~~~

--------

. __ - ~-~-~-------~-~---------~---~----

J

Z 44 A 101

Atomic Structure (continued)

Name _

Date __

13. nitrogen

Z A

7 14

17. ruthenium

14. arsenic

18. platinum

Z A

33 75

15. bismuth

19. cobalt

Z 83 A 209

16. gold

Z 79

A 197

20. scandium

Group II. Write the electron configuration found in each of the following atoms.
1. oxygen 11. aluminum
2. chlorine 12. chromium
3. titanium 13. scandium
4. beryllium 14. phosphorus
5. cobalt 15. zinc
6. calcium 16. bromine
7. strontium 17. potassium
8. nickel 18. vanadium
9. silicon 19. gallium
10. rubidium 20. selenium (continued)

© 1984, 1993,20011. Weston Walch, Publisher

24

Z 78 A 195

Z A

27 59

Z A

21 45

Chemistry Problems

Atomic Structure (continued)

Name _

Date __

Group III. Write the quantum numbers of all the electrons in the following atoms.

1. boron
2. fluorine
3. sodium
4. argon
5. oxygen
6. helium
7. potassium
8. hydrogen
9. magnesium
10. beryllium
11. lithium
12. carbon Group IV. Draw diagrams to show how the following isotopes differ from each other. 1. hydrogen-I and hydrogen-2

2. lithium-f and lithium-7

3. boron-lO and boton-Ll

4. chlorine-35 and chlorine-37

5. argon-35, argon-38, and argon-40

6. germanium-70, germanium-72, germanium-73, germanium-74, and germanium-76

© 1984, 1993,20011. Weston Walch, Publisher

25

(continued) (i) Chemistry Problems

Atomic Structure (continued)

Name __

Date _

7. uranium-234 and uranium-238

8. tellurium-I 22, tellurium-l 24, tellurium-I 26, and tellurium-I 28

9. xenon-129, xenon-130,xenon-131,xenon-132,xenon-134, andxenon-136

10. europium-Lfi l and europium-I 53

Group V. Calculate the atomic mass of the elements listed in Group IV. Assume the isotopic composition of each is as given below.

1. 99.985% 1H; 0.015% 2H
2. 7.42% 6U; 92.58% 7U
3. 19.78% lOB; 80.22% llB
4. 75.53% 35Cl; 24.47% 37 Cl
5. 0.337% 35Ar; 0.063% 38Ar; 99.60% 40Ar 6. 20.52% 70Ce; 27.43% 72Ce; 7.76% 73Ce; 36.54% 74Ce; 7.76% 76Ce

7. 0.70% 234U; 99.30% 238U

8. 0.089% 122Te; 2.46% 124Te; 5.48% 126Te; 91.97% 128Te

9. 28.44% 129Xe; 4.08% 130Xe; 21.18% 131Xe; 26.89% 132Xe; 10.44% 134Xe; 9.01 % 136Xe

10. 47.82% 151Eu; 52.18% 152Eu

Group VI. Answer each of the following questions on atomic structure.

1. How many valence electrons does each of the following have?

(a) krypton
(b) arsenic
(c) lithium
Cd) fluorine (e) strontium
Cf) silicon
(g) boron
Ch) sulfur (continued)

© 1984,1993,2001 1. Weston Walch, Publisher

26

Chemistry Problems

Atomic Structure (continued)

Namc __

Date _

2. Using the inert gas core convention, write the electron configuration for the following.

(continued)

(a) bismuth (e) rubidium
(b) bismuth ion (Bi3+) (f) rubidium ion (Rb +)
(c) xenon (g) manganese
(d) xenon ion [Xe"] (h) manganese ion (Mn 7 +) 3. What element corresponds to each of the following electron configurations? (a) Is22s22p3

(b) 1 s22s2

(c) Is22s22p63s23p3

(d) Is22s22p63s23p64s23ds (e) Is22s22p63s23p64s1

(f) Is22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6Ss24d2

(g) Is22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6Ss24dlOSp66s24fs (h) Is22s22p63s23p64s23d104p4

