chisels. The sizes vary. from the round-edge set-hammer.CHISELS straight surfaces. COLD CHISEL. . Two kinds of chisels are commonly used in the forge shop: one for cutting cold material. is fit has a square shank to are also used for cutting hot material. The making it unfit for cutting cold stock. Fig. HARDIE. but for small work the face should be about 1*4 inches square. is used in finishing corners and parts that cannot be reached with the flatter. Fig. HOT CHISEL. Fig. as its edge will be turned and ruined nor should the cold chisel be used for cutting hot stock. and should be smooth with rounded edges. The one commonly called the square-edge set-hammer. to distinguish Chisels. The Fig. shown n. which has a rather thin edge. This forms a good cutting edge. 14.

shown in Fig.22 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT The slightly cutting edge should also be ground convex. Fig. B Fig. NECKING TOOL. Necking Tool. in the same manner as the flatter. a necking but not absolutely necessary. In certain cases. such as welding an eye- finishing the inside of the eye df a forged hook. 15- The Bob-Punch. 18 very convenient. It is hit with a heavy hammer. 17. Fig. which are . shows top and bottom fullers. 16. Examples of its application are given in several of the special welds described in Chapter IV. bolt. is used in place of the peen of a hammer for hollowing out stock. its of the bob-punch If a hand hammer were used in place hardened face might break when struck. 17) is and making a T-weld. were ground as cold Hot chisels. chisels are ground somewhat thinner than and with the sides at an angle of about 30. as shown exaggerated at B. tool (Fig. Fullers. as they would at C. This prevents the corners from if it breaking off too readily.

A They top and a bottom swage are shown at A and B are used for a wide variety of purposes. is made with a handle. C. depending upon the radius of the circular edge. like the hardie. top fuller. ing to the diameter of the round' stock for which they are Thus a 2-inch swage is used on 2-inch round stock. The sizes vary accord- Fig. They are made in a number of sizes. . THE SWAGE BLOCK. 18. but mainly for finishing round material. made. in Fig. Fig. On a 24-inch fuller this radius would be ^ The fuller. while the bottom B. Swages.FULLERS AND SWAGES 23 used in forming grooves and filleted corners. 19- TOP AND BOTTOM FULLER. has a square shank. TOP AND BOTTOM SWAGE. A. inch. Fig. 20. 19.

is Fig. as they can be made to take the place of numerous swages and special tools. THE VISE. The type most commonly used in a vise should always be atforge shop is shown in Fig. rings.24 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT A usually Swage Block is shown in Fig. or truing. A Fig. made of cast iron. some kind desirable. THE CONE. in various shapes and sizes. If the ring is made in the form of a band from flat stock. it must be turned over and both edges ex- panded equally to make it straight. 21. 22. cast-iron base is A generally provided. Cones are made of cast iron in various sizes. 22. They are of special importance in small shops. and. done by heating the rings thruout and forcing them down on the cone. Vise. as shown. used for rounding. to their These blocks are wide range of utility. The Cone. . A convenient one is from 2^ to 3^ feet high. on which they can be placed in either a flat or an upright position. owing 20. with the diameter of the small end 2 inches and of the large end about 14 inches. tached to a firm and substantial bench. of a vise is For work requiring twisting and filing. 21. This is Fig.

as tested on it. spaced about 3 inches between centers. THE SURFACE PLATE. and work similar in character. shears are generally used in preference to a hardie or chisel. square holes in about 2 by 3 feet. 23 . These shown in plates are usually mounted on Fig. suitable for technical schools made of and is 2 to 4 inches. but wooden blocks may be used. pipes.or poweroperated. The face of the plate should be planed. They are either hand. When material is cut with the shears.SURFACE PLATE 25 is The Surface Plate cast iron. 23. Fig. Shears. . These are used for holding pins and formers when bending rings. varying in thickness from It should have a number of i^-inch round or it. being usually designated by the maximum size of stock which can be cut. its ends are rough and have to be squared up on the anvil. and vary in size. on account of the time which may be saved. One that should meet most of the demands of a technical school will cut 24 x 4 inch stock. For cutting off cold stock. so that work can be straightened or cast iron bases.

the part of its surface exposed to the air as small as If the air-blast comes in direct contact with the material. force too much air done the hot coals will be blown out of the center of the fire. much blast. in a molten condition it is also impossible to make a sound weld. scale will form and the material will be cooled to a certain extent. The temperature at which is known as the welding heat Soft steel has the required welding characteristics at a . i. makes it Unless the scale is look as though it had been overheated. Oxidizing Fire. in order to make possible. forming scale. rate of this scale formation increases with the rise in temperature of the material. or oxide of iron. 3.CHAPTER II.. and sticky condition occurs of wrought iron. if not removed while hot. To Prevent 1. since it pits the material and. As the coal in a forge burns it consumes oxygen from the air-blast. the Formation of Scale the following precau: tions should be taken Have a good bed of hot coals over the tuyere iron for the air to pass thru. 2. until at a certain temperature they will stick toplaced in contact. Do not put on too fire. e. This will at- The tack the heated iron or steel. Welding Heat. AND TWISTING. BENDING. If too much air is blown thru the fire there will be an excess of oxygen. Scale should be avoided even on an ordinary forging. leaving no bed of hot coals for conthru the If this is suming the oxygen. Keep the material well covered with coke. gether soft if When pieces of wrought iron are heated this they soften. DRAWING-OUT.

It does. This prevents a waste of and keeps the Drawing-Out machine steel this piece of stock while reducing the process of increasing the length of a its cross-sectional area. since the cold inside together with the surroundbe ing air will quickly cool the outside surface. 24. When the stock is at the proper heat. Indications of a Welding Heat. due to the sidewise spreading of the stock. This makes the piece increase in length without widening it very much. If a bar of wrought iron. this drawing-out can be accomplished by hammering it over the large part of the horn with a hand hammer. With can be done at a yellow heat. Burned Iron. or mild steel. the heating must be done slowly. If too To much to air-blast is used the outside of the material will burn as just described but the center will remain hard. is fire. not. If it were hammered on the face of the anvil a large amount of energy would be wasted.WELDING HEAT lower temperature than wrought iron. become very soft at this heat. care should be taken to it remove the bar when off has reached the welding heat. The air-blast should always is be turned when the material coal removed from the fire small. allowed to remain in the fire with the blast on after the weld- ing heat has been reached. reach this condition and have the material of uniform temperature thruout. however. have melted off and are being blown out. it will burn. Just before the iron reaches the welding heat. Since the burned portion of an iron bar is absolutely useless. explosive sparks will fly out of the These sparks are small particles of the material which fire. An attempt weld two pieces heated in this manner will generally result in a failure. The material which is burned off runs over the tuyere and forms lumps similar to the clinker. but wrought iron requires a welding heat. as shown in Fig. .

it DRAWING-OUT. tend to pull away from As Fig. Work. Even when a round bar is to be reduced in diameter Fig. When drawing cise 3. Fig. or Truing-up. 25. first Squaring. AND TWISTING In drawing-out stock of any shape it should mered square to prevent it from bursting. to flatten out line. When drawing-out a . The reason for this procedure can be explained with the aid of Fig. piece is revolved and hammered Structurally weak. 24. which shows the cross-section of a piece of round stock that is being slowly revolved while hammering. A and A. 26. should be first hammered and finally round. 25. and as- This will make the center. it stock down to a conical point.28 DRAWING-OUT. BENDING. as shown in Fig. first be hamThis also makes the grain finer and improves the physical properties of the material. as in Exer- must off. the direction of this pull will change. The blows on top will cause the stock sume the shape indicated by the dotted the sides. square. the. so that the tendency will be for the whole outside surface to separate from the center. rounded be hammered square and the corners then If this is not done the point will split or burst. 26. The result is the formaThese make the iron tion of cracks. then octagonal.

cool it with water otherwise it will be tough and will By . 27. thru. in fact. as shown in Fig. not break off. taking care to have them always at right angles to the axis of the bar. one-fourth of the way hitting the projecting end a sharp blow with a sledge it should break off easily. In cutting cold bars of soft steel or wrought iron with a cold chisel the method employed should be as follows : Around the bar make a series of cuts about thru. but if it is done from either one or both of the wider . and place the partly cut section at the outer edge of the anvil. To obtain a square cut at one end of a bar the hot chisel should be tilted away from that end until one side of the cutting edge is perpendicular to the bar. 27. Tilt the bar slightly. Fig. The bar may be trued-up by laying it across tne anvil and striking it as indicated by the arrow so as to force the extra metal back into the body of the bar. If the stock becomes slightly warm when being cut in this way. almost invariably assume this shape if the bar is not heated uniformly. Hot stock flat is usually cut is the cutting from either two or four sides. Cutting Cold Stock. since it is Hot stock must be cut all the way generally too soft to be very easily broken off by a sledge blow. Cutting Hot Stock. It will.CUTTING STOCK round bar to a square 29 its one there is danger of becoming dia- mond-shaped in cross-section.

as from flying if this up and hitting the worker were not done. hardkjpis the siock has been nearly cut thru. This keeps the face A When ESSSS3 of the hammer from coming in contact with and spoiling the it cutting edge of the hardie. AND TWISTING In cutting round stock the bar should be revolved toward the worker. For this reason it is necessary to dip it in water frequently to cool it off. the last blow or two should fall on the far side of the hardie. used in much the same manner as a chisel.30 sides. might Twisting. A a piece has been nearly cut thru. DRAWING-OUT. never allow cutting edge to come in contact with the hard face of the anvil. In using a chisel. BENDING. It also prevents the projecting end in the face. The cutting edge of a hot chisel will become soft and bend allowed to get too hot. When twisting stock. it should be until the cut is just outside the edge of the copper plate is sometimes used for protecting the edge when cutting thin stock. The chisel may then cut thru the stock and sink into the copper without having its chisel edge spoiled. and especially a hot chisel. It should also be reif moved from its the cut between blows. When moved forward anvil. it should first be marked .

These punches should be made of tool steel. 31 and end. . In order to obtain a uniform twist the stock must be uni- two formly heated. 29 is used on thin stock. as shown at C. as shown in Fig. and flat material respectively. The bar can then be no vise convenient. At a depth of about % mcn the punch is removed and some eye-punch at green or dry coal placed in the hole to prevent sticking. the hot stock is laid flat on the anvil and the punch driven into it with a sledge-hammer. Punching. octagonal. Fig. center-punch at the points where the twist is to begin The section to be twisted is heated to an even yellow The piece is then quickly placed in a vise with one center-punch mark in line with one edge of the jaws. 28 illustrate the effects produced by twisting square. since they bend too easily if made of machine steel. A. while the B is used for punching holes in heavier stock. B.PUNCH \vith a I N't. A pair of flat-jawed tongs -or a wrench is used to grasp the piece at the other mark in the same manner. twisted as much as required. B and C of Fig. Plate V. 29. Two kinds of punches are commonly em- ployed for punching holes in hot material. a black mark will appear on the bottom side. heat. When the punch has been driven three-fourths of the way thru. If there is pairs of tongs may be used. The straight handpunch shown at A in Fig. When punching thick material.

ried out. The material is rounded by hammering it on at I. STEP ONE. as shown at 4. shown This the corners. as done by heating about 3 or 4 inches of it at one end to a yellow heat. if this A clean-cut hole will be obtained procedure is car- the punching is done from one side only. STEP Two. in order to allow the that side. is (Plate I.and bot- tom-swages! STEP THREE. as shown at E. and bent over the large part of the anvil. The other end is bent in the same manner. BENDING. and reducing it with a handhammer on the large part of the horn. The is then reversed and the punching continued from During the entire operation the punch should be cooled occasionally. making it first octagonal and then round. It is smoothed up either by placing it in a ]/?. This may be done on the hardie in the to manner already described. The hammer blows should fall on the end outside of the horn. as shown in Fig.) This exercise give. but if Exercise i. a burr will be raised on the lower side. -inch bottom-swage and revolving it while hammering or by using top. and not on top of the horn. to prevent the cut portion to avoid spoiling its edge and flying up into the face of the worker. AND TWISTING stock .- A piece njHj inches long is cut off of the drawn-out portion. This will bend the material without marring it. plug to drop thru. About a third of the stock is heated. .n for the purpose of familiarizing the student with the heating of machine steel or wrought iron and the use of the hand-hammer. Care should be taken when finishing the punching to have the punch directly above the hardie or the pritchel hole. 24. Be sure from have the last blows fall on the far side of the hardie. The round is stock is drawn out square.32 DRAWING-OUT. Drawing-out and Bending Ring. as at D. to keep it from softening and bending. STEP FOUR.

round machine steel -Hi" .Exercise i. Plate I. DRAWING-OUT & BENDING RING Stock .

STEP FOUR. link-tongs. The ring is finally made The ends must be cut off circular on the horn of the anvil. S-Hook. Complete the bending by making the hook The finished hook should be free from appear as shown. The bending is then continued by hammering as indicated. Continue the bending shaped STEP THREE.) After squaring up the ends of the stock. rough marks caused by improper bending. A. smoky fire until black hot and Exercise 2. (Plate II. The ends are driven together and the rounding finished. . as shown. but in the opposite direction. STEP FIVE. fall STEP ONE. Heat the other end and bend it over the horn in the same manner as before. AND TWISTING The piece is heated and held with a pair of shown in Fig. heat about half of the piece and bend one end over the horn. Be sure to have the blows the previous "exercise.34 DRAWING-OUT. BENDING. as with a hot chisel or hardie along the dotted lines shown. When the ring is completed. it may be given a black finish by holding it over a then wiping it with oily waste. on the far side of the horn. STEP Six. as until the piece is in STEP Two.

S HOOK Stock: X&" round Machine Steel ' : .Kxercise 2. Plate II.

Cut the stock to length. If the ends are crooked they may be straightened on the hardie. Work at the outer edge of the anvil. 30. BENDING. Staples. Heat the stock at the center and bend over the horn. (Plate III. and cut off the ends with a hardie. Finish the bending operation.36 DRAWING-OUT. STEP Two. .) STEP ONE. AND TWISTING Exercise 3. as shown at 10 and ib. to avoid hitting the anvil face with the hand-hammer. as shown in Fig. taking care to have the blows fall on the outside. then hammer out the ends to a square or a chisel-point. STEP THREE. Both anvil and hammer faces it may be chipped or broken if this is not done.

