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and here I have thought better to err on the side of excess rather than I that of defect. veritate fecerit. 823. and I have had to I prosecute it under circumstances so disadvantageous."^ facere curaverit. ' have myself suffered so much inconvenience Islam in Sicily and the missionary labours of the numerous E. of Muslim " saints. at redarguat meam. De Trinitate. (si Quod in si cum caritate et mihique etiam hac vita maneo) cognolaboris huius scendum cepero. est . I have given full it references to the sources consulted . torn. potest. xlii. history .g. and as many of the events referred to therein have become matter for controversy. 5. : To such I would say in the words of intelligo Augustine sit.) . I hope to to this make more worthy contribution neglected I shall department Muhammadan to St.PREFACE It is with considerable diffidence that I publish these pages they deal is : the subject with which so vast. quidem quid dictum sed non vere dictum si asserat ut placet sententiam suam. and to this end be deeply grateful for the criticisms and corrections of any scholars who may deign notice the book. can hope but equipped fill for small for When I may be better the task. uberrimum fructum mei As I can neither claim to be an authority nor a specialist on any of the periods of history dealt with in this book. (Migne. p. The spread i. that measure of success. " Qui haec legens dicit. and after further study has enabled ^ me it to a of up the gaps left in the present work.

held at Geneva article is with the exception that the last letter of the assimilated to the so-called solar letters. ^ o -jfpoviK yewav.! I have endeavoured to be strictly impartial and to conform to the ideal laid down by the °^* Christian historian ^ fall who chronicled the successes of the Ottomans and the of Con- Stantmople 17 : oiiTe irpos X'*P"' irpos ^66vov. because title. or indeed of any part of the empire of the Turks during the present century— a period singularly barren of missionary enterprise on their cart ^ ^ Phrantzes. . ty/v la-ropiav. Archbishop of Calcutta of Allahabad . In the case of geographical names this scheme has not been so rigidly applied in many instances because I could not discover the (e.g. S. that 1 would and while to the desire to spare others a similar annoyance and wasted so much time . Paul Goethals. the liberal use they have allowed me of their respective libraries. as explained in the Intro- a record of missionary efforts and not a history of persecutions. this work is confessedly. 5. The scheme adopted Arabic words of the is book for the transliteration of that laid down by the Transliteration Committee Orientalists. 1 Accordingly the reader will find no account of the recent history of Armenia or Crete. I may perchance some scholar who wishes in this to test the accuracy of a statement or pursue any part of the subject further. in hunting up references to books indicated in some obscure or unintelligible manner. . usage has almost created for them a prescriptive Though duction. Francis Pesci. London. Fr. Dr. I desire to thank Her Excellency the Princess Barberini . . Medina).r} /8d&<3 iropaSo^^vai. in others Mecca. of the Cambridge Mission. Williams's Library. the Trustees of Dr. for Gordon Square. Tenth International Congress of in 1894. Dehli .— X PREFACE. Allnutt. the Right Rev. Bishop the Rev. original Arabic form of the word. i<TTi dW' ouSe irpos /luros oAA' KOI •n-pos ivvouLV <ruyypd<l>tiv )(ptu>v Xij^ijs rbv crvyypii^ovTa. lO-Topias fkovov X^P"* <"*' oiSc Tou fi. S. His Excellency the Prince Chigi the Most Rev. p. general reader I save trouble to may appear guilty of pedantry.

. Nonum prematur in annum . Sayyid Ahmad Khan Nu'mani. . I xi am under an especial debt of gratitude to James Kennedy. Mawlawi Bahadur all.A. but for whose learning and his helpful sympathy. to my learned friend Shibli and colleague. K. but for and above must I thank my dear wife. exemplified the to his profound for much unknown to scholarship and wide reading I have been indebted information that would otherwise have remained me. and my former Lastly. nor do I owe less to the stimulus of his enthusiastic love of I am also under a debt of Ugo Balzani. LL.. I desire also to acknowledge my obligations to .D. though it has almost precept. late of the Bengal Civil Service. should be worked out .S. abundance of his knowledge of early to Muhammadan 'Ali. and whose sympathy and approval are the best reward of my labours. To the late Professor Robertson Smith I am indebted for valuable suggestions as to the lines of study on which the history of the North African church and the condition of the Christians under Muslim rule. whom this work would never have emerged out of a chaos of incoherent materials.C. gratitude to the kindness of Conte assistance certain parts of my work would have been impossible to me. M. Shamsu-1 'Ulama' Mawlawi Muhammad history who has assisted me most generously out of the . the profound regret which all Semitic scholars feel at his is loss is to me intensified by the thought that this the only acknowledgement I am Sir able to make of his generous help and encouragement. Esq.I. pupil.PREFACE. Bahadur. who has never ceased to' take a kindly interest in Horatian my book.


