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beside and besides Beside is a preposition meaning 'at the side of', 'by' or 'next to' Why is the cat sitting beside the

chair? Besides is used when we add new information to what is already known. Besides aerobics, I have to do crunches and push ups. Besides can also be used as a discourse marker meaning 'also', 'in any case',and 'as well'. It is often used to add a stronger, more conclusive argument to what has gone before. In this case, besides usually goes at the beginning of the clause. It's too late to go out now. Besides, it's starting to rain. I don't like this dress; besides,it's too expensive. besides, except and apart from Besides usually adds; it is like saying with, or in addition to or plus (+). Besides cornflakes, I have fruits for my breakfast. Except subtracts; it's like saying without, or minus (-). I like all fruits except apples. Apart from can be used in both senses. Apart from cornflakes, I have fruits for breakfast. (= besides cornflakes) I like all fruits apart from apples.(=except apples) After no, nobody, nothing and similar negative words, the three expressions (besides, except, apart from) can all have the same meaning. He has nothing except/besides/apart from his house. (= He only has his house.) Just Just has several meanings: time 'Just' often emphasizes the idea of 'at this moment' or 'close to the present'. I'll be down in a minute-I am just completing my lunch. Harry has just phoned. In expressions such as 'just after', 'just before', and 'just when', just suggests closeness to the time in question. I saw him just after dinner. (=very soon after dinner.) 'Only', 'scarcely' Just can mean 'only', 'scarcely', 'nothing more than'. Complete dinner set for just $100. I just want somebody to be with me.

The meaning can be emphasized by only. There was only just enough light to read by. Could/Can I Just....? can make a request seem less demanding. Could I just use your bicycle? Exactly Just often means 'exactly'. What is the time by your watch?--It's just 3 o'clock. Thanks. That's just what I wanted. Emphasizer Just can emphasize other words and expressions, with the sense of 'simply', 'there's no other word for it'. You are just amazing. I just love your pen.

Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, itself and themselves. Used as direct objects He hurt himself. I cut myself. Used as indirect objects Rohan cooked himself a good meal. Rhea made herself a party dress. Used as prepositional objects Take good care of yourself/ yourselves. Do you ever talk to yourself when you are alone? Sometimes used as subject complements Alex doesn’t look quite himself today.( as well as he usually does) Why can’t you be yourself? (behave normally/naturally) Used in apposition for emphasis . They may also be placed after a verb.I can’t come myself, but I’ll send someone to help you. The paintings themselves are magnificent, but what ugly frames? Occur after preposition, and after like, than, as but. Are you all by yourself? ( alone) You should see what’s happening for yourself. ( not be content merely to hear what others say about it.)

Karry is a teacher like myself. Bob doesn’t like playing with children younger than himself. ( younger than he is) Whose and Who's Whose is a possessive word meaning 'of whom/ which',used in questions and relative clauses. Who's is a contraction of who is and who has. Compare: Whose is that coat? (NOT Who's is that coat?) It was a decision whose importance was not realized at that time. (NOT who's importance) Do you know anybody who's going to Australia in the next few days? (NOT anybody whose going..) I have got a cousin who's never been to Paris. (NOT whose never been to...) its and it's Its is a possessive word. ( such as my, your). Every country has its traditions. (NOT...it's traditions) It's the contracted form of it is and it has It's raining again (NOT its raining again). Have you seen my pen? It's disappeared. (NOT...Its disappeared) Whether and if Indirect questions Whether and if both introduce indirect questions I’m not sure whether/if I’ll have time. I asked whether/if she had any letters for me. After verbs that are more common in formal style, whether is preferred.We discussed whether we should close the shop. In formal style, whether is preferred in two part question with or. The Directors have not decided whether they will recommend a dividend or reinvest the profits. If indirect question is fronted, whether is used. Whether I’ll have time I’m not sure at the moment. Prepositions After prepositions, only whether is possible. I haven’t settled the question of whether I’ll go back home. There was a big argument about whether we should move to a new office.

Infinitives Whether, but not if, is used before to-infinitives. They can’t decide whether to get married now or wait. ( NOT they can’t decide if). Subject, Complement and Adverbial clauses When a question-word clause is a subject or complement, whether is normally preferred. Whether we can stay with my mother is another matter.(subject) The question is whether the man can be trusted. (complement) The question is if. is also possible but less common. The question is if the man can be trusted. If and whether are NOT used in echo questions Are you happy? Am I happy? No! ( NOT.If/Whether I’m happy?..) Few, A few, the few,Little, A little and The little Little= not much (hardly any). The adjective little has a negative meaning. He has little appreciation of good poetry. A little = some though not much. 'A little' has a positive meaning. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. The little = not much, but all there is. The little information that he had was not quite reliable. Same goes for few, a few and the few. Few= negative meaning + hardly any Few people can keep a secret. A few= positive meaning + is opposed to none. A few Parsees write Gujrati correctly. The few= not many, but all that there is. The few friends he has are all poor. farther and further Distance We use both farther and further to talk about distance. They both mean the same. Delhi is farther/further away from Chennai. Additional Further (not farther) can mean additional. extra, more advanced.

(NOT. They each said what they thought.. But we prefer each when we are thinking of people or things separately. in a group. We can also us as to talk about function. Each with two or more.like (similarity): like me Like can be a preposition. not as. (NOT.. Like + noun/ pronoun .. but Every person came from the same small village. or without exception. For further information.every hand) Exception Every (frequency) Every (which is normally used with singular nouns) can be used before plural expressions in measurements of frequency. I go to Canada every six weeks. Meaning Each and every can often be used without much difference of meaning... Each and every are both normally used with singular nouns. every is normally used to talk about three or more.they every) Each of them spoke for five minutes. Every with three or more... function We can use like and as to say that things are similar. one at a time. each/every years) She had a toy holding on to each hand. before a noun or a pronoun to talk about similarity. Each can be used to talk about two or more people or things.the jobs that people or things do. nearly. Structures We do not use each with word expressions like almost. We use like. (every is closer to all).College of Further Education. The business makes less money each/every year. And every is more common when we are thinking of people or things together.. (NOT... 3.Every of them) Like and as : similarity.nearly each friend) Each can be used in some structures where every is impossible.. You look more beautiful each/every time I see you. 1.. (NOT . 2. (NOT. These words stress the idea of the whole group. So we are more likely to say: Each person in turn went to see the doctor. She's lost nearly every friend she had. practically. turn to page 5 Each and Every : the difference 1..

He believed.30. Nobody loves you like I do. He is very like his father. This is most common in an informal style. 4. as did all his family. You look exactly like your mother did when she was 20. We use it before a clause. In 1939. Some expressions beginning with as are used to introduce facts which are common ground. as (similarity): as I do As is a conjunction. everybody seemed to want war. quite and other adverb of degree before like. and before an expression beginning with a preposition. We can use like to give examples She is good at scientific subjects like mathematics. 5. We can use very. inverted word order : as did all his family In a very formal style. . as in 1914. as + clause as + preposition phrase Nobody knows her as I do. like I do (informal) In modern English. that the king was their supreme lord. (NOT as mathematics) In mountainous countries. as on Wednesday. he is a vegetarian. as is sometimes followed by auxiliary verb + subject She was a Catholic. On Friday. the meeting will be at 4. like Peru 2. as you know etc. She looks a bit like Julia Roberts. We often drink tea with the meal. as they do in China. as were most of her friends. like is often used as conjunction instead of as.known to both speaker/writer and listener/reader. (NOT as me) He ran like the wind (NOT as the wind) Like his parents. 3.My brother looks like me.

as you suggested. There are some passive expressions of this kind. (NOT as it was agreed) 6. as we agreed. Another use of as is to say what function or role a person or thing haswhat jobs people do.) neither (of) + determiner 1. Compare this use of as with like. a comparison with as or like usually refers only to the positive part of what comes before. . like Jane (Jane smokes) I am not a conservative. A crocodile starts life as an egg.I'm afraid neither day is possible. (I am not your brother. used before a noun.Examples are as you know. neither + singular noun We use neither before a singular noun to mean 'not one and not the other (of two)'. Note that there is no subject it after as in these expressions. (I am your brother) Like your brother. next Mondays meeting has been cancelled.Function or role: He worked as a waiter. Comparison with as and like after negatives After a negative clause. In this case. I must warn you to be careful. Can you come on Wednesday or Thursday? . what purposes things are used for. As your brother. the comparison refers to the whole clause. as we agreed. more people get cold in winter. I must warn you to be careful. He worked as a waiter for three years. I am sending you the bill. I am not a conservative. (NOT like a waiter) Please don’t use that pencil as an ear bud. as is a preposition. as we agreed. Like Mary. (Mary doesn’t smoke) Like Bill. like Tom. I don’t smoke. I am sending you the bill for repairs. As is well known..(Tom is conservative) Before a negative clause.for example as is well known. (Bill is not a conservative) 7. I don’t smoke. (NOT as its well known). but he and I have similar attitudes. as was agreed. As you know. what category they belong to etc.

Go on to do something = do/say something new.) Neither of us saw it happen. I regret to say/ to tell/ to inform you = I'm sorry that I have to say.) I remembered to do something = I remembered that I had to do it so I did it. I remember doing something = I did it and now I remember this. You remember doing something after you have done it.2. neither of + plural We use neither of before a determiner (for example he. The noun or pronoun is plural. I clearly remember locking it. We can't go on living like this. I am absolutely sure I locked the door. Which one do you want?-. since. (=I remembered that I had to lock the door and so I locked it. and from: time 1.for . Neither of my sisters is married. if the meaning is clear. After neither of + noun/pronoun. (NOT: Neither my brothers can sing. these). You remember to do something before you do it. The minister went on talking for two hours. the minister then went on to talk about a foreign policy.) I regret doing something= I did it and now I am sorry about it. I remembered to lock the door when I left but I forgot to shut the windows. Neither of my sisters are married. I shouldn't have said it. We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the job. and before a pronoun. Neither used alone We can use neither without a noun or pronoun. For.Neither Go on going something = continue doing the same thing. I now regret saying what I said. 3. a plural verb is possible. my. we use a singular verb in a formal style. In an informal style. After discussing the economy. Neither of my brothers can sing. (= I locked it and now I remember it.

She’d been working there for a long time. (NOT: We live here for ten years. To measure the duration up to the present. That house has been empty for six months. I’ve known him for a long time. They are not the same. (NOT since a long time) She’d been working there since 2000.) Its been raining for weeks. It’s been raining since the beginning of the month. we use a present perfect tense. Compare: How long are you here for? (= Until when?) How long have you been here for? (= Since when?) We can often leave out for in an informal style. ( NOT since three years. From/since + starting point I’ll be here from three o’clock onwards. not a present tense.) We’ve lived here for ten years. for and since with perfect tenses: the difference For and since can both be used with perfect tense to talk about duration upto the present. from and since From and since give the starting point of actions. With a past perfect. 3.) A present tense with for refers to duration into the future. . How long have you been waiting (for)? We’ve been here (for) six weeks. Since + starting point I’ve known her since Tuesday. events or states: they say when things begin/began. for + period of time I studied the piano for three years at school. 2. especially with How long? And for is not usually used before all. (NOT: I know her for a long time.We use for for duration.to say how long something lasts. Compare: for + period I have known him for three years. for and since refer to duration up to a particular past moment. I have known her since February.