Li^l .Exercise 3. Plate III.

Take a uniform yellow heat on the stock. This and end of the twist should be marked with a center-punch. B. Give it a quarter-turn with a pair of flat-jawed tongs in the manner already described. By striking at E the stock is made thicker at F. in Fig. (Plate IV. Square up the corner by placing the exeron the anvil. and bend the anvil with a sledge. line anvil at the rounded edge. forming a cold-shut or crack on the inside corner. as shown in Fig. A cold chisel should not be used for marking. the length of stock required for this exercise is determined by measuring along the center line of the finished shape. forming a fillet on the inCare should be taken during this operation to side corner. cise keep the angle at or greater than 90 lest the stock be upset. The center- with the outer edge of the anvil. i. Beam Strap. In order to make the bend as short as possible the bar should be firmly held down on the Strike the end as indicated. This would make the angle weak. As with any bent shape. along the dotted line The location of the right-angle bend and the beginning in 3. anvil and struck on the end. STEP Two. as it will then be hammered too thin. STEP THREE. it is smoothed up with a flatter.38 DRAWING-OUT. AND TWISTING Exercise 4. e. since the cut expands and starts a crack. a corner of the anvil.) STEP ONE. stock to a right angle. . BENDING. as in Fig.. as D. as shown punch mark should not come quite in A. is done on the edge of the stock before it is heated. STEP FOUR. for the stock has a tendency to move forward during the bending operation. and lay the stock on the in Fig. After the corner has been upset and hammered to shape. C. Do not try to square the stock by placing it over Caution. and place one end in a vise. and striking it in the manner It should also be reversed on the indicated by the arrows. Take a mark where the piece is short high heat at the center-punch to be bent.

B TIT (D Twist Thru 90* Cut ro size TT i Y - - J .Exercise 4. U Rg.C a Fig. Plate IV. BEAM STRAP Stock.D Fig. I xlj x!2" wror iron or machine steel 12 -2* A Fig.

centerl punch marks should be made i /2 inches from each shoulder. the stock is heated uniformly and the bend started over the rounded edge of the anvil. as shown in With the aid of a pair of flat-jawed tongs the stock given one complete turn. and striking on the opposite end of the stock. in order to avoid marring the stock. About 2 / l inch fall of the point should be cooled and the blows allowed to on this cold part. and cutting it to length. Care should be taken to keep the shoulder exactly even with the edge of the anvil. is stock at the shoulder should be cooled. and mark it with a center-punch. as shown at the end D in 2. it may be trued then round. The hook should be filed while hot. STEP THREE. When the shoulder has been formed. Twisted Gate-Hook. heat one end of the stock and place it with the. STEP Two. The stock should then be turned while in faster is being hit. side edge is in line with the edge of the A. up by inserting the swaged end in a heading-tool. C. This portion is inches between these marks. as shown in Fig. to The eye is finished on the horn of the as the S-hook. other end of the piece is shouldered and drawn out in the same manner. Before twisting the middle section. rounding off the corners. to the size Cut a piece of % 6 -inch square machine steel indicated. is 40 . or the shoulder will be worked on one side than on another. The square its prevent bending. To bend the eye. STEP FIVE.Exercise 5. and then blackened. leaving ij^ heated to an even yellow and placed in a vise. as in Fig. center-punch mark directly above the inner edge of the anvil. its shown at I. anvil in the same manner bent in The hook much the same way. to remove the scale. If the shoulder is not square. the end is hammered out square and the set-hammer The It is finished between top. as To form a shoulder. B. (Plate V. Fig. Rest the set-hammer on top of the piece so that anvil. STEP FOUR.and bottom-swages.) STEP ONE. The end D is then pointed by hammering it to a square point.

GATE HOOK Stock ' : 7| "x_ "x ^"Machine Steel 'V \ Center 44punch marks less s ITS' Slightly than 4" r ^t On complete turn ' . Plate V.Exercise 5.

to it from bursting thru the slag seams at the end. it is generally necessary to upset the ends before welding. If the upsetting is to be at one end.CHAPTER The Lap. Every . but this operation than upsetting before welding. and striking the top end with a hand-hammer. it may more difficult be upset again at that point. The object of upsetting a piece before welding is to make allowance for the iron which is lost thru scaling and burning. it may be done by holding the piece vertically with a pair of link-tongs. upon the number of heats taken in welding. a It is therefore better to upset the ends of the original bar too much than not enough. the hot end resting on the face of the anvil.Weld is III. Before this can be done to the end of a piece of wrought iron. Upsetting. square. If the stock is hammered out too thin at is the weld. Heavy blows are necessary. When the end of a short piece is to be upset. The end of a long piece may be upset by gripping the cold end with the hands and striking the hot one against the face of the anvil. it is necessary to bring it to a welding heat. When the length of a piece of stock is decreased and its cross-sectional area increased at any point. the stock should prevent first be hammered on all sides. and for the drawing-out caused by the hammering required for a sound weld. section in the middle of the stock does is A not have to be heated so much. the one ordinarily used for joining flat. it said to be upset at that point. COMMON WELDS. or round bars. as the surplus stock can very quickly be hammered entirely The amount of upsetting required depends out. In order that the cross-section of the material at the weld be the same as that of the stock. and as they have a tendency to bend the stock it must be straightened occasionally.

USE OF FLUX
time a bar of iron
is

43
is

brought to the welding heat there

a

portion of the outside surface wasted on account of scaling and burning. The amount of material allowed for waste in
to

welding therefore depends upon the number of heats required make a sound weld. This allowance is generally from onefourth to three-fourths of the diameter of the stock.

Scarfing
so that

is

the

process

of

shaping the ends of stock

when they are welded together a smooth joint will be obtained. The shapes of these scarfs depend to a large extent
upon the character of the weld, and will be taken up in detail in Exercises 6 to 16. In general the parts of the scarfs which are placed in contact in welding should be convex, as shown at 3 in Plate VI. The two centers will then touch first, and the molten oxide will be allowed to escape. If the scarfs were

made concave

this

oxide could not escape or be squeezed out,

and the weld would be a poor and unsound one. Use of Fluxes in Welding. When heating a piece of common iron or steel for welding, oxidation takes place and a thin film of oxide of iron is formed on the surface. This oxide, or scale, must be heated to a high temperature before becoming fluid enough to run off and permit a sound weld.

Wrought

iron

may

be heated enough to melt off this oxide

without being burned, but steel would be injured if brought to such a high temperature. It is therefore necessary, when
as

welding both high- and low-carbon steel, to use a flux, such powdered borax, in order to lower the melting point of the

oxide.

but

when welding wrought iron, Fluxes do not act as cements, but merely make the iron weldable at a lower temperature. Method of Using Flux. After the pieces in the fire have
flux
is

A

also often used

is

not essential.

reached a yellow heat, some flux

is

thrown or sprinkled on the

scarfs, or parts to be welded, and the heating continued up to As the flux melts it flows over the scarf, the welding heat.

forming a coat or covering. This dissolves the oxide already formed and prevents further oxidation.

44

COMMON WELDS
The
flux used

when welding wrought

iron

is

generally

There are various welding compounds on the market, some of which contain borax and iron filings. Most of them contain borax, and are used mainly when weldclean, sharp sand.

ing

steel.

Exercise

6.

Practice
is

Welds

Fagot.

(Plate VI.)

The Fagot Weld
student

may

given as an exercise in order that the (i) become familiar with welding heats, (2)

hand-hammer effectively, (3) have further practice in the drawing-out of wrought iron, (4) and also for economy, since old links, rings, or pieces of scrap iron may be
learn to use the

used to good advantage. This weld may be made by placing two or more pieces of iron on top of each other and welding them for their entire length. Another method is to bend the end of a piece of stock once or twice, as
for half
its

in ia

and

20,

and weld
it

If a link or ring is available,

it into a solid lump. can be heated and closed

length, as in 30.

hammered out
in the

same

This portion is then welded and square. When the other end has been treated manner, the entire piece is hammered octagonal,

then round, and finally smoothed up between top- and bottomswages. This finished piece may be used again for making a
ring or link.

Exercise

7.

Round Lap-Weld.

(Plate VII.)

STEP ONE.

Upset one end of each of two pieces of round

stock for about 2 inches, as shown at I. This is done by heating the ends to a welding heat and hitting them against the face of the anvil, in the manner already described.

STEP Two.

The

scarf

is

started by placing the stock on

the face of the anvil, with the upset portion near the rounded

Exercise 6

Plate VI.

PRACTICE WELDS -

FAGOT.
Stock f xl?" Wrot Iron

_._ 2 _____

i

'

Srock f x

1

4

Wrot Iron

tf

---I

To be

made

from
will

link

or ring

Finished

sizes

depend upon stock used

Half

to

be welded at a time

After welding whole piece, hammer square, octagonal, then round as shown below

46

COMMON WELDS

edge, and hitting it with the face of a hand-hammer. After a few blows the peen is used, as shown in Fig. A. These blows should come at an angle of about 45, in order to force
the material back and
scarf, as

form a thick ridge

at the heel of the

shown

at 2.

The

scarf at this point should be slightly
finished at the

tapered.

STEP THREE.
hitting the

The

scarf

is

the anvil with the face of the

hammer.

This

rounded edge of is done to avoid

hammer against the sharp edge of the anvil. The length of the scarf should be about one and one-half times the thickness of the bar at the upset portion. The scarf is worked down to a point, as shown at 3, in
.

order to facilitate welding the end of the scarf. If these ends were very wide several blows would be necessary to weld

them, and, since they cool very rapidly, considerable speed would be required.

skill

and

STEP FOUR. good bed of hot

When
coals.

heating the stock for welding have a Place the short piece at the right of

the long one, the scarfs of both being face down, and cover them with coke. Heat slowly, to insure a uniform temperaIf one piece should heat ture thruout the scarfed portions.
faster than the other, pull

the

fire.

it back a little from the center of Both pieces must be at a welding heat at the same

time.

When

at the

welding heat remove the pieces from the

fire,

taking the short piece in the right hand and the long one in the left. Keeping the scarf side down, give them each a quick
anvil, to dislodge any dirt on the Place the short piece on the anvil with the scarf up, as shown in Fig. C. This piece is not so liable to overbalance and fall to the floor, as sometimes happens

blow on the horn of the
faces of the scarfs.

when welding without

assistance, if the

end of the scarf comes

nearly to the inner edge of the anvil. Steady the scarfed end of the other piece against the edge of the anvil, as shown in

B Method of finishing Method of starting scarf ""S Fiq. A scarf fia.D Appearance of weld after first blow . ROUND LAP WELD Stock: |" 1 Round Machine Steel about 16" and 1 or Wrot Iron piece piece about 10" long Fig.Exercise 7. Plate VII.

STEP FOUR. The stock is upset for about 2 inches manner previously described. STEP FIVE.) in the STEP ONE. taper very finished scarf should be much same to- STEP THREE. With a hand-hammer deliver a few sharp blows. of the other. and slightly tapered ward the end. at the end. D. C. the scale file.and bottom-swages. put the piece back into the fire and take another welding heat on it. to use a heavy hand-hammer in welding flat bars. flatter. The ends of the scarfs should then be hammered down. It is advisable. It as for should not.48 Fig. Flat Lap-Weld. piece. bar is After the weld has been made. or heel. STEP FIVE. as at 3. COMMON WELDS and bring it to the desired position above the short The end of one scarf should lap over the thick ridge. The scarf is started in the same way the round lap-weld. the scale should and the piece smoothed up with a . to stick the body of the material. first heat. When be cleaned off with a file the welding is finished. The then finished between top. STEP Two. Exercise 8. The made the width as the bar at the thick ridge. (Plate VIII. however. The two pieces are welded together in much the same manner as the round stock of Exercise 7. otherwise they will become too cold and If the scarfs are not thoroughly welded at the will not stick. though. as in Fig. should be cleaned off with a since it pits the material.

Exercise 8. Plate VIII. FLAT LAP WELD Stock : |x I i'y 8" 1 Wrot Iron 18 i ir Taper edges Position of for welding pieces . on anvil / ' Anvil Inner edge .

so 1% X 3^> or 3*%6 i-H$ inches. should be separated into two semi-circular ends and two straight conl The mean diameter of the ends is i /4 necting sections. STEP ONE. or they will cool too quickly and it will be almost impossible to weld them. over in the It Square up the ends of the material. inches long. as same manner. were formed by hitting would be the shorter of it may be shortened by heating the semi-circular portion. and toward the horn striking a number of blows. If one side should be longer than the other. for the waste in welding. and heat Bend it halfway on fall on the cold proshould then be reversed and the other end bent a U. are finished on the face of the anvil with the peen or the heel 6 inch They should not be less than % thick at the end. The reason for this reversal that if the U on one end only that side of the U the two.50 COMMON WELDS Exercise 9. inches. Links of Chain. about /% inch. as shown at 2. The ends are brought to a yellow heat and scarfed by placing one end on the anvil.) length of the material required for a link is found by measuring the distance around at the center of the stock. placing it on a bottom-swage. taking care to have the blows jecting end. This leaves a series of notches on the under side of the piece. the middle uniformly for about 3 inches. the shorter leg being held vertical with a pair of link-tongs. as shown at A. same manner. (Plate IX. and the other end treated in the The U is then turned over. forming is shown at I. . The total 6 inches. the horn. To this should l be added a small amount. moving the U after each one. shown -at 4. STEP Two. and striking on the end of the longer leg. The connecting length is sections are each then 3 1 %6 + 2 X =6 % J i^ is required for them. The scarfs of a hand-hammer. To The compute this distance the desired link.

Exercise 9. LINKS OF CHAIN 5tock 6 pieces I 9x6^ Wrot iron I ^ Ai" O"^ W. FigA Merhod of Scarfing . Plate IX.

on the horn of the anvil. by scarfing before or after bending it into shape.52 COMMON WELDS to STEP THREE. A ring formed from round stock may be made in two ways. The second of these is the less difficult. The link should be shaped so that the end to be welded is narrower than the other. 31. as shown in Fig. taking care have the end of the top scarf pointed toward the right.. This connecting link manner as the others. the connecting one is ends brought together ready for welding. together again. If it points to the left. scarfed and its When joining links. and the semiabout the right size when the weld is STEP FOUR. a few quick blows of the hand-hammer. end A of the link is then heated. scarfs are then more easily fitted and the stock on either side it of the weld The not so likely to become thin. Bring the ends together. amount of material required to make is is computed . e. the links slipped on. as the i. the scarfs spread apart. The Fig. and the scarfs brought is welded in the same Welded Ring. as at 3. the scarf is left-hand and is harder to weld. Take a welding heat and weld the The link joint with is finished STEP FIVE. 31. The stock is then less liable to be hammered end circular finished. will be small on either side of the weld.