and of the conversions made in Mecca before the Hijrah. tions suffered by the Christians. The wars of Muhammad.: CONTENTS CHAPTER A missionary religion I. Islam declared in the Qur'an to be a universal religion. revival in rule : they occupy high posts. The Qur'an enjoins preaching and persuasion. 42 . attempt to reconcile the contending Christian sects. Account of conversions from among . the Crusaders. defined. {6) to the whole world. and Flight to Medina. The Armenian and Georgian Churches — — . Persecu: — : : : . Causes of their conversion to Islam revolt against Byzantine ecclesiasticism influence of rationalistic thought imposing character of Muslim civilisation. INTRODUCTION. Persecution of the converts. Muhammad the type oMheMusUmrni^^ Account of his early effoi^s at propagating Islam. but defensive. Conversion of Chrisarrangements made for the instruction of the tian Bedouins converts. as being the primitive faith delivered Muhammad as the founder of a political organisato Abraham. Toleration extended to those who remained ChrisThe settled population of the towns failure of Heraclius's tian. build new churches the Nestorian church. : : : Details Proselytising efforts. Condition of the Muslims in Medina : beginning of the national life of Islam. The present work a history of missions. of conversion to Islam. The Arab conquest of Syria and Palestine their toleration the Ordinance jizyah paid in return for protection and in lieu of of 'Umar Condition of the Christians under Muslim military service. tion. Causes of the early successes of the Muslims. STUDY OF THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD CONSIDERED AS A PREACHER OF ISLAM. and forbids violence and force in the conversion of unbelievers. The ideals of Islam and those of Pre-Islamic — Arabia contrasted 8 CHAPTER III. Islam spread by missionary methods and not by the sword. not aggressive. Islam offered (a) to the Arabs. The spread of Islam and the efforts made to convert the Arabs after the Hijrah. not of persecutions i CHAPTER II. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHRISTIAN NATIONS OF WESTERN ASIA.

Circumstances that favoured the spread of Islam degraded condition of the Greek Church failure of the attempt to Protestantise the Greek Church oppression of the Greek clergy moral superiority of the Ottomans imposing character of their conquests.— Nubia: relations with condan powers political independence maintained until their Jh5_decay version to Islam not converted by force. tyranny Forced conversion rare. conquest of the country. — . Proselytising efforts of individuals.opts their deliverers from Byzantine rule.— Northern Africa extent of Christhe Christians tianity in North Africa in the seventh century are said to have been forcibly converted : reasons for thinking that this statement is not true toleration enjoyed by the Chrisgradual disappearance of the Christian Church tians : : : : : : .— Abyssinia the Arabs onTHe sea-board missionary efforts in converinvasion of Ahmad Gragne the fourteenth century sions to Islam: progress of Islam in the present century: persecution of the Muslims. SPAIN. Toleration of the Arabs. independent character of its people. and influence of their civilisation on the Christians. Causes of conversion to Islam. alliance of the Servians with the Turks. Corruption of the clergy. — . the capitation tax. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHRISTIANS OF : miserable conChristianity in Spain before the Muslim conquest dition of the Jews and the slaves. IV. who are welcomed by the Condition of the l. Conversion of Christian slaves. Extent of the conversions .— in Servia. The voluntary martyrs of Cordova. conversion in the ninth century' conversion to Islam oppression of the Venetian rule. the benefits of Ottoman rule its disadvantages. Early converts to Islam. the tribute-children. conversions to Islam J2C : : : : : : : : . CHAPTER AFRICA. points of Servia in Montenegro similarity between the Bogomilian heresy and the Muslim creed in Crete. conversions mainly from among the nobles except in Old in Bosnia. . 87 CHAPTER V. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHRISTIAN NATIONS OF .— xiv CONTENTS. clergy under the Muslims. Islam in Albania. 112 CHAPTER VI. the Bogomiles. gradual decay of the Christian faith. but through : : : : : of the Christian faith and thejnfluence-of-Muslim me/c^nts. who study Arabic and adopt Arab dress and manners.^^^ Egypt Copts as conquered by the Arabs. — . made by the Turks. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHRISTIAN NATIONS IN EUROPE UNDER THE TURKSi Relations of the Turks to their Christian subjects during the first two centuries of their rule toleration extended to the Greek Church by Muhammad II. conquered by the Turks. Corruption and negligence o' '"^ Muhammalead to conversions to Islam. and its causes .