. (both + verb.) Prefer and would rather Prefer to do and prefer doing We use prefer to do or prefer doing to say something in general: I don’t like the cities. (NOT since Sunday morning) From is sometimes possible with a present perfect. I prefer to live in the country... I’ve been working since six o’ clock. I prefer something else. and I am getting tired) I had been working since six o’ clock. and I was getting tired.and We often balance 'both. She both dances and she sings. You can both borrow the flat and (you can) use our car. both. (NOT I’ve been working from six o’ clock. something doing something to to . (BUT NOT Both you can borrow the flat and you can use our car. (NOT The shop was open since eight in the morning) I’ll be home from Sunday morning (on). (adjectives) I spoke to both the Director and her Secretary.(verbs) However. The shop was open from eight in the morning. especially in expressions that mean right from the start. (OR since her childhood) From/Since the moment they were married. or up to a past time that we are talking about.. so that the same kind of words or expressions follow both and and. but the boss didn’t arrive till ten. and + clause) I both play the piano and the violin. She’s been like that from her childhood. and I am getting tired. From is used in other cases. (noun) She both dances and sings.We use since (with a perfect tense) especially when we measure duration from a starting point up to the present.and' structure. I prefer doing something else. they’ve quarrelled. She's both pretty and clever. I prefer living in the country. Some people prefer to avoid them. unbalanced sentences with both...and are common. Both cannot begin a complete clause in this structure.

than (do) I’d rather say at home tonight than go to the cinema. . Compare: Shall we go by train? I’d prefer to go by car. I’d rather not go out this evening. I’d prefer to stay at home tonight rather than go by cinema. to do something rather than I prefer this dress to the dress you were wearing yesterday. Structure after would rather: I’d rather do something something else. you can say I’d rather did something : Shall I stay here? I’d rather you come with us.) . I’d rather you did something When you want somebody to do something. I’d rather go by car.But I prefer (do) something else. I prefer driving to travelling by train. Would you rather have tea or coffee? Coffee please The negative is I’d rather not (do something): I’m tired. (NOT I’d prefer going by car. Would prefer (I’d prefer) We use ˜would prefer to say what somebody wants in a particular situation (not in general): Would you prefer tea or coffee? Coffee please. I’d prefer to go by car. I prefer to drive rather than travel by train. We would say would prefer to do (not doing) Shall we go by train? Well. Do you want to go out this evening? I’d rather not. Would rather (I’d rather) Would rather (do) = would prefer (to do) After would rather we use infinitive without to. if you don’t mind.

). when lots of is used before a singular subject. not past. but are more formal. they are both used mainly before singular uncountable and plural nouns. plenty of Plenty of is usually rather informal. a great deal of. A lot of time is needed to learn a language. When a lot of is used before a plural subject. and before pronouns. we prefer a great deal of. a large amount of. I’d rather you cooked the dinner now. Mr. the verb is plural. a large number. lots. I’d rather they didn’t know. did etc. Do you mind if I smoke? I’d rather you didn’t. but the meaning is present or future. Louise has spent a great deal of time in Far East. a large amount. (not I’d rather you cook) The negative is I’d rather you didn’t I’d rather you didn’t tell anyone what I said. In more formal style. A large number of problems still have to be solved majority of The majority of (= most or most of) is mostly used with plural nouns or verbs. A large number of is used before plurals. The majority of criminals are non violent.Shall I tell them the news? No. a large amount of. Compare: I’d rather cook the dinner now. a great deal. measurement nouns . Shall I tell them or would you rather they didn’t know? In this structure we use the past (came. a lot. A great deal of and a large amount of are generally used with uncountable nouns. It is used mostly befor singular uncountables and plurals. It suggests enough and more. Lots of us think it’s time for an election. There is not much difference between a lot of and lots of . the majority a lot of and lots of: These are rather informal. much or many. plenty. and a following verb is plural. the verb is singular. and a large number of These are used in similar ways to a lot of and lots of.

C) less and fewer without nouns Nouns can be dropped after less and fewer if the meaning is clear. Other words have to be used. but less/fewer than 20 years ago. my or this) and pronouns. there are fewer of us each year. At the college reunions. Some people go to church.These expressions are not generally used before words for units of measure. A) the difference Less is the comparative of little (used especially before uncountable nouns) Fewer is the comparative of few (used before plural nouns) I earn less money than a postman. we walk and swim a lot. eat less food. I’ve got less problems than I used to have. used as adverbs A lot and a great deal can be used as adverbs On holiday. B) less/ fewer with and without of Less of and fewer of are used before determiners (like the. In this case of is not used. of is not used. (NOT we walk plenty OR swim lots) less and fewer. years or miles. like pounds. Less is quite common before plural nouns and uncountable nouns. If you want to lose weight. Rohan seems to change his mind a great deal. (NOT they lived plenty of miles from the town) use without following nouns these expressions can be used without nouns if the meaning is clear. especially in an informal style. I’ve got fewer problems than I used to have. I’d like to spend less of my time answering letters. It costs several pounds. . How much did it cost? A lot. Before nouns without determiners. Some people consider this incorrect. ( NOT It cost a lot of ponds.) They lived many miles from the town.

) She wasn't grateful to me for repairing her watch. It is not permitted to smoke in the kitchen. The passive structure with it is only possible with permit.. Allow. or at having come through an unpleasant experience. I'm very grateful for my teacher's help. Well. Passive structures are common. A lesser known writer. D) lesser Lesser is used in a few expressions (in a rather formal style) to mean smaller or not so much The lesser of two evils. an “ing form is used. permit. (NOT I'm very thankful. I'm thankful that's over. and let allow and permit These words have similar meanings and uses. personal subjects and gerund (-ing form) both are possible.) Allow. People are not allowed/permitted to smoke in the kitchen. (NOT Its is not allowed.Less can be used as an adverb (the opposite of the adverb more) I worry less than I used to. Permit is more formal. When there is no personal object.. but not permit. can be used in adverb particles. Smoking is not allowed/permitted in the kitchen. We were really thankful when it stopped raining after two days. We do not allow/permit people smoking in the kitchen. thankful and grateful Grateful is the normal word for people's reaction to kindness. let . Both words can be flowed by object+infinitive We do not allow/permit people to smoke in the kitchen. Thankful is used specially for feelings of relief at having avoided a danger. She wouldn’t allow me in. Bob is not allowed out at night. favours etc.

(NOT I wasn’t let) Let can be used with adverb particles.enjoy to look) Eitheror We use eitheror to talk about a choice between two possibilities (and sometimes more than two) I don’t speak either Japanese or Chinese. (friendly and informal) Let is not usually used in the passive. (polite and formal) Let me buy you a drink. so that same kinds of words or expressions follow either and or.) To talk about having a good time. Compare: Please allow me to buy you a drink. especially in informal language. (prepositional expressions) Either you will leave this house or I will call police.~ Enjoy yourselves! Enjoy! With no object is possible. I don’t enjoy looking after the small children.Let is the least formal of these three words.Yes. and is followed by object+infinitive without to. (clauses) However unbalanced sentences with either. I went to Rome. If you want ice-cream. Did you enjoy the party?. You can either have chocolate or ice-cream. Enjoy Enjoy normally has an object. She wouldn’t let me in. or chocolate. I enjoyed it very much (NOT I enjoyed very much. I’ve been let down. We’re going to Paris for the weekend. there is either vanilla.or are possible. You can either come with me now or walk home. raspberry. (NOT. passives are possible in this case. He is either in Delhi or Mumbai. We often balance this structure. You can eat either chocolate or ice-cream. I wasn’t allowed to pay for the drinks. . The usage is mostly avoided. we can enjoy myself/yourself etc. I really enjoyed myself when. Enjoy can be followed by “ing. (nouns) He is either in Delhi or in Mumbai.

( NOT one of dogs) Of cannot be dropped. One of my friends. Note he difference between ˜in the night (mostly used to mean during one particular night)’ and ˜at the night’(= during any night) Compare: I had to get up in the night. Let’s go for a walk in the woods. I usually work at nights. . One of After one of we normally use a plural pronoun. (NOT one of our dog) Occasionally one of is used with a singular noun referring to a group Why don’t you ask one of the crew? A following verb is normally singular One of our dogs has disappeared. (NOT one my friend or one my friends) In : Place In is used for a position inside large areas. and in three dimensional space when something is surrounded on all sides. my. (NOT one of our cats have disappeared) After one of. One of our dogs. In: Time In + part of the day I work best in the morning. a noun phrase must have a determiner (eg. I don’t think he is in his office.You will either leave this house or I will call police. I usually go out in the evenings. those) One of the/my/those dogs. the.

We met on a cold afternoon in early spring. not how long something takes. .) with no prepositions. Would you rather work days or nights? We use on if we say which morning/ afternoon etc we are talking about. See you on Monday morning. in can be used in negative sentences.in a month’s time) In American English.’s time is used to say how soon something will happen. like for. In + longer period It happened in the week after Christmas.Ask me again in three or four days. The expression in . I can run 200 metres in about 30 seconds. I was born in August. to talk about periods up to the present. I haven’t seen her in years. or if we describe the morning/afternoon etc. He wrote a book in a month. He died in 1989. (NOT.In informal style we sometimes use plurals (days etc. and to say how long something takes to happen. Compare: I’ll see you again in a month’s time. Other uses of in It can also be used to say how soon something will happen.

(NOT experiences) You can’t sit here. (NOT ˜too many noises’) I can’t wait. There is too much noise.(not hairs)(=all the hair on your head) Likely Meaning Likely is an adjective with a similar meaning to probable. Do you think it’s likely to rain? He’s unlikely to agree. (=a news paper) ℜ• I had some interesting experiences while I was away. There isn’t enough room. Have a good time! ℜ• I bought a paper to read. I need some paper to write on(= a material for writing on) They offers me the job because I had a lot of experience. The opposite is unlikely. I’m likely to be busy tomorrow.(=space) You have got very long hair. I haven’t got time.(=things that happened to me. I don’t think a labour victory is likely. I think she’ll very/most likely be late. There is a spare room.(= a room in a house) ℜ• There is a hair in my soup! ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• Uncountable I can’t work here. What’s a likely date for the election? Snow is very unlikely. ℜ• You can stay with us . . Note also the informal adverb phrases very/most likely. Infinitive after be (un)likely Be+ (un)likely is often followed by an infinitive.Countable ℜ• Did you hear a noise just now?(= a particular noise) ℜ• Enjoy your holiday.

(NOT the repairs are certain of costing) Kimi is sure to win. It is likely that the meeting will go on late. certain and sure Certain/sure of + ing are used to refer to the feelings of the person one is talking about. Before the game she felt certain of winning. I hope you are right. Certain/sure + infinitive refer to the speaker’s or writer’s own feelings. but after the few minutes she realized that it wasn’t going to be easy.the other boy hasn’t got a chance.It is (un)likely + that clause We can use it as a preparatory subject or object for a that clause. I thought it unlikely that she would come back. The repairs are certain to cost more than you think. Note that he is sure to succeed means’ I’m sure that he will succeed’. . You seem very sure of cracking the CAT.

. Can you drive a bit slower? A bit of a A bit of a can be used before some nouns in an informal style. Isn’t she? Wait a bit.[a] bit Use A bit is often used as an adverb with a same meaning as a little. She is a bit old to play with toys. The meaning is similar to rather a.

Get up and do some work. Don’t lie in bed all day. Its forms are: Infinitive: (to) lay past: laid -ing form: laying past participle: laid Lay means ˜put down carefully’ or ˜put down flat’. on a table) and lay an egg ( a bird’s way of having a baby). (Not I laid down) . the meaning is usually negative or critical. (NOT I lay) Note the expression lay a table (= put plates. I’ve got a bit of a problem. Note: a bit and a little are used with non comparative adjective. I am not a bit tired. Lie (irregular) The forms of the irregular verb lie are: Infinitive: (to) lie past: lay -ing form: lying past participle: lain (used mostly in formal literary style) Lie(irregular) means ˜be down’. a little interesting) Not a bit The informal expression ˜not a bit’ means not at all.He is a bit of a fool if you ask me.(NOT Don’t lay. Do you mind if I put some music on? Not a bit. knives etc. It has an object. ˜be/ become horizontal’.) I lay down and closed my eyes.. It has no object. I laid the papers on the table. Lay and lie Lay Lay is a regular verb except for its spelling. Lay the tent down on the grass and I’ll see how to put it up. A bit tired A bit expensive A little (too) old (NOT a bit kind.