WELDED RING 53 from its mean diameter. For a student this would be about y% or y^ inch. so the total this To length of stock required is io^4 inches. . For the following two exercises this mean diameter is A inches. or approximately must be added an allowance for waste in welding. depending on the number of heats necessary. is then 3^ X 3^4. as shown in Plate X. The mean 1 2> circumference of the ring io^4 inches.

Heat one-third of the stock and bend it over the large part of the horn. Heat and weld the ring in the same manner as a link. 9JHs inches. in order not to bent in the mar the material. Strike on the projecting end.54 COMMON WELDS Exercise 10. STEP FIVE. so no dirt can get in between them. scarfs do not meet squarely. The point of If the the top scarf should look toward the right. making the exercise appear as Heat the center section and complete the bending by holding the piece upright on the anvil with a pair of link-tongs and knocking the scarfs together. (Plate X. When the welding is finished. shape the ring on the horn. Scarf the ends as shown at 2 in the same manner as for a simple lap-weld for round stock. the scarfs close together on the face of the anvil.) until its length is STEP ONE. Upset the ends of the stock STEP Two. as at 4. The other end is same manner. smooth the ring on the horn of the anvil with a top-swage. as shown. To make the ring circular.Weld. Ring Round Lap. keeping the straight side of the scarfed end toward the right. . heat it all over and drive it down on the cone with a that shown at 3. STEP THREE. Hammer hand-hammer. STEP FOUR.

Plate X.Exercise 10. RING LAP-WELD SCARF Stock. i'xiof Wror iron a E Upset to 91 .

as at 2. STEP FOUR. Scarf the ends in the same way as for a link. STEP FOUR. If a long piece is used. 5. Use ^2-inch top.and bottom-fullers or a necking-tool to fuller the neck to the form shown at 3. Ring Link Scarf. Upset the ends of the stock until length is 9^ inches. Treat the other corner in the same manner. Weld the two ends and finish the ring same manner as in the previous exercise. Norway iron. STEP FIVE. Cut the stock 6 inches long.56 COMMON WELDS Exercise n. (Plate XI. STEP Two. Bend the ends to the form shown at 2 in the same manner as in the previous exercise. care should be taken to mark it 6 inches from the end with a center-punch before upsetting. as at 3. Heat the middle section and bend the ends to within a short distance of each other.) its STEP ONE. 32. STEP THREE. Forged Hook. Bring the scarfed ends together. STEP Two. STEP THREE. Rounding may be finished with the handhammer by holding the piece over the rounded edge of the . Flatten the upset end until it is l /z inch thick. Round the end or head by placing one corner of it on the face of the anvil and using the necking-tool on the shoulder.) Forged hooks are made from tool steel. del creasing its more advantageously. (Plate XII. length to 5^2 inches. as at STEP Six. STEP ONE. The one in this exercise is to be made from 24-inch round machine steel. or machine steel. as in Fig. longer piece may be used since the end can then be upset and the A eye finished without the' use of tongs. Heat about i / 2 inches at one end to a yellow heat and upset it as at i. in the Exercise 12.

Exercise n. -10} E== Upset to 91 . Plate XL RING Stock: LINK SCARF round wrof z x 10 4 iron S.

Make The the hole circular by driving finished eye should then appear round stock. and finish or smooth the outside head. punched in it. . working at the rounded edge of the anvil and holding the stock at such an angle with the anvil face as will bring the point in the center line. as at 5. a tapered pin through as though made from it.58 anvil COMMON WELDS and striking it forged as nearly as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. or shoulder. If. the stock is too long. Fig. STEP FIVE. is The neck hammered round and STEP SEVEN. Round off the corners of the point. of the eye to the extreme end should be eight times the diameter of its . This end should be round as practicable before the hole is Punch a jHrinch hole in the forged end or and draw the neck out square with the handhammer. Fig. it should be cut to the length given at 6. 34- with a YZ -inch top-swage. when this is done. as at 8. 32. While doing this allow the eye to extend over the rounded edge of the anvil. Draw down the end to a square point. Round the inside edges of the hole over the horn. 33. The length of a hook from the neck. finished with fy-'mch tapered top. 33- Fig. STEP Six.and bottom-swages. STEP EIGHT. 34. in order to prevent the filleted corners from becoming sharp.

FORGED HOOK Stock: -fx6"round machine steel ' f i .1 . Plate XII.Exercise 12. 1 3i I < Tool nii =H i TOP 4 bartom fuller or needing Drawn down square-' -.

Finish the bending on the horn. Bend the point over the horn. The bend is then started by placing the stock with the center-punch mark above the rounded edge of the anvil. Place it on the large part of the horn. (Plate XIII. Heat one end to a welding heat and scarf it. Common Eye-Bolt. in order to prevent it from slipping over the horn too far A when hit. bent to the form shown at If it is necessary to change the 10. striking on the scarf. shape of the hook on the horn. STEP THREE. as shown at I. as shown at 2. sledge should be held on top of it. Strike the project- ing tip with a hand-hammer. to avoid marring the stock. a top-swage should be used. STEP ONE. moving the hook toward the It should be point of the horn as the bending progresses. In bending the hook. STEP ELEVEN. may then be attached with a link to the chain of Exercise Exercise 13. It 9.) Cut a piece of ^-inch round wrought iron 12^4 inches long. heat it for about 4 inches the center. The finished hook. COMMON WELDS This length is 6 inches for the hook given. This leaves the hook free from marks of the hand-hammer. should be heated and the scale removed with a shown file. Heat about 7 inches of the stock at the scarfed end to a uniform yellow heat. Take a short heat at the neck and bend the eye back over the horn. Place a drift-pin. STEP FIVE. STEP Two. and cool the neck and point. STEP FOUR. with the cold tip projecting over. as shown at 9. STEP TEN. or a piece of round stock . and striking on the projecting end with the peen of a hand-hammer. Bend the scarf over the rounded edge of the anvil and mark it with a center-punch.60 largest cross-section. at u. at STEP NINE.

Exercise 13. COMMON EYE BOLT Stock. Round Wrot Iron d Center punch marks Start outside of bend opposite center punch marks I . Plate XIII.

Exercise 14. Common Hinge. Heat the stock slowly to a welding heat. and drive a drift-pin into the hole to make it symmetrical. This each end of a piece of stock. and close the eye on a pin which is slightly larger than the finished hole. 35- One clevis of the commonest applications of this exercise is is the shown in Fig. as at 5. 35. While still hot the scale should be removed with a file. as shown at I. in the eye scarf and shank together. The center-punch mark should come almost in line with the outer rounded edge of the anvil. (Plate XIV. Smooth up the stock at the weld with a top.and a bottomswage. and weld down the scarfed end. Heat about 5 inches of the piece at the scarfed end. STEP Two.) STEP ONE. and place it on the anvil with the scarfed side down. STEP THREE. STEP Six. Fig. Continue the bending on the horn. Bend as at 2. formed by making an eye at and bending it into the form of aU. Scarf the end of a piece of wrought iron l 1 mcn X ii inches. necking-tool or a top-fuller is A used in rounding the shoulder. A .62 COMMON WELDS and bring the slightly larger than the finished hole. and make a center/4 X 1 punch mark on one edge 4^ inches from the end. The welding should be finished with a hand-hammer at the rounded edge of the anvil.

Exercise

14.

Plate

XIV.

COMMON

HINGE:

Stock:

ixlix

11"

Wrot

iron

T

Width of end of scarf should

toe

slightly less than width of stock

,,-'-

k-

44

Center punch mark-,

64

COMMON WELDS
STEP FOUR.
In placing the piece in the fire have the scarf order to avoid burning the eye. When the piece is at

down,

in

the welding heat, it should be removed from the fire and laid on the anvil with the scarf up and the eye against the rounded

edge of the anvil. If this were not done and it were welded over the sharp edge of the anvil, the neck would have a sharp corner instead of being rounded, as shown at 4. The welding is done with a heavy hand-hammer.
After the welding has been completed, a pin should be driven into the hole and a top-swage used to smooth the eye. flatter may be used to smooth the stock at the weld.

A

Exercise

15.

Flat Ring.

(Plate

XV.)

STEP ONE. Cut a piece of i/4-inch wrought iron 14 inches long, as shown, and heat one end for about z l 2 inches. Upset it at an angle, as shown at i. If, while doing this, most

%X

/

of the upsetting occurs at the tip, the extreme end should be cooled off. To decrease the width at the upset portion it should

be

hammered on

edges the same manner.

in thickness.

the longer edge at A. This will keep both Upset the other end in the same

STEP Two. Scarf the ends as shown at 2, taking care to have the scarfs on opposite sides of the stock. STEP THREE. Heat one end of the stock for about 4 inches, cool the corner B, and bend the end over the horn.

The hammer blows should
the

fall

on B.

Bend

the other end in

same manner. STEP FOUR. Heat the center of the stock, and finish the bending in the same manner as for the ring in Exercise i. The scarfs should come squarely together and be .closed in between them. tightly, as at 4, to prevent dirt from getting
STEP FIVE. Bring the scarfs slowly to the welding heat, and weld them together on the face of the anvil with a heavy

Exercise

15.

Plate

XV.

FLAT RING
Stock:

3"xlxl4" Wrot

Iron

UpseT

14
To

I2l"

T

and bend it into shape in the same manner as the ring of Exercise i. e.) STEP ONE. Weld the ring over the horn of the anvil. and the scale removed with a file. Such bolts are forged from stock having a diameter equal to that of the head. as at 4. It should then be heated uniformly thruout. (Plate XVI. The first of these methods is ordinarily used for special bolts and those that are to be finished or turned to size. upsetting. it must be reversed on the cone and expanded equally from both sides. and are therefore the stongest kind made. stock. or welding. by forging. is the one most commonly used for both hand. and finish it with a flatter. Cut the stock to length. and rounded on a cone. The second method. Band Ring. Heat the piece.66 COMMON WELDS Finish the edges on the horn. in which the stock is upset to form the head. and upset each end for about 2 inches. STEP FIVE. Exercise 16. STEP THREE. In order to prevent it from becoming tapered while doing this. Heat the scarfs slowly. The size of a bolt is given by the diameter and length of the shank. Bring the scarfs tightly together. cone. STEP FOUR.. an upset-head bolt is stronger than a welded-head bolt. Scarf the ends the same as for a flat weld. STEP Two. Thus a i x 1 2-inch bolt means one with a shank i head is If equally well . taking care to have the scarfs come on opposite sides of the shown at 2. to prevent the outer one from burning before the inner one is hot enough to weld. sides with a flatter.and machine-made bolts. i. made. as Bolts are made in three different ways. then smooth the The ring should be made circular on a hand-hammer. In the third method the formed by welding a ring of stock around the stem.

BAND RING Stock.Exercise 16. Plate XVI. "x l"x 13 1" Wrot Iron .

In use this is placed on the face of the anvil. the distance l flats is equal to i /2 times the diameter of the shank plus y% inch.) STEP ONE. Cupping-Tool. Place the . a heading-tool (Fig. For squaring-ttp the under side of the head on a bolt. (Plate XVII. or i fa inches across the flats. and are entirely independent of the length. Cut the stock to length. in order that a shank.68 COMMON WELDS head to the end. Thus a i-inch bolt should have a head across the l i /z X I Y&. HEADING-TOOL. CUPPING-TOOL. Fig. Upset-Head Bolt. or chamfered. or a hand-hammer may be used. Bolt heads generally have the top corners rounded. Fig. 36) is required. should be slightly larger than the stock for which it is in- + tended. and the thickness of the head is equal to the diameter of the shank. may drop thru it For this reason a different heading-tool is required easily. This is ordinarily done with a cupping-tool (Fig. each dimension for a finished head being % 6 inch less than for a rough head. Heat one end for about 2 inches to a yellow heat. for each size of round stock used.a bolt-head are governed by the diameter of the shank. 37. For square and hexagonal bolt-heads. 36. and square both ends. and I inch thick. but a top-swage. when heated. inch in diameter and 12 inches long from the under side of the The dimensions of . Heading-Tool. Exercise 17. These are the dimensions for rough heads. so that while the head of the bolt is being forged the shank can project down thru The hole in this tool the heading-tool and the hardie-hole. 37).

. UPSET HEAD BOLTS Stock for square head bolt:^x9i round machine steel 5)1 U-. Plate XVII. - UpseTro7 |"_ 2a) j Heading tool r Stock for hexagonal head bolt: 1x9" round machine steel E --Upset ro 7i .Exercise 17.

Break the drawn-out portion over the horn head. and upset it in the cold collar. .shown at i STEP ONE. Bend shown at 3. The far. and strike on the cold end with a heavy hand-hammer.) is . STEP THREE. STEP FIVE. This collar should then be hammered approximately square. Cut off the end at an angle on the hardie. To aid in keeping the shank at the center of the head. The shank should be finished between top. Welded-Head Bolt. as shown at 2. making a poor appearing STEP THREE.70 COMMON WELDS hot end on the face of the anvil.tool. while upsetting. Before starting to weld it be sure that the shank will slip thru the heading-tool. the joint might show on one side when finished. holding the piece vertical with a pair of link-tongs. and cut half-way thru the stock at the point indi- as off the bent portion. Care should be taken to keep the stock straight STEP Two. not STEP Two.and bottom-swages. student can then tell when one side of the head is out too Forge the head square or hexagonal on the Insert the shank in a heading-tool and chamfer the top corners with a cupping. and finish the bending over a piece of cold ^4-inch round stock. and insert the shank in a heading-tool. a circle with a radius about ^2 inch greater than that of the hole should be drawn with chalk on the face of the tool. If a piece of stock the required size available. face of the anvil. If it were made round. Bring the upset end to a high heat. Form the head by flattening the upset portion. STEP FOUR. Exercise 18. and made to appear as shown at 4. (Plate XVIII. make another cated. draw-out a large piece to the size. as at 5. Bring one end of the shank to a welding heat.