influence of the Mongol conquest. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE MONGOLS AND TARTARS. worship of Muslim saints. Difficulties that stood in the way of Islam. Their efforts to spread their religion : : . Shamanism. Spread of Buddhism. in South India. IN CHINA.242 Government. in the Maldive Islands Sultan. . Cruel treatment of the Muslims by some Mongol rulers. Their original religion. The conversion of the Tartars of Siberia . conversion of the Khojahs and Borahs the Muhammadan rule in this province. and of Islam respectively among the Mongols. Christianity and the allegiance of the Mongols. Points of similarity between the older faiths and Islam. Part taken by the Muhammadan rulers in the propagation of Islam conversion of Rajputs and others. etc. 185 CHAPTER IX. History of Islam under the Golden Horde: UzbegSian: failure of attempts Spread of Islam in modem times in to convert the Russians. . Early converts to Islam.177 . of Christianity. missionaries. The Isma'ilians and their missionary system. CircumIndia. CHAPTER Account of the Mongol conquests. forced conversions under Haydar 'Ali and Tipii in the Deccan. Sayyid Sulayman. PAGE Religious condition of Persia at the time of the Arab conquest. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM : Early notices of Islam in China. Conversion of the Jagatay Mongols. Intercourse of the Chinese with the Arabs . Islam in Central Asia and Af^anistan . the first Mongol prince converted. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM IN INDIA. Islam welcomed by many sections of the population. Particular account of the labours of Muslim missionaries in other parts of Propagandist movements of modern times. described. Relations of the Chinese Muslims to the Chinese . spread of Islam in the north-west . the Mappila in early Arab settlements. Conversions to Islam. Toleration. De Thiersant. . the rule of the Arabs. the Russian Empire. Distribution of the Muhammadan population. . Authorities for the history of the spread of Islam Vasil'ev. The work of the Muslim missionaries in India . extensive conversions of the lower castes. Baraka Shan. Buddhism. Conversion of the Ilkians. Islam in rivalry for VIII. their toleration.CONTENTS. CHAPTER THE SPREAD OF ISLAM VII. account of individual in Bengal. XV IN PERSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA. Spread of Wahab ibn Abi Islam in the south early Arab settlements Kabshah. religious revival in recent times. Spread 208 of Islam in Kashmir and Thibet : — : — : — : — : — — : — CHAPTER X. proselytising labours of Ibn Malik and his companions. stances facilitating the progress of Islam the oppressiveness of the Hindu caste system. labours of individual missionaries Sind.

.rg APPENDIX influences IV. .xvi CONTENTS. : passages in the Qur'an in which it 347 II. in Java in the Moluccas . the QadriSpread of Islam on yah. Islam in Cape Coast Colony. the Sudan rise of Muhammadan kingdoms account of missionary movements. Islam not spread by the sword. INDEX 373 '^g^ . I'ACE : THK SPREAD OF ISLAM The Arabs in : the Northern Africa conversion of the Berbers Introduction of Islam into mission of 'Abdu-Uah ibn Yassln. XI. Account of the Muslim mission258 aries in Africa and their methods of winning converts : : : : : : : . Dahomey. the Tijanlyah. in Borneo among the Papuans. The toleration of Muhammadan governments. Danfodio. . . . in Celebes . Spread of Islam on the the West Coast Ashanti East Coast early Muslim settlements the Galla the Somali. CONCLUSION. History of Islam in India.353 APPENDIX Controversial literature other faiths between Muslims and the followers of . Converts to Islam that have not come under direct missionary . CHAPTER XII. 'Uthmanu-I Amir Ghani.gj Titles of Works cited by Abbreviated References . THE SPREAD OF ISLAM IN THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. Absence of missionary organisation in Islam zeal on the part of individuals. CHAPTER . : : CHAPTER XIII. Sumatra in the Malay Peninsula . . The Muslim missionaries traders hajis 293 . : : : Circumstances contributing to the progress of Islam in ancient and in modern times 332 APPENDIX Jihad meaning of the word occurs : I. APPENDIX Letter of Al Hashimi inviting AI Kindi to embrace Islam III. and the Sanusiyah. . Who are the Muslim missionaries ? Causes that have contributed to their success the simpUcity of the Muslim creed the rationalism and ritualism of Islam. Early intercourse between the Malay Archipelago and Arabia and Methods of missionary work. in Mindanao and the Sulu Islands . IN AFRICA.

which is not satisfied till it has carried its message to every human soul. A : ' Missionary Religions. Lyall's article July. its inspiring forces and the modes of its activity that forms the subject of the following pages. The 173 millions of Muhammadans Fortnightly Review. — . one " in which the spreading of the truth and the conversion of unbelievers are raised to the rank of a sacred duty by the founder or his . ' note on Mr..." such a zeal for the truth of their religion that has inspired the Muhammadans to carry with them the message of Islam to the people of every land into which they penetrate. on the day of intercession for missions. should be taken to mean. and he has well defined what the term. word and deed. till what it believes to be the truth is accepted as the truth by It is all members of the human family. . and that justly claims for their religion a place among those we term missionary. it has been a literary commonplace. 1873. It is the spirit of truth in the hearts of believers which cannot rest." . immediate successors. It is the history of the birch of this missionary zeal. Brahmanism and Zoroastrianism. 1874. I. unless it manifests itself in thought. Christianity and Islam a missionary religion. "Ever since Professor Max Miiller delivered his lecture in Westminster Abbey. that the six ^reat religions of the world may be divided into missionary and non-missionary under the latter head will fall Judaism. and under the former Buddhism. INTRODUCTION. viz.' — THE PREACHING OF CHAPTER ISLAM. in December.