4. Write the electron configuration for each of the following elements in the oxidation states given.

(a) Cuo, Cu1+, Cu2+ (b) Alo, A13+

(c) Clo, Cl1-

(d) 00,02-,01-

(e) SO, S2+, S4+, S6+, S2-

(f) pO pS+ p3+ p3-

, r ,

5. Using the llli convention, draw the electron configurations for each of the following.

(a) potassium
(b) helium
(c) beryllium ion (Be2+)
(d) nitrogen
(e) fluoride ion (F1-) © 1984, 1993,20011. Weston Walch, Publisher

27

Chemistry Problems

Atomic Structure (continued)

Name __

Date _

(f) sulfur

(g) silicon ion (Si4+) (h) neon

6. Write the Lewis electron-dot symbol for each of the following. (g) sodium

(h) potassium ion (K+) (i) sulfur ion (S2-)

m magnesium ion (Mg2+) (k) boron ion (B3+)

(1) argon ion (Ar+)

(a) carbon
(b) aluminum
(c) boron
(d) hydrogen
(e) fluorine
(f) neon
7. Using the H
following. L. __
(a) oxygen
(b) boron
(c) aluminum
(d) calcium convention, show the electron configuration in the lowest energy state of the

(e) sodium ion (Na") (f) bromide ion (Br-)

(g) magnesium ion (Mg2+) (h) sulfide ion (S2-)

© 1984, 1993,20011. Weston Walch, Publisher

~

Chemistry Problems

28

Group Iv.

In the following answers, p stands for protons and n for neutrons.

1. 1 p, 0 n; 1 p, 1 n

2. 3 p, 3 n; 3 p 4 n

3. 5 p, 5 n; 5 p, 6 n

4. 17 p, 18 n; 17 p, 20 n 5.18p,17n;18p,20n;18p,22n

(continued)

Answer Key 171

Atomic Structure (pp. 23-28) Group 1.

In the following answers, the order given is number of protons, number of neutrons, number of electrons, arrangement of electrons.

1. 8, 8, 8, 2-6

2. 3,4,3,2-1

3. 20, 20, 20, 2-8-8-2

4. 16, 16, 16,2-8-6

5. 18,22,18,2-8-8

6. 6, 6, 6, 2-4

7. 19,20, 19,2-8-8-1

8. 2,2,2,2

9. 13, 14, 13,2-8-3

10. 1,0, I, 1

11. 4,5,4,2-2

12. 9, 10,9,2-7

13. 7, 7, 7, 2-5

14. 33,42,33,2-8-18-5 15.83,126,83,2-8-18-32-18-5

16. 79,118,79,2-8-18-32-18-1

17. 44,57,44,2-8-18-15-1

18. 78, II 7, 78, 2-8-18-32-17-1

19. 27,32,27,2-8-15-2

20. 21,24,21,2-8-9-2

Group II.

Refer to Appendix D.

Group III.

In the following answers, the quantum numbers are given in the order n, I, m, s. Where a choice of possible answers is available, the answers are placed within parentheses.

1. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 1,0 + 1/2 or - 1/2

2. I, 0, 0, ± 1/2; 2, 0, 0, ± 1/2; 2, I, 0, ± 1/2; 3 of the following (2, I, ± 1 ± 1/2)

3. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 1,0, ± 1/2; 2, I, ± I, ± 1/2; 3, 0, 0, + 1/2 or - 1/2

4. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 1,0, ± 1/2; 2, I, ± I, ± 1/2; 3, 0, 0, ± 1/2; 3, 1,0, ± 1/2; 3, I, ± I, ± 1/2

5. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 0, 0, ± 1/2; 2, 1,0, ± 1/2; 2 of the following (2, I, ± I, ± 1/2)

6. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2,0,0, ± 1/2

7. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 1,0, ± 1/2; 2, I, ± I, ± 1/7; 3, 0, 0, ± 1/7; 3, 1,0, ± 1/7; 3, I, ± I,

1. 1 1 - - -

± /2,4, 0, 0, ± /2 or - /2

8. 1,0,0, ± 1/2 or - 1/2

9. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 1,0, ± 1/2; 2, I, ± I, ± 1/2; 3, 0, 0, ± 1/2

10. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 0, 0, ± 1/2

11. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2,0,0, + 1/2 or - 1/2

12. 1,0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 0,0, ± 1/2; 2, 1,0, ± 1/2

172 Chemistry Problems

6. 32 p, 38 n; 32 p, 40 n; 32 p, 41 n; 32 p, 42 n; 32 p, 44 n

7. 92 p, 142 n; 92 p, 146 n

8. 52 p, 70 n; 52 p, 72 n; 52 p, 74 n; 52 p, 76 n

9. 54 p, 75 n; 54 p, 76 n; 54 p, 77 n; 54 p, 78 n; 54 p, 80 n; 54 p, 82 n

10. 63 p, 88 n; 63 p, 90 n

(a) 8 (b) 5

(c) 1 (d) 7

(e) 2 (f) 4

(g) 3 (h) 6

Group V

Note: Isotopic compositions have been altered slightly so as to give atomic masses somewhat different from those found elsewhere.

1. 1.000 15

2. 6.9258

3. 10.8022

4. 35.4894

5. 39.981 9

6. 72.7156

7. 237.972

8. 127.785

9. 131.475

10. 151.522

Group VI. 1.

2.

(a) [Xe] 4f145d106s26p3 (b) [Xe] 4f14Sd106s2

(c) [Xe]

(d) [Xe] 6s1 (e) [Kr] 5s1 (f) [Kr]

(g) [Ar] 3d54s2 (h) [Ar]

3.

(a) N (b) Be

(c) P (d) Mn

(e) K (f) Zr

(g) Pm (h) Se

4.

(a) [Ar] 3d104s1; [Ar] 3d10; [Ar] 3d9 (b) [Ne] 3s23pl; [Ne]

(c) [Ne] 3s23ps; [Ne] 3s23p6

(d) [He] 2s22p4; [He] 2s22p6; [He] 2s22ps

(e) [Ne] 3s23p4; [Ne] 3s23p2; [Ne] 3s2; [Ne]; [Ne] 3s23p6 (f) [Ne] 3s23p3; [Ne]; [Ne] 3s2; [Ne] 3s23p6

5. Is 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
(a) potassium: [ill [ill Ittlttlttl [ill Ittlttlttl r
(b) helium: Is
[ill ---------- -----------------------------------

Answer Key 173

Is
(c) beryllium ion: [ill
Is 2s 2p
(d) nitrogen: [ill [ill I i Ii Ii I

(e) fluoride ion: Is 2s 2p
[ill [ill IHIHli I
(f) sulfur: Is 2s 2p 3s 3p
[ill [ill IHIHli~1 [ill Itt I iii I
(g) silicon: Is 2s 2p 3s 3p
[ill [ill IHli~lttl [ill Ii I i I I

(h) neon: Is 2s 2p
[ill [ill li~lt~li~1
6.
• •• . ·s·. 2-
(a) -C • (e) :F. (i) • •
· • • ••
•• Mg2+
(b) • Al • (f) :Ne: U)
• . .
· Na· (k) B3+
(c) • B· (g)


••
(d) H· (h) K+ (1) :Ar:
• 7.
2s 2p 2s 2p
(a) oxygen: [ill I HI i Ii I (e) Na": [ill li~litlitl

(b) boron: 2s 2p 4s 4p
[ill It It I (f) Br-: [ill li~lttlj~1

(c) aluminum I~: I 3p (g) Mg2+: 2s 2p
I i I I [ill IHIHIHI
4s (h) S2-: 3s 3p
(d) calcium: [ill [ill Ij~IHlj~1

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