Compare: We thought that people wouldn’t / would buy the book (=general) She wouldn’t say what was wrong with her when I asked.)(=particular situation) However.)( = particular situation) We use will/won’t to indicate that we think a present or future situation is certain: You will know that Jack and Jill are engaged (=you already know) . refusal): I’ll give you another chance to get the correct answer. Notice that we can also talk about the refusal of a thing t work in the way it should: The top won’t come off. so Charlie gave me a lift to town (not Charlie would give me . invitations.Lie (regular) The regular verb lie (lied) ˜say things that are not true’. Charlie would give me a lift. we can use would not either when we talk about unwillingness in general or about a particular occasion.. (not . To talk about general or repeated willingness in the past we can sometimes use would. Mom! Pam won’t give back my pen. You lied to me when you said you loved me.would say. in offers. requests. Dialect forms In many British and American dialects. but we can’t use would in this way to talk about a particular occasion in the past. Compare: Whenever I had to go to town. Lay is often used in cases where Standard English has lie... and orders) and will not when w talk about unwillingness to do something (eg. (Standard Englishlie down) Will and would We use will when we talk about Willingness to do something (eg. different forms of lay and irregular lie are used.(= repeated) I was late. I am going to lay down for a few minutes. reluctance. The key won’t fit the lock.

but some people consider it wrong. (not ˜we were knowing’) I was enjoying the party but Kim wanted to go home. don’t disturb him.( not ‘was wanting’) Past Perfect Continuous ( I had been doing) Had been + -ing is past perfect continuous. want.he’ll be working.’ We won’t see them again for Easter. Say and tell If you say who are you talking to. use tell: Rhea told me that you were ill. We were good friends. We knew each other well. I started doing ↓ Past I was doing ↓ Past Continuous I finished doing ↓ Past This time last year I was preparing for CAT. believe) that are not normally used in the continuous. Past Continuous (I was doing) We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in middle of doing something at a certain time.(NOT ˜Rhea said me’) TELL SOMEBODY What did you tell the police? ( NOT ˜say the police’) Otherwise use say: Rhea said that you were ill. (NOT ˜Bill said me goodbye’) What did you say to the police? all right and alright The standard spelling is all right. Alright is common. The action or situation had already started before this time but had not finished.˜Shall I ask Bob?’ ˜ No. . (NOT Rhea told that) SAY SOMEBODY What did you say? BUT you can ˜say something to somebody’: Bill said goodbye to me and left. know. What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night? I waved to him but he wasn’t looking. There are some verbs (eg.

He was tired because he had been working very hard. Note that please does not change an order into a request.) (=he’d etc.) been doing playing working etc. Our game of cricket was interrupted.I/we/you/they/he/she/it had (=I’d etc. (more polite order) Could you stand over thee. You can say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened. Compare: Stand over there. She had been smoking for 10 years. But it had been raining since morning. requests We use please to make requests more polite Could I have some more chocolates please? Would you like some help?~ Yes. Do you mind if I borrow your pen? ~Please do. Amy gave up smoking last year. I’ve got a bit of a headache. please? (polite request) Please do is rather formal answer to a request for permission. (order) Please stand over there. ~I beg your pardon? (NOTPlease?) . Please and thank you 1. please. Compare had been doing (past perfect continuous) and was doing (past continuous) : I wasn’t raining when we were out. The sun was shining. so the ground was wet. 2. Rohan was sitting in an armchair watching television. We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain heavily. When please is not used We do not use please to ask people what they have said.

Thanks a lot. accepting and refusing We often use Thank you/ Thanks like Yes. thanks.) Thank God I have started preparing for CAT 2008 already. thank you and thanks Thanks is more informal than thank you.We do not use please when we give things to people. Common expressions: Thank you. Thank you for having me. please. Been meaning ˜come’ or ˜gone’ Been is often used as past participle of come and go Granny has been to see us twice before Easter.) Thank you for / thanks for can be followed by “ing form.) Thank you very much. Have you got a pen I could use?~ Yes here you are. Have you got enough cake? ~ Yes. it is normal to say No. Some people say Cheers to mean Thanks. Thanks very much. (NOT Thank you a lot. Thank you for coming. (But NOT usually Thank you indeed. thanks is most often used to confirm that things are all right. ~ That’s OK. (NOT Thanks God) Indeed can be used to strengthen very much. thanks/ No. (NOTPlease) Please is not used as an answer to Thank you. 4. to accept offers. Yes. (NOT Thanks you. Would you like some cheese? ~ Thank you.~ How many? To make it clear that one wishes to refuse something. Thanks a lot. Thank you very much indeed.~ Not at all. Another cake? ~ No thanks. thank you. I am on diet. . (NOT Please) 3. I haven’t been to the book-shop for ages.

The average family has 4 members. (He has come and is still here) 2) I’ve been to library three times this week. Singular nouns with plural verbs 1. The team is/ are going to win. and just use I should. Compare: 1) The milkman’s already been. which refer to groups of people.or I would to give advice.Been is only used for completed visits. Singular forms rae more commom when the group is seen as an impersonal unit. They’re going in December. I would have started preparing for CAT 2008 already. Compare: My family have decided to move to Chennai. hoping or wanting. can have either singular or plural verbs and pronouns.. In this case I should/would is similar to you should/would. I should/ would Sometimes we leave out If I were you. It is smaller than 50 years ago. team government. I shouldn’t worry. Plural forms are common when the group is seen as the collection of people doing personal things like deciding. If I were you. If I were you Advice We often use the structure if I were you. Where’s Linda? She’s gone to library. . I would have started preparing for CAT 2008 already. If I was you is also correct. I shouldn’t worry if I were you. singular words like family. so we can start preparing for CAT 2008. (He has come and gone away again) Jack’ come. groups of people: The team is/ are In British English.to give advice.

every. Plural pronouns can be used. bank the BBC choir class club government firm England(the football team) family committee jury ministry party orchestra public school staff team union In American English. They do all they can for me. The team. but they have all failed. A number of people have. Examples of group nouns. 2. A majority of criminals are non.The firm are wonderful. The group gave its first concert in January and they are now planning a tour. that). The team has started preparing for CAT 2008. singular verbs and pronouns are regular. singular verbs are normal with most of these nouns in all cases. which is elected at the annual meeting. which can be used with both singular and plural verbs in British English. and which with singular forms. lural verbs are normally used in this case. Many singular quantifying verbs can be used with plural nouns and pronouns. The committee. When a group is used as with a singular determiner (eg. each. who are hoping to announce important changes. My firm was founded in 2005. They expect to crack it. which is full of enthusiasm has a better chance of winning. We prefer who as a relative pronoun with plural forms.violent . this. (more natural than A number of people has) A group of us are going to run the Marathon this year. a/an. A number of people have tried to find the treasure. Compare: The committee. Compare: The team are full of enthusiasm.

(Not ˜as she’) After than/as it is more usual to say me/him/her/them/us when there is no verb. but You are taller than me. but I can’t run as fast as him. . They have more money than we have. Compare: You are taller than I am. I can’t run as fast as he can. (Not than I) He is not as clever as her. but They have more money than us. We usually say: You are taller than me.Relative Clauses Than me/ than I am etc.

Compare: . as a repeated pattern may sound awkward: I am starting to learn French. prepare. miss. imagine. start. Even though it was raining. envisage.) The verbs advise and encourage are followed by “ing when there is no object and “to infinitive when there is one. ( rather than I am starting learning French. Some verbs are followed by “ing but not a “to infinitive: admit. they continued to play/ playing. Often we use tofor an action that follows the first verb: Decided→ to steal to go want→ Verb + -ing or to infinitive Some verbs are followed by a to-infinitive but not “ing : agree. detest. cease. with these verbs we normally avoid using two “ing forms together. and continue can be followed by either a “to infinitive or an “ing form with little difference in meaning. resent. the structure is usually verb + ing or verb + to Compare: Verb+ -ing They denied stealing the money. feel like. finish. hesitate. deny. The verbs begin. decline. Often we use -ingfor an action that happens before the first verb or at the same time: Stealing ↠denied enjoy ↓↑ going Verb+ to They decided to steal the money. suggest. hurry. delay. avoid. risk. wish. aim. want. fail. manage. However. dread. refuse. demand. plan. I enjoy going out.Verb +-ing/ verb + to When one verb follows another verb. ask. offer. consider. I want to go out. hope. recall.

After the class. Ali went on to do his evening prayer. Remember to carry your umbrella before you go out. I tried taking aspirin. I regret to inform you that you have It’s too late now. These include: come. try. they came to He came hurrying up the path. go on To mean something is done after To say that someone moves in a something else is finished. + to infinitive + -ing Come To talk about a gradual change. accept him as an equal. I remember going to the library but nothing after that. I tried to bring the table through the door. go on. (I Mean remember To mean that remembering comes before the action is described. If I want to attend the class at 9. I’ll always regret not passed the exam. but it was too big. Regret To say that we are about to do To say that we have already done something we are not happy about. To say that something has something else as a result.I’d advise taking more exercise.00 To mean the action comes before remembering. something we are not happy about. but the pain didn’t go away. Although she asked him to stop. he went on tapping his pen on the table. I meant to phone you yesterday. that means I waking up before 7. stop. To say what is it that we stopped doing. Stop To say when we stopped doing something. To say if we test something to see if it improves the situation. To say that we intend(ed) to do something. To say that someone moves in a way that is described. try To say that we attempt to do something. mean. (first remember. . The baby stopped crying when he saw its mother. remember. asking Ama to do the work. She stopped to prepare a cup of coffee. but there can be a difference in meaning. Other verbs can be followed by either a “to infinitive or an “ing form.00. regret. And I’d advise you to take more exercise. way that is described. After a few years.

forbid remember that I went there. As I passed his room. People are not allowed/ permitted to smoke in the classroom. we use an “ing form if there is no subject. watch. I wouldn’t advise you to take the car. Compare: I wouldn’t advise taking the car. Smoking is forbidden.and then take it) Verb + -ing or to infinitive Advise. permit. I saw Mary cross the road and disappear in the post office. Early booking is advised. In active clauses after these verbs. If there is an object. We don’t allow/permit people to smoke in the classroom. Students are forbidden to smoke. Passive structures: Smoking is not allowed/ permitted in the classroom. infinitives usually refer to complete events/ actions which are seen/heard from beginning to end. and hear After these verbs. The headmaster has forbidden students to smoke in the campus. we use an infinitive. We don’t allow/permit smoking in the classroom. Passengers are advised to book early. I once heard Brendan play all the Beethoven concertos.there’s no place to park. See. Compare: I looked out of the window and saw Mary crossing the road. . allow. the difference between verb +-ing and object+ infinitive is like the difference between progressive and simple tenses. The headmaster has forbidden smoking in the campus. With “ing forms the verb suggest that one pays attention to events or actions that are already going on. I heard him practicing the guitar.

Learn and teach These verbs (and other with similar meanings) are followed by “ing forms mostly when we are referring to lessons or subjects of study. Smith teaches gardening every summer. infinitives are preferred. (NOT I’d like telling you something) Do you like dancing? (=Do you enjoy dancing) Would you like to dance? (= Do you want to dance now?) Contd. Like. After progressive forms of begin and start. infinitives are most often used. (NOT I am beginning learning dance. I hate working/ to work at weekends. Usually there is no important difference. would prefer. Infinitives are preferred when we talk about the result of the study. I taught myself to dance. would hate. She goes to school twice to learn dancing. Like + infinitive is used to talk about choices and habits. I like to put the milk in first. and prefer After these four verbs. She began playing/ to play piano when she was five. and would love . (= I choose to. I am beginning to learn dance. Begin and start Begin and start can be followed by infinitives or “ing forms. love. Mr. hate. Compare:I like climbing/to climb mountains.about successfully learning a skill.( =I enjoy climbing) When I pour tea. I’d like to tell you something. both infinitive and “ing forms can often be used without a great difference of meaning. it’s my habit) After would like.) .

both interested +ing and interested +infinitive are common. (That-clauses are also used in informal form. be accustomed to. I’m not accustomed to giving/give personal information about myself to strangers. intend. can’t bear. I’m sorry to have woken you up. and know. In other cases we use afraid of +ing or afraid +infinitive with no difference of meaning I’m afraid of telling /to tell her the truth. we prefer afraid of +ing Why are you so scared? I’m afraid to walking in dark. be committed to After these words and expressions we can either use -ing form or an infinitive without much difference of meaning. I’m interested in working in Mumbai. I slowly began to understand how she felt. (NOT started realizing) Attempt. continue.Infinitives are also preferred with understand. interested + infinitive is commonly used.) Interested To talk about reaction to things one learns . realize. I’m interested to see that Hema and Rahul are going out together. Sorry Sorry for/about +ing is used to refer the past things that one regrets. To talk about a wish to find out something. . I intend telling/ to tell her how I felt.) I’m sorry for /about losing my temper this morning.began understanding) He started to realize that if you have to crack CAT you had to work hard. (OR I’m sorry that I woke you up. interested +ing form is used. To talk about a wish to do something. Afraid To talk about fear of things that happened accidentally. (NOT. I’m interested in finding out/ to find out how she is studying for CAT 2008. Sorry +perfect infinitive can be used with the same meaning.