At the to present day the faith of Islam extends from Morocco to Zanzibar. by was proclaimed to the people of Arabia tribes became a a prophet under whose banner their scattered pulsations of this new national life. the last stronghold of Islam in Spain. they poured forth over almost invincible nation . evidences of its scattered over the world at the present day are workings through the length of twelve centuries. from Sierra Leone to Siberia and China. masters of an empire greater than that the zenith of its power. Although in after years this great empire was split up and the political power of Islam diminished. Muslim missionaries have carried their faith into Central Africa. infidel barbarians on the necks of the followers of the Prophet. that contain a. one hundred years of Rome at after his death.— Islam had just gained a footing in the island of Sumatra and was just about to commence its triumphant progress through the — islands of the Malay Archipelago. there are some few small com- New Guinea. China and the East India : set their feet — ' Islands. the message of in the seventh century. three continents to conquer and subdue.d.— 2 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. When the Mongol hordes sacked Baghdad (a. the followers of the Prophet found themselves. 1236).d. Outside the limits of strictly Muhammadan countries and of lands. still its spiritual conquests went on uninterruptedly. and pressing westward to Spain and eastward beyond the Indus. Palestine. munities of the followers of the Prophet. Islam has achieved some of most brUliant spiritual conquests have on two great historical occasions. In the hours of its its political degradation. which bear witness to Such are the the faith of Islam in the midst of unbelievers. North Africa and Persia were the first to fall before them. . paid tribute to the Christian king. Egypt. the One God eternal and life-bringing truth. large Muhammadan population. 1258) and drowned in blood the faded glory of the 'Abbasid dynasty. the Saljuq Turks in the eleventh and the Mongols in the thirteenth and in each case the conquerors have accepted the century. and innocent of any political motive. such as China and Russia. when the Muslims were expelled from Cordova by Ferdinand of Leon and Castile (a. the An and filled with imparted an and with a religious fervour and enthusiasm that strength to their armies. and Granada. Unaided also by the temporal power religion of the conquered. from Bosnia. Syria.

are in perplexity of doubt concerning it. In recent years. Islam has found adherents in England (where the numbers of Grodno the converts had risen in 1894 to 137). too.INTRODUCTION.) : dispute with Lord with wisdom and with them in the kindest manner. Do you accept Islam ? Then. For this cause summon thou (them to the faith). with the ensample. social. B 2 . The spread of this faith over so vast a portion of the globe : is due to various causes. —which are here quoted in chronological order according to the date of their being delivered. that . when Muhammad was at the head of a large army and at the height of his power." (xlii. and follow not and say In whatsoever Books God hath their desires sent down do I believe I am commanded to decide justly between you God is your Lord and our Lord we have our works and you have your works between us and you God will make us all one and to let there be no strife : : : : : : : : Him shall we return. has Muslim missionaries. "Say to those who have been given the Book and to the ignorant. as may be judged from the following passages in the Quran. vol. one of the most powerful factors at work in the production of this stupendous result. " Summon thou to the way of thy kindly warning (xvi.) delivered at a time Similar injunctions are found also in the Medinite Surahs. 126. V. p. if they turn away. 3 Lithuania. in North America and Australia. and walk uprightly therein as thou hast been bidden. Polish-speaking Muslims of Tartar origin in inhabit the districts of Kovno. the Jews and Christians). Vilno and . then Reclus. who. are they guided aright ' : but 433. 1 the Dutchspeaking Muslims of Cape Colony and the Indian coolies that have carried the faith of Islam with them to 'the West India Islands and to British and Dutch Guiana. " They who have " inherited the Book after them (i.e. 13-14. but was enjoined on believers from the beginning. if they accept Islam. believers. political and religious but among these. have spent been the unremitted labours of Prophet himself as their great themselves for the conversion of un- The duty of missionary work is no after-thought in the history of Islam.

" Thus from its very inception Islam has been a missionary religion. " is only preaching 19. for the life of Muhammad exemplifies the same teaching and the Prophet himself stands at the head of a long series of Muslim missionaries who have won " Yet : We an entrance over it is for their faith into the hearts of unbelievers. but in the quiet.) shall be well. then say God best knoweth (xxii. and God's eye is on His (iii.) of God . With regard to the unbelievers who had broken their plighted who " sell the signs of God for a mean price and turn others blood or good faith. Thus God clearly . and enjoin the Just. 6. these are they with whom it " To every people have appointed observances which they Therefore let them not dispute the matter with observe. 99-100. .) what ye do The following passages are taken from what is generally sup: ! posed to be the last Surah that was delivered. Morenot in the cruelties of the persecutor or the fury of the fanatic that we should look for the evidences of the missionary spirit of Islam. but summon them to thy Lord : Verily thou art guided aright " But if they debate with thee. Such peaceful methods of preaching and persuasion were not adopted. may be guided And that there may We thee. grant him an asylum in order that he hear the word (ix. 66-7. any more than in the exploits of that mythical personage.) ." .: — 4 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and (iii. as some would have us believe only when political circumstances made force and violence impossible . the Muslim warrior with sword in one hand and Qur'an in the other." and "respect not with a believer either ties of said : they turn to God and observe prayer and give alms. if it is aside from His way. " If any one of those who join gods with God ask an asylum of thee. make then are they your brothers in the faith and (ix. 11." word. both in theory and in practice. showeth you His signs that perchance ye " mvite to be from among you a people who and forbid the Wrong the Good. then let him reach his place of safety... unobtrusive labours of the preacher and the trader who have carried their faith into every — quarter of the globe. thy duty servants.) clear the signs for men of knowledge.