Stock: 1^x1^x7. WELDED HEAD BOLT Stock for collar .Upset st em on cold collar FORGED BOLT . ^^Uset'top and bottom fullers EO . Plate XVI 1 1.Exercises 18 \- 19. f round Wrot Iron c Stem of bolt: 6-g'xf round Wrot ]. Machine Steel *-#- Center punch Chisel marks marks .

The shank and under side of the head of a forged bolt are generally turned to the finished size in the machine shop. . such bolts are forged to the required sizes. Exercise It is 19. STEP FIVE. Finish it in a heading-tool in the same manner as an upset head. forge it to the proper size across the flats. Fuller one end. Reheat. and cut the surplus stock off of the end with a hot eye-chisel. finishing the head in the same manner as the upset head. however. as shown at STEP THREE. and weld it by hammering on all four sides. STEP FOUR. Forged Bolt. If there is too much stock on the bolt head. so that no machine work is necessary.72 COMMON WELDS STEP Six. Heat the head slowly. so a piece of stock long enough to make two bolts should be used.) necessary for two students to work together on this exercise. In some cases. it with a center-punch and a chisel as indicated. to prevent the collar from burning. (Plate XVIII. Draw-out the end A to size under a triphammer. STEP Two. and mark 2. Fuller and hammer out the other end in the same manner. Cut the stock to length. Cut the stock thru the center along the dotted line. and insert the shank of one end in a headingtool. STEP ONE.

while the helper strikes on the projecting end of the When the pieces are stuck together the resulting bar anvil. The square end of the short. i l /^ -inch stock or larger.WELD. or weldgenerally done on the anvil. chisel to the in Fig. In doing this the blacksmith holds one of them to steady other. A butt weld may be used on It is not as safe or as strong as a lap weld. as shown in Fig. The pieces are then placed end to end in the fire and heated. is it. the two pieces. 38. BUTT. and when the welding heat has been reached they are driven ing. Another weld suitable for large-sized stock is the V-weld. All the upsetting necessary occurs during the welding process.CHAPTER The Butt Weld is IV. The purpose in rounding the ends is to permit squeezing the molten oxide out of the joint. and hammered to size on the then smoothed between top. If they were concave. depending on the .and bottom-swages. V-Weld. Fig. chisel-pointed piece should project over the edge of The ends of form shown the stock are first cut with a hot the forge. It is removed from the fire. When the stock is at the welding heat. made by rounding the ends of two pieces of stock and driving them together at a welding heat. this end is struck with a backing-hammer or a sledge. 39. but has the advantage of requiring no upsetting and scarfing of ends. Long pieces are placed end to end in the fire. impurities would be held between making an unsound weld. 38. but with long pieces it is done in the fire. SPECIAL WELDS. is When together. the pieces of stock are short the butting.

to piece prevent it from bursting while scarfing it. 40. similar to the one shown at A. The Jump. but its main principle is the joining of one end of round. the end of is brought to the welding heat and hammered on the Fig. . it forms an ex- Fig. If the a short one.74 size of the stock. sides. JUMP WELD. Besides being easy to make. Its applications are numerous. or rectangular stock to some point on the side of a piece of stock of the same or of a different size.Weld is one ordinarily used by shipsmiths on marine or ship work. SPECIAL WELDS This upsets and welds the ends together. The joint is then hammered to size and swaged on the anvil. 39. the stock In making the "jump. It is not suitable for stock less than tremely strong joint. \Y^ inches in diameter. V-WELD. square. on account of the elimination of upsetting and scarfing. 40. the scarfing may be done by standing it on end on the anvil and hammering the hot end so as to form is a flange. as smaller stock bends while the pieces are being driven together in the fire." shown at A in Fig. The V-weld is suitable for welding round or square steel and wrought iron.

as shown B. and may together immediately. to accommodate the flanged end on the "jump.WELD. and closed down . Fig. pieces are generally brought to the welding heat The flat piece is then placed on the anvil in position and the "jump" a top. on it. as at A.SPLIT-WELD If this piece is 75 "jumped. used for welding together the ends of thin stock. pushed tightly together. With the split- B Fig.fuller. This can be done either by upsetting the flat stock or by forging it from a thicker to be flat stock. such as brake-bands and sheet steel. in order to allow for hammering. the time lost in getting the scarfed ends in position for welding would permit thin stock to cool. One-half of each end is bent up and the other half down. the latter piece. as shown at A. 41. 41. for a distance depending on the thickness of the stock. Fig. An indentation at is made at this point with a bob-punch. The be hammered ends are then heated. They are then split down the center. and the flange quickly welded down with making the joint appear as is at C. but ordinarily about ft inch.Weld making welding difficult. SPLIT. The Split. If an ordinary lap-weld were used for this purpose. The ends of the pieces to be joined are upset and scarfed or tapered to a blunt edge." or welded. weld the scarfs are in position when placed on the anvil. 40. to a piece of must be made thicker where the joint is to be. The end of shown the "jump" is struck with a sledge." The two in separate fires.

In making this weld the ends of the pieces are upset and scarfed. The ends of this body are split and shaped as shown at B. 43. This weld. Fig. 42. SPLIT-WELD FOR HEAVY STOCK. the "steeling" of the Norway iron . A split-weld suitable for heavy stock is shown in Fig. Split-Weld for Heavy Stock. split being pointed and the other and shaped like a Y. 42. as shown in the regular B in Fig. or one very similar to it. welding tool of this is An example body of a pick. one end Fig. D WELDING TIP ON A PICK. The welding is done way. 43. shown at A. The piece to be welded on is about 2 y x i inch and from 4 to 5 inches long.76 SPECIAL WELDS at on each other. is often used when C Fig. 41. one on the other. as shown at B. The pieces are then driven together and closed down. It is pointed and steel to iron or to machinery steel. as at A. ready for welding. Fig. 42.

SPLIT-WELD notched with a 77 chisel. under the trip-hammer. hardened. to prevent it from falling out while heating. to prevent the tool steel from being burned. the ends of the They are Y heated slowly. The end of the pick is drawn made smooth with a to a point flatter. and welded under a trip-hammer or with a sledge. and the temper color drawn to a dark blue. as at C. The two pieces are then driven together and closed down. . as shown at D. and is It then reheated.

Bring the scarf to the form shown at 3 with a j^-inch top. and the scale removed with a file.fuller. STEP THREE. making the dimensions of the T as shown at 7. Cut and upset it as shown. as shown at 5. the cross-piece should be taken in the right hand and the other piece in the left. as off a piece of stock for the leg of the T. Fig. . Finish this scarf with the same fuller. Upset the cross-piece at the center. Start the scarf with the hand-hammer. after the pieces have been placed in postudent should practice putting the pieces together while cold. then smooth it with a hand-hammer.78 SPECIAL WELDS Exercise 20. (Plate XIX. edges of the scarf. as the face of the hand-hammer is liable to break unless the heavier hammer is wielded by an expert. at 2. STEP Two. With flat stock same manner. the scarfs for a T-weld are made in the . 1 6. STEP FIVE. Form the scarf as at 6 with the bob-punch of This can be done by using the peen of a hand-hammer and striking on it's face with a heavier hammer but it is STEP Six.) STEP ONE. rather dangerous. The ends are then trimmed off. before attempting to weld them. This leaves the right hand sition. free for hammering A After the welding has been finished the stock should be smoothed between top. STEP FOUR. T-Weld. to the Bring the scarfed portions of the two pieces welding heat and weld them. using a hammer to stick them together and a necking-tool or fuller to weld down the STEP SEVEN. In removing the pieces from the fire for welding.and bottom-swages.

Exercise 20. Plate XIX. T WELD Stock: 1 piece ^"x 7% and 1 piece|"x9" long Wrot . Iron @ I J o Upset to 7^" ! 2) (D Section through AA .

STEP FOUR. Cut and upset the other piece to the form shown at 3. Scarf this piece with a bob-punch or the peen of a hammer. The scale should then be removed with a chisel. as shown.) to STEP ONE. holding the short one (2) in the right hand and the long one (4) in the Weld the joint with a heavy hand-hammer. the tip should be partially shown cooled in water. as be slightly stock. (4) will lap over on the thick portion of the so that the lip A STEP THREE. Start the scarf on this piece in the same manner as for the flat lap-weld. The top edge should then STEP FIVE. It should. Angle Weld. the size Cut and upset the short piece for the angle at i. however.80 SPECIAL WELDS Exercise 21. and finish it left. which is made by placing the stock on edge on the anvil with the scarf projecting over the rounded edge and hitting the upper edge with a hand-hammer. STEP Two.. and the ends cut off to length with a hot . less shown at 2. with a flatter. to prevent the upsetting from taking place mostly at that point. file. appear straight. Since the stock has to be upset for a considerable distance from the end. (Plate XX. After bringing the two scarfed ends to a welding heat remove the pieces from the fire. The length of this scarf should than the width of the one on the other piece. be allowed to widen out. in order to furnish material for the lip A.

Plate XX. ANGLE WCLD Stock : f x 1? Wrof iron Upset from 5? to 4g i c li -l Upset from 8 to7i (5) Cut to size.-' .Exercise 21.

. a . ing to use it. in a 125-pound hammer the combined weight of the falling parts is 125 pounds. To maintain a firm grip. i. when the blows are sometimes rather jerky. or flat material. square. or die block. of the machine surrounds the anvil. as they give a very poor grip when the jaws are in the vertical position.CHAPTER V. This type of hammer is belt driven. and they Hollow-bit tongs are generally used for holding work at power-hammer. some type of power hammer is invariThose commonly found in technical schools are ably used.or belt-hammer and the steam-hammer. T. the on either round. but the This is two are usually mounted on separate foundone so that the continual use of the ham- mer will not have a tendency to break the frame. B. and also in order to permit adjustment of the position of the lower die. as a firm grip can be obtained with them will be likely to break.or Belt-Hammer (Fig. student should receive special instructions in the manipulation of a trip-hammer before start- A When drawing-out stock with a trip-hammer the material one side there should be placed at the center of the dies. e. The Trip. 44) is used for hammer- or small-sized forgings. As hammering continues the blows become more uniform. the trip. If it is placed at will be an undue stress on the springs. Flat-jawed tongs should not be used. the blows being reg- ulated by means of the foot-treadle. ing medium The frame dations. HAMMER WORK. In making forgings larger than the exercises previously described in this book. This gives very good control of the hammer except at starting. Its size is designated by the weight of the falling parts.

It is not. A trip-hammer may also be employed for making drop forgings by using special dies that may be made of cast iron. 44. 45. so as to hold them close together. STEAM-HAMMER. so well suited to very heavy work. Fig. however.POWER-HAMMERS 83 link should be slipped over the handles of the tongs. The Steam-Hammer is generally made in larger sizes than . hammer This type of hammer has the advantage over a steamin the matter of lower first cost and great economy in operation. TRIP-HAMMER. Fig.

rests on a separate foundation from that of the frame. Exercise 22. Forged Open-End Wrench. the combined weight of the falling parts ranging from a few hundred to several thousand pounds. D. A 5oo-pound hammer is shown in Fig. The the latter enters at the top of the cylinder. and angle of 45 B. and forces down controlled and regulated by means of the and E. amount of l allowance varies from /% inch on small forgings to y$ inch on large ones. For this reason a cer- allowance this should be made for finishing them. as the tongs would become hot and afford a poor There should be enough of a tong hold to prevent grip.84 HAMMER WORK the trip-hammer. R. Finishing Allowance. the die-block. It should be forged to a diameter of from 8^2 to 8^4 inches. as shown at i. and mark it with a center-punch. If the levers. Cut off a piece of machine steel to the size indicated. blacksmith works alone.) When making to work together. but it would be hard to hold while being worked under a trip- hammer. this hammer is driven by steam. the dies. A piece 4^ inches long would be enough to make this wrench. Take as an example a shaft which is to be finished 8 inches in diameter. STEP ONE. As the name implies. The ram. tain Forgings made under a hammer The are often machined or finished to size. This permits the hammering of material either across or lengthwise on the die without interference. are generally placed at an with the front of the frame. which are operated by an assistant. 45. the hammer may be controlled by ram. . this exercise it is (Plate XXI. C. as it is necessary for two students inconvenient to make such a wrench alone. As with the trip-hammer. R. Considerable time will also be saved in this way. The blow is A means of the foot-treadle.

Exercise 22.| x iVx 9?" machine steel Center punch marks for fullering Use i top and bottom fullers ra Cut off along dond| I line in then cur corners as shown rT 7) Center punch mark! jy HW- Punch hole @ Enlarge hole to f n Finish with file . FORGED OPEN END WRENCH Stock. Plate XXI.

86 HAMMER WORK the jaws of the tongs from being caught between the dies. The corners should then be cut off.fullers on the to provide for a STEP FIVE. mer. end tong hold when making dotted line facilitate the second wrench. leaving the head STEP EIGHT. to rounding the head. as Use 2/2 -inch shown at 4. tongs. to allow for swagtop- ing the edges. the exercise. STEP THREE. Enlarge this stock around the hole. To insure uniformity in the depth of these marks the stock should be turned over several times y when fullering. STEP NINE.fuller can be used for fillet. If when doing this the stock becomes thinner at one side. leaving it wider than the finished Draw-out the handle under the trip-hamsize. Remember to use hollow-bit Flat-jawed tongs are unsafe. STEP Six. hole to J^-inch diameter by driving in a drift-pin. Round the head by placing it on a i^-inch bottom-swage and using a i-inch top-fuller on the neck or A set-hammer or a % -inch top. Punch a ^-inch hole thru the head at the ^ center-punch mark shown at 7. inch. STEP SEVEN. Thin the head with a flatter to %6 STEP TEN. Use 2 -'mch top. It is therefore best to use a piece of stock This will give enough material for two wrenches. inch thick. Finish rounding the circular part adjacent to the handle. Draw-out this and bottom. that side should be cooled before enlargThis equalizes the thickness of the ing the hole further. other end. and Place a suitable sheet-iron template on top of mark with a cold chisel the lines for the .and bottom-fullers to make the grooves shown at 2. shaping with a hand-hammer. STEP FOUR. Cut off the stock with a hot chisel along the shown at 5. inches long. with an 9^ allowance for a short tong hold. STEP Two.