Each independent clause expresses a complete thought. A run-on sentence: A run-on sentence is an error caused by joining two or more independent clauses with only a coordinating conjunction (and. Pattern of the error: independent clause + independent clause In correct: Rohan came to Tathagat he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. and replacing the comma with a full stop. run on sentences. but. the thoughts tend to blur. the subject of the second sentence is this. that. he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. Comma Splices and Run-on errors Fused Sentences: A fused sentence is an error caused by running two independent clauses together with no punctuation at all. or. Often. He wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. and fused sentences. Correct: Rohan came to Tathagat. There are four methods of fixing the comma splices. . A comma is not required to join two powerful clauses. Pattern of error: independent clause+ coordinating conjunction + independent clause Incorrect: Rohan came to Tathagat for he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. A comma splice : A comma splice is an error caused by joining two independent clauses with only a comma. for he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. yet). so. these. nor. Correct: Rohan came to Tathagat. The above sentence is incorrect because ˜Rohan came to Tathagat’ and ˜he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008’ are both independent clauses. Correct: Rohan came to Tathagat. for. 1) By separating the two clauses into two sentences. If you run two or more complete thoughts together without the right punctuation or no punctuation. Pattern of the error: independent clause+. or those. + independent clause Incorrect: Rohan came to Tathagat.Fused sentences.

(e. although. for he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. (e. until. not.) tell us about a noun. yet. he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. Adjectives and Adverbs Look at these examples: Our holiday was too short. and a coordinating conjunction. 2) By replacing the comma with a semi-colon. silly. lively. . 4) By replacing the comma with a subordinating conjunction. Rohan came to Tathagat because he wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. He wanted to prepare for CAT 2008. but. elderly. before. while).Rohan came to Tathagat.g. Jack was seriously injured in an accident. so) Rohan came to Tathagat.) tell us about how a verb. We use adjectives before nouns and after some verbs. after.. An adverb tells us how somebody does something or how something happens.. unless. because. even though.g.the time went very quickly. when. or. Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Many adverbs are made from adjective +ly: Adjective: quick serious heavy bad Adverb: quickly seriously heavily badly careful carefully quiet quietly Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. since. if. for example: friendly. Some adjectives end in -ly too. lovely Adjective or adverb? Adjectives (quick/careful etc. 3) By connecting the two main clauses with a comma. especially be: Adverbs (quickly/ carefully etc. for.and. Rohan came to Tathagat. lonely. as.

Like vs As Like= similar to. Note that you cannot use as in the same way. We also use adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs.) Ram drove carefully along the narrow road. written etc. (not. organized. his expression was sad. (speaks+ English+ perfectly = verb + object+ adverb) Prince looked at me sadly. (= he seemed sad. Please be quiet. We also use adjectives after the verbs look/ feel/ sound etc. (not -raining heavy) Please speak quietly. Why do you always look so serious? Compare: She speaks perfect English.drove careful) We didn't go out because it was raining heavily. (not a carefully driver) We didn't go out because of the heavy rain. ( not. (perfect=adjective + English= noun) Compare these sentences with look: Prince looked sad when I saw him. For example: Reasonably cheap (adverb +adjective) Terribly sorry (adverb +adjective) Incredibly quickly ((adverb +adjective) You can use an adverb before a past participle (injured. . the same as. (not serious injured) The examination hall was badly organized. I was disappointed that my exams result were bad.speak quiet) I was disappointed that I did so badly in the exam(not did so bad) Why do you never take me seriously? She speaks English perfectly.Ram is a careful driver.) Children were seriously injured in an accident.

can be dangerous. (= I did what I promised. (as + subject + verb) As can also be used a preposition but the meaning is different from like. Like the manger (Sonal). Our house is like a hospital. she also has t make important decisions. We use as (not like) before a subject + verb: I did as I promised. work and rain) can be used as verbs or noun. such as car racing. (Like the manager= similar to the manager) During the war this hotel was used as a hospital. As the manger. Some sports. It's like walking on ice. (not like a waiter) Many English words (for eg. So it is followed by an noun (like a palace). Compare : As Sonal is the manger of the company. can be dangerous.(not as a palace) What does Rima do? She is a teacher. In these sentences.What a beautiful house! It's like a palace. she has to make many important decisions. ( like + pronoun) You should have done it as I showed you. a pronoun (like me) or-ing (like walking) You can say like (somebody/something doing something): What's the noise? It sounds like baby is crying. . (so it really was a hospital) Everyone is ill at home. in the form of etc.: A few years ago I worked as a waiter. Sometimes like= for example: Some sports.) Compare like and as in the following sentences: You should have done like this. like car racing. (not as me) Be careful! The floor has been polished. like is a preposition. like me. (it isn't really the hospital) As (preposition)= in the position of. Such as = for example. ( As the manger= in her positions as manager) Like Smita ia the assistant manger.

(Perhaps Vendy might come. She needs someone to take care of her. Care for somebody/something: 1) like something (usually in questions and negative sentences): Would you care for a cup of tea. Difference between in case and if. I don't want to go out in case he phones. He doesn't care about other people. (it is possible that this mighat happen later) Hunny might phone this evening. Take care of yourself! (=look after yourself) In case and If In case is used to talk about precautions in order to be ready for the possible future situations. (NOT in case he will phone) To say why somebody did something we use in case + past I messaged Vendy again in case she hadn't received the previous one. (I don't like) 2) look after somebody: Honey is 80 and lives alone. if she doesn't we won't) . Compare: Do X in case Y happens:. We say care what/where/how (etc) (without about): You can do what you like. ( Let's get some muffins now because Vendy might come later) Do X if Y happens: ( Do X if Y has already happened) Let's get some more muffins if Vendy comes. (would you like?) I don't care for working very late at night. ( Do X first because Y might happen later) Let's get some more muffins in case Vendy comes. Present tense is used for future after 'in case' I don't want to go out in case he phones.Care about somebody/something (= think that somebody or something is important) He's very selfish. I don't care what you do. Take care of: = look after Have a good day. if she come we'll get some more muffins.

'him'. if you wouldn't say 'Watch I while I show you'. when you are talking about someone who has done something (i. etc. us. we and us. she and her. 2. when you are talking about someone who has had something done to them (i. If 'Me had a dog' is wrong. You need me here. 'in' shows the relation between two things. Preposition 'for' is connecting adjective to a noun. you shouldn't say 'Watch Helen and I'. and they and them in the right place. who is the object of the sentence). People most often make mistakes over this when they are talking about more than one person: 'Me and Annie had a dog once'. after prepositions. he and him. 'Watch Helen and I while we show you'. 'she'. prepositions are used to show where something is located or when something happened. etc. 'Adrian and I were going out'. 'Annie and I had a dog once'. and 'we'. 'her'. 'he'. and use me. . In these sentences you should use I. etc. 'Adrian and me were going out'. then so is 'Annie and me had a dog'. A good guide in cases like these is to see whether the sentence sounds right with only the pronoun. we. It's right to say 'between you and me'. and 'us' rather than a subject pronoun such as 'I'. 'Everything depends on you and I'.e. and wrong to say 'between you and I'. Preposition 'in' is connecting noun with a noun.I or me? Be careful to use the pronouns I and me. because the two people are the subject in both. not me. PREPOSITIONS DEFINITION Preposition is a word used to relate noun or pronoun to form a phrase. This is because a preposition such as 'between' should be followed by an object pronoun such as 'me'. He has a fetish for cars. Use I. us. They are used before nouns to give additional information in a sentence. EXAMPLES 1. Use me. There are nuts in the box. who is the subject of the sentence). as the object of watch. Usually.e.

3.Preposition is generally placed before the noun but sometimes preposition follows also. He is the one I was speaking of. 4. according to. preposition is placed in the end when the object is either a relative pronoun or an interrogative pronoun. owing to. What are we waiting for? 2. Which school is he studying in? 3." In the above sentences. Winston Churchill spotted a sentence that had been clumsily rewritten by the editor to eliminate a preposition at the end. inspite of. He turned off the switch. EXAMPLES 1. NOTE. because of. While editing the proof of one of his books. The elder statesman mocked the intention with a comment in the margin: "This is the sort of English up with which I will not put. Preposition 'off' is connecting verb to a noun. in accordance with. away from. in order to. According to By way of Owing to In case of In order to With regard to In compa rison to Away from For sake of In refere nce to In spite By means of By reason of With an eye to In lieu of In complianc e with In favour of In course of On account of In regard to By dint of Because of Agreeably to In the . instead of. PHRASE PREPOSITIONS:-A group of words used with the force of a preposition are called Phrase Prepositions. in front of. along with.

in lieu of drinking the syrup. you should read your course books. 7) On behalf of Paco. 10) In case of emergency call 911. 5) With regard to Chechnya. 3) Owing to his laid back attitude. this dress will suit you.Pansy attended the party. he has scored the highest marks in the class. Ltd. . 11) He ate medicine." 4) On account of his hard work. he was fired from the organization. the main rebel leaders Shamil Basayev and Al Khattab were trained and indoctrinated in CIA sponsored camps in Afghanistan and Pakistan. 3) Please make the cheque in favour of "Wal-Mart Pvt. 9) Instead of reading the comics. 8) Conformably to the Italian law of privacy The personal data of the customer are registered by Italian Government. 2) By way of meeting. 6) From today onwards Jai would be working in place of Veer.of In place of With the view to In additio n to In the event of In front of In event of conseq uence of In accorda nce with Along with On behalf of Conformably to Instead of By virtue of EXAMPLES:1) According to me. 12) I am staying away from home. he proposed to her.

14) In reference to your advertisement. 20) He won the race by the dint of his perseverance. 18) He survived in spite of risky operation. 30) In accordance with the rules and regulations. he managed to top the class. 23) In the event of his marriage. 17) Your car is standing in front of my house. 16) In addition to CAT I also took GMAT. 1) Respecting the decision you have taken. 31) Tufaha dances better in comparison to Manila.his sister would arrange for everything. 29) Please complete the work for the sake of God. 15) In spite of all the difficulties. he was sent to jail. I would like to suggest something. 28) By the reason of robbery. 25) Please distribute chocolates along with the chips. 26) India won the match by the virtue of Sehwag's stoke play. 24) In consequence of his illness.I am sending across my resume. 19) Webb shaped every phrase with an eye to the narrative. . I would like you to increase my salary. you are not allowed to attend the class. 21) Swahili could not attend Rasul's marriage because of her illness. 22) Agreeably to the terms of law. PARTICIPLE PREPOSITIONS:.13) With a view to company's progress.he couldn't take his exams.I hereby accept my crime. 27) They climbed the mountain by the means of rope.Some present participals of verbs are used without any noun or pronoun being attached to them.

