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Statistic Handling Tool OSS Recording Tool Cell Data Design Tools Field Measurement NWS (C); SPOS&Turle, Statics (I) PMR, RNO package (C) CNA (C); IPOS, BSSTool (I) TEMS only!!!
Field Measurement Analysis TEMS, MapInfo (C); MCOM (I) Cell Planning Tool TEMS Cellplanner (C); MCOM (I)
Radio Network Growth Flow
Design & Rollout Model Tuning
Where does TEMS INVESTIGATION fit in
Operation & Improvement Traditional Optimization
Network Integration Test Initial Tuning GPRS Performance Verification Training
Network Feature Optimization Verification of Network Changes
forced call test * TEMS Pocket is the preferred tool for Network Integration Test .DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE Network Integration Test When a site is integrated to BSC it is tested • Call set up test • Timeslot test.
DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE Initial Tuning • Produce Coverage Plot • Identify Coverage Holes • Identify Interference Area • Optimize Neighbor Relations • Find Hardware/Installation Problems • Verify Parameter Setting .
DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE GPRS Performance Verification • Application Performance Test • WWW. FTP. RA Update . • Mobility Test • Cell Reselection. WAP etc.
OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT PHASE Traditional Optimization • Investigate & Trouble-shooting Specific Areas • Neighbor Relation Optimization • Coverage Issues .
BTS Power Control • HCS • Idle Mode Behavior • Locating Algorithm • Frequency Hopping • Intra-cell Handover .OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT PHASE Network Feature Optimization Parameter Settings: • MS.
OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT PHASE Verification of Network Changes Did a certain change in the network give desired results? • New coverage area? • Less interference? • Better speech quality? • Is handover possible? .
TEMS Measurement & Analyzing Process ? Clear objective Why should this measurement be done Preparations Check equipment Get input files Prepare route External Antenna? Changes in Network What should be changed? Collect Data Save logfile Take notes Monitor Analyze Find problem areas Find solutions Report Give answer to objective .
Measurement Will Depend on Objective ? Clear objective Why should this measurement be done Preparations Check equipment Get input files Prepare route External antenna? Possible Objectives • Coverage analysis • Trouble shooting • Scanning • Verify network changes .
Performing Measurements with Drive Test TEMS • Large areas • Specific areas Walk Test Scanning .
Signal Strength .Large area INPUT INPUT Acceptance New sites on air Frequency Re-plan BSC Re-homing MEASUREMENT Drive defined route/area Record Logfile Long / Short calls Assure no data loss OUTPUT Plots & Report .Quality Trouble Report / Area for further investigation .Drive Test .
Drive Test .Solution .Specific area INPUT Statistics Customer complain Large area drive test Trouble Report Measurement Manipulate .Forced handover .Layer 3 messages Analysis on-spot Rectify & Verify on-spot OUTPUT Trouble Report .Identified problem .Lock on to Frequency .
Walk Test INPUT Statistics Customer complain Micro cell planning Indoor cell planning Measurement Add file marks (GPS) Scanning OUTPUT Trouble Report Planning Report .Antenna location .HCS setting * TEMS Light is the preferred tool for indoor cell planning .Frequency .
Scanning INPUT Finding a new frequency Area Network Scanning Measurement TEMS INV in scanning mode Set ARFCN to scan OUTPUT Received SS on different ARFCN plot New frequency .
Analyzing Measurements .
Post-Processing TEMS Logfiles TEMS Logfiles Geographical Presentation Statistics Report Analysis .
.Problem Cases Low Signal Strength • Interference • Handover • Call Setup Failure • Dropped Call • Misc.
SS < -100dBm (outdoor) • Look at RxLev distribution (for acceptance) • Compare with design level or new requirements .g.Signal Strength Case INPUT Large area DT Specific area DT TEMS Logfiles Post-Processing Analysis • Identify areas with low signal strength e.
g.Signal Strength Case – Possible Reasons • Shadowed Antenna • Antenna Direction • Antenna Height / down tilt • Output Power • Missing Neighbor Relation • Site Location • Faulty Hardware e. antenna & TMA • Cell is down .
BCCH FREQ Faulty Hardware Check alarm & BTS Error log Visit site Height/down Tilt Add reduce down tilt? Can antenna be placed lower or higher to give better coverage? Missing Neighbor Is the call dragged? Is low SS due to missing neighbor relations Site Location Possible to move site? New antenna location at same site? Is it necessary to expand and build a new site? .Signal Strength Case – Analysis Shadowed Antenna Visit site Check antenna installation Is there a better antenna position at same site? Output Power Check output power Parameters BSPWRT .NON BCCH FREQ BSPWRB .
• Physical changes: • Antenna direction • Antenna height. tilt or position • New site as last option. • Add neighbor relation. BSPWRT.Signal Strength Case – Possible Solutions • Change parameter BSPWR . .