) STEP ONE. thus making the shoulder a poor one. . 46. A. it If the this shoulder. as shown by at 2. Heat one end and place it on the anvil with the center-punch mark at the rounded edge. as described in Chapter VI. as shown in Fig. the This forms the shoulder.and bottom-swages and the faces with a flatter. shown stock were held flat on the anvil when starting dotted lines. The wrench is then case-hardened. in Square the inside of the jaws on a saddle. Fig. in order to prevent them from becoming too thin. After the wrench has cooled the inside of the jaws should be filed to fit a nut. The opening in the head is then cut with a hot chisel and the head hammered so as to make it J4 inch thick.Jawed Tongs. (Plates XXII -XXIII. as shown by the dotted marks should make an angle of 15 with the handle of the wrench. Flat. would probably move forward after each blow. as shown If the ends are too long they should be cut to the Fig. correct length on the saddle. 46. gradually raising the cold end until it is parallel with the face of the anvil. These opening in the head. and mark it as shown at I. Hammer it as indicated. STEP Two. Cut a piece of machine steel for the jaws. Exercise 23.OPEN-END WRENCH lines at 9. Finish the edges of the handle between y^-mch top.

this stock is also of STEP SEVEN. and place it on the anvil as shown in Fig. It also insures a better grip on . the jaws on the ends of this piece. This is done to prevent the jaw from bending upward while hammering. STEP EIGHT.88 HAMMER WORK STEP THREE. a 2 y -'mch Form top. Finish the portion of the handle near the eye with a flatter.fuller. Scarf the ends of this piece as shown. Several cuts should be hardie. is to be welded) on the to Draw-out the stub end (to which the handle anvil. made on pieces the face of the scarf with a prevent the from slipping apart to when welding. as shown With at 4. This groove enables one to hold round stock with these tongs. and upset at the ends. as shown at 6. as shown in Finish Fig. mark STEP FOUR. the scarfs must be nicked in the same manner as those on the jaws.l directly above the edge of the anvil. hammering the jaw to size. Give the stock a quarter turn to the left. This would make the tongs left-handed. B. and make a groove thru the center with a ^-inch top-fuller. Cut a piece of stock long enough it make both handles. If machine steel.or bottom-fuller make a the second jaw on the other end of the stock in the same manner. as shown at 5. taking care to have the blows fal. STEP Six. shown at 4 in STEP FIVE. Hammer out the stock for the eye. When placing the stock on the anvil for hammering the eye. C. The stock should then be cut through the center at the chisel mark. In the finished tongs the handle of the top jaw should look toward the right. as Plate XXIV. and scarf it. it should never be turned to the right. Round the eye on the horn of the anvil with a ^-inch top. then cut it Weld at the center.

FLAT JAW ED TONGS. Plate XXII. i'x 25i"round machine steel or W.3x i ~x 6 "machine steel for jaws. r r"i . for handlea.Exercise 23. 5Tock.I.

as shown. the tongs will be stiff and will not open. This bending Finish bending the jaws over the horn of the may also be done with a bottom-swage finish and a top-fuller. since both sides of the jaws grip firmly. and smoothing it with the top snap. Exercise 24. to produce a still firmer hold. and tongs in the same manner as the flat. or riveting tool. Rivet the parts together.90 HAMMER WORK Withflat material. ( Plates XXIV . Weld on the handles in the same manner as Draw-out the jaws. STEP NINE. A a hot chisel. D. shown. Turn the tongs over and place the rivet head on a bottom snap as shown in Fig. STEP NINE. ONE TO SEVEN are the same as for the flat-jawed before. Bring the straight end of the-rivet to a high heat and insert it in the holes in the two eyes. Link Tongs. This should be remedied by heating them at the rivet and finally by opening and shutting them several times. should be made with only. and finish them with a flatter to Cut off their ends with a hardie. as the form shown at 8. Head the heated end of the rivet by first giving it a few blows with the face of a handhammer. STEP EIGHT. anvil. STEP TEN. and bend the ends of the jaws over the rounded edge of the anvil to the form at 9. the .jawed tongs. After riveting. ) STEPS tongs. Finish the tongs fitting them to the stock on which they are to be used. Punch the rivet hole shown at 9 so that a ^-inch rivet will easily drop into the hole. Punch the holes for a ^-inch rivet.XXV. out the groove the jaws might touch the stock at the center series of cross cuts. STEP ELEVEN. then rounding it with the peen of the hammer.

Exercise 23. 8t' Fuller to ho/d ^'round 3/xk -^\$~~ .CONT. PUT JAW ELD TONGS. Stock -ix 15 ground mochine sted. Plate XXIII.

A^J II (D fc*l i i MI i y 7 n 3 . _ Rg. or W I.Jx^'x 7 "machine "x steel for Jaws.Exercise 24. Plate XXIV. 5Tock. LINK TONGS.c f/'nish y t Ur-T ^ riveting in rivef- /7 @pfc^ /i iih-r-H \_4 ^ 1 . steel 25?" round mach. for handles. M0ry( CVSW7 ^w/Jtf/ .

fx 25" round moch. Stock.I <> .Exercise 24. Plate XXV. LINK TONGS -Com-. gteel or W.

dles are then is This is provided in this exercise for drawing-out done under the trip-hammer. end. the stock between the shown in Fig. is bent to the form at 5 by on a V-block and using a top-fuller on the inside. they should be fitted to a piece of square stock of the size on which they are to be used. the To bend After riveting the tongs. One of the methods used for without a detailed explanation of the various : However.94 HAMMER WORK Exercise 25. The han- The placing as flat it rounded between top. Hollow-Bit Tongs. (Plate XXVI. place it over the rounded edge of the anvil and use a i-inch top-fuller on it. as shown in Fig.) making hollow-bit tongs is shown in Plate XXVI. It should be flattened and brought to the desired form with a square-edge set-hammer.and bottom-swages. jaw proper and the eye to form shown at 7. B. A. thereby making a stronger jaw. or jaw proper. The object of the fuller marks is to leave the neck thick. Enough stock the handles. A student who has made the majority of the preceding exercises should be able to make a pair of these tongs steps. . the following points should be noted At 3 the stock for the jaw is shown fullered and ready for shaping to size.

Plate XXVI. HOLLOW BIT TONGS " Stock: fx 10 Round Machine |Q.Exercise 25.j Steel T~ CZ^ U rf?l-i== 17 .

HARDENING AND TEMPERING STEEL. Box Annealing. or annealed. There are two objects in annealing: first. and second. The quickest method of annealing steel is known as "water annealing. For instance. Annealing. but it often serves the purpose more conveniently. they are usually and placed in an annealing furnace. they have reached the proper temperature the draft is shut off. pieces." It will not leave the steel as soft as when cooled slowly in lime or ashes. The steel coal in cast-iron boxes When is not removed from the boxes until it is cold. to soften the metal.CHAPTER VI. to remove internal stresses. Care must be taken not to heat the steel too much. and allowed to cool slowly. The ashes and lime used should be perfectly dry. ANNEALING. because no air is admitted and the oxygen of the air in the boxes is consumed by the red-hot carbon. A case in which this would be so is when a drill or tap has broken off in a piece of work and must be softened before it can be removed. This method of annealing prevents the steel from being covered with scale. Water Annealing. a piece of tool steel is generally softened or annealed before being worked in a lathe or otherwise machined. . or its grain will become coarse and the steel weakened. so that they will be poor conductors of heat and cause the steel to cool In annealing a large number of steel packed with ground bone or fine char- slowly. The common method to a cherry-red of annealing tool steel is to heat it and bury it in ashes or slaked lime until it has entirely cooled. When carbon steel is heated to a temperature of about 1400 F. it becomes soft. and the furnace is allowed to cool slowly. The more slowly it is cooled the softer it is when cold.

or hardening.. is cooled from the hardening it follows that the hardness of any piece varied by varying the rate of cooling. the temperature at which it is hardened. Hardening. brittle. the temperature at which it was hardened was not high enough. heat. will not cut will not break easily is . raising the temperature slightly steel. The steel will also not so strong. One end of this bar is heated to a dull-red and quickly cooled in water having a temperature of about 70 F. Soapy water gives very good results purpose. If the temperature raised too high the grain of the steel will be very well. The only way to determine the proper heat at which a piece of tool steel should be hardened is by of steel From these may be laws experimenting in the following manner: Draw-out a sample of the steel into a bar about y% inch square. and will not hold a cutting edge . when cooled. If it bends. showing large crystals. The more it heat the harder quickly steel becomes. be coarse. a it . e. in the steel the 2. and will have a fine grain. will be file-hard. The higher the percentage of carbon lower will be the refining. i. The following two laws of hardening should be borne in mind while hardening tool steel: 1.HARDENING 97 The procedure it is to heat the steel to a dull red and plunge for this in water. When cold it is placed on the anvil with about i inch of this end projecting over the rounded edge. Refining Heat. The hardness will depend upon the percentage of carbon in the steel. An attempt is then made to break off this projecting end by hitting it with a hand-hammer. to cool slowly it will become very hard. If instead of allowing steel from a cherry-red heat it is cooled suddenly. and the speed with which it is cooled. This test each time until the file should then be repeated.

slightly softening the hardened steel is known as "drawing the temper. Below this temperature the cooling at The temperature which this enon steel is known as "recalescence. they are too hard and brittle for most This process of purposes. or hardening heat for the steel tested. it is removed and quickly cooled. Such a bath is maintained at the desired temperature as indicated by a thermometer. the finest grain. These temperatures can be determined ways. an oil bath may be used. when it will seem to become hotter for a short time and the color is gradual again.98 ANNEALING. can be determined by the use of a Pyrometer. Tempering. TEMPERING The refining heat may then be defined as the temperature which gives the steel. and the steel placed in it after being hardened. will be only slightly softened. cool gradually until a certain temperature is reached." or properly "tempering. For ordinary purposes the temperature is gauged by the . When the steel has reached the same temperature as the bath. After tools have been hardened in the man- ner described above. the hard should be heated to somewhat below this temperature. If the hardening and tempering is done on a large scale." is accomplished by reheating the hardened and quickly cooling it again. HARDENING. Recalescence. and must be softened a little. and will still be hard enough for in several small lathe tools. when hardened. and also leaves it in the strongest condition. When steel is and allowed to cool." In water annealing. The accompanying chart gives the approximate temperatures at which various tools are tempered. apparent re-heating occurs It is the proper refining. the rate of cooling heated to a bright-red heat It will is not uniform. Thus if a piece of hardened tool steel is heated to a temperature of about 430 F. This phenom- lighter. it Tempering steel. leaves it file-hard. the amount of the reheating depending upon the use for which the tool is intended.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING 99 GUIDE FOR HARDENING AND TEMPERING CARBON TOOL STEEL .

the cutting edge should be kept high in the fire. indicating the last After the metal has been cooled they remain temperature to which it was heated. The tempering of a chisel an example of the process employed. It at a temperature of about 430. They are all tempered in the same manner. when the color yellow.100 ANNEALING. After the chisel has been forged. the only difference being in the final will serve as hardness of the cutting edge. visible. The hardening is done by quick cooling water at a tern- . the grain may may be indicate that a tool has the proper coarse because of too high a hard- ening heat. so that the heat will be applied cool until black. but while this method hardness. to brown. When reheating. HARDENING. The to try best shop method for it with a file. If the steel is reheated to too high a temperature it must be rehardened and tempered again. then to light purple. to dark purple. and flow toward the cutting and in heated slowly. of re- Common iron shows this same phenomenon. the main body being left unhardened in order to resist shocks. Up to a visible red heat. polished surface of steel if heat is applied. the color changes from pale yellow to dark yellow. it should be allowed to and then reheated for hardening about 3 inches back from the edge. scratchy cutting edge. and finally to blue. The testing the hardness of a tool is action of a file on steel which has been tempered at the different colors is given in the chart. Tempering Only the Cutting Edges tools are Certain tempered only at the cutting edges. TEMPERING This film of oxide forms on the is first color of oxide on the steel. to the thick part of the chisel edge. This last condition gives the tool a crumbly and of Tools. visible is a very pale As the temperature rises. These colors serve as a guide for tempering. The chisel should be kept well covered with coke. the higher the temperature heating the softer the steel becomes.

since if there is a well-defined line between the cooled and hot portions the The chisel is then chisel will probably break at that point. 47. considerable heat remaining in it but the edge being cold. hardened and tempered in the same manis done when the yellow . A lathe tool is ner. as at B. the fool is completely cooled to prevent further reheating and softening of the point. Pale Yellow Straw Yellow Deep Straw Light Purple Blue tinged with Red Fig. quickly plunged into the water and immediately removed. When the color at the cutting edge is blue tinged with red. should never be held stationary in the water. except that the final cooling scale appears at the cutting edge. The chisel is held vertically. They will when the heat from that part runs down into move down toward the point in the order shown at A in Fig. and the cutting edge gradually inserted in the water until about half of the heated portion is below the surface. since dirty water retards cooling. the cutting end is polished with a carborundum stone or a piece of emery cloth. so that the steam generated It will not" blow the water away and retard the cooling. These temper colors will first appear next to the heated portion of the chisel the point.TEMPERING perature of about 70 F. The tool must be moved around while doing this. 47- For the purpose of watching the colors. 101 This water should be clean.

The degree of hardness in a piece of carbon steel depends upon the rapidity of its cooling from the refining heat. If this is not done the parts in contact with the hot iron will become overheated and too soft before the other parts are hot enough to show the desired colors. it should be worked at a yellow heat. and the surface polished. are cooled in as rapidly as water. are hardened by plunging them. which must be extremely hard. Care should be taken not to remove the tools from the when being hardened thruout. files. When the forging or tool is merely to be smoothed or finished. as they are likely to crack. which require toughness rather oil. into a bath of cold brine. HARDENING. The latter cools the steel faster than water. such as springs. until they have completely The temperature at which worked depends on the amount of forging and hammering to be done. The oil does not cool them bath. etc. and leaves it much harder.. Heating Steel for Hardening. tool steel should be cooled. and then completely cooled.102 ANNEALING. is When a tool tempered thruout it is first heated uniformly to the reAfter removing it fining heat. The reheating is sometimes done over the fire. Some tools. Forging Heat of Tool Steel. or on a plate laid over the fire. If a large amount of hammering is necessary for shaping a piece. The fire used for heating . to be Methods of Cooling. the work should be done at a temperature just above the refining heat. Much heavy hammering is good for the steel. when it is again cooled in water or oil. when at the refining heat. The tool should be turned frequently. from the cooling bath it is dried. At this heat the steel is plastic and works easily. in order to have the heating take place uniformly. since it refines the grain. TEMPERING Hardening and Tempering Tools Thruout. Tools and articles than hardness. such as dies. It is tempered by laying it on a piece of red-hot iron until the desired color appears on the polished surface.

