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• Objective: at the end of this topic
student should be able to -Define what instrument is -Determine arrangement of instrument in the cockpit -Classify instrument depend on the function and importance as well the means by which give their indication
INSTRUMENT MEANSEquipment with instruments for measuring, recording or controlling
Instrument on the a/c has many functions some of them to indicate altitude, speed of a/c,attitude of a/c ,and direction of flight also become desirable to help the pilot fly more knowledgeable and effectively. In the cabin there are a lot of equipments .all the instruments are not required by regulation, but each contributes to the safety and convenience of the pilot and passengers
-In the early days of flying ,pilots could tell approximately how height they were flying by looking at the horizontal ground or by comparing the a/c height with the height of other object.
2. Position of instruments in panel
When installing instrument in the instrument panel they are grouped according to the basic importance. .power plant instruments .flight instruments .a/c system instrument
The location of this instruments arranged in three position. Which are center (middle), left and right position . The modern flight instruments grouped is arranged the grouping of six instrument is centered around the altitude indicator (artificial horizon), which is the pilot primary reference instrument for determining a/c attitude. This grouped for maximum visibility and minimum eye movement so the pilot’s workload in reading the instruments held to a minimum.
Fig:-air craft panel indicator
3. INSTRUMENTS ON AIR CRAFT CLASSIFIDE ACCORDING TO FUNCTION IN THREE PRINCIPAL CATEGORY.
.power plant instrument .flight and navigation instruments .system instruments The power plant instruments provide information concerning the operation of the engines and the power plant systems.
The flight and navigation instruments give the pilot information concerning flight speed ,altitude, air plane attitude, heading ,rate of ascent or descent and other indication pertaining to the a/c and its flight path System instruments provide information concerning the hydraulics system ,the air condition system ,the electric system and fuel system other special system
•4.All these instruments are often classified according to the means by which they give indication. In this type of classification we find four main category -pressure instrument -mechanical instrument -gyro instrument -electrical and electronics instrument
SUMMURY Definition of instrument Basic flight instruments Position of instruments In panel Classification of instrument according to function and by means of their indication