We believe in what has been sent down to us and hath been sent down to you. with the people of the Book save with such of them as have dealt wrongfully (with you) and say ye. (xlii. Yet is the duty of the apostles other than plainspoken preaching ? (xvi. to announce and to warn. 99.) " Dispute ye not. 37. (Ixxii. verily all who are in the world would have believed together. but are found in abundance also in those delivered at Medina. 12. (xvi.' " (xxix.' Thus acted they who were before them.) otherwise than to mankind at (xxxiv.) . Such precepts are not confined to the Meccan Surahs. apart from Him. 45. .what they say with patience. joined other gods with God say. 5 or impolitic. neither we nor our forefathers had worshipped aught but Him nor had we. 257. Our God and your God is one. rich in the pleasures . is our apostle only charged with plain-spoken preaching. ' Had He pleased. and bear thou with them yet is a little while.) " Then if they turn their backs. 84. 27.) " (My) " Tell sole (work preaching from God and His message. as follows And And endure. as follows " Let there be : " no compulsion in religion. 'Tis thine but to preach.) large. Wilt thou then compel But if " men to become believers ? And we have not sent thee (x. them with " let Me 10 alone with the gainsayers. (xlv. yet We have not sent thee to be guardian over them. and to Him are we self.) Obey God and obey the apostle but if ye turn away. yet .) those for the days of who have believed to pardon those who hope not God in which He purposeth to recompense 13. unless in kindliest sort. 47. but were " most : strictly enjoined in numerous passages of the Qur'an. (Ixiv. and depart from a decorous departure. — II. still thy office is only plainspoken preaching. declared anything unlawful. (ii. ' : surrendered.) men " They who had according to their deserts.) they turn aside from thee. 24.) " But if thy Lord had pleased.— — INTRODUCTION. (of this life) (Ixxiii.

except a few of them. A. 8-9. may believe on God and on His apostle and may assist Him and honour Him. Ansgar and his successors rather than King Cnut.^ Abbot Gottfried and converting the pagan Bishop Christian. 156. 777. tandem christiani effecti. barbara regna iusto certamine aggressus. ! Say : O men I am only your plain-spoken (open) warner. devictas subditasque nationes christianse legi subiugavit.6 " THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. who forcibly rooted out paganism from his dominions.) . missions In a history of Christian we should naturally expect to hear more of the labours of of St. European writers have taken such care to accentuate these. though less successful in 'See Enhardi Fuldensis Annales. 53. i. 16. 19. that there is no is — fear of their being forgotten. and they do not strictly come within the province of a history of missions. Vol. Liudger and St. and the burden burden of his duty is shall have duty rests on you. H. (V. (See also j^g PP.) But forgive them and act Verily.D. Francorum dicioni subduntur.) " Verily We have sent thee to be a witness and a herald . ye upon guidance but plain preaching is all that devolves the apostle : : the apostle. lun. Willehad among the pagan Saxons than the baptisms that Charlemagne forced them to undergo at the point of the sword. over. of (xxii. " (xxiv. " Saxones post multas csedes et varia bella afflicti. of your on him only.) " "Turn zelo propagandas fidei succensus." G. It is at the outset the reader should clearly understand that this work not intended to be a history of Muhammadan persecutions but of Muhammadan missions it does not aim at chronicling the instances of forced conversions which may be found scattered up and down the pages of Muhammadan histories." the object of the following pages to show how this ideal was realised in history and how these principles of missionary And activity were put into practice by the exponents of Islam. and praise Him morning and evening. And if ye obey him. God.^ The true missionaries of Denmark vsrere St. p. Pertz : Monumenta GermaniEe Historica." (Breviarium Romanum. 48. Obey God and obey still the but if ye turn back. " That ye good and a warner. 159.) " Thou wilt not cease to discover the treacherous ones among pass it them. (xlviii. loveth those who generously.

