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chair? Besides is used when we add new information to what is already known. Besides aerobics, I have to do crunches and push ups. Besides can also be used as a discourse marker meaning 'also', 'in any case',and 'as well'. It is often used to add a stronger, more conclusive argument to what has gone before. In this case, besides usually goes at the beginning of the clause. It's too late to go out now. Besides, it's starting to rain. I don't like this dress; besides,it's too expensive. besides, except and apart from Besides usually adds; it is like saying with, or in addition to or plus (+). Besides cornflakes, I have fruits for my breakfast. Except subtracts; it's like saying without, or minus (-). I like all fruits except apples. Apart from can be used in both senses. Apart from cornflakes, I have fruits for breakfast. (= besides cornflakes) I like all fruits apart from apples.(=except apples) After no, nobody, nothing and similar negative words, the three expressions (besides, except, apart from) can all have the same meaning. He has nothing except/besides/apart from his house. (= He only has his house.) Just Just has several meanings: time 'Just' often emphasizes the idea of 'at this moment' or 'close to the present'. I'll be down in a minute-I am just completing my lunch. Harry has just phoned. In expressions such as 'just after', 'just before', and 'just when', just suggests closeness to the time in question. I saw him just after dinner. (=very soon after dinner.) 'Only', 'scarcely' Just can mean 'only', 'scarcely', 'nothing more than'. Complete dinner set for just $100. I just want somebody to be with me.
The meaning can be emphasized by only. There was only just enough light to read by. Could/Can I Just....? can make a request seem less demanding. Could I just use your bicycle? Exactly Just often means 'exactly'. What is the time by your watch?--It's just 3 o'clock. Thanks. That's just what I wanted. Emphasizer Just can emphasize other words and expressions, with the sense of 'simply', 'there's no other word for it'. You are just amazing. I just love your pen.
Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, itself and themselves. Used as direct objects He hurt himself. I cut myself. Used as indirect objects Rohan cooked himself a good meal. Rhea made herself a party dress. Used as prepositional objects Take good care of yourself/ yourselves. Do you ever talk to yourself when you are alone? Sometimes used as subject complements Alex doesn’t look quite himself today.( as well as he usually does) Why can’t you be yourself? (behave normally/naturally) Used in apposition for emphasis . They may also be placed after a verb.I can’t come myself, but I’ll send someone to help you. The paintings themselves are magnificent, but what ugly frames? Occur after preposition, and after like, than, as but. Are you all by yourself? ( alone) You should see what’s happening for yourself. ( not be content merely to hear what others say about it.)
Karry is a teacher like myself. Bob doesn’t like playing with children younger than himself. ( younger than he is) Whose and Who's Whose is a possessive word meaning 'of whom/ which',used in questions and relative clauses. Who's is a contraction of who is and who has. Compare: Whose is that coat? (NOT Who's is that coat?) It was a decision whose importance was not realized at that time. (NOT who's importance) Do you know anybody who's going to Australia in the next few days? (NOT anybody whose going..) I have got a cousin who's never been to Paris. (NOT whose never been to...) its and it's Its is a possessive word. ( such as my, your). Every country has its traditions. (NOT...it's traditions) It's the contracted form of it is and it has It's raining again (NOT its raining again). Have you seen my pen? It's disappeared. (NOT...Its disappeared) Whether and if Indirect questions Whether and if both introduce indirect questions I’m not sure whether/if I’ll have time. I asked whether/if she had any letters for me. After verbs that are more common in formal style, whether is preferred.We discussed whether we should close the shop. In formal style, whether is preferred in two part question with or. The Directors have not decided whether they will recommend a dividend or reinvest the profits. If indirect question is fronted, whether is used. Whether I’ll have time I’m not sure at the moment. Prepositions After prepositions, only whether is possible. I haven’t settled the question of whether I’ll go back home. There was a big argument about whether we should move to a new office.
Infinitives Whether, but not if, is used before to-infinitives. They can’t decide whether to get married now or wait. ( NOT they can’t decide if). Subject, Complement and Adverbial clauses When a question-word clause is a subject or complement, whether is normally preferred. Whether we can stay with my mother is another matter.(subject) The question is whether the man can be trusted. (complement) The question is if. is also possible but less common. The question is if the man can be trusted. If and whether are NOT used in echo questions Are you happy? Am I happy? No! ( NOT.If/Whether I’m happy?..) Few, A few, the few,Little, A little and The little Little= not much (hardly any). The adjective little has a negative meaning. He has little appreciation of good poetry. A little = some though not much. 'A little' has a positive meaning. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. The little = not much, but all there is. The little information that he had was not quite reliable. Same goes for few, a few and the few. Few= negative meaning + hardly any Few people can keep a secret. A few= positive meaning + is opposed to none. A few Parsees write Gujrati correctly. The few= not many, but all that there is. The few friends he has are all poor. farther and further Distance We use both farther and further to talk about distance. They both mean the same. Delhi is farther/further away from Chennai. Additional Further (not farther) can mean additional. extra, more advanced.
Each with two or more. 3.like (similarity): like me Like can be a preposition.Every of them) Like and as : similarity. Each and every are both normally used with singular nouns. but Every person came from the same small village... Every with three or more. not as. Each can be used to talk about two or more people or things... turn to page 5 Each and Every : the difference 1. For further information. every is normally used to talk about three or more. She's lost nearly every friend she had.(NOT. And every is more common when we are thinking of people or things together.. The business makes less money each/every year. But we prefer each when we are thinking of people or things separately..every hand) Exception Every (frequency) Every (which is normally used with singular nouns) can be used before plural expressions in measurements of frequency. These words stress the idea of the whole group. 1. or without exception. before a noun or a pronoun to talk about similarity. practically.. Like + noun/ pronoun . in a group.the jobs that people or things do. each/every years) She had a toy holding on to each hand. We can also us as to talk about function. I go to Canada every six weeks. Meaning Each and every can often be used without much difference of meaning.. (NOT. You look more beautiful each/every time I see you. Structures We do not use each with word expressions like almost. nearly. one at a time. (NOT .they every) Each of them spoke for five minutes. They each said what they thought. function We can use like and as to say that things are similar.. 2. (NOT. So we are more likely to say: Each person in turn went to see the doctor..nearly each friend) Each can be used in some structures where every is impossible.College of Further Education... (NOT.. (every is closer to all). We use like.
30. as in 1914. as you know etc. as (similarity): as I do As is a conjunction. We use it before a clause. 3. Some expressions beginning with as are used to introduce facts which are common ground. We often drink tea with the meal.known to both speaker/writer and listener/reader. On Friday. as they do in China. inverted word order : as did all his family In a very formal style. This is most common in an informal style. as is sometimes followed by auxiliary verb + subject She was a Catholic. everybody seemed to want war. We can use like to give examples She is good at scientific subjects like mathematics. as + clause as + preposition phrase Nobody knows her as I do. that the king was their supreme lord. like is often used as conjunction instead of as. He is very like his father. You look exactly like your mother did when she was 20. like Peru 2. as did all his family. We can use very. Nobody loves you like I do. (NOT as me) He ran like the wind (NOT as the wind) Like his parents. as on Wednesday. like I do (informal) In modern English. . 4. quite and other adverb of degree before like. he is a vegetarian. In 1939. She looks a bit like Julia Roberts. He believed. as were most of her friends.My brother looks like me. and before an expression beginning with a preposition. (NOT as mathematics) In mountainous countries. 5. the meeting will be at 4.
(Bill is not a conservative) 7. (NOT as it was agreed) 6.Examples are as you know. like Tom. I am not a conservative. what category they belong to etc.(Tom is conservative) Before a negative clause.I'm afraid neither day is possible. I don’t smoke. but he and I have similar attitudes. neither + singular noun We use neither before a singular noun to mean 'not one and not the other (of two)'. A crocodile starts life as an egg. There are some passive expressions of this kind.Function or role: He worked as a waiter.. . (NOT like a waiter) Please don’t use that pencil as an ear bud. as is a preposition.for example as is well known. what purposes things are used for. In this case. as was agreed. Another use of as is to say what function or role a person or thing haswhat jobs people do.) neither (of) + determiner 1. I am sending you the bill. a comparison with as or like usually refers only to the positive part of what comes before. Like Mary. Comparison with as and like after negatives After a negative clause. Compare this use of as with like. I must warn you to be careful. I don’t smoke. (NOT as its well known). (I am not your brother. more people get cold in winter. like Jane (Jane smokes) I am not a conservative. as we agreed. He worked as a waiter for three years. As your brother. next Mondays meeting has been cancelled. as we agreed. (Mary doesn’t smoke) Like Bill. As you know. as we agreed. as you suggested. I must warn you to be careful. Can you come on Wednesday or Thursday? . I am sending you the bill for repairs. Note that there is no subject it after as in these expressions. used before a noun. As is well known. the comparison refers to the whole clause. (I am your brother) Like your brother.
After discussing the economy. The noun or pronoun is plural. Neither of my sisters is married. Neither of my brothers can sing. I regret to say/ to tell/ to inform you = I'm sorry that I have to say. Neither used alone We can use neither without a noun or pronoun. (=I remembered that I had to lock the door and so I locked it. Go on to do something = do/say something new. In an informal style. a plural verb is possible. We can't go on living like this. You remember doing something after you have done it. I am absolutely sure I locked the door. (= I locked it and now I remember it.for . we use a singular verb in a formal style. I remember doing something = I did it and now I remember this.2. Neither of my sisters are married. and before a pronoun.) Neither of us saw it happen. the minister then went on to talk about a foreign policy. The minister went on talking for two hours. these). After neither of + noun/pronoun. I now regret saying what I said.Neither Go on going something = continue doing the same thing.) I regret doing something= I did it and now I am sorry about it. neither of + plural We use neither of before a determiner (for example he. since. if the meaning is clear. (NOT: Neither my brothers can sing. You remember to do something before you do it. Which one do you want?-. We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the job. 3. and from: time 1. I clearly remember locking it.) I remembered to do something = I remembered that I had to do it so I did it. For. I remembered to lock the door when I left but I forgot to shut the windows. my. I shouldn't have said it.
) Its been raining for weeks. events or states: they say when things begin/began. With a past perfect. Since + starting point I’ve known her since Tuesday. (NOT: We live here for ten years. from and since From and since give the starting point of actions. They are not the same. we use a present perfect tense. 2. not a present tense. ( NOT since three years. From/since + starting point I’ll be here from three o’clock onwards. I have known her since February. She’d been working there for a long time. (NOT: I know her for a long time. for and since refer to duration up to a particular past moment. Compare: for + period I have known him for three years. . That house has been empty for six months. I’ve known him for a long time. for + period of time I studied the piano for three years at school. especially with How long? And for is not usually used before all.We use for for duration.to say how long something lasts. How long have you been waiting (for)? We’ve been here (for) six weeks. To measure the duration up to the present. (NOT since a long time) She’d been working there since 2000. for and since with perfect tenses: the difference For and since can both be used with perfect tense to talk about duration upto the present.) A present tense with for refers to duration into the future.) We’ve lived here for ten years. 3. It’s been raining since the beginning of the month. Compare: How long are you here for? (= Until when?) How long have you been here for? (= Since when?) We can often leave out for in an informal style.
(NOT I’ve been working from six o’ clock. but the boss didn’t arrive till ten. She both dances and she sings. or up to a past time that we are talking about.We use since (with a perfect tense) especially when we measure duration from a starting point up to the present.. Some people prefer to avoid them. (OR since her childhood) From/Since the moment they were married. (both + verb. and I am getting tired. I prefer something else... and + clause) I both play the piano and the violin. (BUT NOT Both you can borrow the flat and you can use our car. She’s been like that from her childhood. I prefer living in the country.. Both cannot begin a complete clause in this structure. and I am getting tired) I had been working since six o’ clock.and' structure. both.(verbs) However. (noun) She both dances and sings.and are common. The shop was open from eight in the morning.. I prefer doing something else. (adjectives) I spoke to both the Director and her Secretary.. and I was getting tired.) Prefer and would rather Prefer to do and prefer doing We use prefer to do or prefer doing to say something in general: I don’t like the cities. She's both pretty and clever. especially in expressions that mean right from the start. From is used in other cases. unbalanced sentences with both. so that the same kind of words or expressions follow both and and. I’ve been working since six o’ clock. something doing something to to . You can both borrow the flat and (you can) use our car. (NOT The shop was open since eight in the morning) I’ll be home from Sunday morning (on). they’ve quarrelled.and We often balance 'both. I prefer to live in the country. (NOT since Sunday morning) From is sometimes possible with a present perfect.