A piece of carbon steel should never be allowed to "soak" in the fire after uniformly heated to the desired temperature. If one part of a tool hardened is heated more than another there will be an unequal expansion. Restoring the Grain. Hardening at a Rising Heat. This cooling will make it contract and tend to crack it. having been This causes it to become decarbonized. By allowing the steel to cool and then reheating it to 1. For this reason pieces of tool steel sometimes break with a loud report is after being hardened. If the air is not warmed very much and a piece in the fire is turned over occasionally. Importance of Uniform Heating. It should be removed from the fire and hardened just as soon as the de- sired temperature has been reached. or bottom. The contraction which takes place when to be the tool stresses in the tool. in order to heat the cold air coming thru the tuyere iron. . oxygen in the air will not attack and decar- bonize it. as the grain in them will be coarse and there will be internal stresses set up. cooled will also be unequal. and brittle. coarse in grain. has become coarse thru overheating. thereby closing the grain. fined in one of the following ways : In case the grain of a piece of steel it may and should be re- the size of the material with a trip-hammer or sledge. By reducing the refining heat.HEATING tool steel should 103 have a good bed. If it is heated too rapidly the corners and edges will become overheated before the main body of the piece has reached the proper temperature. Carbon steel should be heated slowly enough to obtain a uniform color on it. The in order that the piece should also be kept well covered with hot coke. Allowing these parts to cool to the proper temperature will not do much good. 2. This causes internal which may crack it at any time. of hot coke. the heated portions of the piece will be cooled.

Caution. carving knives. a carving knife were uniformly heated into oil or water so that one of the flat sides struck first. possible. When hardening tools having teeth or . ham- mering F. Tempering Taps. When heated steel unless the contraction is uniform cooled is it con- liable to be warped or bent out of shape. to its original quality. If. HARDENING.104 ANNEALING. Very sometimes hardened by heating them uniformly the refining heat and placing them between heavy plates of iron whose faces are smeared with oil. the other and the blade would be cooled more quickly than would be badly warped. By dipping it in edge-wise both sides would be cooled at the same rate. shear and articles of similar character. it in the cooling bath in the and dipped the bath for instance. Cylindrical pieces are generally inserted end first in the that side cooling bath blades. true. The insertion of the steel This method leaves the between the plates must be done as quickly as steel hard. while square flat pieces. it should and then hardened. and then cooled uniformly by dipping proper manner. To avoid this warping as much as possible the piece must first be heated uniformly. The grain of tool steel 1400 heated to 1600. thin flat pieces of to Hardening Thin Flat steel are Articles. and flat. This ture to which It remains in the condition caused by the highest temperait has been heated until it is cooled and reheated. TEMPERING Restoring the grain by reheating may not make the steel good as it was before being overheated. . itself to then adjusts the new temperature. Unless it will practically restore it quite as has been overheated for some time or actually burned. If the refining heat of a piece of steel is is and thru carelessness the piece not be cooled in the air to 1400 would give it the hardness of the 1400 temperature together with the coarse grain due to overheating. are dipped edge-wise. and the warping would be very slight. is it Warping tracts. and in Cooling.

has appeared. be first slowly in the fire. depending on how the colors are appearing. i. Tempering Carving Knives. or with emery cloth. clown. in order to obtain a uniform heat. they should not be The heating should is absolutely necessary.. The The pipe heated uniformly by revolving it knife is then held inside of it. It is tempered by inserting It in a heated collar. in order that the temper colors may be readily seen. the tap is cooled in oil.TEMPERING TAPS projections. be done in a muffle furnace. e. and around in the water. to prevent the teeth from coming in direct contact In the latter method the pipe in which the heatfire. deep straw or brown. 48. with the in tepid water. 105 heated more than such as taps and reamers. should be constantly revolved while inside the coland moved back and forth thru it. and very inside of a piece of pipe. lar. as shown in Fig. but in case this is not available it can be done over the forge fire by enclosing the tap in a piece of pipe. should. In no case should the teeth come in contact with the inside of the collar. After the refining heat has been reached the tap is cooled It is plunged end first and then moved up. ing is done should be longer and at least 2 inches larger in diameter than the tool. When hardening carving knives on a small scale they are generally heated in the same manner as a tap. When the desired color. however. to cool it thoroly and to prevent the steam generated from retarding the cooling. 2=1 When the tap has been completely cooled it is taken out and polished with a special emery wheel. . The tap must be heated slowly and revolved frequently.

and cooled in tepid water. dipping it edge-wise with the back of the knife down. is Tempering Shear Blades.106 ANNEALING. When heated uniformly to the refining heat. TEMPERING little blast turned on. When pieces of steel must be toughened so that they will return to their original form when bent or twisted. The plates also keep the blade from warping when cooling. otherwise it will warp again cooled. the blade is cooled in fish oil. The heating should be done slowly. As soon as the desired color. Tempering Springs. when the color of the scale blue tinged with red. in order to watch the temper colors. HARDENING. the blade is cooled in fish oil. they are generally "spring tempered. so that about i inch of the cutting edge is exposed for its entire length. in order to avoid warping or bending. in the blade are drilled in the and the three pieces are bolted together. They are then placed in a furnace." This is the same is as ordinary tempering. and one side of the blade polished. This makes the body tough for resisting shocks. heated to the refining heat. These plates prevent the body of the blade from becoming as hot as the cutting edge. no attempt should be made to it below a red-heat. Holes corresponding to those plates. reaches the cutting edge. If the blade be- straighten comes bent before hardening. I inch narrower. In small shops shear blades are hardened in the following manner: Two wrought iron plates the same length as the blade. When the blade is cold the plates are removed. except that more of the hardness removed. making the steel tougher. and ^ inch thick are placed on either side of the blade. . and cause it to cool slowly. The blade is tempered by standing it on edge lengthwise on a piece of hot iron. emery buffer and held in the flame of the fire to temper The final cooling is done in oil. it when being After the knife has been hardened is polished on an it. a straw yellow.

This procedure is continued until the oil blazes uniformly over the entire spring at the same time. It is then again completely cooled in the oil. The springs are placed in this bath after being hardtime. The momentary plunge in into the oil bath cools these thin parts somewhat without af- In this way the fecting the rest of the spring very much. in the Tempering springs on a small flame of the fire. If. They are then removed and cooled in oil. however. It is therefore a good policy to state the requirements of a spring when ordering material for it. On account of the small amount of carbon in wrought iron and soft steel. which is about 600 When large numbers of springs are to be handled. oil. while still wet with oil. hence the thin parts heat more quickly than the others. which is generally after about three plunges the bath. and are allowed to remain there for a certain length of depending upon their size. the steel is 107 oil is It gives better control generally used for cooling in spring over the hardness. they cannot be hardened to any appreciable extent. scale is generally done by the blazing off or flashing process. it is plunged for an instant into the oil bath. but tempering. When the oil on it blazes up. makes it harder to properly gauge the steel For many purposes a grade of made especially for springs gives better results than regular tool steel. charcoal. entire spring is brought to the flash-point temperature of the F. such as ground bone. they are heated to a high temperature while in contact with some substance containing carbon. Case Hardening. an oil bath kept at the proper temperature is often provided for tempering. ened. it The latter can be used.TEMPERING SPRINGS Fish or animal tempering. or charred . Springs are seldom uniform in thickness. The spring is first hardened in the fish oil and then re-heated. because not cooled quite so fast as in water.

of a tool a mottled effect when case-hardening following manner : This can The tool is first polished and then placed in a cast iron pot . and is much cheaper than tool steel. so that they can be hardened and tempered in the same manner. This gives these surfaces the characteristic properties of tool steel. Steel treated in this way The depth to which the material is carbonized. This method is also used when only the surface of a hole or a small part of a piece is to be hardened.108 ANNEALING. then removed from the fire and sprinkled with cyanide of potassium. FIRST METHOD. Small pieces and pieces which require only a very thin shell of hard steel are first heated to a high red heat. SECOND METHOD. depends upon the temperature which the material heated while in contact with the carbonizer. HARDENING. since it will not bend easily. and are then quickly cooled in water. steel Machine steel is used ordinarily for case- is particularly valuable for bicycle parts. be done in the It is often desired to give the surface it. make The process of treating the iron or steel so as to the outside surface hard is known as case-hardening. A sists piece of material which has been case-hardened conof a wrought iron or machine steel core with a tool surface. The pieces are reheated for a few seconds. or the peneto tration of the carbon. hardening. to allow the carbon from the cyanide time to soak in. all of the dirt and scale may be removed. TEMPERING leather. is There are three practical shop methods which are used for case-hardening. their outside surfaces will absorb some of the carbon. resists shocks by reason of its soft core. and the carbonizing substance used. The latter must be reasonably pure in order to obtain the best results. By taking a handful of sharp sand and scouring the piece under water while it is still hot. the length of time it is maintained at that temperature.

and all a final covering of carbonizer is added. These must not touch each other. The same then cooling Caution. is In most commercial practice case-hardening done in the following manner : The carbonizer. removal from the cyanide fine pot. when put on. or dried well and reduced to a fine powder. This building-up process is continued until the pot is is full. The pot is then placed in a furnace and heated to a temperature of about 1800 F. the fire until after the tool to is 109 This pot is is removed. effect can be obtained by passing the piece thru its a spray of water after it. It is % then opened. and the articles cleaned with a are reheated to a temperature of about 1450. lid joints are closed with clay to prevent oxida- A tion. It is then removed with a pair of tongs and dropped thru a distance of 5 or 6 feet into cold water. Pack Hardening. and on top of it another layer of the pieces. Care should also be taken to avoid the fumes from the cyanide as much as possible. is layer of it about bone. as this will cause the cyanide to spatter around. The tool kept on allowed remain in the cyanide until the desired absorption of carbon has been reached.001 inch. When the carbonizing action has continued long enough. a full orange heat. about six hours being required for a penetration of about 6 inch. onous. Ten minutes is required for a penetration of about . charcoal. and Wherever a is spray strikes the piece a vine-like effect produced. which l A i /2 inches thick is placed on the bottom of a hardening pot. for they are very pois- THIRD METHOD. Cyanide crystals are Do deadly poison. not dip wet tongs into molten cyanide.CASE-HARDENING containing molten cyanide of potassium. may be ground layer of carbonizer is added. They . and on top of it a layer of the articles to be hardened. Another charred leather. the pot is removed from the furnace and allowed to cool slowly. brush.

steel Cutting Stock. If heated too quickly the outside of the steel may become hot while the center is still comparatively cold. * student For further information on the treatment of high-speed steel the is referred to "On the Art of Cutting Metals.* High-speed steel generally requires different treatment from high-carbon steel. Small stock is often cut by grinding a groove around it with an emery wheel and then breaking it. W. and cooled in oil. cutting. After removing the box from the furnace the pieces are withdrawn. This process is sometimes employed to enrich the surface of low-grade tool steel. depending upon the depth of carbonizing required. . High-speed it should be heated for a tendency to produce cracks. and heated in a furnace. The contents of the box are kept at a temperature of about 1475 F for about two hours. but slight modifications are sometimes required to obtain the best results. but are iron. and may then be heated faster up to a yellow heat. since breaking cold has Forging Heat." by Mr. The same general method is usually followed. making the final product tough and strong. It about 1800 for forging this should be heated slowly until it becomes red hot. The tool steel is packed with a carbonizing material in iron boxes. Hardening pots are made out of either cast iron or wrought The latter stand the heat better and last longer. TREATMENT OF HIGH-SPEED STEEL. Taylor. steel is The proper temperature F. Hammering it in this condition is liable to cause inter- nal cracks. TEMPERING and quickly cooled in cold water or oil. on account of the peculiarities of some of its constituents. HARDENING. This reheating refines the grain. a yellow heat. more expensive. F. For this reason it is advisable to follow the special directions given by the manufacturer.110 ANNEALING.

It should have burned for some time. the highly heated tool into a vat of molten lead at a temperaIt is allowed to remain there for a ture of about 1500 F. Its nose may be quickly cooled by the air-blast is from an air compressor or power fan. depending on the size of the tool (ten minutes for an ordinary lathe tool). Still another method is to plunge to simply . Care should be taken when removing the tool from the fire At this high temperature the steel is soft and crumbly. and then quickly heated to the melting point. There should be a good bed of hot coke around the bring it to the hardening heat quickly. Another way immerse it in oil. will still be in good condition after grinding off the irregularities. While doing this the tool should be turned frequently. Cooling. The tool is cooled from this high heat by any one of several methods. and will break easily. Lead Heat Treatment. or if it some of the corners fall off due to the excessive heat. The higher the temperature to which the tool is heated for hardensteel. If the tool becomes pitted. The latter method makes the tool somewhat harder than either air or oil cooling. to ing the greater will be its property of red hardness. In heating the end of a highspeed steel tool for hardening it should be brought slowly to a full red heat. and is then transferred to another vat . to insure a uniform high heat thruout the entire end. or the higher the temperature at which it will still hold its cutting edge. Heating for Hardening.TREATMENT OF HIGH-SPEED STEEL 111 The Fire used for heating high-speed steel should not be a freshly-made one. to see that the point does not hit the coke. in order to produce the intense heat necessary for proper hardening. Cooling it in water tends to crack it but tools are sometimes partially cooled in water and then finally cooled in oil. time. At this temperature the nose of the tool sweats or becomes wet.

TEMPERING lower temperature. when dressing should be annealed. as This method is not suitable for small more expensive than the air-blast or oil method. that carbon tool steel sometimes becomes refracIn such cases it This may be done in the same manner steel it so that crumbles. . HARDENING. Annealing. tory High-speed it. it is shops. is treated.112 at a ANNEALING.