1724. vol.^ Similarly Al Mutawakkil. Mathurin Veyssiere de la Croze Histoire du Christianisme des Indes. Ibrahim. The violent means sometimes employed by the Jesuit missionaries ^ cannot derogate from the honour due to St Francis Xavier and other preachers of the same order.INTRODUCTION. The knights of the " Ordo fratrum militiae Christi " forced Christianity on the people of Livonia. but it is not to these militant propagandists but to the monks Meinhard and Theo- doric that we should point as being the true missionaries of the Christian faith in this country. Prussians. p. xi. . 89. were 7 more truly representative of Christian missionary work than the Brethren of the Sword and other Crusaders who brought their labours to completion by means of fire and sword. when the pastor came on his rounds.) ^ Revue de I'Histoire des Religions. the apostle of Java. pp. Al Hakim and Tipu Sultan are not to be looked upon as typical missionaries of Islam to the exclusion of such preachers as Mawlana. ^ : 529-531. Nor is Valentyn any the less the apostle of Amboyna because in 1699 an order was promulgated to the Rajas of this island that they should have ready a certain number of pagans to be baptised. (The Hague. Khwajah Mu'inu-d Din Chishti in India and countless others who won converts to the Muslim faith by peaceful means alone.

etc. general hood. Muhammad was at length convinced of his divine mission —when at length the Voice aroused him from his despondency^ ' Except where special references are given. and in the following sketch it is desired to show how this is so. but rather to make a study in one of its aspects only. It is numerous biographies of his Hfe is not proposed in this chapter to add another to the already of Muhammad. For the missionary spirit of Islam is no after-thought in its history it interpenetrates the religion from its very commencement. the Qur'an they are arranged in chronological order. therefore. how Muhammad the Prophet is the type of the missionary of Islam. or to consider him in the light either of a statesman or a: it is as the preacher alone that he will demand our : attention.CHAPTER II. or the influences under which he grew up to manIf the life of the duct for the ordinary believer. Sprenger. irom. after long internal conflict and disquietude after whole days and nights of meditation and prayer in the cave of Mount Hira'. . the facts recorded in this chaoter are to be found in all the well-known biographies of the Prophet by Caus-in de Perceval. The life of the founder of Islam and thepropaganda may naturally be expected to exhibit to us the true character of the missionary activity of this Prophet serves as the standard of conit must do the same for the Muslim missionary. viz. When. It is therefore beside the purpose to describe his early history.' its men of a new inaugurator of religion. From the pattern. that in which the^ Prophet presented to us as a preacher. Muir. as the apostle unto religion. and of the methods they might be expected to adopt. we may hope to learn something of the spirit that would animate those who sought to copy it. Whenever several verses are quoted" from. STUDY OF THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD CONSIDERED AS A PREACHER OF ISLAM. . Krehl.

re-assured and supported him. Thus was the Lord minded to lighten the burden of His Prophet for he heard nothing that grieved him touching his rejection by the people. kind to thy neighbours. faithful to thy word. and enabled : : . and misgivings. When in an agony of mind. 9- and fear. and his bosom friend Abu Bakr. for the beauty of thy character for the truthfulness of thy speech. The who first convert was his faithful and loving wife." Truly. " and attested the truth of that which came to him from God. and ever a defender of the truth ? " Thus up to her death in 619 a.— MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. the abomination of idolatry.d." says the biographer of the Prophet. most beautiful pictures of a perfect wedded gives us. one of thepoverty. consolation and encouragement whenever he suffered from the persecution of his enemies or was tortured by doubts. upon man of submission to the will of his Creator. I will henceforth regard thee as the Prophet of our nation. for the respect with which the people- — regard thee. my cousin. (after a wedded life of five and twenty years) she was always ready with sympathy. life that history Among the earliest believers were his adopted children Zayd. with the words.. for thy kinship with me. and helped him with tenderest sympathy and encouragement in the hour of his despondency. these were the simple truths to which he claimed their allegiance. and bade him proclaim unto men the truth that day byday more strongly forced itself upon him. he once fled to her for comfort^ she thus revived his downcast spirit "Fear not. of whom Muhammad would often say in after years " I never invited any to ther excepting only faith who displayed not hesitation and perplexity — — . for thy honesty. Khadijah. for joyful tidings dost thou bring. after having seen a vision. his earliest efforts were directed towards persuading his new doctrine. and 'All. Rejoice Allah will not suffer thee to fall to shameHast thou not been loving to thy kinsfolk. the duty laid own family of the truth of the The unity of God. " I love thee. " So Khadijah believed." She had . charitable to the poor. but he had recourse unto her and she comforted. —she fifteen years before had offered her hand in marriage to the poor kinsman that had so successfully traded with her imerchandise as a hired agent. lifted and him out of him to live up to the social position to which he was entitled by right of birth but this was as nothing to the fidelity and loving devotion with which she shared his mental' anxieties.