Interference Case INPUT Large area DT Specific area DT TEMS Logfiles Post-Processing Analysis Identify areas with Rxqual > 5 Identify source using Map and STS New drive test around problem area? .
Does the interference lead to lower SQI? • Look at SQI measurement during high RxQual. .Interference Case – Logfile analysis From logfile & map: What channel group suffer from interference? HOP or Non HOP? • Check Current channel information in TEMS INV. Use STS & RNO to assist analysis. Where does the interference come from? Cell name? • Study map and logfile. hopping channel and hopping frequency. look for co-channel or adjacent channel interference.
Channel interference • Adjacent Interference BCCH 600 BCCH 595 CASE 1 CASE 2 High site BCCH 590 BCCH 590 BCCH 590 BCCH 590 .Types of Interference • Co .
Interference Case – Possible Reasons • Poor frequency plan • No dominant cell --> low C/I ---> increased Rxqual • Frequency Hopping is off • External interference e. jammer Example of high Rxqual due to low Signal Strength .g.
. • Enable BTS Power Control.Interference Case – Possible solutions • Enable Frequency Hopping or add frequencies to Hopping group. MS power control and make it less aggressive. • Change frequency of interferer or interfered cell: – Possible to find new frequency by using TEMS Scanning. • Down tilt or change antenna of interferer.
Unrealistic handover .Handover Case INPUT Large area DT Specific area DT Look for: Post-Processing Analysis Repeated handover (Ping Pong) Repeated Intra-cell handover Handover failure.
Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) .Examples .
Possible Reason 1 Merry-go-round Handover. Offset > Hysterisis .Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) .
Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) .g A-B for Inter BSC relation BSC 1 BSC BSC BSC 2 CELL A CELL B A -> B OFFSET = -5dB No B -> A OFFSET .Possible Reason 2 • Offset only in one direction e.
PTIMBQ • Too small hysterisis setting No dominant Server . PSSBQ.g.Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) – Other Possible Reasons • No dominant server • Locating penalty settings e.
g. KHYST or LHYST .Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) – Possible Solutions Antenna direction Antenna Tilts Plan for new site Change Locating Parameter e.
KHYST or LHYST Hysterisis CELL A CELL B Handover From A to B .Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) – Possible Solution Change Parameter.
RXQUAL Target cell? .Handover Case – Handover Reversion Check layer 3 message Handover command BSC correct? Check reason for handover SS.
Handover Reversion – Common Reason Duplicates of BSIC BCCH combinations in neighboring list BSC Handover command? 610_12 606_33 610_31 610_31 Serving cell 608_32 Neighbor cell 2 Neighbor cell 1 608_32 Road .
Handover Reversion – Other Reasons Uplink interference in target cell Downlink interference at MS Solutions Interference Investigation • MRR • Statistics • Scanning .
QOFFSETDL A wrong setting of parameters will cause “unnecessary” IHO Turn off Intra-cell Handover? . SSOFFSETDL • QOFFSETUL.Handover Case – Repeated Intra-cell Handover Possible Reasons Wrong intra-cell handover settings External Uplink Interference Possible Solutions Consider to change parameters: • SSOFFSETUL.
Handover Case – Unrealistic Handover .
g. MSRXSUFF.g.Unrealistic Handover – Reason & Solution Possible Reasons Wrong locating settings. in Serving or Target cell Note: Could be on purpose e. Dual Band network with HCS Solution • Fix locating settings e. BSRXSUFF .
Call Setup Failure .
Call Setup Failure – Input Activities.) Post-Processing Output •Statistics Report •Geographical Report showing failure positions . Initial Tuning Activities Initial Tuning (Acceptance Test) Measurement Type •Large Area Drive Test •Short Call Sequences Troubleshooting (Customer complaint etc.
Call Setup Failure – Input Activities.) Post-Processing Output •Geographical Report (if necessary) . Troubleshooting Input Activities Measurement Type Initial Tuning (Acceptance Test) •Small Area Drive Test •Lock on problem cell’s BCCH •Force handover to the cell Troubleshooting (Customer complaint etc.
• Replay the logfile and jump to the Blocked Call event.Initial Tuning Scenario • Check the TEMS statistics report (Blocked Call) if there is Call Setup Failure. . • If yes. identify the problem cells and which logfile from geographical report.Call Setup Failure Analysis . • Check if there is any successful call setup to the problem cell.
SDCCH & TCH seizures. congestion etc. . • Check STS report on the problem cell. SDCCH. Is there any traffic (SDCCH & TCH) in the cell. • Review the layer 3 messages to check at which sequence the failure occur (random access.Call Setup Failure Analysis . TCH assignment etc.Initial Tuning Scenario cont. • Check fault report & CDD configuration.).
• Review the layer 3 messages to check at which sequence the failure occur (random access. .Troubleshooting Scenario • Before performing drive test. perform drive test. lock the BCCH of the problem cell. • If can not identify the problem.Call Setup Failure Analysis . check STS report & fault report. • During measurement.