We would say would prefer to do (not doing) Shall we go by train? Well. I’d rather not go out this evening.) . if you don’t mind. Would rather (I’d rather) Would rather (do) = would prefer (to do) After would rather we use infinitive without to. to do something rather than I prefer this dress to the dress you were wearing yesterday. (NOT I’d prefer going by car. . I prefer to drive rather than travel by train. you can say I’d rather did something : Shall I stay here? I’d rather you come with us. I’d prefer to go by car. Do you want to go out this evening? I’d rather not. I’d prefer to stay at home tonight rather than go by cinema. Structure after would rather: I’d rather do something something else. Would you rather have tea or coffee? Coffee please The negative is I’d rather not (do something): I’m tired.But I prefer (do) something else. than (do) I’d rather say at home tonight than go to the cinema. I’d rather you did something When you want somebody to do something. Would prefer (I’d prefer) We use ˜would prefer to say what somebody wants in a particular situation (not in general): Would you prefer tea or coffee? Coffee please. I prefer driving to travelling by train. I’d rather go by car. Compare: Shall we go by train? I’d prefer to go by car.
Compare: I’d rather cook the dinner now. lots. the verb is singular. It suggests enough and more. There is not much difference between a lot of and lots of .). A great deal of and a large amount of are generally used with uncountable nouns. a large number. A lot of time is needed to learn a language. Mr. Lots of us think it’s time for an election. measurement nouns . and a following verb is plural.Shall I tell them the news? No. (not I’d rather you cook) The negative is I’d rather you didn’t I’d rather you didn’t tell anyone what I said. much or many. a large amount of. It is used mostly befor singular uncountables and plurals. a large amount of. A large number of is used before plurals. when lots of is used before a singular subject. not past. the majority a lot of and lots of: These are rather informal. a great deal of. plenty of Plenty of is usually rather informal. Louise has spent a great deal of time in Far East. but the meaning is present or future. a great deal. When a lot of is used before a plural subject. we prefer a great deal of. Shall I tell them or would you rather they didn’t know? In this structure we use the past (came. a lot. did etc. The majority of criminals are non violent. and before pronouns. they are both used mainly before singular uncountable and plural nouns. A large number of problems still have to be solved majority of The majority of (= most or most of) is mostly used with plural nouns or verbs. the verb is plural. but are more formal. Do you mind if I smoke? I’d rather you didn’t. and a large number of These are used in similar ways to a lot of and lots of. a large amount. I’d rather they didn’t know. I’d rather you cooked the dinner now. In more formal style. plenty.
) They lived many miles from the town. Rohan seems to change his mind a great deal. I’ve got less problems than I used to have. C) less and fewer without nouns Nouns can be dropped after less and fewer if the meaning is clear. of is not used. used as adverbs A lot and a great deal can be used as adverbs On holiday. How much did it cost? A lot. A) the difference Less is the comparative of little (used especially before uncountable nouns) Fewer is the comparative of few (used before plural nouns) I earn less money than a postman. ( NOT It cost a lot of ponds. eat less food. like pounds. Other words have to be used. It costs several pounds. years or miles. At the college reunions. my or this) and pronouns. (NOT they lived plenty of miles from the town) use without following nouns these expressions can be used without nouns if the meaning is clear. especially in an informal style. we walk and swim a lot. (NOT we walk plenty OR swim lots) less and fewer. I’d like to spend less of my time answering letters. Before nouns without determiners. I’ve got fewer problems than I used to have. Some people consider this incorrect. In this case of is not used. If you want to lose weight. but less/fewer than 20 years ago. B) less/ fewer with and without of Less of and fewer of are used before determiners (like the. there are fewer of us each year.These expressions are not generally used before words for units of measure. Less is quite common before plural nouns and uncountable nouns. . Some people go to church.
Bob is not allowed out at night.) She wasn't grateful to me for repairing her watch. Allow. It is not permitted to smoke in the kitchen. Smoking is not allowed/permitted in the kitchen. People are not allowed/permitted to smoke in the kitchen. let . Well. (NOT Its is not allowed. A lesser known writer. The passive structure with it is only possible with permit. thankful and grateful Grateful is the normal word for people's reaction to kindness. Both words can be flowed by object+infinitive We do not allow/permit people to smoke in the kitchen. When there is no personal object.. Thankful is used specially for feelings of relief at having avoided a danger. She wouldn’t allow me in. can be used in adverb particles. personal subjects and gerund (-ing form) both are possible. or at having come through an unpleasant experience. an “ing form is used.Less can be used as an adverb (the opposite of the adverb more) I worry less than I used to. (NOT I'm very thankful. and let allow and permit These words have similar meanings and uses.. permit. We do not allow/permit people smoking in the kitchen. but not permit. Passive structures are common.) Allow. We were really thankful when it stopped raining after two days. Permit is more formal. D) lesser Lesser is used in a few expressions (in a rather formal style) to mean smaller or not so much The lesser of two evils. I'm very grateful for my teacher's help. favours etc. I'm thankful that's over.
You can eat either chocolate or ice-cream. (NOT I wasn’t let) Let can be used with adverb particles. Did you enjoy the party?. I’ve been let down. . She wouldn’t let me in. passives are possible in this case. there is either vanilla. I went to Rome. and is followed by object+infinitive without to. we can enjoy myself/yourself etc. If you want ice-cream. He is either in Delhi or Mumbai. (polite and formal) Let me buy you a drink. We’re going to Paris for the weekend.or are possible. Enjoy Enjoy normally has an object. Compare: Please allow me to buy you a drink. raspberry. (NOT.) To talk about having a good time. I wasn’t allowed to pay for the drinks. so that same kinds of words or expressions follow either and or. (friendly and informal) Let is not usually used in the passive. especially in informal language. I enjoyed it very much (NOT I enjoyed very much. You can either come with me now or walk home.enjoy to look) Eitheror We use eitheror to talk about a choice between two possibilities (and sometimes more than two) I don’t speak either Japanese or Chinese. (nouns) He is either in Delhi or in Mumbai.Yes. (prepositional expressions) Either you will leave this house or I will call police. We often balance this structure. or chocolate. You can either have chocolate or ice-cream. I really enjoyed myself when. Enjoy can be followed by “ing. (clauses) However unbalanced sentences with either.~ Enjoy yourselves! Enjoy! With no object is possible. The usage is mostly avoided.Let is the least formal of these three words. I don’t enjoy looking after the small children.
my. a noun phrase must have a determiner (eg. the. I usually work at nights.You will either leave this house or I will call police. Note he difference between ˜in the night (mostly used to mean during one particular night)’ and ˜at the night’(= during any night) Compare: I had to get up in the night. One of my friends. Let’s go for a walk in the woods. In: Time In + part of the day I work best in the morning. I usually go out in the evenings. One of After one of we normally use a plural pronoun. and in three dimensional space when something is surrounded on all sides. (NOT one of our dog) Occasionally one of is used with a singular noun referring to a group Why don’t you ask one of the crew? A following verb is normally singular One of our dogs has disappeared. I don’t think he is in his office. (NOT one my friend or one my friends) In : Place In is used for a position inside large areas. . One of our dogs. ( NOT one of dogs) Of cannot be dropped. (NOT one of our cats have disappeared) After one of. those) One of the/my/those dogs.
He died in 1989.Ask me again in three or four days. Compare: I’ll see you again in a month’s time. We met on a cold afternoon in early spring. like for. and to say how long something takes to happen. See you on Monday morning.) with no prepositions. not how long something takes. He wrote a book in a month. in can be used in negative sentences. The expression in . Would you rather work days or nights? We use on if we say which morning/ afternoon etc we are talking about. or if we describe the morning/afternoon etc. .in a month’s time) In American English. In + longer period It happened in the week after Christmas. I can run 200 metres in about 30 seconds. to talk about periods up to the present.In informal style we sometimes use plurals (days etc.’s time is used to say how soon something will happen. (NOT. Other uses of in It can also be used to say how soon something will happen. I was born in August. I haven’t seen her in years.
(=a news paper) ℜ• I had some interesting experiences while I was away. ℜ• You can stay with us . I think she’ll very/most likely be late. I haven’t got time. I don’t think a labour victory is likely. I’m likely to be busy tomorrow.Countable ℜ• Did you hear a noise just now?(= a particular noise) ℜ• Enjoy your holiday. There is a spare room. What’s a likely date for the election? Snow is very unlikely.(=things that happened to me.(=space) You have got very long hair. . Have a good time! ℜ• I bought a paper to read. (NOT experiences) You can’t sit here. (NOT ˜too many noises’) I can’t wait. The opposite is unlikely. Note also the informal adverb phrases very/most likely. There isn’t enough room.(= a room in a house) ℜ• There is a hair in my soup! ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• Uncountable I can’t work here. Infinitive after be (un)likely Be+ (un)likely is often followed by an infinitive.(not hairs)(=all the hair on your head) Likely Meaning Likely is an adjective with a similar meaning to probable. There is too much noise. I need some paper to write on(= a material for writing on) They offers me the job because I had a lot of experience. Do you think it’s likely to rain? He’s unlikely to agree.
I hope you are right. but after the few minutes she realized that it wasn’t going to be easy. (NOT the repairs are certain of costing) Kimi is sure to win. .It is (un)likely + that clause We can use it as a preparatory subject or object for a that clause. Certain/sure + infinitive refer to the speaker’s or writer’s own feelings. It is likely that the meeting will go on late.the other boy hasn’t got a chance. Before the game she felt certain of winning. You seem very sure of cracking the CAT. Note that he is sure to succeed means’ I’m sure that he will succeed’. The repairs are certain to cost more than you think. I thought it unlikely that she would come back. certain and sure Certain/sure of + ing are used to refer to the feelings of the person one is talking about.
. The meaning is similar to rather a. Isn’t she? Wait a bit. Can you drive a bit slower? A bit of a A bit of a can be used before some nouns in an informal style. She is a bit old to play with toys.[a] bit Use A bit is often used as an adverb with a same meaning as a little.
(NOT I lay) Note the expression lay a table (= put plates. I’ve got a bit of a problem. Do you mind if I put some music on? Not a bit. on a table) and lay an egg ( a bird’s way of having a baby). Its forms are: Infinitive: (to) lay past: laid -ing form: laying past participle: laid Lay means ˜put down carefully’ or ˜put down flat’. Note: a bit and a little are used with non comparative adjective. I laid the papers on the table. ˜be/ become horizontal’. Lay the tent down on the grass and I’ll see how to put it up.(NOT Don’t lay.) I lay down and closed my eyes.He is a bit of a fool if you ask me. (Not I laid down) . knives etc. It has an object. A bit tired A bit expensive A little (too) old (NOT a bit kind. a little interesting) Not a bit The informal expression ˜not a bit’ means not at all. the meaning is usually negative or critical. Get up and do some work. It has no object.. Lie (irregular) The forms of the irregular verb lie are: Infinitive: (to) lie past: lay -ing form: lying past participle: lain (used mostly in formal literary style) Lie(irregular) means ˜be down’. Don’t lie in bed all day. I am not a bit tired. Lay and lie Lay Lay is a regular verb except for its spelling.