an early convert. fronting the Ka'bah. With other additions. and here peaceably -and without interruption he was able to preach and recite the •Qur'an to all enquirers that came to him and so the number why m . Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas. cried out. he took up his residence the house of Arqam. seeing the firmness of his attachment released him. a wealthy religion to that of thy fathers until ? I swear I will not loose thee thou givest up this which 'Uthman replied. new faith thou art following after. Encouraged by the success of these private efforts. a relative both Talhah. famous as a warrior in of the Prophet and his wife . . I will never abandon To it! to Whereupon Jiis faith." he urged. five of the earliest converts were added to the number of behevers. he repeatedly them together on future occasions." He was a wealthy merchant. Muhammad determined on more active measures. It was in a central and frequented situation. " Prophet of God. Who among you will aid me in this task ? " All were silent. and 'Uthman. the virulence of their opposition is probably the reason in the fourth year of his mission. the third i^alifah. saying. " has offered to his nation more precious advantages than those I bring you. much respected by his fellow citizens for the integrity of his character After his conversion he •and for his intelligence and ability. the number of the believers reached to nearly forty •during the first three years of his mission. 'Only 'All. I will aid thee. " Dost thou prefer a new after days . had pronounced unto him Islam tamed 'not. . the future -conqueror of the Persians Zubayr ibnu-1' Awwam. neither was perplexed. The last was early exposed to persecution his uncle seized and bound him. but his message and his warnings received from them nothing but scoffing and contempt. to a great extent. He called his kinsmen together and invited them to embrace the new faith. ISLAM. merchant 'Abdu-r Rahman. Indeed. his fortune on the purchase of expended the greater part of Muslim slaves who were persecuted by their masters on account of Through his their adherence to the teaching of Muhammad." . with boyish enthusiasm. Undeterred by the called ill-success of this preaching. " No Arab. I offer you happiness in this world and in the life to come." " By the Lord. particularly from among slaves and poor persons." At this the company broke up with derisive laughter. 30 THE PREACHING OF . Abu Bakr who when I influence. his uncle.

threats nephew not Prophet replied to bring disaster on himself and his family. there is but one God. to which Muhammad belonged. to the scorching rays of the sun.i an African slave.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET.On more than one occasion they tried to induce his uncle Abu Talib. new religion with They adopted all possible and promises. " Preach whatever thou wilt. It was at this time that Abu Bakr purchased the freedom of Bilal. and were imprisoned and tortured in order to induce them to recant. though they had no sympathy for the doctrines their kinsman taught. had to endure the cruellest persecution. . and a loss of wealth and power to the guardians of the sacred Ka'bah. to restrain him from making such attacks upon their ancestral faith. the rage and fury of the Quraysh burst forth with redoubled force. ^. with an enormous stone on his stomach here he was told he would have to stay until either he died or renounced Muhammad and worshipped idols. Muhammad himself was safe under the protection of Abu Talib and the Banu Hashim." Abu Talib was moved and exclaimed." He had been cruelly tortured by being exposed. and the slaves. ii of the believers increased. insults and offers of worldly honour and aggrandisement to induce Muhammad to abandon the part he had taken up. who. They realised that the triumph of the new teaching meant the destruction of the national religion and the national worship. and were the choice offered me of renouncing this work or of perishing in the achievement of it. But the poor who had no protector. " Were the sun to come down on right : The hand my and the moon on my left." When such peaceful methods failed. I swear I will never give thee up unto thy enemies. . fifty. " There is but one God. yet with the strong clan. who was called by Muhammad " the first-fruits of Abyssinia. Abu Talib accordingly appealed to his means. I would not abandon it. day after day. as head of the clan of the Banu Hashim. and within the next two years rose to The Quraysh viewed this and progress of the increasing dissatisfaction hatred. though he was still exposed to continual insult and annoyance. stretched out on his back." Two persons died under the fearful tortures ' He is famous throughout the Muhammadan world as the first mu'adhdhin.feeling peculiar to the Arabs. or otherwise they threatened to resort to more violent measures. secured him from any attempt upon his life. to which he would reply only.

12 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. who had to endure that most bitter trial of the new convert the hatred of those he loves and who once loved him. He forbade us to dishonour women or rob the orphans. he advised them to take refuge in men and of his mission (a. For. As Muhammad was unable to reheve his Abyssinia. " We were plunged in the darkness of ignorance and worshipped idols. justice. Putting our trust in your we hope that you will deliver us from the oppression of our Their prayer was heard and the embassy of the Quraysh returned discomfited. Meanwhile. he refused to withdraw from them his protection.d. because his tribe and his mother. but in vain. and an embassy was sent to demand their extradition But when he heard their story from the Muslims. So. The hatred of the Quraysh pursued the fugitives even to Abyssinia. were bitterly opposed to the new religion and indeed. But our countrymen rose up against us. be truthful in speech. but he was afraid to let the fact of his conversion become known. when they discovered the fact. kind and affectionate to our parents and neighbours. This apostle called upon us to profess the unity of God. illustrious by his birth and long esteemed by us for his virtues. and persecuted us to make us renounce our faith and return to the worship of idols. 615). where they kind welcome from the Christian king of the country. he enjoined on us prayer. who bore an especial love to him. But he succeeded in effect- them was a certain — . persecuted followers. said they. He had been led to embrace Islam through the teaching he had listened to in the house of Arqam. and despise the gods of wood and stone. faithful to our promises. they had to undergo. enemies. seized and imprisoned him. finding no safety in our own country. to worship God alone. when God raised up among us a man of our own race. We believed in his mission and accepted the teachings that he brought us from God." . from the king of that country. Among Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr whose history is interesting as of one. we have sought a refuge in yours. in Mecca. He bade us flee from wickedness. Given up wholly to our evil passions. eleven and in the fifth year received a four women crossed over to Abyssinia. alms and fasting. ing his escape to Abyssinia. to reject the superstitions of our fathers. a fresh attempt was made to induce the Prophet to abandon his work of preaching by promises of wealth and honour. we knew no law but that of the strongest.