Possible reasons with ranking • • • • • • • • Low Signal Strength Interference High Congestion on SDCCH High Congestion on TCH Transmission Fault Faulty TRU/Hardware Central Processor Overload Software File Congestion .Call Setup Failure Analysis .
Activate adaptive configuration of logical channel feature and immediate assignment to TCH. • High Congestion on TCH: Add capacity/Tune coverage array. . • High Congestion on SDCCH: Define more SDCCHs. Activate assignment to worse cell.Call Setup Failure Analysis . • Interference Interference analysis.Possible solutions • Low signal strength Signal strength analysis.
Successful Random Access after the third try.Failed Call Setup (Blocked Call) Example Multiple Channel Requests. Congestion in SDCCH. .
Dropped Call Case .Input • Statistics Report • Note from drive test. .
• Check if there is a disrupt in the recording. Jump the drop call event.Analysis • From plot. identify which & where in logfile the dropped call occurs.Dropped Call Case . • In the log file. If yes could be a false drop due to TEMS mobile disconnection during recording!!! .
check the TX power. If full power suspect uplink interference or antenna. – If Low SS DL.Dropped Call Case . If there is MS power down regulation when the MS is close to the cell.Analysis (cont) • Check the Radio environment just before drop: – If High Rxqual for a longer period of time and RLINKT expire Interference problem. . SSDL < MSSENS ( -104dBm) low signal strength problem. TMA problem. • If DL radio is good. – If TA > 63 too far from the cell.
external uplink interference Conclusion TMA power turned off . Good Rxqual DL • No call set up possible unless very close to site = high SS • Dropped call when SS < approx. -75dBm Analysis • Since DL SS & Rxqual is good Suspect UL problems e.g.Miscellaneous Case 1 From TEMS Logfile • Good Signal strength DL.
Miscellaneous Case 2 From TEMS Logfile • TCH has lower Signal strength than BCCH (Own BCCH included in BA-list) • BTS power control = OFF Conclusion Antenna cable for TCH is swapped between sectors (CDU-A) Configuration/cell TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH SEKTOR C TCH SEKTOR A CHG1 CHG0 SDCCH\8 BCCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH SEKTOR B .
Miscellaneous Case 3 From TEMS Logfile • Fail to perform Call Setup Analysis • Check if any success call setup to the same cell No • Check if handover is possible Yes • Suspected wrong cell definition in MSC but Cell is properly defined in MCS and LA Conclusion • Corrupted block in MSC .
GPRS Verification & Optimization with TEMS Investigation .
GPRS Measurement Activities
• GPRS Performance Prediction • GPRS Field Measurement
• GPRS RNAP Service uses TEMS Inv to predict following performance:
– Throughput – Cell Reselection & Routing Area Update
GPRS Performance Prediction - Overview
GPRS Throughput Prediction
• Perform Throughput prediction for each coding scheme
Cell Reselection Prediction • Dedicated mode drive test HO types LA HO (10) HO int. (220) LA HO at BQ (1) HO int. at BQ (11) BSC3 serving Other BSC .
• BCCH Scanning • Simulate the cell update with different CRH values CRH = 4 dB CRH = 8 dB Cell Reselection Prediction CRH 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 # HO 365 246 211 178 156 147 138 130 .
GPRS Field Measurement .Procedure ? Preparations Set up files Cell definitions TEMS. IP Sniffers … GIMS Excel Mapinfo Charts / Tables Dig maps Graphical presentation of route Report .
Type of Measurements • Application Performance Test – – – – Ping WWW FTP WAP • Mobility Performance Investigation – Cell Reselection – RA Update .GPRS Field Measurement .
GPRS Field Measurement .Application Performance Test • Attached performance – Attached Time = Attach Complete msg – Attach Request msg – Attach Success Rate • PDP context activation performance – PDP context activation = Activate PDP Context Accept msg – Activate PDP context request • Throughput on RLC level • .
Protocol Analyser for Gb • PING – MS DOS ping command • WWW – IE. WS_FTP. Commview. TEMS built in sequence . Netscape • FTP – DOS FTP. Ethereal.GPRS Application Test Tools • General – Windump.
GPRS Field Measurement .Mobility Performance Investigation • Number of Cell Reselection & RA Update • TCP Outage Time • Cell Reselection Failure .
Mobility test CRH = 4. CRO = 4 .
Cell Reselection Sample Report Routing Area BSC1 BSC1 BSC1 Time 16:30:42 16:33:18 16:35:04 Cell D0241A D0241B D0242A Target Cell D0241C D0242A D0248C Reselection time 2s 2s 21 s Result OK OK OK Comments NA NA This cell reselection was made to a cell located quite far away (not the closest).. This is due to that the cell DF0242B were halted by some reason! The through put was never resumed and the FTP connection was aborted by the ftp-server! BSC1 16:37:44 D0244B D0248C -- NA BSC1 16:38:11 D0248C D0244B -- Failed . thus the RxLev was quite bad! No throughput before or after the cell reselection.
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