You lied to me when you said you loved me. To talk about general or repeated willingness in the past we can sometimes use would. but we can’t use would in this way to talk about a particular occasion in the past.. so Charlie gave me a lift to town (not Charlie would give me . The key won’t fit the lock. in offers. Compare: We thought that people wouldn’t / would buy the book (=general) She wouldn’t say what was wrong with her when I asked. different forms of lay and irregular lie are used. refusal): I’ll give you another chance to get the correct answer. reluctance.would say. I am going to lay down for a few minutes. (not . Mom! Pam won’t give back my pen. (Standard Englishlie down) Will and would We use will when we talk about Willingness to do something (eg. Compare: Whenever I had to go to town.. invitations. Charlie would give me a lift.)(=particular situation) However. Notice that we can also talk about the refusal of a thing t work in the way it should: The top won’t come off. Lay is often used in cases where Standard English has lie.)( = particular situation) We use will/won’t to indicate that we think a present or future situation is certain: You will know that Jack and Jill are engaged (=you already know) . and orders) and will not when w talk about unwillingness to do something (eg.Lie (regular) The regular verb lie (lied) ˜say things that are not true’.. requests. we can use would not either when we talk about unwillingness in general or about a particular occasion.(= repeated) I was late. Dialect forms In many British and American dialects.
Past Continuous (I was doing) We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in middle of doing something at a certain time.he’ll be working. The action or situation had already started before this time but had not finished. We were good friends. Alright is common. use tell: Rhea told me that you were ill.˜Shall I ask Bob?’ ˜ No. There are some verbs (eg. (NOT Rhea told that) SAY SOMEBODY What did you say? BUT you can ˜say something to somebody’: Bill said goodbye to me and left. want. Say and tell If you say who are you talking to. believe) that are not normally used in the continuous. We knew each other well. (not ˜we were knowing’) I was enjoying the party but Kim wanted to go home. know. I started doing â†“ Past I was doing â†“ Past Continuous I finished doing â†“ Past This time last year I was preparing for CAT.’ We won’t see them again for Easter. (NOT ˜Bill said me goodbye’) What did you say to the police? all right and alright The standard spelling is all right.( not ‘was wanting’) Past Perfect Continuous ( I had been doing) Had been + -ing is past perfect continuous.(NOT ˜Rhea said me’) TELL SOMEBODY What did you tell the police? ( NOT ˜say the police’) Otherwise use say: Rhea said that you were ill. but some people consider it wrong. . What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night? I waved to him but he wasn’t looking. don’t disturb him.
~I beg your pardon? (NOTPlease?) . (more polite order) Could you stand over thee. She had been smoking for 10 years. please? (polite request) Please do is rather formal answer to a request for permission. so the ground was wet. Please and thank you 1. requests We use please to make requests more polite Could I have some more chocolates please? Would you like some help?~ Yes. Compare had been doing (past perfect continuous) and was doing (past continuous) : I wasn’t raining when we were out.) been doing playing working etc. Compare: Stand over there. But it had been raining since morning. We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain heavily. please. Note that please does not change an order into a request. When please is not used We do not use please to ask people what they have said. Amy gave up smoking last year. Rohan was sitting in an armchair watching television. I’ve got a bit of a headache.I/we/you/they/he/she/it had (=I’d etc. Our game of cricket was interrupted.) (=he’d etc. The sun was shining. He was tired because he had been working very hard. 2. Do you mind if I borrow your pen? ~Please do. (order) Please stand over there. You can say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened.
Some people say Cheers to mean Thanks. I haven’t been to the book-shop for ages.) Thank you for / thanks for can be followed by “ing form. Thank you for having me. (NOT Thanks you. . Thank you for coming. thank you and thanks Thanks is more informal than thank you.) Thank God I have started preparing for CAT 2008 already. (NOT Please) 3. accepting and refusing We often use Thank you/ Thanks like Yes. Yes. Have you got enough cake? ~ Yes. Another cake? ~ No thanks. Been meaning ˜come’ or ˜gone’ Been is often used as past participle of come and go Granny has been to see us twice before Easter. thanks is most often used to confirm that things are all right.~ Not at all. Common expressions: Thank you. 4. please. thank you. (But NOT usually Thank you indeed. Would you like some cheese? ~ Thank you. I am on diet. it is normal to say No.~ How many? To make it clear that one wishes to refuse something. (NOT Thanks God) Indeed can be used to strengthen very much. thanks.We do not use please when we give things to people. Thanks a lot. thanks/ No. Have you got a pen I could use?~ Yes here you are.) Thank you very much. Thanks very much. (NOT Thank you a lot. to accept offers. ~ That’s OK. (NOTPlease) Please is not used as an answer to Thank you. Thank you very much indeed. Thanks a lot.
If I was you is also correct. . Compare: 1) The milkman’s already been. They’re going in December.or I would to give advice. and just use I should. I would have started preparing for CAT 2008 already. The team is/ are going to win. so we can start preparing for CAT 2008. I should/ would Sometimes we leave out If I were you. (He has come and is still here) 2) I’ve been to library three times this week. team government. singular words like family. hoping or wanting. I would have started preparing for CAT 2008 already. Where’s Linda? She’s gone to library. If I were you Advice We often use the structure if I were you. (He has come and gone away again) Jack’ come. The average family has 4 members. Singular nouns with plural verbs 1. It is smaller than 50 years ago.to give advice. Singular forms rae more commom when the group is seen as an impersonal unit. I shouldn’t worry if I were you. Plural forms are common when the group is seen as the collection of people doing personal things like deciding. which refer to groups of people.. groups of people: The team is/ are In British English. I shouldn’t worry. Compare: My family have decided to move to Chennai. If I were you. In this case I should/would is similar to you should/would. can have either singular or plural verbs and pronouns.Been is only used for completed visits.
The team.The firm are wonderful. They expect to crack it. that). singular verbs are normal with most of these nouns in all cases. They do all they can for me. Compare: The team are full of enthusiasm. (more natural than A number of people has) A group of us are going to run the Marathon this year.violent . Examples of group nouns. The group gave its first concert in January and they are now planning a tour. The team has started preparing for CAT 2008. Plural pronouns can be used. and which with singular forms. this. who are hoping to announce important changes. lural verbs are normally used in this case. A majority of criminals are non. singular verbs and pronouns are regular. which can be used with both singular and plural verbs in British English. A number of people have. each. but they have all failed. The committee. every. a/an. bank the BBC choir class club government firm England(the football team) family committee jury ministry party orchestra public school staff team union In American English. A number of people have tried to find the treasure. My firm was founded in 2005. 2. We prefer who as a relative pronoun with plural forms. Compare: The committee. When a group is used as with a singular determiner (eg. which is elected at the annual meeting. which is full of enthusiasm has a better chance of winning. Many singular quantifying verbs can be used with plural nouns and pronouns.
but You are taller than me. but They have more money than us.Relative Clauses Than me/ than I am etc. Compare: You are taller than I am. We usually say: You are taller than me. but I can’t run as fast as him. (Not than I) He is not as clever as her. (Not ˜as she’) After than/as it is more usual to say me/him/her/them/us when there is no verb. They have more money than we have. . I can’t run as fast as he can.
envisage. Often we use tofor an action that follows the first verb: Decidedâ†’ to steal to go wantâ†’ Verb + -ing or to infinitive Some verbs are followed by a to-infinitive but not “ing : agree. hesitate. The verbs begin. ask. refuse. miss.) The verbs advise and encourage are followed by “ing when there is no object and “to infinitive when there is one. deny. hurry. resent. I enjoy going out. suggest. with these verbs we normally avoid using two “ing forms together. they continued to play/ playing. consider. the structure is usually verb + ing or verb + to Compare: Verb+ -ing They denied stealing the money. and continue can be followed by either a “to infinitive or an “ing form with little difference in meaning. Even though it was raining. prepare. However. dread. Compare: . decline. offer. ( rather than I am starting learning French. feel like. I want to go out. demand. finish. as a repeated pattern may sound awkward: I am starting to learn French. plan. hope. wish. cease. avoid. detest. imagine. risk. manage. delay. want. fail. aim. Often we use -ingfor an action that happens before the first verb or at the same time: Stealing â† denied enjoy â†“â†‘ going Verb+ to They decided to steal the money.Verb +-ing/ verb + to When one verb follows another verb. Some verbs are followed by “ing but not a “to infinitive: admit. start. recall.
To say that we intend(ed) to do something. And I’d advise you to take more exercise. regret. If I want to attend the class at 9. Although she asked him to stop. (first remember. but it was too big. try To say that we attempt to do something.00. After the class. something we are not happy about. I tried to bring the table through the door. stop. he went on tapping his pen on the table. Other verbs can be followed by either a “to infinitive or an “ing form. asking Ama to do the work. I regret to inform you that you have It’s too late now. they came to He came hurrying up the path. I’ll always regret not passed the exam. She stopped to prepare a cup of coffee. remember. try. (I Mean remember To mean that remembering comes before the action is described. that means I waking up before 7.I’d advise taking more exercise. Stop To say when we stopped doing something. accept him as an equal. I meant to phone you yesterday. Regret To say that we are about to do To say that we have already done something we are not happy about. The baby stopped crying when he saw its mother. mean. I tried taking aspirin. I remember going to the library but nothing after that. Remember to carry your umbrella before you go out. These include: come. + to infinitive + -ing Come To talk about a gradual change. but the pain didn’t go away. way that is described. To say if we test something to see if it improves the situation. After a few years.00 To mean the action comes before remembering. Ali went on to do his evening prayer. To say that someone moves in a way that is described. . To say that something has something else as a result. To say what is it that we stopped doing. go on To mean something is done after To say that someone moves in a something else is finished. go on. but there can be a difference in meaning.
We don’t allow/permit people to smoke in the classroom. I once heard Brendan play all the Beethoven concertos. Passengers are advised to book early. forbid remember that I went there. In active clauses after these verbs. Smoking is forbidden. the difference between verb +-ing and object+ infinitive is like the difference between progressive and simple tenses. Students are forbidden to smoke. we use an “ing form if there is no subject. Compare: I looked out of the window and saw Mary crossing the road. . allow. See. I wouldn’t advise you to take the car. With “ing forms the verb suggest that one pays attention to events or actions that are already going on.and then take it) Verb + -ing or to infinitive Advise. permit. People are not allowed/ permitted to smoke in the classroom. we use an infinitive. If there is an object. Early booking is advised. and hear After these verbs. watch. I heard him practicing the guitar.there’s no place to park. The headmaster has forbidden smoking in the campus. Passive structures: Smoking is not allowed/ permitted in the classroom. infinitives usually refer to complete events/ actions which are seen/heard from beginning to end. As I passed his room. Compare: I wouldn’t advise taking the car. The headmaster has forbidden students to smoke in the campus. We don’t allow/permit smoking in the classroom. I saw Mary cross the road and disappear in the post office.
hate. Like. I taught myself to dance. Smith teaches gardening every summer. (NOT I’d like telling you something) Do you like dancing? (=Do you enjoy dancing) Would you like to dance? (= Do you want to dance now?) Contd. and would love . Usually there is no important difference. Like + infinitive is used to talk about choices and habits. I am beginning to learn dance. infinitives are most often used. it’s my habit) After would like.Learn and teach These verbs (and other with similar meanings) are followed by “ing forms mostly when we are referring to lessons or subjects of study. Begin and start Begin and start can be followed by infinitives or “ing forms. I hate working/ to work at weekends. both infinitive and “ing forms can often be used without a great difference of meaning. and prefer After these four verbs. would hate. (= I choose to. She goes to school twice to learn dancing. Infinitives are preferred when we talk about the result of the study. I’d like to tell you something. Compare:I like climbing/to climb mountains. After progressive forms of begin and start. would prefer.( =I enjoy climbing) When I pour tea. I like to put the milk in first.about successfully learning a skill.) . Mr. She began playing/ to play piano when she was five. (NOT I am beginning learning dance. love. infinitives are preferred.
and know.Infinitives are also preferred with understand. In other cases we use afraid of +ing or afraid +infinitive with no difference of meaning I’m afraid of telling /to tell her the truth. To talk about a wish to do something. I’m interested in finding out/ to find out how she is studying for CAT 2008. both interested +ing and interested +infinitive are common. we prefer afraid of +ing Why are you so scared? I’m afraid to walking in dark. I’m sorry to have woken you up. Sorry +perfect infinitive can be used with the same meaning. I’m interested in working in Mumbai. Afraid To talk about fear of things that happened accidentally.began understanding) He started to realize that if you have to crack CAT you had to work hard. (NOT. (NOT started realizing) Attempt. be committed to After these words and expressions we can either use -ing form or an infinitive without much difference of meaning. interested + infinitive is commonly used. I slowly began to understand how she felt. Sorry Sorry for/about +ing is used to refer the past things that one regrets. continue. be accustomed to.) Interested To talk about reaction to things one learns . . (OR I’m sorry that I woke you up.) I’m sorry for /about losing my temper this morning. intend. (That-clauses are also used in informal form. realize. To talk about a wish to find out something. I’m interested to see that Hema and Rahul are going out together. I intend telling/ to tell her how I felt. can’t bear. interested +ing form is used. I’m not accustomed to giving/give personal information about myself to strangers.