90 to i. Selection of Steel for Tools. flat drills.oo i. and . TOOL FORGING. Steel is carbon that sometimes designated by the number of . 20 to 1. known as 100 point carbon steel. Fifty carbon. knives. thus putting the responsibility of selecting the right kind on the manufacturer or his agent. axes. lathe centers. etc. Shear blades. hand chisels. reamers.5% of carbon. axes. i. caulking tools. the following table is given : % CARBON . granite cutters' tools. twist drills.70 to . 30 to 1. i. wedges. or fifty-point carbon. punches for boilermakers. i. This information is generally given in the catalogues of the manufacturers.oi%'s of If there is i% of carbon in it.and tools. 10 hammers.30 Wood. finishing and cutters. fullers. it is it contains. In order to provide a rough guide for the student and to illustrate the fact that different tools require different grades of steel. without specifying any particular brand. graving tools. of tool steel on the market that best material for a tool without it There are so many grades is very hard to select the the knowing somewhat of characteristics of each grade. and drop-forging dies. Tools for turning chilled and hard metals. indicates a steel containing .80 USED FOR Blacksmiths' tools. chisels. One of the best ways is to order the steel for a stated purpose.80 to . etc. dies. and other tools that are welded. flatters.io to i. shear blades. 20 Lathe and planer tools. hand- . sledges.90 . knives.40 metal-turning tools. small hand tools.CHAPTER VII. rock drills. pick-points. which should be consulted before ordering the material. such as rivet-sets. and axes. milling cutters. . Lathe centers. Mining and rock drills. oo to 1.

in order to determine its refining heat and to learn how to restore the grain if it is overheated. or it The extreme end. % crushed.114 TOOL FORGING Before attempting to forge and harden his first tool a student should experiment with a sample of the tool steel. If the edge of the tool is too thin when cut it should not be upset. shown at STEP Two. (Plate XXVII. in order to remove any internal stresses that may have been caused by improper hammering. It must be cut off shorter. Tool-steel stock should be cut while hot.) and taper STEP ONE. it Heat the head end I. A. The finishing may be done with a flatter at a temperature just above the refining heat. may be cut off with may be cut partly thru and broken after the chisel has been hardened and tempered. cutting edge is tempered to a blue-tinged-with-red color. as this makes it likely to crack. to a yellow heat. cut cold the cracks are likely to be formed. in the The as tip manner already described in the previous chapis then ground on an emery wheel to an angle of 60. when Exercise 26. as Forge the other end to the form shown at 2 About inch of this end should extend over the sharp edge of the anvil. He should also practice drawing the If it is colors on pieces of scrap machine steel. Cold Chisel. which will appear tool is hardened. The chisel should be allowed to cool slowly. The latter method exposes the grain and indicates whether the heat was correct. The ter. shown. the hardie. . the grain will be at a yellow heat. and the tapering should be continued up to that edge. STEP THREE. If it is hammered out with heavy blows when black.

=F D 1 I' D D I 3f ---. Plate XXVII. COLD CHISEL.-^ .Exercises 26 and 27. ino D CXTPE CHISEL.

The taper should extend to B. 49. 49. A. and tapered square. Cape Chisel. Fig. wider than the section at B without making the nicks or sharp corners which would be formed if the edge of the anvil were used.and bottom-fullers.or 24-inch top. 50. when the groove is being cut to the width of the edge A. Place the end over the large part of the horn and flatten it with a hand-hammer in the manner shown at A in Fig. it should perature ting edge . should be wider than the rest of the blade. as shown at 2. Make the fuller marks shown with /2. The other end is brought to a yellow heat. used for cutting grooves and cutting working '\A. is (Plate XXVII. Since the horn acts as a fuller. edge. These marks should not be made object too deep. l STEP THREE. STEP FOUR. and taper the head STEP Two. Extend the end shown at B in Fig. this stretches the stock lengthwise and enables one to make the end of the blade. end.116 TOOL FORGING Test the chisel by chipping a piece of cast iron. This permits the blade to "clear" C D Fig. in Fig. If the cutis too soft it should be rehardened at a higher temwhile if it breaks. CAPE CHISEL. 49. the sides of a groove. STEP ONE. Exercise 27. 50 over the sharp M .) The The cape for chisel. Their is to prevent the blade from being made too long. showing a coarse grain. or slot. be rehardened at a lower temperature. at the bottom of narrow channels. Cut the stock to length. or the blade will not be thick enough.

Harden and temper the flat the cutting edge in the same manner as chisel. used for cutting grooves as In the latter capacity it is known This chisel is made in the same manner as the cape chisel except that one edge of the blade is rounded. Smoothing may be done with a set-hammer and a flatter.CAPE CHISELS 117 edge of the anvil. Chisel. as shown at C and D in Fig. 50. and finish the blade by turning it on edge and hammering it to a point. This is done by placing the blade on a bottom-swage and using a hand-hammer or a flatter on the top edge. Fig. (Plate XXVIII. . as shown at 5.) oil The round-nose cape and for centering a centering chisel. Round-Nose Cape chisel is drills. Exercise 28. 50.

carbon steel tools are used. the cuts are light. but is tempered to a brown or purple color. a keener edge than high-speed steel. is desired and will take They but the cutting must be done more slowly. high-speed steel may be obtained in small employed Where a fine finish pieces already hardened. because they can be used for faster cutting and are more economical. is (Plate XXVIII. Lathe Tools. . steel tools are In most machine-shop work high-speed in preference to carbon tools. the center-punch should . Center-Punch. When tempered.) no detailed de- The center-punch so simple to make that scription of the steps required is necessary. The following five exercises give the method of forming and tempering some of the common forms of high-carbon lathe tools.118 TOOL FORGING Exercise 29. mark tool steel without having its point dulled. For light lathe work. It is hardened in the same manner as the cold chisel.

1EO fe D * 4 D D a^s CENTER PUNCH . ROUND NOSE CAPE CHSEL.Exercises 28 and 29. Plate XXVIII.

and center-punch it. It is forged with the blade either on one. as STEP ONE. tool occurs at or near the tip.) STEP ONE.) The cutting-off tool is used for making a narrow groove in work on a lathe. as shown at 2. as shown. as shown at i. shown at I. The easier way is to have one side of the blade flush with the side of the tool. (Plate XXIX. This is done because all the cutting done by this Fig. The nose should be heated up to the line BB in Fig.120 TOOL FORGING Exercise 30. (Plate XXIX. STEP Two. . side or in the center of the stock. Cut the stock to length. when the temper color at the tip is light yellow. Round-Nose Tool. chisel. Hammer out this end so that the top edge is thicker than the lower one and has clearance all around. and then cooled as far as CC. and bend it Exercise 31. Forge one end of the stock from three sides to a blunt point. Cutting-Off Tool. as in this exercise. 51. Trim off the end with a hot up slightly. The hardening is done in the same manner as with the cold chisel. The final cooling is done 51.

Plate XXIX.Exercises 30 and 31. .

so that it will have clearance. STEP THREE. or a under the trip-hammer. either with a step in forging flat-jawed tongs. Taper the sides of the blade as shown at 3. in the same manner as the first STEP Two.) STEP ONE. Cut and mark the stock. The cut- ting edge Harden generally ground by the person using the tool. Draw-out the blade with a set-hammer. and draw out the part A hand-hammer on the rounded edge of the anvil or with the trip-hammer. . Exercise 32. The temper color should be light yellow. top-fuller. STEP FOUR. as at 2. tempering it to a light straw color. making it appear as In tempering this tool is heated to the line BB and cooled to the line CC. Since the cutting edge of this tool is the extreme end. in the same manner as the round-nose tool. The hammering should be done with the fullered side down. STEP THREE. Threading Tool. as shown. in the same manner as the cold chisel. Fuller the end. it must be made thicker than the rest of the blade. Cut off the at 4. (Plate XXX. STEP FOUR.122 TOOL FORGING Mark with a fuller. end of the blade with a hot it chisel. STEP Two. Cut off the end with a hot is it chisel.

Center punch *-} / 32 M 1 Use 4" Top caiter of and bottom fullers Race fuller on center punch mark Cut off along to 60* dotted line and grind point [^ angle .Exercise 32. Plate XXX. THREADING TOOL. Stock.ifx 1x7 "tool steel.4" V- 1 .

the blue end has not been cooled enough. STEP Two.124 TOOL FORGING Exercise 33. Only the small corner of the blade red-hot. The is If this entire cutting edge should be uniform in not the case and it is blue at one end and straw at the other. the blade being bent toward the shank after- wards. In hardening this tool it should be placed in the fire with A is the cutting edge up. or side-finishing tools. (Plate XXXI. Side tools. this time tipping it so that the end of the blade which was too soft will be deeper in the water. the fullered side being down. may called right. STEP ONE. Make a fuller is mark as and mark it as shown. at the rounded edge of the anvil with a heavy hand-hammer. shown at 2. in order to avoid overheating. Smooth it with a set-hammer.or left-hand side-tools. STEP FOUR. Finish the tool by giving the top edge of the blade the proper offset.) 4. as shown in Fig. and are be bent. STEP THREE. To do this it should be placed with the flat side down over the rounded edge of the anvil. Trim the blade with a hot chisel along the dotted lines shown at 3. B. The tool should then be rehardened. are shaped as shown at They are made with the blade at either the right or the left side. and tempered to a light yellow color. quickly polof the blade. . color. Draw-out the end of the stock. Cut the stock to length. Side Tool. tipping the fuller so that the groove cut deeper at one side. set-hammer is placed on the blade close to the shoulder and given a few blows with a sledge. as shown in FigT A. The shoulder of the blade should extend about ^ inch beyond the outer edge. C. to produce the necessary offset. D should be allowed to remain The tool flat is ished on the side removed from the water. The blade hardened by dipping it in water. The blades Bent side-tools are forged in the same manner as the others.

.*-i c j J 7 Fig.B. Stock -fxl'x 8" tool steel. Plate XXXI. A u.Exercise 33. SIDE TOOL.

Bring the steel slowly to a yellow heat. The punch should be re- moved from hole is being punched straight. STEP ONE. The length of this shank varies according to the depth of the hole in which the tool is to be used.. the e. The temper color same as for the other lathe tools. With handle it should weigh about 2^4 Ibs. It is Exercise 35. and . STEP THREE. A. giving hammer of this exercise two The stock used should be for two. 52. the hole after each blow. (Plate XXXIII. (Plate XXXII. In this case the nose is hammered flat before bending. and punch it with an eye-punch similar to the one shown in Fig.) STEP ONE. Boring Tool. as shown in Fig. enough material When 8%. and the cutting edge ground square. Draw-out for the thin shank either under the trip-hammer or at the rounded edge of the anvil with a sledge or heavy hand-hammer. STEP Two. STEP FOUR. B. Cross-Peen Hammer. Mark the stock as shown at I with a chisel and a center-punch. STEP Two. light yellow. Make a fuller mark as shown at 2. It is then bent up. sometimes necessary to use a boring-tool for turning a recess having sharp corners. this is Bend the nose as shown.126 TOOL FORGING Exercise 34.) stu- In forging the cross-peen dents should work together. only one hammer it is required the stock should be long enough to work without the use of tongs. and mark it as shown. as in Fig. The end of this punch is shaped somewhat like a dull center-punch. in order to see if the This also cools the punch. so that it can be easily driven thru the stock without cutting out too much material. inches long. i. Only the tip of nose need be hardened and tempered. Cut the stock to length.

Exercise 34. Plate XXXII. C= * M kr-l J_J I a* K-V-H fig. BORING TOOL -x I x 6$" rod 5feel. B .

STEP Six. the punch should be removed and cooled. as shown. Trim the face with a hot chisel. either under the trip-hammer or with a heavy hand-hammer. 53.128 TOOL FORGING prevents it from bending. The bulging Drive a tool-steel drift-pin. 53. one jaw of a pair of tongs should be inserted in the eye. first by slowly inserting about l i /2 inch of the end in water. FOUR. Fig. DRIFT-PIN. Always remove the drift-pin before reheating the Draw-out the face end to the form shown. Cut off the stock at the middle. STEP FIVE. STEP THREE. making the hamcold grind the face mer appear as at 6. and smoothed with flatter. to the size of the bar with a sledge. STEP SEVEN. EYE-PUNCH. as . Drive the drift-pin in from each side. making the shape of the eye as shown. and draw-out the peen end in the same manner as a hand chisel is forged. hole. When the hole has been punched nearly thru from the one side. When convex. the entire hammer is slowly heated to the In removing it from the fire. and peen slightly For hardening. Fig. into the sides of the piece should then be hammered down a piece. it with a flatter. Fig. 52. Finish STEP. The face is hardened refining heat. Punching is then finished from the other side. Finish trimming both ends.

Stock.g A 1 - I z'A&Sr" tool 5tee/. Plate XXXIII CROSS PEEN HAMMER.Exercise 35. Can/or /xtncSt 7 /MorSc mft) I I \r~~~^ r L - i .

brown is a good temper color for the face. the ends are polished with an emery brick.) This hammer as the cross-peen forged and tempered in the It same manner should weigh hammer of Exercise 35. and insures a uniformly hardened face. (Plate is XXXIV. the face should be placed in water until the proper color has reached the peen. when finished about i% pounds. Dark the heat around the eye being held for tempering. water should be allowed to drip on the center of the face. . If the face side edges were cooled by merely dipping it in water. The two ends are then dipped alternately in water. care being taken not While cooling the peen. This prevents the colors from running down before the peen has been cooled enough. Exercise 36. After cooling.130 TOOL FORGING the cold chisel. was done with When it has cooled enough. making it tough. the peen is hardened in the same manner. and brown or purple for the peen. Small Cross-Peen Hammer. the outwould harden faster than the center and be more likely to crack. to cool the stock around the eye. If the desired color reaches the face first. This allows the eye to cool slowly.

Exercise 36. SMALL CROSS PEIEN HAMMER Center. Plate XXXIV.punch -7 Stock . fMork ixfiffl _L 7*" -.x Ix 7i"to o I I steel .| -J 2 *'-- *" I .

as shown at B in Fig.132 TOOL FORGING Exercise 37. stock should be long enough to work without using tongs. a drift-pin. Roughly shape the hammer with top. and be thicker at the center than at the edges. STEP ONE. Mark the stock as shown with a chisel and a center-punch. if only one is wanted the In making the 2-pound ball-peen hammer shown. Round the body of the hammer at the rounded edge of the anvil with a top-fuller and a set-hammer. If this is done after punching the hole. sides as Punch the hole in in the same manner as in Drive shown at A STEP FOUR. STEP Six. STEP Two. Exercise 35. The body should taper in both directions. (Plate XXXV. Fig. 54. Cut the stock at the chisel mark from four . the hole is likely to become too large. This is enough stock for two hammers. STEP THREE. 54- STEP FIVE. Flatten out the end as shown at 2. Ball-Peen Hammer.) a piece of i^-inch square tool steel 6^2 inches long is used.and bottom-fullers. and hammer down the in Fig. 54 until they are straight.