(now=this time) 5. Have you been waiting since then?(then=that time) 2. 3. He was thrown out of the class. 6) Considering his hard work.you will receive every thing else. Nothing on this earth can last for ever(for ever=for life) SOMETIMES OBJECT TO A PREPOSITION IS AN ADVERBIAL PHRASE 1.2) Concerning the Prime Minister's death. 3) Julius Ceaser fought with courage. 4) Padmalakshmi married Salman for money. 2.(there=that place) 3. I came to office before you left. Celestine is going there.we do not offer SAT coaching. Who lives here?(here=this place) 4. CLAUSE AS AN OBJECT TO A PREPOSITION 1) Wallace is a man of means. 7) Regarding your queries. 3) I collected this painting by Michelangelo. 4) Pending further punishments.his win was assured. Train must have reached station by now.during my visit to Rome.Omorose would be sent to gallows. 5) I will complete this assignment within this week. SOME OBJECTS TO PREPOSITION ARE AN ADVERB 1. 2) I have been making content the whole day. .there is mourning all across the country. 5) Barring icecream. Complete this work before you go home.

Dennis did not have dinner until Doraine came. b) We will meet at Oberoi's. USAGE OF ˜AT’ 1) To designate specific times a) I will see you at 10'o clock. 2) With Places a) At bus stop b) At the market place 3) With groups of people a) at party b) at the back of the building 4) Specific addresses a) Cleopatra lives at 10 Downing Street. 6) With meal times a) At lunch b) At dinner USAGE OF ˜ON’ 1) For assuming place as a surface .4. 5) With places on the page a) at the top of the page. 5. b) at the center of the paper. b) I wake up at 6 a.m. There is a lion drinking water across the river.

b) I am going home on Wednesday. 2) For bicycle. b) The book is lying on the table.foot a) I go to office on foot. b) Can you hear me on radio? 9) For trip or journey . b) Could u please advice on what do i wear for party. b) Most of the cars in India run on petrol. b) I will go to Honkong on plane. 8) On radio and television a) Hey! i am on television.ship. b) I have spent my holiday on New Guinea.plane.train. 4) With islands a) I have stayed on Andaman and Nicobar. 3) For dates and days a) We will meet on 2nd April. 5) With directions a) on the left b) on the right 6) About the particular subject a) This book is written on Africa. 7) About the food on which someone survives and fuel a) i survived only on salad for the whole moonth.2006.a) The painting is hanging on the wall.

2) Use 'a' is before a consonant sound and 'an' before a vowel sound. b) Rossane went on trip with her friends. a cup. They are used for non specific things. some and any. a union. h) I have gifted him an umbrella. a Europe.a) I bought toys for my kids on my way back from office. EXAMPLES:1) I am planning to go on a summer vacation. an. c) He has gifted me a book. 2) Give me a bottle of Coke. EXAMPLES:- . i) an old man s walking with a stick. ARTICLES There are two kinds of articles 1) Definite 2) Indefinite Indefinite :.Indefinite articles are a. 3) This is a book. e) Its a baby boy! f) Can i have some milk? g) There aren’t any popcorns left in the bowl. EXAMPLES:a) Would you like a bottle of Pepsi with pizza? b) I am driving a car. j) He is wearing a hat. 5) Can I have some chocolates please? USAGE OF INDEFINITE ARTICLES 1) With non specific singular countable common nouns. EXAMPLES:a car. 3) To refer to a part of a larger quantity. an umbrella. 4) I ate an orange in the breakfast. a boy. a bucket. d) I am eating an orange.

a) Can I have a slice of bread? b) I had a piece of cake. c) Give me a sheet of paper. d) Can I have a cup of tea? 4) With someone's name you have not met before. EXAMPLES:a) A Mrs. Taneja had come to see you. b) A Mr. Rogers was running in the park. 5) When noun is introduced for the first time. EXAMPLES:a) A boy was playing with the ball.The boy was wearing a black shirt. b) A book is kept on the table.the book contains the names of the countries of the world. c) I went to a hotel.the hotel was beautiful. 6) With water bodies eg. sea, ocean, lake etc. and continents. EXAMPLES:a) Asia is a continent. b) Cactus is grown in a desert. c) Sharks live in an ocean. 7) Before a title which is not specific. EXAMPLES:a) He is going to be a prime minister. b) He is a waiter. c) I am a doctor. d) Rossane is an economics teacher. 8) With number and quantity expressions. EXAMPLES:a) I will be back in half an hour. b) The bananas cost $5 a dozen. c) I will come back in a day or so. d) You can take GMAT 5 times a year. e) The test is for a quarter of an hour. 9) To represent singular noun as a whole class. EXAMPLES:-

a) The cow is a timid animal. b) The turtledove is a kind of bird. c) The bur oak is a timber tree in US. d) The yellow wood is a rare native tree. e) The mango is known as a king of all fruits. DEFINITE ARTICLES:- Definite article is 'the'. It is used for particular things. USAGE OF DEFINITE ARTICLES 1) With particular nouns. EXAMPLES:a) George Bush is the president of United States. b) Asia is the largest continent of the world. c) Could you please pass the book? d) Go right and then turn towards the left. e) He has gone to the doctor. 2) Before proper noun:1) Canals:-The Panama Canal, the Corydon canal. 2) Rivers:- The Amazon Congo, The Nile. 3) Group of Islands:- The Andaman and Nicobar, The lakswadeep. 4) Seas and Oceans:- The pacific, The Bay of Bengal 5) Deserts:- The Gobi, The Thar, The Sahara 6) Names of countries which includes words like republic and kingdom:-The Italian Republic, The Slovak Republic, The United Kingdom 3) Before musical instruments:EXAMPLES:a) He knows how to play the guitar. b) Zakir Hussain plays the tabla. c) Amjad Ali Khan is the santoor player. 4) With Superlatives:EXAMPLES:a) Rati is the best teacher in the school. b) Tom Cruise is the hottest man in Hollywood.. c) He made the most of his opportunity.

5) Before the names of things that are unique of their own kind. EXAMPLES:a) The moon is shining bright in the sky. b) What do you want to know about the ocean? c) The stars are twinkling in the sky. d) The earth is round. e) Animals that live in the desert have adaptations to cope with the lack of water. 6) With Ordinals EXAMPLES:a) Guru Govind Singh was the tenth guru of the Sikhs. b) 'A Pale View of Hills' is the first book by Kazuo Ishiguro. c) April is the fourth month of the year. d) Jawahar Lal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. e) He was the first one to enter the class. 7) Before the names of certain books EXAMPLES:the Ramayana, the Bible, The Vedas, The Upnishads, the Mahabharata, the Quoran. 8) As an adverb with a comparative. EXAMPLES:a) The more he works hard, the better it is for him. b) The more the merrier. c) The sooner, the better. 9) Before a common noun when it is qualified by an adjective. EXAMPLES:a) The great Napoleon. b) The beautiful Helen of Troy. c) The cruel Hitler. d) The immortal Wordsworth. 10) Before an adjective when the noun is understood. EXAMPLES:a) The rich are becoming richer. b) The whites look down upon blacks.

OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE 1) Before plural countable noun when they are used in general sense. EXAMPLES:a) Chocolates are kept in the box. (In place of ˜the chocolates are kept in the box’) b) Girls are wearing pretty dresses. (In place of ˜the girls are wearing pretty dresses’ or ˜some girls are wearing pretty dresses’) c) Scissors are kept in the cupboard. (In place of the scissors are kept in the cupboard) d) Men are considered to be better cooks than women. e) Children like to hear stories. 2) Before table, school, hospital, college, church, prison, market and bed when these places are used for primary purpose. EXAMPLES:a) We became friends in school. b) The patient was taken to hospital. c) Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. d) These shoes are available in market. 3) Before the names of meals. EXAMPLES:a) Lets go out for lunch today. b) Breakfast is ready. c) Ricki has gone out for dinner with Stella. d) We were served brunch at the wedding. e) We ate rice in lunch today. 4) Before most proper nouns. EXAMPLES:a) Names of people:-Afton, Blossom b) Names of individual mountains:- Mount Everest, Mt. Olympus c) Names of countries, cities, continents:-Africa, Melbourne, India d) Names of individual lakes, islands, hills:- Dal lake, Mud island.

Is Usual: He is faster than is usual for any human being . e. c) Silence is golden.Incorrect A Mercedes is more expensive than is usual for a car .'our nurse'eg. is usual should be used.Is correct. He is nicer than usual. 6) Before names of relations like brother. 7) Before the names of substances and abstract nouns.e) Before languages and nationalities EXAMPLES:a) Rhyna speaks French at home. Usual v/s.Is correct A Mercedes is more expensive than usual for a car . EXAMPLES:a) Cook hasn't cooked food properly today. d) Patience is virtue. When something is compared to itself.Correct When something is compared to a subgroup to which it belongs. 9) Before names of academic subjects EXAMPLES:a) Most students find maths tough.cook meaning 'our cook'. c) He has gone to play hockey. c) We are taught Italian at school.mother. He is faster than usual today . and allso nurse. usual is fine. c) Aunt is coming home to see us.aunt. EXAMPLES:a) Sugar is a sweet poison. d) Japanese ambassador would be visiting India next week. b) Soccer is liked by most people.g.uncle. Singular and Plural . b) I have studied biology at school level. b) Father has promised me to buy a new laptop. 8) Before names of sports:EXAMPLES:a) Hockey is the national sport of India. b) Honesty is the best policy. b) He is learning German at MaxMueller?. c) Computer Science is my favourite subject.

tongs. as trousers. 1. assets. as poultry. proceeds (of a sale). jeans. Name of the instruments which have two parts forming a kind of pair. as swine. scissors. Certain collective nouns. as alms. aircraft. Contributed by : Kunal Gupta Idioms to Remember 1) To exchange X for Y (exchange X with Y or any other form is incorrect) Different from one another (Different one from the other is wrong) X is unknown. sheep. cod. though singular in form. spectacles. chattels. cattle. riches. Names of certain articles of dresses. 4. Some nouns originally singular are now generally used in the plural. tights. 2. hundred. trout. nor it is known . shorts. pair. salmon. tidings. thanks. obsequies. Some nouns are used only in plural. pincers. pyjamas. gross. 5. breeches. environs. drawers. vermin. people. Certain other nouns.Some nouns have singular and plural alike. dear. dozen. allergy for are incorrect) To try to fix is the right idiom (to try and fix is incorrect) Just as So too 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) . 3. spacecraft. as annals. thousands (when used after numerals).is a correct idiom (Neither is not required) It is not that nor would always be preceded by a neither To ratify (At ratifying is incorrect) An attempt to ratify is the correct use Allergy to (Allergy of. eaves. nuptials. series. gentry. as bellows. species. score.

25) 26) 27) Credit X with discovering Y (Credit with doing something) Credit X Rupees to Y's account (When money is involved) Given credit for being ones who . 'doubled' is correct 21) 22) 23) So X as to be Y (So unreal as to be true) As much as (Republicans are involved as much as Democrats). 'Increase by twice' is incorrect. Both on X or on Y is correct.. 19) Both X and Y (Both X as well as Y is incorrect) Both at X and at Y is correct. 20) Adverb twice cannot be an object of proposition 'by'. Neither nor should have parallel forms associated to it.as to Y 10) From X to Y (Grow from 2 million to 3 billion) (From X up to Y is wrong) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Estimated to be (Estimated at is incorrect) Believe X to be Y Believed to have Acclaimed as is the correct idiom (Acclaimed to be is wrong) Distinguish between X and Y (Distinguish X from Y is incorrect) In an attempt to (gain control) Worried about (When talking about someone's condition) Attempt to / do something (Attempt at doing is incorrect). Both should always have parallel forms associated to it. Similarly.8) 9) X is different from Y (different than Y is incorrect) Same as X. X prohibits Y from 24) x forbids y to do z x prohibits y from doing z.

but rather Y Persuaded X to do Y So X that Y (So poor that they steal) Require that X be Y (Not require that X is Y) As a result of At least as strong as(At least as great as) Modeled after So X that Y (So illiterate are people that they cant even write) Intent on 43) Native of (Native to is also used in some cases. concerned with .28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) Regarded as having Regarded as ones who have Concerned for -worried.related/affliated No sooner-than X expected to Y Mistake X for Y Not X. as in the example given below) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) Compensate for Adapted for Plead guilty for failing Descendent of (Descendent for is incorrect) X is to what? Y is to Potential for causing Aid in (Aid for is incorrect) .