There are four methods of fixing the comma splices. He wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. and replacing the comma with a full stop. 1) By separating the two clauses into two sentences. Often. for. the subject of the second sentence is this. he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. Comma Splices and Run-on errors Fused Sentences: A fused sentence is an error caused by running two independent clauses together with no punctuation at all. or those. If you run two or more complete thoughts together without the right punctuation or no punctuation. Each independent clause expresses a complete thought. nor. the thoughts tend to blur. The above sentence is incorrect because ˜Rohan came to Tathagat’ and ˜he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008’ are both independent clauses. A run-on sentence: A run-on sentence is an error caused by joining two or more independent clauses with only a coordinating conjunction (and. or. . he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. + independent clause Incorrect: Rohan came to Tathagat. yet). and fused sentences. for he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. so. A comma splice : A comma splice is an error caused by joining two independent clauses with only a comma. that. Correct: Rohan came to Tathagat. run on sentences. Pattern of the error: independent clause + independent clause In correct: Rohan came to Tathagat he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008.Fused sentences. Correct: Rohan came to Tathagat. but. Pattern of the error: independent clause+. these. Pattern of error: independent clause+ coordinating conjunction + independent clause Incorrect: Rohan came to Tathagat for he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. Correct: Rohan came to Tathagat. A comma is not required to join two powerful clauses.
unless.the time went very quickly. until. Quickly and seriously are adverbs. for example: friendly. before. Rohan came to Tathagat because he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. and a coordinating conjunction. yet. elderly. since. as. Some adjectives end in -ly too. Many adverbs are made from adjective +ly: Adjective: quick serious heavy bad Adverb: quickly seriously heavily badly careful carefully quiet quietly Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. but. so) Rohan came to Tathagat. An adverb tells us how somebody does something or how something happens. he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008.g. Jack was seriously injured in an accident. after. He wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. (e. 3) By connecting the two main clauses with a comma. We use adjectives before nouns and after some verbs. even though. lively.and. 4) By replacing the comma with a subordinating conjunction.. lovely Adjective or adverb? Adjectives (quick/careful etc. 2) By replacing the comma with a semi-colon. while). . because.Rohan came to Tathagat.) tell us about a noun. when..) tell us about how a verb. especially be: Adverbs (quickly/ carefully etc. if. or. not. for. lonely. although. for he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008.g. silly. Rohan came to Tathagat. Adjectives and Adverbs Look at these examples: Our holiday was too short. (e.
(= he seemed sad. . (not. ( not. We also use adjectives after the verbs look/ feel/ sound etc. organized.drove careful) We didn't go out because it was raining heavily. We also use adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs.) Children were seriously injured in an accident. Why do you always look so serious? Compare: She speaks perfect English.speak quiet) I was disappointed that I did so badly in the exam(not did so bad) Why do you never take me seriously? She speaks English perfectly. (not -raining heavy) Please speak quietly. Note that you cannot use as in the same way. (perfect=adjective + English= noun) Compare these sentences with look: Prince looked sad when I saw him. written etc. Please be quiet. For example: Reasonably cheap (adverb +adjective) Terribly sorry (adverb +adjective) Incredibly quickly ((adverb +adjective) You can use an adverb before a past participle (injured.) Ram drove carefully along the narrow road.Ram is a careful driver. Like vs As Like= similar to. I was disappointed that my exams result were bad. (not serious injured) The examination hall was badly organized. (speaks+ English+ perfectly = verb + object+ adverb) Prince looked at me sadly. (not a carefully driver) We didn't go out because of the heavy rain. his expression was sad. the same as.
(so it really was a hospital) Everyone is ill at home. she also has t make important decisions.: A few years ago I worked as a waiter. Compare : As Sonal is the manger of the company. like is a preposition. (not like a waiter) Many English words (for eg.(not as a palace) What does Rima do? She is a teacher. (as + subject + verb) As can also be used a preposition but the meaning is different from like. It's like walking on ice. can be dangerous. . in the form of etc. such as car racing. like me. ( As the manger= in her positions as manager) Like Smita ia the assistant manger.) Compare like and as in the following sentences: You should have done like this.What a beautiful house! It's like a palace. can be dangerous. she has to make many important decisions. Our house is like a hospital. work and rain) can be used as verbs or noun. As the manger. (it isn't really the hospital) As (preposition)= in the position of. like car racing. (Like the manager= similar to the manager) During the war this hotel was used as a hospital. So it is followed by an noun (like a palace). Such as = for example. (= I did what I promised. Some sports. Sometimes like= for example: Some sports. a pronoun (like me) or-ing (like walking) You can say like (somebody/something doing something): What's the noise? It sounds like baby is crying. In these sentences. ( like + pronoun) You should have done it as I showed you. Like the manger (Sonal). (not as me) Be careful! The floor has been polished. We use as (not like) before a subject + verb: I did as I promised.
I don't care what you do. Present tense is used for future after 'in case' I don't want to go out in case he phones.Care about somebody/something (= think that somebody or something is important) He's very selfish. (it is possible that this mighat happen later) Hunny might phone this evening. Compare: Do X in case Y happens:. (I don't like) 2) look after somebody: Honey is 80 and lives alone. (Perhaps Vendy might come. Take care of: = look after Have a good day. She needs someone to take care of her. Care for somebody/something: 1) like something (usually in questions and negative sentences): Would you care for a cup of tea. if she doesn't we won't) . (would you like?) I don't care for working very late at night. We say care what/where/how (etc) (without about): You can do what you like. ( Do X first because Y might happen later) Let's get some more muffins in case Vendy comes. (NOT in case he will phone) To say why somebody did something we use in case + past I messaged Vendy again in case she hadn't received the previous one. Difference between in case and if. I don't want to go out in case he phones. ( Let's get some muffins now because Vendy might come later) Do X if Y happens: ( Do X if Y has already happened) Let's get some more muffins if Vendy comes. He doesn't care about other people. if she come we'll get some more muffins. Take care of yourself! (=look after yourself) In case and If In case is used to talk about precautions in order to be ready for the possible future situations.
A good guide in cases like these is to see whether the sentence sounds right with only the pronoun. This is because a preposition such as 'between' should be followed by an object pronoun such as 'me'. us. 'him'.e. we. etc. People most often make mistakes over this when they are talking about more than one person: 'Me and Annie had a dog once'. 'she'. 'in' shows the relation between two things. not me. who is the subject of the sentence). Use me. and 'we'. then so is 'Annie and me had a dog'. etc. EXAMPLES 1. 'Adrian and me were going out'. Usually. They are used before nouns to give additional information in a sentence. If 'Me had a dog' is wrong. 'Annie and I had a dog once'. 2. In these sentences you should use I. PREPOSITIONS DEFINITION Preposition is a word used to relate noun or pronoun to form a phrase. as the object of watch. You need me here. when you are talking about someone who has done something (i. Preposition 'in' is connecting noun with a noun. when you are talking about someone who has had something done to them (i. 'her'. etc. Use I. Preposition 'for' is connecting adjective to a noun. . 'Watch Helen and I while we show you'. because the two people are the subject in both.e. after prepositions. 'Everything depends on you and I'. who is the object of the sentence). prepositions are used to show where something is located or when something happened.I or me? Be careful to use the pronouns I and me. us. and wrong to say 'between you and I'. and they and them in the right place. There are nuts in the box. and 'us' rather than a subject pronoun such as 'I'. she and her. and use me. 'he'. he and him. you shouldn't say 'Watch Helen and I'. 'Adrian and I were going out'. we and us. He has a fetish for cars. if you wouldn't say 'Watch I while I show you'. It's right to say 'between you and me'.
preposition is placed in the end when the object is either a relative pronoun or an interrogative pronoun. because of. along with.Preposition is generally placed before the noun but sometimes preposition follows also. While editing the proof of one of his books. instead of. He is the one I was speaking of. The elder statesman mocked the intention with a comment in the margin: "This is the sort of English up with which I will not put. He turned off the switch. NOTE. 4. Preposition 'off' is connecting verb to a noun. According to By way of Owing to In case of In order to With regard to In compa rison to Away from For sake of In refere nce to In spite By means of By reason of With an eye to In lieu of In complianc e with In favour of In course of On account of In regard to By dint of Because of Agreeably to In the . in accordance with. EXAMPLES 1. What are we waiting for? 2. in order to." In the above sentences. Winston Churchill spotted a sentence that had been clumsily rewritten by the editor to eliminate a preposition at the end. according to. inspite of. Which school is he studying in? 3.3. PHRASE PREPOSITIONS:-A group of words used with the force of a preposition are called Phrase Prepositions. in front of. owing to. away from.
he has scored the highest marks in the class. 8) Conformably to the Italian law of privacy The personal data of the customer are registered by Italian Government.of In place of With the view to In additio n to In the event of In front of In event of conseq uence of In accorda nce with Along with On behalf of Conformably to Instead of By virtue of EXAMPLES:1) According to me. 3) Please make the cheque in favour of "Wal-Mart Pvt. he proposed to her. 3) Owing to his laid back attitude. 7) On behalf of Paco. . 6) From today onwards Jai would be working in place of Veer. 5) With regard to Chechnya. you should read your course books. the main rebel leaders Shamil Basayev and Al Khattab were trained and indoctrinated in CIA sponsored camps in Afghanistan and Pakistan. this dress will suit you. 10) In case of emergency call 911. Ltd. 11) He ate medicine. in lieu of drinking the syrup. 12) I am staying away from home. 2) By way of meeting." 4) On account of his hard work. 9) Instead of reading the comics. he was fired from the organization.Pansy attended the party.
he managed to top the class. he was sent to jail. 29) Please complete the work for the sake of God. PARTICIPLE PREPOSITIONS:.his sister would arrange for everything. I would like you to increase my salary. 30) In accordance with the rules and regulations.13) With a view to company's progress. 23) In the event of his marriage. . 17) Your car is standing in front of my house. 21) Swahili could not attend Rasul's marriage because of her illness. 19) Webb shaped every phrase with an eye to the narrative. 15) In spite of all the difficulties. 24) In consequence of his illness. 20) He won the race by the dint of his perseverance. 14) In reference to your advertisement.I hereby accept my crime. 25) Please distribute chocolates along with the chips. 31) Tufaha dances better in comparison to Manila.I am sending across my resume. 16) In addition to CAT I also took GMAT. 28) By the reason of robbery.Some present participals of verbs are used without any noun or pronoun being attached to them. 26) India won the match by the virtue of Sehwag's stoke play. 27) They climbed the mountain by the means of rope. 22) Agreeably to the terms of law. I would like to suggest something. 1) Respecting the decision you have taken. 18) He survived in spite of risky operation.he couldn't take his exams. you are not allowed to attend the class.