. BALL PEEN HAMMER.lixlixSf tool steel.Exercise 37. hcne af confer pane* r. Plate XXXV. Stock.

under the trip-hammer or with a sledge.134 sides. with y%inch top. to prevent the hammer from marking hot material. Draw-out the head either trip- hammer be or with a sledge. Make fuller marks. Grind both ends. in TOOL FORGING order to insure a square end. Exercise 35. When trimmed the blade is hardened and tempered to a blue color. This hammer is hardened and tempered in the same manner as the cross-peen hammer. Punch and draw-out the head for a chisel at the other end of the stock in the same manner. If only Hot Eye-Chisel. and smooth it with a flatter. The peen should then swage it. STEP Two. Draw-out the stock for the blade either STEP FIVE. to insure a uniform depth of the cuts. but if two are wanted. in the cise 26. Cut the stock at the center from two sides only. STEP ONE. The stock should be turned over in doing this. and the corners cut off. and cut off the end with a hot eye-chisel. (Plate XXXVI. Exercise 38. the stock should be cut 10 inches long. same manner as the hand cold chisel of Exer- . it may be forged on the end of a bar long enough to handle easily. in order to have the blades square across the ends when drawn-out. In trimming the end it should made slightly convex. Punch the hole in the manner described under the in STEP THREE.fullers. Draw-out the face. as shown at 4.) one hot chisel is necessary. The reason for finishing the face before the peen is that it is hard to hold the peen with a pair of tongs.and bottom. making the edges of the face slightly rounded. Finish it with a flatter. It is rounded in a bottom-swage. and trim it with a hot chisel. STEP FOUR. be cut to length. Mark the stock as shown.

HOTEYECHSEL. _L .Exercise 38. Plate XXXVI.

This chisel is hardened like a hand chisel. (Plate XXXVII. The edge should be ground slightly convex.) For a cold chisel the stock is marked. since a chisel of this form is much stronger than one with straight sides. and tempered to a brown or purple color. is After cutting the stock at the middle the blade drawn-out. and the head drawn-out and finished in the same way as for the hot chisel. .136 TOOL FORGING Exercise 39. either under the trip-hammer or with a sledge. the eye punched. Care should be taken in doing this to keep the sides rounding. Cold Eye-Chisel.

. Stock- li'x lix 9i" tool steel Chisel Mark-} w down end. Plate XXXVII.Exercise 39. COLD EYE: CHISEL.

) This pick. Insert a drift-pin in the hole. STEP FIVE. to length. . stock around it and smooth the Finit with a set-hammer. The shown at 5. it should be cut off of the bar at the chisel end second pick is D is then drawn-out under the trip-hammer to the form Insert the drift-pin in the eye. STEP Six. Draw-out the end C under the trip-hammer to the size MN shown. Cutting it out is somewhat easier and quicker.^/2 pounds when finished. STEP X FOUR. STEP THREE. being tempered to a dark blue. STEP Two. to insure a square cut. A. Punch the hole for the eye. as shown at 3. but this would be difficult without a beveled sethammer. With distance of %6 of the eye. and first treated in the same manner as The head is the cold chisel. then heated for about 2 inches. and hardened in the same . The material cut out in this way might be drawn-out instead. and flatten the sides. The face and tempered. or with a hot chisel having a rounded edge. should weigh about 2. trimming from four sides.138 TOOL FORGING <rx Exercise 40. and cut it point are then ground. ish the head with a set-hammer and flatter. a hot chisel cut the stock part way thru at a inch from the edge of the hole. fuller. and cut to length with a hot chisel. the started in the same manner before cutting. hardened. STEP ONE. as shown in Fig. Geologist's Pick. is If only one pick being made. mark shown at I but if two are wanted. The point is Finish the pointed end with a flatter. which is intended for the use of students of geology. Mark the i% x i^-inch stock with a centerpunch and chisel. as shown. (Plate XXXVIII. on both sides These cuts should be finished with a very thin The material should then be cut along the lines and OP. in order to make the bottom of the cuts round.

^ Tool ^ /7\ vJJ ( I A^^**J * 1- ng A ? i I . 5rock _. GEOLOGIST'S PICK.Exercise 40. Plate XXXVIII.

140 TOOL FORGING It is & a dark straw color. Sharpen the edge with a hand-hammer. Finish trimming the end with a similar cut. as STEP THREE. in order to circular. on two opposite as possible. making 16 about % shown at I. holding the stock flat on the face of the anvil. inches long. manner.) steel it STEP ONE. . The tem- per color should be a dark straw. and the stock allowed The hammering should be done to widen as much STEP Two. Hand Rock-Drill. Exercise 41. to force the metal back. The blows should come at an angle of 45. make it After sharpening the drill. and the drill should be rotated about the cutting edge. shown. as Cut a piece of ^4-inch octagon tool Heat the end and draw it out. care should be taken to prevent the heat from flowing back and softening the hardened point. sides. (Plate XXXIX. 6 inch thick. forming the cutting edge shown at 3. Trim the end at an angle with a hot chisel. This may be done by keeping damp coals around the point. it is and hardened in the same manner brought to the refining heat as a cold chisel. STEP FOUR. tempered to a brown or In heating the head.

HAND ROCK DRILL. Plate XXXIX.Exercise 41. 1 1*0 it: '*' .

142 TOOL FORGING Exercise 42. STEP FOUR. V-fullers shown in Fig. Fig. 56. shown at 3 with Make small grooves along four sides as a thin fuller. Deepen the grooves with the top and bottom Fig. 56. 55- rig. of the drill thinner and wider. using a bottom sow. Machine Rock-Drill. Upset the end as shown at 2. These grooves extend back 2^4 inches. and smooth it STEP THREE. and . and are made for the purpose of guiding or holding the top and bottom V. with a natter. DOLLY. or with a hot chisel having a rounding cutting edge. (Plate XXXX. 57- TOP AND BOTTOM V-FULLERS. WING SWAGE. Cut a piece of ^-inch octagon 20 STEP Two. Fig. or wings. STEP FIVE. or wing swage. to insure uniformity in the depth of the fuller cuts. 55. Make the sides. The stock should be turned dur- ing this operation. inches long.) tool steel STEP ONE.fullers in place when fullering.

ROCK DRILL. MACHINE.if "x2. Plate XXXX. -JJ 19" .0" Octagonal fool steel.Exercise 42. Stock.

the colors being drawn to a dark straw. STEP SEVEN.144 TOOL FORGING a square set-hammer. making it square. If a very keen edge is desired on the file. . and then strike the head of the dolly with a backing-hammer. as shown at 5. Form the cutting edges. drill. it should be filed while hot with a square in the The hardening and tempering is done same manner as the cold chisel. anvil. trimming the edges shown at 6. as STEP Six. This dolly is 57. the drill point other method be placed with its head resting on the being driven down into it while hot. Finish the end with the dolly shown in Fig. Anto hold the drill across the face of the anvil may with the dolly against the cutting end. Trim off the end of the drill with a very thin hot chisel.

Coal. Carving knives. steel. rock-. Finishing allowance. Bob-punch. making. finishing. fire. 13. tempering. 96. eye-chisel. Anvil. 126. round-nose. Burned Cape iron. cold. 96. Ball-peen hammer. Angle weld. Coke. n. 50. 82. 114. Cutting-off tool. 117. Bibliography. ring. high-speed steel. 102. Cleaning fire. 14. small. Clinker. 105. 112. 84. cutting. forged. hand. Dolly. Banking 14. Annealing. 132. Fitting tongs. 128. 104. 130. II. 120. 14. common method. upset-head. 66.INDEX Allowance. 20. 24. Cold chisel. methods warping of. 18. building. 32. Chisels. 15. 107. 64. 48. grinding. 27. cleaning. Bolt. 73. round-nose cape. welded-head. Drill. Building 13. 38. 14. 22. 29. Cone. Case-hardening. Clevis. cape. 62. 60. Band ring. Cross-peen hammer. 118. Drift-pin. box. 68. 136. Beam Belt strap. eye-. Butt weld. hammer. steel. fire. 80. 60. 87. Fire. hot. 116. 21. Cutting cold stock. no. Cupping-tool. 96. Emery-wheel Eye-bolt. Boring tool. Flat-jawed tongs. 72. hot stock. 13. eye-. 19. 68. 26. 27. Chisel. 96. 14. 84. 70. tools. 128. test. 140. cold. eye-. 126. and bending ring. banking. 21. rock-. oxidizing. 15. 29. Drawing-out. Eye-punch. Cooling high-speed ill. 15. Center-punch. 117. in. 142. 13. 116. Box annealing. 134. 142. hammer. machine. 29. chisel. high-speed water-. 136. Flat lap-weld. Chain links. Flatter. 114. . stock.

Iron. Geologist's pick. Hollow-bit tongs. no. 99. for. Heating high-speed steel. 56. 29. 140. 82. Forging heat of high-speed 1 ening. 27. tools. Hook. of. V-. 118. Hammer. stock.or belt-. Guide for hardening and tempering. 142. burned. Hook. use of in welding. 103. welding. tools. 40. 68. Heat. steel. 126. 74. cutting. restoring the. steel. forged. Indications of welding heat. 102. steel for hard- open-end wrench. Hinge. 102. 84. 27. Hot eye-chisel. 99. 10. of. heating high-speed in. 111. lead heat treatment of. 9. threading. tools. to prevent. heating for hardening. Swedish. twisted. Forge. small cross-peen. 9.146 Flux. Xorway. Hook. 17. 21. 134. tools. annealing. 43. 72. 120. 104. 107. High-speed steel. method of using. Lap-weld. sledge. 138. Formation of 26. 18. 83. trip. Hardening. at. steel. Lathe tools. 22. ii. Forged bolt. 103. at a rising heat. 10. heating steel pack. 21. 43. 62. 12. S-. hook. 132. . 102. 42. hardening 26. steam. boring. guide for. 109. ball-peen. set-. and tempering tools thruout. case-. in. Grinding chisels. 122. steel. 17. thin flat articles. 40. cooling. 34. side. weight of. 17. Grain. 94. 10. steel. 97. refining. cross-peen. Gate-hook. tools. ill. uniform. importance High-carbon steel. hand. Jump-weld. 118. in. Fluxes. forging heat of. heat of tool steel. 103. round-nose. steel for hardening. gate. 17. cutting of. 126. rising. Heading tool. backing. no. scale. 56. II. 124. twisted. 103. cutting-off. and tempering. 112. wrought. Fullers. steel. 130. 102. shrinkage 9. 97. steel for. Hand rock-drill.

Links of chain. Thin. Test. tools thruout. 43. 28. Threading tool. Ring. 102. work. Swage block. 128. drift-. cutting edges of tools. 26. 21. or truing-up. machine. high-speed. 142. 113. in. 20. Steam-hammer. hardening. n. Strap. center-. treatment of. 142. 25. 10. for heavy stock. 99. 38. common. lap-weld. 117. Taps. Swedish 23. 64. Link tongs. 118. 83. 106. 36. 17. Refining heat. 76. tip on. Rock-drill. 50. Recalescence.147 Lead heat treatment of high-speed steel. welding Pick. band. 19. 140. Springs. Punch. 25. link scarf. 90. of. 138. springs. 10. Pin. Round-nose cape tool. 14. Steel. tempering. 52. 23. shrinkage 9. n. guide shear blades. Side tool. 22. Sledge. beam. 109. Shear blades. Marking tools. Making coke. 9. Oxidizing fire. 75. 106. 34. 104. . 54. Practice welds. and hardening. flat. 9. 32. for tools. round. 98. selection of. emery-wheel. Xecking tool. Pick. n. Measuring and marking Methods of cooling. Staples. Tongs. chisel. 113. tempering. eye-. 56. Machine rock-drill. Scarfing. drawing-out and bending. 9. HO. tools. 98. Punching. tempering. 102. 20. 76. 106. for. too. Norway iron. Shears. Restoring the grain. 26. Squaring. fagot. high-carbon. hand. 31. taps. general method. Surface plate. Round lap-weld. 90. to prevent formation of. bob-. iron. 44. 9. S-hook. machinery. 106. Set-hammer. geologist's. link. 103. 22. 124. 104. Materials. wing. flat articles. Pack hardening. 128. 122. 105. Shrinkage. 97. Selection of steel for tools. 66. 142. 78. 104. Scale. Tempering carving knives. 44. Tool-rack. 16. welded. Machinery steel. T-weld. Swages. high-speed. Split-weld. 118.

Upsetting. 19. tempering 100. 40. 18. angle-. importance Welded ring. 78. round lap-. or squaring work. heavy stock. 142. T-. lap-. 44. of. Upset-head bolt. butt-. hollow-bit.148 Tool steel. 28. 87. 19. 74. 76. 1 flat-jawed. 80. 23. 9. lathe. tempering thruout. 42. 73. 8. Wrench. 102. 96. 94. 52. Truing up. Tools. jump-. Weight Weld. Warping 20. Twisted gate-hook. heat. split-. 19. Wrought iron. 113. 118. Twisting. INDEX forging heat 13. 73- Welded-head of. eye-. 27. fire. Water-annealing. V-fullers. steel for. 30. 42. 68. 44. in cooling. link. Uniform 103. indications of. < of iron. Trip-hammer. 75. measuring and marking. 26. 48. 19. 70. split-. Vise. Welding heat. lap-. for pick-up. of. fitting. cutting edges 102. V-. 73. selection of. flat. V-weld. 82. Tongs. 84. . 142. 104. heating. fagot. forged open-end. bolt. Wing swage. 11. 90.

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'28 UNIVERSITY of CALIF01 AT LOS ANGELES LIBRARY . JUL 1 5 T935 MAR 24 huv ^ "H'i 371 Form L-9-10m-5.This book is DUE on the last date stamped below APR 1 1931 APR? JULS m 193.

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