People were asking Goddess Dias aid in healing ills or thanking her for such help. 51) 52) 53) Consider X to be Y (a little controversial) Regard as is the correct idiom When rates means prices charged it should be followed with 'for' Rates for liability insurance 54) Distinguish between X and Y (2 very different items. say red and green colors) Some color blind people cannot distinguish between red and green 55) Distinguish X from Y (Two pretty similar items. Combined skill with determination Combined reactant X and reactant Y 65) 66) way to provide (Way for providing is incorrect) No less an authority than . maybe (This means perhaps) is not idiomatic 59) 60) 61) 62) That X is called for is indicated both by Y and by Z.Is a singular word 63) To worry about someone's condition (To keep worrying over an action) 64) Combined X with Y OR Combined X and Y (Both are correct) e. Not so much to X as to Y Associate X with Y Business ethics. distinguished. say original paintings from fake ones) 56) 57) Attribute X (An effect) to Y(A cause) Not in a flash but in a 58) May be (This is a word) is idiomatic.g.

So did I. They are used to form the passive voice. Simple past positive: He bought a new TV last week. I don't. which is not given by the main verb.So is she. don't they? He won't agree with me. Every tense takes an auxiliary form of the verb. she has.No. There are three exceptions to this rule: Simple present positive: She works at a bank. they are irregular verbs and can be used as main verbs. . . . They are used to form the continuous tense. will he? Positive agreement / inclusion: I went to the beach last weekend.Neither have I. The verbs 'to be' and 'to have' are the most commonly used auxiliary verbs and work alongside the main verbs in any statement. Negative agreement / inclusion: They haven't worked here long. Knowing correct auxiliary verb usage is key to tense usage. Do and Have are auxiliary verbs. Question tags: They enjoy learning English.67) 68) Acclaimed as is the correct idiom Allocated to is the correct idiom Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary verbs are used together with a main verb to give grammatical information and therefore add extra meaning to a sentence. Positive imperative statements: Hurry up! There are also a number of short forms that take ONLY the auxiliary form of the verb: Yes / No answer short forms: Do you live in India? . Be. They are used to form the perfect tense. Has she been to Delhi? Yes. I'm working very hard at the moment.

WILL / WON'T Future with 'will': What will the weather be like tomorrow? He won't understand. She had been studying for two hours when he finally telephoned. HAD Past perfect and past perfect continuous: He had eaten by the time I arrived. WAS / WERE Past continuous: I was watching TV when you arrived. IS / ARE / AM Used in present continuous and for the future with 'going to': They are working hard at the moment.g. . DID Used in simple past question and negative forms: When did they arrive yesterday? He didn't finish his homework last week. Here is a quick overview of auxiliary verb usage: DO / DOES Used simple present question and negative forms: What time does he get up? They don't drive to work. . You just add them and that is that! e. She is going to study medicine at university. Adding endings Usually endings (suffixes) can be added to base words without any complications. They take the bus.Neither will I.We won't be able to come next week. What were they doing while you were cooking dinner? HAVE / HAS Present perfect and present perfect continuous: How long have you lived here? I've been working since seven this morning.

there are some straightforward rules which save your learning thousands of words individually. flat. you double the final letter of the base word: drop + ed = dropped flat + est = flattest win + ing = winning sun + *y = sunny *y counts as a vowel when it sounds like i or e. See VOWELS. there is no change to the base word: drop + let = droplet flat + ly = flatly win + some = winsome When you add an ending beginning with a vowel to a l-l-l word. Treat qu as one letter: quit + ing = quitting quip + ed = quipped Don’t double final w and x. sun. there are four groups of words which need especial care.iron + ing = ironing steam + er = steamer list + less = listless However. They would look very odd and so we have correctly: tax + ing = taxing paw + ed = pawed . Fortunately.g. Rules: The 1-1-1 rule This rule applies to: Words of ONE syllable ending with ONE consonant preceded by ONE vowel e. drop. win. When you add an ending beginning with a consonant to a l-l-l word.

canoeing). care. ℜ• ℜ• (iii) -y rule This rule applies to all words ending in -y. It doesn't matter at all what kind of ending you are adding. argument. wholly. however. traceable). wisdom. hope. sincere. When you add an ending to a word ending in a vowel + y. whilst. achieve. duly. keep the y: portray + ed = portrayed employ + ment = employment When you add an ending to a word ending in a consonant + y. change the y to i: . separate.(ii) The magic -e rule This rule applies to all words ending with a silent -e. keep the -e: hope + ful = hopeful care + less = careless sincere + ly = sincerely separate + ly = separately achieve + ment = achievement When you add an ending beginning with a vowel. drop the -e: hope + ing = hoping care + er = carer sincere + ity = sincerity separate + ion = separation achieve + ed = achieved ℜ• Do.g. Don't keep the -e with these eight exceptions to the rule: truly. It's the e that keeps them soft (courageous. shoeing.g. awful. e. Look at the letter before the -y in the base word. Do remember to keep the -e with soft c and soft g words. ninth. When you add an ending beginning with a consonant. keep the -e in words like singeing (different from singing) and dyeing (different from dying) and whenever you need to keep the identity of the base word clear (e.

try + ing = trying empty + ing = emptying Don't apply the rule in these fourteen cases: daily. paid. slyness. gaily. dryness. babyhood. The 2-1-1 words below are stressed on the first syllable. With this rule. shyly.try +al = trial empty + er = emptier pity + less = pitiless lazy + ness = laziness Do keep the y when adding -ing. wryly. gaiety. it all depends on which syllable of the word is stressed. There is no change when you add a consonant ending: forget + ful = forgetful equip + ment = equipment . despite our two words ski-ing and taxi-ing. laid. and both vowel and consonant endings are added without any complications: gossip gossiping target targeted limit limitless eager eagerness But note that “ Kidnap Outfit Worship always double their final letter: Kidnapped Outfitter Worshipping Take care with 2-1-1 words which are stressed on the second syllable. wryness. said. shyness. Two is together would look very odd. (iv) The 2-1-1 rule This rule applies to: words of TWO syllables ending with ONE consonant preceded by ONE vowel. slain.

Oh really. I’ll go and visit her. there is no change when a consonant ending is added: quarrel + some = quarrelsome instal + ment = instalment Double the -l when adding a vowel ending: quarrel + ing = quarrelling instal + ed = installed excel + ent = excellent " Notice how the change of stress in these words affects the spelling: ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• ℜ• confer conferred conferring conference defer deferred deferring deference infer inferred inferring inference prefer preferred preferring preference refer referred referring reference transfer transferred transferring transference Will.Double the final consonant of the base word when you add a vowel ending: forget + ing = forgetting equip + ed = equipped forbid + en = forbidden begin + er = beginner This rule is really valuable but you must be aware of some exceptions: " 2-1-1 words ending in -l seem to have a rule all of their own. Going to is used when the speaker has already decided to do something. Sarah is hospitalized. Whether the stress is on the first or the second syllable. we decide to do something at that very moment. When we use will. and Present Continuous. . Going to. The speaker has not decided before.

END ----Comma lists Commas are used to separate items in a series or lists.these must be medical people. present continuous is used when the speaker has already arranged to do something. The indicate part is straightforward. So the chances are that contraindicate means something like 'suggest against'. The whole sentence would appear to mean that 'Allergic reactions seem to show that penicillin should not be used'. A couple of professional-looking people are talking earnestly.. You hear the words. ----. But what was that other word.against what someone else has said. or show'. Which is precisely what it does mean.START ----SUPPOSE YOU are on a train.Sarah is hospitalized. contraindicate is a verb. penicillin . So the sentence probably means something like: 'Allergic reactions rule out using penicillin or make it impossible or undesirable to use it. Yes I know. You know that. Again. against pregnancy.contradict. Allergic reactions are not desirable.' Allergic. and Venice . with nothing to do except observe your fellow travellers. contraindicate? It is not a word you have ever heard before. So. I am going to visit her tomorrow. All these words suggest being against something . These allergic reactions would seem to contraindicate the use of penicillin. I am going to the market. Why not have a go at working out its meaning? Allergic reactions are doing something to the use of penicillin. contravene. against a rule or law. Rome. Now how about approaching the problem from a different angle? Contraindicate? It is a word made up of two parts. What about contra-? There are a number of common words that begin with contra:. I went to Italy. I found the below written article from a very reliable source: ----. suggest. contraception. It means: 'demonstrate. Hello All.' Perhaps contraindicate is a specialist medical word meaning something along these lines. They sometimes follow the use of various drugs.

what etc. where. in indirect speech. He said. Compare: If you are ever in Delhi. Noun. classic. Direct Speech A comma is used between the reporting expression and a piece of direct speech. where I should sit. Subordinate Clauses When subordinate clauses begin sentences. " I like you". Compare: I decided to try the thin crust Garden Pizza. they are often followed by commas. I didn't know where I should sit. I had pizza and TG had had pan minis. Indirect Speech Comma is not used before that. adjectives or verbs can be followed by prepositions. "I like you". (NOT : I didn't know. (NOT: He said. he said. and rock music yesterday. we put a comma instead of a full stop before the closing quotation mark. If a reporting expression follows a piece of direct speech.ordinate Clauses Clauses connected with and. Come and see me if you are ever in Delhi.) He said that he likes me. It is necessary to use comma before 'and' because the last two items may glom into one if a serial comma is not used.I listened to jazz.I was gifted a cheque for Rs 1 lakh. but or or are usually separated by commas unless they are very short. that he likes me. . and TG ordered pan minis with five sauces. noun + preposition (noun+ of/for/in/to/with/between) a cheque for. come and see me.) Co.

I thank God for blessing me with good life. The family was united on this question. The school provide all its students with laptops. I feel sorry for him. I was worried about you. The committee has issued its reports. Do you believe in the power of almighty. Example: a disinterested decision by a king. There is a certain renunciation in art. 1. A collective noun takes a singular verb when it refers to the collection considered as a whole. Introduction of a Dependent Clause . You are sorry about something.need for/ demand for/ reason for ('reason of' is a wrong usage) Rohan showed me the pictures of his friends. Sam had to pay for the damages to the car. firm. To write is to become disinterested. sorry for doing something. Do you share a good relationship with your boyfriend? adjective + preposition (adjective + at/by/about/with/to/on/in/for) It was very nice of you. The common collective nouns are committee.) I prefer coffee to tea. flock. The committee have not announced a new policy.Similarly. group. company. clergy etc. Verb + preposition (verb + at/to/about/for/on/after/into/of/from) (pay for/suffer from/ suspect of/ blame for/ believe in/ prefer to etc. Are you interested in drawing? I am running short of money. I am sorry for yelling at you last night. and sorry for someone. public.team. I am sorry about the noise yesterday. family. Example: Not to like ice cream is to show oneself uninterested in food. enemy. Disinterested: impartial. My family are always fighting among themselves. Eg. It takes a plural verb when it refers to the members of the group considered as individuals. Uninterested: not interested in.

(n)--(a principal occupation ) a type of work or way of life that you believe is . use whom. whom is correct.g. use who. Jack wanted to know on who/whom the prank was pulled. use whom. her/him/them). he = who/whoever him = whom/whomever Spot The Difference. When the pronoun acts as the object of the clause.he/she/they). He is a wonderful man who is destined for great things. Who is the knocking at the door? He is knocking at the door.g. (Whom is the object of the clause whom the prank was pulled or The prank was pulled on him.. therefore.) When the answer to the question is an objective personal pronoun (e. (Him is objective.When the pronoun acts as the subject of the clause. who is correct. use who. the same rules apply. · Vocation . (Who is the subject of the clause œwho is destined for great things or -. By Raju Soni Conventions: (n) = noun (v)= verb (adj)= adjective (pn)= pronoun (Syn)=synonyms (adv)= adverb (opp)= antonyms/opposite Meanings are short enough to not make reading boring and long enough to be able to spot the difference clearly ! 1. Introduction of a question: When the answer to the question begins with a subjective personal pronoun (e.He is destined for great things. (He is subjective.) 2. therefore.) In distinguishing between whoever and whomever. Whom did you buy the cake for? I bought the cake for him.