Who lives here?(here=this place) 4. .during my visit to Rome. 2) I have been making content the whole day. Celestine is going there.(now=this time) 5. 7) Regarding your queries. Train must have reached station by now. 3) Julius Ceaser fought with courage. 5) Barring icecream. 3) I collected this painting by Michelangelo. Nothing on this earth can last for ever(for ever=for life) SOMETIMES OBJECT TO A PREPOSITION IS AN ADVERBIAL PHRASE 1. He was thrown out of the class.(there=that place) 3. 4) Pending further punishments.you will receive every thing else. 2.Omorose would be sent to gallows. CLAUSE AS AN OBJECT TO A PREPOSITION 1) Wallace is a man of means. 3. Complete this work before you go home. 5) I will complete this assignment within this week. SOME OBJECTS TO PREPOSITION ARE AN ADVERB 1.2) Concerning the Prime Minister's death. I came to office before you left. 4) Padmalakshmi married Salman for money.we do not offer SAT coaching.his win was assured. Have you been waiting since then?(then=that time) 2. 6) Considering his hard work.there is mourning all across the country.
Dennis did not have dinner until Doraine came. USAGE OF ˜AT’ 1) To designate specific times a) I will see you at 10'o clock. b) We will meet at Oberoi's. 2) With Places a) At bus stop b) At the market place 3) With groups of people a) at party b) at the back of the building 4) Specific addresses a) Cleopatra lives at 10 Downing Street. 5) With places on the page a) at the top of the page.m. b) I wake up at 6 a. 6) With meal times a) At lunch b) At dinner USAGE OF ˜ON’ 1) For assuming place as a surface . There is a lion drinking water across the river.4. b) at the center of the paper. 5.
b) Could u please advice on what do i wear for party. b) The book is lying on the table. 2) For bicycle.foot a) I go to office on foot. 8) On radio and television a) Hey! i am on television.ship.2006. 5) With directions a) on the left b) on the right 6) About the particular subject a) This book is written on Africa. b) I have spent my holiday on New Guinea. b) Most of the cars in India run on petrol. 7) About the food on which someone survives and fuel a) i survived only on salad for the whole moonth. 4) With islands a) I have stayed on Andaman and Nicobar.a) The painting is hanging on the wall. b) I will go to Honkong on plane. b) Can you hear me on radio? 9) For trip or journey .plane.train. b) I am going home on Wednesday. 3) For dates and days a) We will meet on 2nd April.
ARTICLES There are two kinds of articles 1) Definite 2) Indefinite Indefinite :. some and any. c) He has gifted me a book. a Europe. 3) To refer to a part of a larger quantity.a) I bought toys for my kids on my way back from office. h) I have gifted him an umbrella. 3) This is a book. 5) Can I have some chocolates please? USAGE OF INDEFINITE ARTICLES 1) With non specific singular countable common nouns. EXAMPLES:a car. 2) Give me a bottle of Coke. b) Rossane went on trip with her friends. EXAMPLES:1) I am planning to go on a summer vacation. 4) I ate an orange in the breakfast. j) He is wearing a hat. a cup. EXAMPLES:a) Would you like a bottle of Pepsi with pizza? b) I am driving a car. an umbrella. They are used for non specific things.Indefinite articles are a. an. a bucket. EXAMPLES:- . 2) Use 'a' is before a consonant sound and 'an' before a vowel sound. a union. a boy. e) Its a baby boy! f) Can i have some milk? g) There aren’t any popcorns left in the bowl. i) an old man s walking with a stick. d) I am eating an orange.
a) Can I have a slice of bread? b) I had a piece of cake. c) Give me a sheet of paper. d) Can I have a cup of tea? 4) With someone's name you have not met before. EXAMPLES:a) A Mrs. Taneja had come to see you. b) A Mr. Rogers was running in the park. 5) When noun is introduced for the first time. EXAMPLES:a) A boy was playing with the ball.The boy was wearing a black shirt. b) A book is kept on the table.the book contains the names of the countries of the world. c) I went to a hotel.the hotel was beautiful. 6) With water bodies eg. sea, ocean, lake etc. and continents. EXAMPLES:a) Asia is a continent. b) Cactus is grown in a desert. c) Sharks live in an ocean. 7) Before a title which is not specific. EXAMPLES:a) He is going to be a prime minister. b) He is a waiter. c) I am a doctor. d) Rossane is an economics teacher. 8) With number and quantity expressions. EXAMPLES:a) I will be back in half an hour. b) The bananas cost $5 a dozen. c) I will come back in a day or so. d) You can take GMAT 5 times a year. e) The test is for a quarter of an hour. 9) To represent singular noun as a whole class. EXAMPLES:-
a) The cow is a timid animal. b) The turtledove is a kind of bird. c) The bur oak is a timber tree in US. d) The yellow wood is a rare native tree. e) The mango is known as a king of all fruits. DEFINITE ARTICLES:- Definite article is 'the'. It is used for particular things. USAGE OF DEFINITE ARTICLES 1) With particular nouns. EXAMPLES:a) George Bush is the president of United States. b) Asia is the largest continent of the world. c) Could you please pass the book? d) Go right and then turn towards the left. e) He has gone to the doctor. 2) Before proper noun:1) Canals:-The Panama Canal, the Corydon canal. 2) Rivers:- The Amazon Congo, The Nile. 3) Group of Islands:- The Andaman and Nicobar, The lakswadeep. 4) Seas and Oceans:- The pacific, The Bay of Bengal 5) Deserts:- The Gobi, The Thar, The Sahara 6) Names of countries which includes words like republic and kingdom:-The Italian Republic, The Slovak Republic, The United Kingdom 3) Before musical instruments:EXAMPLES:a) He knows how to play the guitar. b) Zakir Hussain plays the tabla. c) Amjad Ali Khan is the santoor player. 4) With Superlatives:EXAMPLES:a) Rati is the best teacher in the school. b) Tom Cruise is the hottest man in Hollywood.. c) He made the most of his opportunity.
5) Before the names of things that are unique of their own kind. EXAMPLES:a) The moon is shining bright in the sky. b) What do you want to know about the ocean? c) The stars are twinkling in the sky. d) The earth is round. e) Animals that live in the desert have adaptations to cope with the lack of water. 6) With Ordinals EXAMPLES:a) Guru Govind Singh was the tenth guru of the Sikhs. b) 'A Pale View of Hills' is the first book by Kazuo Ishiguro. c) April is the fourth month of the year. d) Jawahar Lal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. e) He was the first one to enter the class. 7) Before the names of certain books EXAMPLES:the Ramayana, the Bible, The Vedas, The Upnishads, the Mahabharata, the Quoran. 8) As an adverb with a comparative. EXAMPLES:a) The more he works hard, the better it is for him. b) The more the merrier. c) The sooner, the better. 9) Before a common noun when it is qualified by an adjective. EXAMPLES:a) The great Napoleon. b) The beautiful Helen of Troy. c) The cruel Hitler. d) The immortal Wordsworth. 10) Before an adjective when the noun is understood. EXAMPLES:a) The rich are becoming richer. b) The whites look down upon blacks.
OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE 1) Before plural countable noun when they are used in general sense. EXAMPLES:a) Chocolates are kept in the box. (In place of ˜the chocolates are kept in the box’) b) Girls are wearing pretty dresses. (In place of ˜the girls are wearing pretty dresses’ or ˜some girls are wearing pretty dresses’) c) Scissors are kept in the cupboard. (In place of the scissors are kept in the cupboard) d) Men are considered to be better cooks than women. e) Children like to hear stories. 2) Before table, school, hospital, college, church, prison, market and bed when these places are used for primary purpose. EXAMPLES:a) We became friends in school. b) The patient was taken to hospital. c) Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. d) These shoes are available in market. 3) Before the names of meals. EXAMPLES:a) Lets go out for lunch today. b) Breakfast is ready. c) Ricki has gone out for dinner with Stella. d) We were served brunch at the wedding. e) We ate rice in lunch today. 4) Before most proper nouns. EXAMPLES:a) Names of people:-Afton, Blossom b) Names of individual mountains:- Mount Everest, Mt. Olympus c) Names of countries, cities, continents:-Africa, Melbourne, India d) Names of individual lakes, islands, hills:- Dal lake, Mud island.
He is nicer than usual. He is faster than usual today .g.aunt. b) Soccer is liked by most people. b) I have studied biology at school level.e) Before languages and nationalities EXAMPLES:a) Rhyna speaks French at home.'our nurse'eg. 8) Before names of sports:EXAMPLES:a) Hockey is the national sport of India. and allso nurse. d) Patience is virtue. e. Singular and Plural .Is correct A Mercedes is more expensive than usual for a car .Correct When something is compared to a subgroup to which it belongs.mother. c) We are taught Italian at school. b) Honesty is the best policy.Is correct. d) Japanese ambassador would be visiting India next week. 7) Before the names of substances and abstract nouns. c) Aunt is coming home to see us.Incorrect A Mercedes is more expensive than is usual for a car . c) Computer Science is my favourite subject. c) He has gone to play hockey. b) He is learning German at MaxMueller?. 9) Before names of academic subjects EXAMPLES:a) Most students find maths tough. EXAMPLES:a) Cook hasn't cooked food properly today. Usual v/s. b) Father has promised me to buy a new laptop. Is Usual: He is faster than is usual for any human being . c) Silence is golden. usual is fine.uncle. 6) Before names of relations like brother. When something is compared to itself. EXAMPLES:a) Sugar is a sweet poison. is usual should be used.cook meaning 'our cook'.
Certain other nouns. as alms. tights. 1. salmon. Name of the instruments which have two parts forming a kind of pair. as bellows. Some nouns are used only in plural. pincers. as poultry.is a correct idiom (Neither is not required) It is not that nor would always be preceded by a neither To ratify (At ratifying is incorrect) An attempt to ratify is the correct use Allergy to (Allergy of. shorts. proceeds (of a sale). species. spacecraft. as annals. series. drawers. trout. 5. allergy for are incorrect) To try to fix is the right idiom (to try and fix is incorrect) Just as So too 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) . score.Some nouns have singular and plural alike. nuptials. assets. breeches. jeans. sheep. tongs. Some nouns originally singular are now generally used in the plural. scissors. Certain collective nouns. eaves. riches. hundred. spectacles. dozen. cod. dear. aircraft. Contributed by : Kunal Gupta Idioms to Remember 1) To exchange X for Y (exchange X with Y or any other form is incorrect) Different from one another (Different one from the other is wrong) X is unknown. thanks. environs. pyjamas. 2. Names of certain articles of dresses. 3. as swine. gross. thousands (when used after numerals). people. obsequies. vermin. 4. cattle. chattels. gentry. pair. though singular in form. tidings. nor it is known . as trousers.
8) 9) X is different from Y (different than Y is incorrect) Same as X. 'Increase by twice' is incorrect. Both should always have parallel forms associated to it. 19) Both X and Y (Both X as well as Y is incorrect) Both at X and at Y is correct. 25) 26) 27) Credit X with discovering Y (Credit with doing something) Credit X Rupees to Y's account (When money is involved) Given credit for being ones who . Neither nor should have parallel forms associated to it.as to Y 10) From X to Y (Grow from 2 million to 3 billion) (From X up to Y is wrong) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Estimated to be (Estimated at is incorrect) Believe X to be Y Believed to have Acclaimed as is the correct idiom (Acclaimed to be is wrong) Distinguish between X and Y (Distinguish X from Y is incorrect) In an attempt to (gain control) Worried about (When talking about someone's condition) Attempt to / do something (Attempt at doing is incorrect). 'doubled' is correct 21) 22) 23) So X as to be Y (So unreal as to be true) As much as (Republicans are involved as much as Democrats).. Similarly. X prohibits Y from 24) x forbids y to do z x prohibits y from doing z. 20) Adverb twice cannot be an object of proposition 'by'. Both on X or on Y is correct.
concerned with .related/affliated No sooner-than X expected to Y Mistake X for Y Not X. but rather Y Persuaded X to do Y So X that Y (So poor that they steal) Require that X be Y (Not require that X is Y) As a result of At least as strong as(At least as great as) Modeled after So X that Y (So illiterate are people that they cant even write) Intent on 43) Native of (Native to is also used in some cases.28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) Regarded as having Regarded as ones who have Concerned for -worried. as in the example given below) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) Compensate for Adapted for Plead guilty for failing Descendent of (Descendent for is incorrect) X is to what? Y is to Potential for causing Aid in (Aid for is incorrect) .
Combined skill with determination Combined reactant X and reactant Y 65) 66) way to provide (Way for providing is incorrect) No less an authority than . distinguished. 51) 52) 53) Consider X to be Y (a little controversial) Regard as is the correct idiom When rates means prices charged it should be followed with 'for' Rates for liability insurance 54) Distinguish between X and Y (2 very different items. say red and green colors) Some color blind people cannot distinguish between red and green 55) Distinguish X from Y (Two pretty similar items.Is a singular word 63) To worry about someone's condition (To keep worrying over an action) 64) Combined X with Y OR Combined X and Y (Both are correct) e.g.People were asking Goddess Dias aid in healing ills or thanking her for such help. Not so much to X as to Y Associate X with Y Business ethics. say original paintings from fake ones) 56) 57) Attribute X (An effect) to Y(A cause) Not in a flash but in a 58) May be (This is a word) is idiomatic. maybe (This means perhaps) is not idiomatic 59) 60) 61) 62) That X is called for is indicated both by Y and by Z.
Knowing correct auxiliary verb usage is key to tense usage. don't they? He won't agree with me. Has she been to Delhi? Yes. They are used to form the perfect tense. Question tags: They enjoy learning English. Simple past positive: He bought a new TV last week. . Do and Have are auxiliary verbs. they are irregular verbs and can be used as main verbs. .So is she. So did I. They are used to form the continuous tense. .Neither have I. The verbs 'to be' and 'to have' are the most commonly used auxiliary verbs and work alongside the main verbs in any statement. she has.No. I'm working very hard at the moment. Be. Every tense takes an auxiliary form of the verb. will he? Positive agreement / inclusion: I went to the beach last weekend. which is not given by the main verb. Positive imperative statements: Hurry up! There are also a number of short forms that take ONLY the auxiliary form of the verb: Yes / No answer short forms: Do you live in India? . There are three exceptions to this rule: Simple present positive: She works at a bank.67) 68) Acclaimed as is the correct idiom Allocated to is the correct idiom Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary verbs are used together with a main verb to give grammatical information and therefore add extra meaning to a sentence. They are used to form the passive voice. I don't. Negative agreement / inclusion: They haven't worked here long.
What were they doing while you were cooking dinner? HAVE / HAS Present perfect and present perfect continuous: How long have you lived here? I've been working since seven this morning. IS / ARE / AM Used in present continuous and for the future with 'going to': They are working hard at the moment. HAD Past perfect and past perfect continuous: He had eaten by the time I arrived.We won't be able to come next week. They take the bus. . She had been studying for two hours when he finally telephoned. WAS / WERE Past continuous: I was watching TV when you arrived.g. She is going to study medicine at university. .Neither will I. WILL / WON'T Future with 'will': What will the weather be like tomorrow? He won't understand. You just add them and that is that! e. Here is a quick overview of auxiliary verb usage: DO / DOES Used simple present question and negative forms: What time does he get up? They don't drive to work. Adding endings Usually endings (suffixes) can be added to base words without any complications. DID Used in simple past question and negative forms: When did they arrive yesterday? He didn't finish his homework last week.
iron + ing = ironing steam + er = steamer list + less = listless However. Rules: The 1-1-1 rule This rule applies to: Words of ONE syllable ending with ONE consonant preceded by ONE vowel e. sun. drop. Treat qu as one letter: quit + ing = quitting quip + ed = quipped Don’t double final w and x. See VOWELS. They would look very odd and so we have correctly: tax + ing = taxing paw + ed = pawed . When you add an ending beginning with a consonant to a l-l-l word. there are some straightforward rules which save your learning thousands of words individually. win. there is no change to the base word: drop + let = droplet flat + ly = flatly win + some = winsome When you add an ending beginning with a vowel to a l-l-l word. you double the final letter of the base word: drop + ed = dropped flat + est = flattest win + ing = winning sun + *y = sunny *y counts as a vowel when it sounds like i or e. flat.g. there are four groups of words which need especial care. Fortunately.
ninth. Do remember to keep the -e with soft c and soft g words. drop the -e: hope + ing = hoping care + er = carer sincere + ity = sincerity separate + ion = separation achieve + ed = achieved ℜ• Do. It's the e that keeps them soft (courageous. keep the -e in words like singeing (different from singing) and dyeing (different from dying) and whenever you need to keep the identity of the base word clear (e. keep the -e: hope + ful = hopeful care + less = careless sincere + ly = sincerely separate + ly = separately achieve + ment = achievement When you add an ending beginning with a vowel. shoeing. achieve. hope. wholly. It doesn't matter at all what kind of ending you are adding. When you add an ending to a word ending in a vowel + y. change the y to i: . wisdom.(ii) The magic -e rule This rule applies to all words ending with a silent -e. keep the y: portray + ed = portrayed employ + ment = employment When you add an ending to a word ending in a consonant + y.g. e. Look at the letter before the -y in the base word. When you add an ending beginning with a consonant. care. traceable).g. argument. ℜ• ℜ• (iii) -y rule This rule applies to all words ending in -y. separate. awful. canoeing). whilst. Don't keep the -e with these eight exceptions to the rule: truly. duly. sincere. however.
shyness. laid. The 2-1-1 words below are stressed on the first syllable. and both vowel and consonant endings are added without any complications: gossip gossiping target targeted limit limitless eager eagerness But note that “ Kidnap Outfit Worship always double their final letter: Kidnapped Outfitter Worshipping Take care with 2-1-1 words which are stressed on the second syllable. babyhood. dryness. wryly. gaiety. it all depends on which syllable of the word is stressed. (iv) The 2-1-1 rule This rule applies to: words of TWO syllables ending with ONE consonant preceded by ONE vowel. try + ing = trying empty + ing = emptying Don't apply the rule in these fourteen cases: daily. Two is together would look very odd. paid. slyness. There is no change when you add a consonant ending: forget + ful = forgetful equip + ment = equipment . said. despite our two words ski-ing and taxi-ing. gaily.try +al = trial empty + er = emptier pity + less = pitiless lazy + ness = laziness Do keep the y when adding -ing. shyly. With this rule. slain. wryness.
we decide to do something at that very moment. Sarah is hospitalized. Whether the stress is on the first or the second syllable. Going to is used when the speaker has already decided to do something.Double the final consonant of the base word when you add a vowel ending: forget + ing = forgetting equip + ed = equipped forbid + en = forbidden begin + er = beginner This rule is really valuable but you must be aware of some exceptions: " 2-1-1 words ending in -l seem to have a rule all of their own. . Oh really. and Present Continuous. The speaker has not decided before. When we use will. I’ll go and visit her. Going to. there is no change when a consonant ending is added: quarrel + some = quarrelsome instal + ment = instalment Double the -l when adding a vowel ending: quarrel + ing = quarrelling instal + ed = installed excel + ent = excellent " Notice how the change of stress in these words affects the spelling: ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• confer conferred conferring conference defer deferred deferring deference infer inferred inferring inference prefer preferred preferring preference refer referred referring reference transfer transferred transferring transference Will.
present continuous is used when the speaker has already arranged to do something.END ----Comma lists Commas are used to separate items in a series or lists. The whole sentence would appear to mean that 'Allergic reactions seem to show that penicillin should not be used'. Why not have a go at working out its meaning? Allergic reactions are doing something to the use of penicillin. A couple of professional-looking people are talking earnestly. I am going to the market. All these words suggest being against something . So the sentence probably means something like: 'Allergic reactions rule out using penicillin or make it impossible or undesirable to use it.against what someone else has said. Again. I went to Italy. penicillin .' Allergic. I am going to visit her tomorrow. with nothing to do except observe your fellow travellers. These allergic reactions would seem to contraindicate the use of penicillin. contraindicate? It is not a word you have ever heard before. Yes I know. Rome. or show'. Hello All. contraception. They sometimes follow the use of various drugs. What about contra-? There are a number of common words that begin with contra:.. So. The indicate part is straightforward. Which is precisely what it does mean.these must be medical people. ----. You hear the words. contravene. against pregnancy. So the chances are that contraindicate means something like 'suggest against'. suggest. Allergic reactions are not desirable.START ----SUPPOSE YOU are on a train. But what was that other word.contradict. and Venice . against a rule or law. contraindicate is a verb. Now how about approaching the problem from a different angle? Contraindicate? It is a word made up of two parts. It means: 'demonstrate. You know that.Sarah is hospitalized. I found the below written article from a very reliable source: ----.' Perhaps contraindicate is a specialist medical word meaning something along these lines.
If a reporting expression follows a piece of direct speech. Come and see me if you are ever in Delhi. He said. "I like you". that he likes me.) He said that he likes me. . I didn't know where I should sit. Compare: If you are ever in Delhi. adjectives or verbs can be followed by prepositions. they are often followed by commas. Compare: I decided to try the thin crust Garden Pizza.I listened to jazz. where I should sit. Indirect Speech Comma is not used before that. Noun. It is necessary to use comma before 'and' because the last two items may glom into one if a serial comma is not used. what etc. he said.ordinate Clauses Clauses connected with and. in indirect speech. " I like you". where. Subordinate Clauses When subordinate clauses begin sentences. we put a comma instead of a full stop before the closing quotation mark. (NOT : I didn't know. Direct Speech A comma is used between the reporting expression and a piece of direct speech. noun + preposition (noun+ of/for/in/to/with/between) a cheque for. I had pizza and TG had had pan minis. but or or are usually separated by commas unless they are very short. come and see me. classic. and rock music yesterday.) Co. and TG ordered pan minis with five sauces.I was gifted a cheque for Rs 1 lakh. (NOT: He said.
need for/ demand for/ reason for ('reason of' is a wrong usage) Rohan showed me the pictures of his friends. There is a certain renunciation in art. To write is to become disinterested. public. Do you share a good relationship with your boyfriend? adjective + preposition (adjective + at/by/about/with/to/on/in/for) It was very nice of you. Disinterested: impartial. Introduction of a Dependent Clause . I am sorry about the noise yesterday. company. My family are always fighting among themselves. enemy. Example: Not to like ice cream is to show oneself uninterested in food. The committee has issued its reports. Eg.) I prefer coffee to tea. I am sorry for yelling at you last night. The family was united on this question. clergy etc. I was worried about you. 1. sorry for doing something. The committee have not announced a new policy. flock. The common collective nouns are committee. Do you believe in the power of almighty. Are you interested in drawing? I am running short of money.Similarly. Example: a disinterested decision by a king. group. Verb + preposition (verb + at/to/about/for/on/after/into/of/from) (pay for/suffer from/ suspect of/ blame for/ believe in/ prefer to etc. family. I feel sorry for him. Sam had to pay for the damages to the car. The school provide all its students with laptops.team. A collective noun takes a singular verb when it refers to the collection considered as a whole. I thank God for blessing me with good life. firm. and sorry for someone. It takes a plural verb when it refers to the members of the group considered as individuals. You are sorry about something. Uninterested: not interested in.
her/him/them)..he/she/they). whom is correct.g. He is a wonderful man who is destined for great things. use who. Jack wanted to know on who/whom the prank was pulled. use who.When the pronoun acts as the subject of the clause. he = who/whoever him = whom/whomever Spot The Difference. therefore. Â· Vocation . (He is subjective. the same rules apply. Introduction of a question: When the answer to the question begins with a subjective personal pronoun (e. When the pronoun acts as the object of the clause.) 2.) When the answer to the question is an objective personal pronoun (e. (Who is the subject of the clause œwho is destined for great things or -. use whom.) In distinguishing between whoever and whomever. therefore. Whom did you buy the cake for? I bought the cake for him. (Him is objective. who is correct.g.(n)--(a principal occupation ) a type of work or way of life that you believe is . use whom.He is destined for great things. Who is the knocking at the door? He is knocking at the door. By Raju Soni Conventions: (n) = noun (v)= verb (adj)= adjective (pn)= pronoun (Syn)=synonyms (adv)= adverb (opp)= antonyms/opposite Meanings are short enough to not make reading boring and long enough to be able to spot the difference clearly ! 1. (Whom is the object of the clause whom the prank was pulled or The prank was pulled on him.