· Amiable -(adj)-. · Aught -(pn)-. · Emend -(v)-.allude to sb/sth . especially before it is printed . · Affection ..to tell or inform sb of sth · Appraise -(v)-. usually after a discussion with them about it 8.the feeling of liking or loving sb/sth very much and caring about them · Affectation .to avoid or escape by speed.(n)-.A person whose intellectual capacity remains undeveloped. · Allude -(v)-.done or achieved in a polite or friendly way and without quarrelling 7.Something a person does in addition to a principal occupation.someone who helps another person commit a crime · Accessory . etc. evade 6. for pleasure 2.especially suitable for you · Avocation -(n)-. Accessary -(adj)-.(n)-.behaviour or an action that is not natural or sincere and that is often intended to impress other people 4.a person who is not sure whether or not God exists or who believes that we cannot know whether God exists or not · Atheist . any part · Ought -(v)--expressing duty or rightness 9. cleverness.(n)-. trickery.to mention sth in an indirect way · Elude -(v)-.(n)-.pleasant.a person who believes that God does not exist 5.to make a formal judgement about the value of a person’s work. friendly and easy to like · Amicable -(adj)-.(n)-.Anything whatever. · Agnostic . esp. · Apprise -(v)-.aiding and abetting in a crime -(n)-. · Ament -(n)-.an extra piece of equipment that is useful but not essential or that can be added to sth else as a decoration 3.to remove the mistakes in a piece of writing.apprise sb of sth .

a Christian priest with special duties in a CATHEDRAL.to hit sb/sth with a lot of force while you are moving · Canon -(n)-. that are considered offensive. · Brusque -(adj)-.to remove the parts of a book. usually on wheels. that fires solid metal or stone balls -(v)-. attached to REINS. and remove parts which are considered offensive. especially because it is embarrassing or because people disagree about it · Brooch -(n)-. which is put around a horse’s head and used for controlling it -(v)-.connected with a BRIDE or a wedding 13. that can be fastened to your clothes 14.a piece of jewellery with a pin on the back of it.strong criticism -(v)-.a person whose job is to examine books. immoral or politically dangerous -(v)-. · Cannon -(n)-. etc. film/movie. etc.an old type of large heavy gun. · Broach -(v)-. immoral or politically dangerous · Censure -(n)-.a set of leather bands. · Attenuate -(v)-. · Bridle -(n)-.a performance or piece of writing which tries to make sth look ridiculous by representing it in a humorous way 12.~ (sth) (to / with sb) to begin talking about a subject that is difficult to discuss. because of sth they have done . · Censor -(n)-. standard or principle by which sth is judged 15.using very few words and sounding rude · Burlesque -(n)-.10. a generally accepted rule.to put a bridle on a horse · Bridal -(adj)-.to make sth weaker or less effective · Extenuate -(v)--make(guilty or an offence)seem less serious by referencing to another factor 11. and often publicly. films/movies.~ sb (for sth) to criticize sb severely.

16. showing or feeling complacency · Complaisant -(adj)-.: the cynosure of all eyes. most important 17.~ sth (from sb) to get information or a reaction from sb. etc. the MARINES or the British air force · Corporeal -(adj)-. especially about sb or about a situation.to become less valuable over a period of time 22. · Climatic -(adj)-. interest.a false belief or opinion about yourself or your situation. · Complacent -(adj)-.a member of one of the lower ranks in the army.ready to accept other people’s actions and opinions and to do what other people want 18.not influenced by personal feelings. so that you do not feel that any change is necessary.~ sb/sth (as sth) to strongly criticize sb/sth. or by the chance of getting some advantage for yourself · Uninterested -(adj)-. · Delusion -(n)-. · Deprecate -(v)-. something that seems to exist but in fact does not. · Corporal -(n)-. or seems to be sth that it is not 21.~ (about sb/sth) too satisfied with yourself or with a situation.· Cynosure -(n)-.that can be touched.a false idea or belief.~ (in sb/sth) not interested.to become less valuable over a period of time · Depreciate -(v)-. especially publicly · Descry -(v)-. not wanting to know about sb/sth 23.connected with the weather of a particular area · Climactic -(adj)-. · Elicit -(v)-. · Disinterested -(adj)-. physical rather than spiritual 19. descern 20. the act of believing or making yourself believe sth that is not true · Illusion -(n)-.catch sight of .(of an event or a point in time) very exciting.something that strongly attracts attention by its brilliance. · Decry -(v)-. often with difficulty .

calm and kind. not behaving in an acceptable way · Arrant -(adj)-. · Errant -(adj)-. in addition to what has just been said 31. etc. or characterized by faction. · Fractious -(adj)-. doing things in a quiet and careful way · Genteel -(adj)-. · Gentle -(adj)-. from. 30.(of people and their way of life) quiet and polite.to write or speak in detail about a subject · Expiate -(v)-. especially by small things · Factious -(adj)-. direction or time · Further -(adv)--to a greater degree or extent.bad-tempered or easily upset.fair and reasonable.to decide not to have or do sth that you would like to have or do · Forgo -(v)-. often in an exaggerated way. 25.a person who knows a lot about good food and wines and who enjoys choosing. quiet and old-fashioned and perhaps slightly boring 32. a high social class. · Farther -(adj)-.doing sth that is wrong. inclined to. · Extant -(adj)-. treating everyone in an equal way 28. thorough. unmitigated. · Equable -(adj)-.· Illicit -(adj)-. · Gourmet -(n)-.at a greater distance in space. serious.how large.of. notorious: an arrant fool. unlicensed. · Expatiate -(v)-.not legally permitted or authorized. or pretending to be from. · Forego -(v)-.to accept punishment for sth that you have done wrong in order to show that you are sorry 26. important.downright. eating and drinking them .calm and not easily upset or annoyed · Equitable -(adj)-. unlawful 24.to decide not to have or do sth that you would like to have or do 29. sth is 27.still in existence · Extent -(n)-.

· Mystical -(adj)-.(of an object. that does not exist or is not true 40. · Knave -(n)-. an idea.a very small piece of dust · Moat -(n)-. innocent and willing to trust people Syn.Naive 35.(n)-.to give sb a punishment.a dishonest man or boy · Nave .the act of not telling the truth · Mendicity -(n)-39.present as a natural part of sth.a deep wide channel that was dug around a castle. etc. · Martial -(adj)-.the long central part of a church where most of the seats are 36. present everywhere · Imminent -(adj)-. etc.having spiritual powers or qualities that are difficult to understand or to explain · Mythical -(adj)-.a person who enjoys eating and eats large amounts of food 33.(adj)-. · Mote -(n)-.honest. a plan. · Meet -(v)-. · Ingenious -(adj)-.connected with marriage or with the relationship between a husband and wife 37.connected with fighting or war · Marital -(adj)-.· Gourmand -(n)-. and filled with water to make it more difficult for enemies to attack . · Mendacity -(n)-. · Immanent -(adj)-.) very suitable for a particular purpose and resulting from clever new ideas · Ingenuous. to make sb suffer bad treatment 38.likely to happen very soon 34.to be in the same place as sb by chance and talk to them · Mete -(v)-.existing only in ancient myths.

as of a statement.refusing to change your mind or your actions in any way Syn.a speech or piece of writing praising sb/sth · Paregoric -(n)-.lucky because it happens at the right time. · Reign -(n)-. · Principle -(n)-.to say officially that sth is forbidden 47. peaceful · Quite -(adv)-.clearness or lucidity. 45. 46. · Provident -(adj)-. · Perspicacity -(adj)-.too ready to tell people what to do or to use the power you have to give orders · Official -(adj)-.not disturbed. to write a · Proscribe -(v)-.able to understand sb/sth quickly and accurately. · Prescribe -(v)-. very.41. · Officious -(adj)-. the quality of being perspicuous. etc.to scold or rebuke sharply. queen.the period during which a king. · Obdurate -(adj)-.soothing. berate. · Quiet -(adj)-.the person who is in charge of a college or a university 44. especially by saving money · Providential -(adj)-. showing this · Perspicuity -(n)-. a medicine used to make pacify.~ (sb) sth (for sth) (of a doctor) to tell sb to take a particular medicine or have a particular treatment.a moral rule or a strong belief that influences your actions · Principal -(n)-.to a great degree. really 49. rules .connected with the job of sb who is in a position of authority 43.careful in planning for the future.Stubborn 42. · Objurgate -(adj)-. · Panegyric -(n)-. EMPEROR. but without being planned 48.

.a long. to be made to look like sth else · Dissimulate -(v)-.a person’s or an animal’s nature as shown in the way they behave or react to situations or people 55. · Spacious -(adj)-.the practice of not drinking alcohol because of your moral or religious beliefs.(in the past) a person who claimed that they could see what was going to happen in the future 51.seeming right or true but actually wrong or false 53.not interesting or unusual syn Unremarkable · Unexceptionable -(adj)-.not giving any reason for criticism. · Sear -(v)-. for example paper.to hide your real feelings or intentions. · Stationary -(adj)-.· Rein -(n)-. not very new or exciting 56.(of a room or building) large and with plenty of space for people to move around in · Specious -(adj)-. etc. not intended to be moved Opp-Mobile · Stationery -(n)-. · Simulate -(v)-.connected with a town or city . models.to create particular conditions that exist in real life using computers. usually for study or training purposes. · Temperance -(n)-.materials for writing and for using in an office. pens and envelopes 54.not moving. · Unexceptional -(adj)-.to burn the surface of sth in a way that is sudden and powerful · Seer -(n)-. etc.. leather band that is fastened around a horse’s neck and is held by the rider in order to control the horse 50. narrow. the practice of controlling your behaviour. the amount you eat. · Urban -(adj)-. often by pretending to have different ones 52. so that it is always reasonable · Temperament -(n)-.

placed on graves.(especially of a man) good at knowing what to say and how to behave in social situations.the quality of being true.to increase your desire for or interest in sth · Wet -(adj)-.covered or soaked with liquid. Ravi is the one who wants to go.any of the tubes that carry blood from all parts of the body to the heart 58. wanting a lot of new information and knowledge · Veracity -(n)-.~ sth (in / with sth) to surround or cover sth. in place of the subject of a clause. especially in the shape of a circle. as a sign of respect for sb who has died · Wreathe -(v)-. the habit of telling the truth syn . · Venal -(adj)-. · Vain -(adj)-. especially in circles Who Who is an interrogative pronoun and is used in place of the subject of a question. . · Voracity -(adj)-. to move slowly and lightly.(of a SIN or mistake) not very serious and therefore able to be forgiven 59. · Whet -(v)-. This is who warned me.· Urbane -(adj)-.eating or wanting large amounts of food.that does not produce the result you want · Vein -(adj)-. especially water 61.an arrangement of flowers and leaves.Truthfulness 60. Who is going? Who are you? Is this who told you? Who can also be used in statements.prepared to do dishonest or immoral things in return for money · Venial -(adj)-. appearing relaxed and confident 57. etc. · Wreath -(n)-.

is an object it is the person to/about/for whom the action is being done. This is who warned me > He warned me (not "him" warned me) Ram is the one who wants to go > He wants to go (not "him" wants to go) This is the man whom I told you about > I told you about him (not about "he") . but it is used in place of the object of a question. Whom is also the correct choice after a preposition: with whom. This is the man whom I told you about. him." Sometimes it helps to rewrite the sentence and/or replace who/whom with another pronoun so that you can see the relationships more clearly. Who. Whom is this story about? With whom are you going? Whom did they tell? And whom can be used in statements.Anyone who knows the truth should tell us. he. and her. Whom is always the correct choice after a preposition. is a subject . etc. and she. she and her. The difference between who and whom is exactly the same as the difference between I and Me. The students. in place of the object of a clause. he and him. like I. RAM is the man whom you met at dinner last week.it is the person performing the action of the verb. Whom. like me. not "with who. Sita is the girl with whom I'm driving to Marine. Whom Whom is also an interrogative pronoun. failed the test. one of whom is graduating this year. one of who. one of whom.