(n)-.Anything whatever.an extra piece of equipment that is useful but not essential or that can be added to sth else as a decoration 3. Â· Affection . Â· Emend -(v)-.someone who helps another person commit a crime Â· Accessory . any part Â· Ought -(v)--expressing duty or rightness 9. Â· Ament -(n)-.done or achieved in a polite or friendly way and without quarrelling 7. friendly and easy to like Â· Amicable -(adj)-. cleverness.pleasant. esp. etc. evade 6.allude to sb/sth . trickery.a person who believes that God does not exist 5.to make a formal judgement about the value of a person’s work.Something a person does in addition to a principal occupation. Â· Amiable -(adj)-. usually after a discussion with them about it 8.apprise sb of sth .. especially before it is printed . Â· Aught -(pn)-.(n)-. Â· Allude -(v)-. Â· Apprise -(v)-.the feeling of liking or loving sb/sth very much and caring about them Â· Affectation . Accessary -(adj)-.to tell or inform sb of sth Â· Appraise -(v)-.(n)-.aiding and abetting in a crime -(n)-. for pleasure 2.behaviour or an action that is not natural or sincere and that is often intended to impress other people 4.A person whose intellectual capacity remains undeveloped.especially suitable for you Â· Avocation -(n)-.a person who is not sure whether or not God exists or who believes that we cannot know whether God exists or not Â· Atheist . Â· Agnostic .(n)-.to mention sth in an indirect way Â· Elude -(v)-.to avoid or escape by speed.to remove the mistakes in a piece of writing.(n)-.
~ sb (for sth) to criticize sb severely. etc.to make sth weaker or less effective Â· Extenuate -(v)--make(guilty or an offence)seem less serious by referencing to another factor 11. Â· Attenuate -(v)-.an old type of large heavy gun. films/movies.a set of leather bands. usually on wheels. standard or principle by which sth is judged 15. that can be fastened to your clothes 14.to remove the parts of a book. film/movie. immoral or politically dangerous -(v)-. a generally accepted rule.using very few words and sounding rude Â· Burlesque -(n)-.a performance or piece of writing which tries to make sth look ridiculous by representing it in a humorous way 12. Â· Bridle -(n)-.10. because of sth they have done .to put a bridle on a horse Â· Bridal -(adj)-. attached to REINS. Â· Broach -(v)-. Â· Censor -(n)-. and often publicly.a piece of jewellery with a pin on the back of it. Â· Cannon -(n)-.a Christian priest with special duties in a CATHEDRAL. which is put around a horse’s head and used for controlling it -(v)-. etc.a person whose job is to examine books.connected with a BRIDE or a wedding 13. immoral or politically dangerous Â· Censure -(n)-. that are considered offensive. especially because it is embarrassing or because people disagree about it Â· Brooch -(n)-.~ (sth) (to / with sb) to begin talking about a subject that is difficult to discuss.to hit sb/sth with a lot of force while you are moving Â· Canon -(n)-. and remove parts which are considered offensive. Â· Brusque -(adj)-. that fires solid metal or stone balls -(v)-.strong criticism -(v)-.
something that seems to exist but in fact does not.~ (in sb/sth) not interested.something that strongly attracts attention by its brilliance. Â· Climatic -(adj)-. so that you do not feel that any change is necessary.a false belief or opinion about yourself or your situation. Â· Disinterested -(adj)-.connected with the weather of a particular area Â· Climactic -(adj)-. most important 17. interest. showing or feeling complacency Â· Complaisant -(adj)-.ready to accept other people’s actions and opinions and to do what other people want 18. descern 20.Â· Cynosure -(n)-.: the cynosure of all eyes. or by the chance of getting some advantage for yourself Â· Uninterested -(adj)-.~ sb/sth (as sth) to strongly criticize sb/sth. 16.a member of one of the lower ranks in the army. or seems to be sth that it is not 21.(of an event or a point in time) very exciting. Â· Decry -(v)-.catch sight of .a false idea or belief.to become less valuable over a period of time 22. especially publicly Â· Descry -(v)-. the MARINES or the British air force Â· Corporeal -(adj)-. Â· Delusion -(n)-. Â· Deprecate -(v)-.that can be touched. etc.~ sth (from sb) to get information or a reaction from sb.to become less valuable over a period of time Â· Depreciate -(v)-. Â· Elicit -(v)-. physical rather than spiritual 19. Â· Corporal -(n)-. especially about sb or about a situation. Â· Complacent -(adj)-. the act of believing or making yourself believe sth that is not true Â· Illusion -(n)-. not wanting to know about sb/sth 23.not influenced by personal feelings. often with difficulty .~ (about sb/sth) too satisfied with yourself or with a situation.
quiet and old-fashioned and perhaps slightly boring 32.still in existence Â· Extent -(n)-.to accept punishment for sth that you have done wrong in order to show that you are sorry 26. serious. not behaving in an acceptable way Â· Arrant -(adj)-. often in an exaggerated way.calm and kind. or pretending to be from. a high social class. direction or time Â· Further -(adv)--to a greater degree or extent. Â· Gourmet -(n)-.fair and reasonable. or characterized by faction.Â· Illicit -(adj)-. doing things in a quiet and careful way Â· Genteel -(adj)-.of.a person who knows a lot about good food and wines and who enjoys choosing.(of people and their way of life) quiet and polite.bad-tempered or easily upset. Â· Gentle -(adj)-. inclined to. Â· Extant -(adj)-.to decide not to have or do sth that you would like to have or do Â· Forgo -(v)-. Â· Expatiate -(v)-.not legally permitted or authorized. unlawful 24. sth is 27. Â· Errant -(adj)-. treating everyone in an equal way 28. notorious: an arrant fool. Â· Forego -(v)-.doing sth that is wrong. Â· Farther -(adj)-. 30.at a greater distance in space. especially by small things Â· Factious -(adj)-. Â· Equable -(adj)-. eating and drinking them . Â· Fractious -(adj)-.calm and not easily upset or annoyed Â· Equitable -(adj)-. thorough. in addition to what has just been said 31. important.downright. etc.to decide not to have or do sth that you would like to have or do 29.to write or speak in detail about a subject Â· Expiate -(v)-. unlicensed.how large. 25. from. unmitigated.
a plan.) very suitable for a particular purpose and resulting from clever new ideas Â· Ingenuous.to give sb a punishment.a dishonest man or boy Â· Nave . Â· Mendacity -(n)-.the long central part of a church where most of the seats are 36. Â· Ingenious -(adj)-. Â· Knave -(n)-. Â· Immanent -(adj)-. an idea. Â· Mystical -(adj)-.likely to happen very soon 34. that does not exist or is not true 40. Â· Martial -(adj)-.Naive 35.a very small piece of dust Â· Moat -(n)-.(n)-.existing only in ancient myths.(of an object.connected with fighting or war Â· Marital -(adj)-.having spiritual powers or qualities that are difficult to understand or to explain Â· Mythical -(adj)-.(adj)-.to be in the same place as sb by chance and talk to them Â· Mete -(v)-.connected with marriage or with the relationship between a husband and wife 37. Â· Meet -(v)-.present as a natural part of sth. etc. and filled with water to make it more difficult for enemies to attack .a person who enjoys eating and eats large amounts of food 33.Â· Gourmand -(n)-. innocent and willing to trust people Syn.honest.the act of not telling the truth Â· Mendicity -(n)-39. etc. to make sb suffer bad treatment 38.a deep wide channel that was dug around a castle. present everywhere Â· Imminent -(adj)-. Â· Mote -(n)-.
queen. Â· Officious -(adj)-. Â· Provident -(adj)-. as of a statement.~ (sb) sth (for sth) (of a doctor) to tell sb to take a particular medicine or have a particular treatment. Â· Prescribe -(v)-.clearness or lucidity.a moral rule or a strong belief that influences your actions Â· Principal -(n)-. really 49. to write a Â· Proscribe -(v)-.to say officially that sth is forbidden 47. Â· Reign -(n)-. the quality of being perspicuous. Â· Obdurate -(adj)-. 46.connected with the job of sb who is in a position of authority 43. Â· Panegyric -(n)-. Â· Principle -(n)-. Â· Objurgate -(adj)-.41. EMPEROR. 45.to a great degree. berate.soothing.refusing to change your mind or your actions in any way Syn.Stubborn 42. etc.careful in planning for the future. Â· Quiet -(adj)-. especially by saving money Â· Providential -(adj)-. peaceful Â· Quite -(adv)-. but without being planned 48. Â· Perspicacity -(adj)-.the person who is in charge of a college or a university 44.too ready to tell people what to do or to use the power you have to give orders Â· Official -(adj)-.a speech or piece of writing praising sb/sth Â· Paregoric -(n)-.not disturbed. very. showing this Â· Perspicuity -(n)-. rules .to scold or rebuke sharply.the period during which a king.lucky because it happens at the right time.able to understand sb/sth quickly and accurately. a medicine used to make pacify.
Â· Urban -(adj)-. to be made to look like sth else Â· Dissimulate -(v)-. for example paper.seeming right or true but actually wrong or false 53.not interesting or unusual syn Unremarkable Â· Unexceptionable -(adj)-.not moving.to hide your real feelings or intentions.(in the past) a person who claimed that they could see what was going to happen in the future 51.a long.not giving any reason for criticism. Â· Spacious -(adj)-. pens and envelopes 54. Â· Simulate -(v)-. narrow. often by pretending to have different ones 52.the practice of not drinking alcohol because of your moral or religious beliefs.. the amount you eat. usually for study or training purposes. Â· Sear -(v)-. models.connected with a town or city . not very new or exciting 56. the practice of controlling your behaviour. Â· Temperance -(n)-. not intended to be moved Opp-Mobile Â· Stationery -(n)-. etc.to create particular conditions that exist in real life using computers.(of a room or building) large and with plenty of space for people to move around in Â· Specious -(adj)-. so that it is always reasonable Â· Temperament -(n)-..to burn the surface of sth in a way that is sudden and powerful Â· Seer -(n)-. Â· Unexceptional -(adj)-.a person’s or an animal’s nature as shown in the way they behave or react to situations or people 55. leather band that is fastened around a horse’s neck and is held by the rider in order to control the horse 50. etc.Â· Rein -(n)-. Â· Stationary -(adj)-.materials for writing and for using in an office.