has. everybody went on strike. never) and adverbs of certainty and degree (e. but over the last few weeks it has deteriorated. but tomorrow it will rain.Sita is the girl with whom I'm driving to Marine > I'm driving to Maine with her (not with "she") There are three normal positions for adverbs in a sentence: 1) initial position (before the subject) 2) mid position (between the subject and the verb or immediately after be as a main verb) or 3) end position (at the end of the clause). which join a clause to what was said before. was) are used. but presumably you'll want to show her around mumbai mid position Focusing adverbs (e. will. although.g.g. often. is. Ravi was the manager. Time adverbs can come here when we want to show a contrast with a previous reference to time. luckily. as a result. Different types of adverbs favour different positions and I describe these trends below. quite. adverbs of indefinite frequency (e. obviously. The weather will stay fine today. presumably) can also come here when we want to highlight what we are about to say.g probably. officially. they normally go between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: . just. Initially. always. There are sometimes exceptions to the general rule. Note that when auxiliary verbs (e. almost) all favour this position. Initial position Linking adverbs. Compare the following: Two of the workers were sacked. I haven't made any plans yet. completely. Comment and viewpoint adverbs (e. We invited all the family. so please regard this as a basic guide.g. However. Sita ran the office.g. even). not everyone could come. clearly. and. his condition remained stable. always come here. officially.

He says it's too tight. in the countryside. We arrived about five minutes ago.g. She's obviously a very bossy woman. An exception to this rule is enough which is placed after the adjective or adverb that it modifies: I got up quite early but not early enough to eat a good breakfast. She was standing at her window. Note that when more than one of this type of adverb is used.She's been everywhere . I chewed the food slowly because it hadn't been cooked very well. How long have you been here? Not long.she's even been to Tibet and Nepal. I'll give her a ring. but I'll just see if Sita's home. the order in which they are placed is normally: manner. time: They played happily together in the garden the whole afternoon. but I'm usually travelling in the middle of the month. I've almost finished. Ravi won't be back yet. looking out at her children who were playing in the garden. last week. . at the window) usually go in end position: I had a tennis lesson last week. I bought an incredibly expensive dress last week which fits me perfectly. My boss often travels to Malaysia and Singapore but I've never been there.g. so I don't have a lesson every week. But John says I shouldn't wear it. ~ I completely agree! end position Adverbs of time and definite frequency (e. Have you finished yet? I haven't quite finished. slowly.g. John's been offered a job in Australia. evenly) and adverbs of place (e. place. well. adverb-adjective When adverbs modify adjectives. He's absolutely delighted. they are placed immediately before them: We had some really interesting news last night. every year) and adverbs of manner when we want to focus on how something is done (e.

* To whom it may concern: * To whom did you talk today? * Whom does Sarah love? 3.") The correct pronoun for the question who." (Almost no one would say "It went to he. "To [who or whom] did the prize go?" is. Use whom when referring to the object of a verb. What follows is a quick way to determine which pronoun to use in a particular question. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future. Although/ even though/ however/ nevertheless I will prepare for CAT 2009 although/ even though my friends are not supporting my decision. USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. 2. "He went to the store." (Almost no one would say "Him went to the store. 1. CAT 2008 was a tough exam. * Example: A suitable answer to the question. If you can answer the question with him. If you can answer the question with he. "It went to him. Ask yourself if the answer to the question would be he or him./ Nevertheless. However. .In spite of/ despite feeling tired (+ing) My tiredness (+ noun) the fact that I was tired ( + the fact that) I couldn’t sleep despite/ in spite of while/ whereas ( comparing difference) Some students prepare sincerely for CAT while/ whereas others are lazy. Know the difference between who and whom. It's easy to remember because they both end with "m". Use who when referring to the subject of a sentence or phrase. * Who brought the paper inside? * Who talked to you today? * Who went to dinner? 4. then use whom. They are both pronouns but who is used as the subject of a sentence or phrase and whom is used as the object of a verb. * Example: A suitable answer to the question./ Even so. then use who. I fared well. "[Who or Whom] went to the store?" is.") The correct pronoun for the question is whom.

we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future. By Monday. How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50? USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs) With non . Your is nearly always followed by a noun. unless. Present Perfect is used. I will have taken ten tests." "work." and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT NonContinuous Verbs REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses Like all future forms. she is going to have cleaned the entire house.continuous verbs and some non-continuous uses of mixed verbs. Susan is going to have had my book for a week. By the time I finish this course. after. the words "live. Is your name Gadha? Is this your pen? . Examples: I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing? Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon. used to describe something as belonging to you. before. etc. By the time he gets home.Examples: By next November. while. as soon as. I will have received my promotion. by the time." "teach. Examples: I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave. if. Correct Your Your is the second person possessive adjective. Not Correct I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs. I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock. Instead of Future Perfect. the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when.

Try replacing “your” or “you’re” with “you are” if you are unsure which to use. You're going to be the queen of Gadha Land. You're You're is the contraction of "you are" and is often followed by the present participle (verb form ending in -ing). influence: The drug had an immediate effect on the pain.” Remember that only “you’re” is a contraction. touch or move. hypothesis.is that if you're able to replace the word with "you are. a." you're saying you're. and it omits the letter “a. or an. Something brought about by a cause or agent.” The apostrophe in “you’re” signifies the omission of the letter “a. a result. The government's action had no effect on the trade imbalance. as a disease: Rheumatic fever can affect the heart. 2. use “you’re. To attack or infect. or phenomenon: the photovoltaic effect. 2. To have an influence on or effect a change in: Inflation affects the buying power of the dollar. Otherwise. Keep in mind that the word your will never be followed by the words the. your only choice is your. The ironclad rule . A scientific law. 3. you'll understand. . I can't believe you're a Gadha! When you're my age.” If the sentence does not make sense. | 4. you will know to use “your Affect vs Effect Affect 1. The power to produce an outcome or achieve a result. To act on the emotions of. Effect 1. 3.This is your chair and this is mine. Advantage. The Bottom Line The confusion between your and you're occurs because the two words are pronounced pretty much the same.no exceptions . avail: used her words to great effect in influencing the jury. If the sentence makes sense.

import: He said he was greatly worried. If you are talking about a result. the. Affect can be used as a noun to describe facial expression. or words to that effect. Used after a comparative adjective or adverb to introduce the second element or clause of an unequal comparison DT had better grammar than TG. 2. 5. or and." What effect did the CAT result have on the TG team? 2. The condition of being in full force or execution: a new regulation that goes into effect tomorrow. take. the right word to use is effect. Something that produces a specific impression or supports a general design or intention: The lighting effects emphasized the harsh atmosphere of the drama. If you want to describe something that was caused or brought about. Example: The new manager effected some positive changes in the office. . an. In analyzing a situation. it is important to take the concepts of cause and effect into consideration. 7. 6.) 4. The young man with schizophrenia had a flat affect. Production of a desired impression: spent lavishly on dinner just for effect. any. The basic or general meaning. Use it when trying to describe influencing someone or something rather than causing it. 3. How does the crime rate affect hiring levels by local police forces? Than 1. 3. (This means that the new manager caused some positive changes to take place in the office.5. The Bottom line 1. A particular impression: large windows that gave an effect of spaciousness. then use the word "effect. It is appropriate to use the word "effect" if one of these words is used immediately before the word: into. The prescribed medication had no effect on the patient's symptoms. no. 1. Affect can also be used as a verb.

she does the work. Used to introduce the second element after certain words indicating difference He sang at a lower octave than she. then. 1. In that case. 2. therefore She wants to be a star. but then he always worked so hard. on top of that He told me he was leaving. Then Then has numerous meanings. The Bottom Line Than is used only in comparisons. 6.Used after but to qualify or balance a preceding statement: He was a star. Used especially after hardly and scarcely I had hardly the energy to smile than I saw your face. afterward I went to the office. 5. If not. therefore (often with "if") If you want to go. and then to the bank Do your homework and then go to bed 3. so if you're comparing something use than. then you have to use then There vs Their . Will you be home at noon? I'll call you then. then you'll have to finish your homework. 3. In addition.2.As a consequence. and then that I owed him money 4. also. At that point in time I wasn't ready then. Next.

Their things were strewn about the office haphazardly. no such word as its'. 2.what is its purpose? The bird lost some of its feathers. o The science textbooks are over there on the floor. will the sentence still make sense if you replace it with our? If so. If you chose their. positively. And there is absolutely. 3.of it or belonging to it. more or less. o There is an antique store in the city. or that something belongs to "them". you're using it correctly." I read the article on TG .There is used as an introductory subject is sentences with "There is" and "There are". That's an interesting device .it's very good. If you wrote there. This form is used to express that "they" have a specific quality. The Bottom Line 1. whether concrete ("over there by the building") or more abstract ("it must be difficult to live there"). will the sentence still make sense if you replace it with here? If so. you've chosen the correct word. It's vs Its It's It's is a contraction of "it is" or "it has. Use there when referring to a place. . It's time to start serious preparation for CAT. Their is the possessive pronoun form. It is also used as an adverb of place meaning "in that place". their : refer to their as a word for people. Its is a possessive pronoun meaning. My friends have lost their tickets. there: refer to there as a word for location.

such as “for” or “ago” Awhile always means “for a while”. It's going to rain tonight. However.Where is its head office? The Bottom Line 1. Otherwise. 1. .A While vs Awhile: A While: A while is a noun. You just need a handicap. You don't need to be rich to get into this golf club. We can use both needn't and don't need to to give permission to someone not to do something in the immediate future. Its is the neuter version of his and her. I can hear you perfectly. It's a good line. we normally use don't need to: You don't need to pay for medical care in National Health Service hospitals. You needn't shout. You needn't water the garden this evening. I can hear you perfectly. You don't need to shout. Needn't and don't need to There is also a difference in use when these verbs are used to describe present situations. It's been good to know you. It's a good line. I can hear you perfectly. If you can replace the word with "it is" or "it has. It's going to rain tonight. We can also use need as a noun here: You don't need to water the garden this evening. it's always its. a while needs to be accompanied by a preposition. If the sentence still works grammatically (if not logically) then your word is indeed its. Contraction:it has It's a bird! It's a plane! Contraction: it is 2. It's a good line. Awhile: It is an adverb. It means 'for a while'. It is a measure of time." use it's. eg: I wrote awhile before lunch. eg: He left for a while. Try plugging her into your sentence where you think its belongs. There's no need to water the garden this evening. when we are talking about general necessity. It's going to rain tonight. There's no need to shout.

Farther vs Further: Farther has a physical connotation and means " to a greater distance" whereas further is conceptual and means "to a greater degree". Enquire vs Inquire: These two words means the same meaning. 3.Ramjet Malani is going to inquire into Boforce case once again. or use of its own . to seek information about something or to conduct a formal investigation.. cleverness. character.i. however... . whereas something 'special' doesn’t need to be compared against anything.e. 'especial' implies that something less good exists. special stresses having a quality. Further. we use “allude” when one means to refer indirectly or casually.Any vs Either: either is one or the other any is one indifferently out of more than two 5. The lawyers asked when the inquiry will be completed.. you hurt my feelings! 6. especial may add importance. eg: We walked farther than we planned. I enquired his address My papa's first enquiry was on today's sales! Mr.2.Especially vs Specially: They both mean something which was “out of the ordinary” or even “exceptional”.. 4. we use "illude” when one means to trick or deceive. identity.Elude vs Illude vs Allude: we use "elude” when one means to escape/avoid by trickery.

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