Â· Vain -(adj)-.prepared to do dishonest or immoral things in return for money Â· Venial -(adj)-.(especially of a man) good at knowing what to say and how to behave in social situations. Â· Venal -(adj)-. wanting a lot of new information and knowledge Â· Veracity -(n)-. Who is going? Who are you? Is this who told you? Who can also be used in statements.Â· Urbane -(adj)-.the quality of being true. as a sign of respect for sb who has died Â· Wreathe -(v)-. Â· Wreath -(n)-.to increase your desire for or interest in sth Â· Wet -(adj)-.(of a SIN or mistake) not very serious and therefore able to be forgiven 59. the habit of telling the truth syn . etc.an arrangement of flowers and leaves.covered or soaked with liquid.~ sth (in / with sth) to surround or cover sth. especially in circles Who Who is an interrogative pronoun and is used in place of the subject of a question. appearing relaxed and confident 57.any of the tubes that carry blood from all parts of the body to the heart 58.eating or wanting large amounts of food. . Â· Whet -(v)-.Truthfulness 60. in place of the subject of a clause.that does not produce the result you want Â· Vein -(adj)-. Ravi is the one who wants to go. especially water 61. to move slowly and lightly. especially in the shape of a circle. Â· Voracity -(adj)-. placed on graves. This is who warned me.
and she. etc. one of whom. The difference between who and whom is exactly the same as the difference between I and Me. like me. This is the man whom I told you about. failed the test. is a subject . in place of the object of a clause. and her. she and her. he and him. not "with who. Whom is this story about? With whom are you going? Whom did they tell? And whom can be used in statements. one of who. is an object it is the person to/about/for whom the action is being done." Sometimes it helps to rewrite the sentence and/or replace who/whom with another pronoun so that you can see the relationships more clearly. Whom is always the correct choice after a preposition. The students. him.it is the person performing the action of the verb. Whom is also the correct choice after a preposition: with whom. Sita is the girl with whom I'm driving to Marine. Who. This is who warned me > He warned me (not "him" warned me) Ram is the one who wants to go > He wants to go (not "him" wants to go) This is the man whom I told you about > I told you about him (not about "he") .Anyone who knows the truth should tell us. Whom Whom is also an interrogative pronoun. like I. he. Whom. RAM is the man whom you met at dinner last week. but it is used in place of the object of a question. one of whom is graduating this year.
but over the last few weeks it has deteriorated. presumably) can also come here when we want to highlight what we are about to say. completely. just. officially. officially. Time adverbs can come here when we want to show a contrast with a previous reference to time. Initially. almost) all favour this position. always come here. will. We invited all the family. was) are used. but presumably you'll want to show her around mumbai mid position Focusing adverbs (e. luckily.Sita is the girl with whom I'm driving to Marine > I'm driving to Maine with her (not with "she") There are three normal positions for adverbs in a sentence: 1) initial position (before the subject) 2) mid position (between the subject and the verb or immediately after be as a main verb) or 3) end position (at the end of the clause). However. Note that when auxiliary verbs (e. as a result. even). his condition remained stable. never) and adverbs of certainty and degree (e. Compare the following: Two of the workers were sacked. adverbs of indefinite frequency (e. Ravi was the manager. so please regard this as a basic guide. Sita ran the office.g probably. The weather will stay fine today. has. is. always. clearly. often.g. Initial position Linking adverbs.g. and. not everyone could come. I haven't made any plans yet. quite. although. which join a clause to what was said before. but tomorrow it will rain. they normally go between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: . obviously.g.g. There are sometimes exceptions to the general rule. Different types of adverbs favour different positions and I describe these trends below. everybody went on strike. Comment and viewpoint adverbs (e.
g. every year) and adverbs of manner when we want to focus on how something is done (e. How long have you been here? Not long. We arrived about five minutes ago. but I'll just see if Sita's home. But John says I shouldn't wear it. She was standing at her window. so I don't have a lesson every week. time: They played happily together in the garden the whole afternoon. I've almost finished. place. they are placed immediately before them: We had some really interesting news last night. She's obviously a very bossy woman.g. slowly.she's even been to Tibet and Nepal. My boss often travels to Malaysia and Singapore but I've never been there. well. Have you finished yet? I haven't quite finished. last week. Ravi won't be back yet. I bought an incredibly expensive dress last week which fits me perfectly. .She's been everywhere . He's absolutely delighted. but I'm usually travelling in the middle of the month. John's been offered a job in Australia. the order in which they are placed is normally: manner. in the countryside.g. An exception to this rule is enough which is placed after the adjective or adverb that it modifies: I got up quite early but not early enough to eat a good breakfast. looking out at her children who were playing in the garden. evenly) and adverbs of place (e. at the window) usually go in end position: I had a tennis lesson last week. I chewed the food slowly because it hadn't been cooked very well. Note that when more than one of this type of adverb is used. adverb-adjective When adverbs modify adjectives. I'll give her a ring. ~ I completely agree! end position Adverbs of time and definite frequency (e. He says it's too tight.
") The correct pronoun for the question is whom. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future. I fared well.") The correct pronoun for the question who./ Nevertheless. . "He went to the store. Use who when referring to the subject of a sentence or phrase. Know the difference between who and whom.In spite of/ despite feeling tired (+ing) My tiredness (+ noun) the fact that I was tired ( + the fact that) I couldn’t sleep despite/ in spite of while/ whereas ( comparing difference) Some students prepare sincerely for CAT while/ whereas others are lazy. Use whom when referring to the object of a verb. Although/ even though/ however/ nevertheless I will prepare for CAT 2009 although/ even though my friends are not supporting my decision." (Almost no one would say "It went to he. * Who brought the paper inside? * Who talked to you today? * Who went to dinner? 4. 1. What follows is a quick way to determine which pronoun to use in a particular question. It's easy to remember because they both end with "m"./ Even so. Ask yourself if the answer to the question would be he or him. If you can answer the question with him. 2. "[Who or Whom] went to the store?" is. * Example: A suitable answer to the question. then use who. "To [who or whom] did the prize go?" is. They are both pronouns but who is used as the subject of a sentence or phrase and whom is used as the object of a verb. then use whom. However." (Almost no one would say "Him went to the store. CAT 2008 was a tough exam. USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. * To whom it may concern: * To whom did you talk today? * Whom does Sarah love? 3. "It went to him. If you can answer the question with he. * Example: A suitable answer to the question.
" "teach. the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when. Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing? Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon. By the time I finish this course. Examples: I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave. By Monday. as soon as. Examples: I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. if. Present Perfect is used. she is going to have cleaned the entire house. while. Instead of Future Perfect. Correct Your Your is the second person possessive adjective. unless. How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50? USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs) With non . Not Correct I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework.continuous verbs and some non-continuous uses of mixed verbs. I will have taken ten tests. the words "live. I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock. Your is nearly always followed by a noun. Is your name Gadha? Is this your pen? ." "work. by the time." and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT NonContinuous Verbs REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses Like all future forms. used to describe something as belonging to you. after. By the time he gets home. I will have received my promotion. etc.Examples: By next November. Susan is going to have had my book for a week. we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future. before. Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs.
The government's action had no effect on the trade imbalance. Advantage. 3.no exceptions . as a disease: Rheumatic fever can affect the heart. | 4. You're going to be the queen of Gadha Land. hypothesis. and it omits the letter “a. Otherwise. your only choice is your. The Bottom Line The confusion between your and you're occurs because the two words are pronounced pretty much the same. To act on the emotions of. you will know to use “your Affect vs Effect Affect 1. To attack or infect.” Remember that only “you’re” is a contraction. 3. To have an influence on or effect a change in: Inflation affects the buying power of the dollar. 2. ." you're saying you're. avail: used her words to great effect in influencing the jury. influence: The drug had an immediate effect on the pain. I can't believe you're a Gadha! When you're my age.is that if you're able to replace the word with "you are.This is your chair and this is mine. or phenomenon: the photovoltaic effect. you'll understand. Something brought about by a cause or agent. A scientific law. Keep in mind that the word your will never be followed by the words the. a result. a. 2. touch or move. Try replacing “your” or “you’re” with “you are” if you are unsure which to use. Effect 1. The ironclad rule . or an.” The apostrophe in “you’re” signifies the omission of the letter “a. use “you’re. The power to produce an outcome or achieve a result.” If the sentence does not make sense. You're You're is the contraction of "you are" and is often followed by the present participle (verb form ending in -ing). If the sentence makes sense.
any. the right word to use is effect. How does the crime rate affect hiring levels by local police forces? Than 1. no. Production of a desired impression: spent lavishly on dinner just for effect. it is important to take the concepts of cause and effect into consideration. It is appropriate to use the word "effect" if one of these words is used immediately before the word: into. The basic or general meaning. The prescribed medication had no effect on the patient's symptoms. 6. Something that produces a specific impression or supports a general design or intention: The lighting effects emphasized the harsh atmosphere of the drama. import: He said he was greatly worried.5. Affect can also be used as a verb. 2. If you are talking about a result. take. 1. ." What effect did the CAT result have on the TG team? 2. If you want to describe something that was caused or brought about. 5. then use the word "effect. In analyzing a situation. Affect can be used as a noun to describe facial expression. or and. Use it when trying to describe influencing someone or something rather than causing it. Example: The new manager effected some positive changes in the office. 3. A particular impression: large windows that gave an effect of spaciousness. the.) 4. Used after a comparative adjective or adverb to introduce the second element or clause of an unequal comparison DT had better grammar than TG. or words to that effect. The Bottom line 1. (This means that the new manager caused some positive changes to take place in the office. 3. The young man with schizophrenia had a flat affect. The condition of being in full force or execution: a new regulation that goes into effect tomorrow. 7. an.
and then to the bank Do your homework and then go to bed 3. therefore (often with "if") If you want to go. 5. In that case. afterward I went to the office. 1. but then he always worked so hard.As a consequence. 3. then you have to use then There vs Their .Used after but to qualify or balance a preceding statement: He was a star. then. Will you be home at noon? I'll call you then.2. she does the work. and then that I owed him money 4. In addition. The Bottom Line Than is used only in comparisons. At that point in time I wasn't ready then. so if you're comparing something use than. If not. also. Then Then has numerous meanings. then you'll have to finish your homework. Used especially after hardly and scarcely I had hardly the energy to smile than I saw your face. 2. Used to introduce the second element after certain words indicating difference He sang at a lower octave than she. 6. on top of that He told me he was leaving. Next. therefore She wants to be a star.
or that something belongs to "them". no such word as its'.There is used as an introductory subject is sentences with "There is" and "There are". o There is an antique store in the city. you've chosen the correct word. more or less. positively. It's time to start serious preparation for CAT. . If you chose their. Its is a possessive pronoun meaning. It is also used as an adverb of place meaning "in that place". Their things were strewn about the office haphazardly. will the sentence still make sense if you replace it with our? If so. you're using it correctly. My friends have lost their tickets. Their is the possessive pronoun form. their : refer to their as a word for people. This form is used to express that "they" have a specific quality. That's an interesting device . The Bottom Line 1.what is its purpose? The bird lost some of its feathers. will the sentence still make sense if you replace it with here? If so.of it or belonging to it. whether concrete ("over there by the building") or more abstract ("it must be difficult to live there"). o The science textbooks are over there on the floor. If you wrote there.it's very good." I read the article on TG . 2. there: refer to there as a word for location. 3. It's vs Its It's It's is a contraction of "it is" or "it has. And there is absolutely. Use there when referring to a place.
There's no need to shout. when we are talking about general necessity. However. Awhile: It is an adverb. It's going to rain tonight. If you can replace the word with "it is" or "it has. Contraction:it has It's a bird! It's a plane! Contraction: it is 2. It means 'for a while'.A While vs Awhile: A While: A while is a noun. I can hear you perfectly. we normally use don't need to: You don't need to pay for medical care in National Health Service hospitals. It is a measure of time. eg: I wrote awhile before lunch. I can hear you perfectly. such as “for” or “ago” Awhile always means “for a while”. It's a good line. There's no need to water the garden this evening." use it's. It's going to rain tonight. 1.Where is its head office? The Bottom Line 1. It's going to rain tonight. . You don't need to shout. It's been good to know you. It's a good line. Needn't and don't need to There is also a difference in use when these verbs are used to describe present situations. You just need a handicap. You needn't water the garden this evening. eg: He left for a while. It's a good line. We can use both needn't and don't need to to give permission to someone not to do something in the immediate future. You don't need to be rich to get into this golf club. We can also use need as a noun here: You don't need to water the garden this evening. If the sentence still works grammatically (if not logically) then your word is indeed its. Otherwise. Try plugging her into your sentence where you think its belongs. I can hear you perfectly. You needn't shout. Its is the neuter version of his and her. a while needs to be accompanied by a preposition. it's always its.
. character. Further..e.. 3. 'especial' implies that something less good exists. special stresses having a quality. to seek information about something or to conduct a formal investigation. eg: We walked farther than we planned. you hurt my feelings! 6. identity.Farther vs Further: Farther has a physical connotation and means " to a greater distance" whereas further is conceptual and means "to a greater degree".2. whereas something 'special' doesn’t need to be compared against anything.Ramjet Malani is going to inquire into Boforce case once again. or use of its own .Elude vs Illude vs Allude: we use "elude” when one means to escape/avoid by trickery. we use "illude” when one means to trick or deceive.i.. we use “allude” when one means to refer indirectly or casually.Any vs Either: either is one or the other any is one indifferently out of more than two 5. The lawyers asked when the inquiry will be completed. I enquired his address My papa's first enquiry was on today's sales! Mr. cleverness. however. 4.. especial may add importance.. Enquire vs Inquire: These two words means the same meaning.Especially vs Specially: They both mean something which was “out of the ordinary” or even “exceptional”.
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