'Umar burst " What was that sound I heard ? " " It was into the room nothing. how sublime it " is As he read on. we are Muslims we beheve in God and His Prophet slay us if you In the struggle his sister was wounded. viz. 'Umar ibnu-1 Khattab. there occurred the •conversion of a man." they replied. he was softened and asked to see the — : . Fatimah threw herself between them. " I am looking for Muhammad. crying. at once the uncle and fosterbrother of Muhammad. insulted our gods." saw the blood on her face. sword in hand. " How beautiful." " Why dost thou not rather punish those of thy own family. he exclaimed. discord " to kill the wretch who has brought trouble and among his fellow-citizens. whose chivalrous soul was so stung to sudden sympathy by a tale of insult inflicted on and patiently iorne by his nephew. On the way. he set out. another important convert was Hamzah. : paper they had been reading after some hesitation she handed When It contained the 20th Surah of the Qur'an. were reading a passage of the Qur'an together. unknown to thee. for in 13 While the result of the embassy to Abyssinia was being looked Mecca with the greatest expectancy. conviction suddenly overpowered him and : ! lie cried. and outraged the memory of our ancestors.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. and I have Wherelieard that you have joined the sect of Muhammad. another of the followers of Muhammad. it to him. have renounced the religion of our fathers ? " " And who are these of my own family ? " answered 'Umar. you were reading. and had opposed him with the utmost persistence and fanaticism a man whom the Muslims had every reason then to look on as their most terrible and virulent enemy." 'Umar at once rushed off to the house of his sister. One day. who was instructing them in the faith. in a ft of rage against the Prophet. " Yes. " Thy brother-in-law Sa'id and thy sister Fatimah. to protect her husband." /gained in the person of About the same time also. who. " Lead me to Muhammad that I may tell him of my conversion." upon he rushed upon Sa'id and struck him. who. " Nay. and when 'Umar will. one of his relatives met him and asked him •where he was going. 'Umar read it. who before had been one of the most bitter enemies of Muhammad. though afterwards he shines as one of the noblest figures in the — early history of Islam. with her husband and Khabbab." he answered. to slay him. that he changed at once from a bitter .

nor buy aught from them that dealings with them of every kind should cease. since the king had refused to withdraw his protection from the Muslim fugitives. They put ties the of Banu Hashim and the Banu Muttalib. who through kindred protected the Prophet. crying with a loud voice. under a ban. For they had no longer to deal with a band of oppressed and despised outcasts. Muhammad the believers publicly performed their devotions together around the Ka'bah. of eightythree men and eighteen women. against them. the house of Arqam and But this immunity was short-lived. adding daily to its strength by the accession of influential citizens and endangering the stability of the existing government by a determined an alliance with a powerful foreign prince. secretly favoured the new religion who did not declare themselves until the day of its triumph. Muhammad religion. nor give — . with its attendant dangers. This increased severity of persecution. The conversion of 'Umar is a turning-point in the history ot : Islam the Muslims were left now able to take up a bolder attitude. His was not the only instance of sympathy for the sufferings of the Muslims being thus aroused at the sight of the persecutions they had to endure. But with no success. no doubt. in accordance with which the Quraysh agreed that they would not marry their their own in marriage to them they would nothing to them. in which all war ceased throughout Arabia and a truce was made in order that pilgrims might visit the sacred Ka'bah. for his uncle used to dog his footsteps. struggling for a weak and miserable existence. The embassy to Abyssinia had returned unsuccessful. None dared venture out except during the sacred months. led to a second flight to Abyssinia— this time. enemy into a staunch adherent. It was rather a powerful faction. and many. The situation might thus be expected to give the aristocracy of Mecca just cause for apprehension. sell women.14 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. the centre of the national used to take advantage of such times of pilgrimage to preach to the various tribes that flocked to adjacent fairs. " Mecca and the Abu Lahab He is an . quarter of the city rigorously in force For three years the Banu Hashim remained shut up in one during all this time the ban was put . The Quraysh resolved accordingly to make eiFort to crush out this dangerous element in the state.

^ heathen people of Ta'if) and his helpless condition only excited' their ridicule and scorn. he resolved to see if there were not others who might be more ready to listen. With this hope he set out for Ta'if. wherefore separate yourselves from him and hear him not. impostor 15 fathers to the false doctrines that draw you away from the faith of your he brings. to whom he had' delivered his message with so little success for ten years. plunged Muhammad into the utmost grief and despondency to : who wants : . Before an assembly of the chief men of the city. and are disdainfully disdainful.) But consolation came to him from an unexpected quarter. 5-6. that Thou mayest forgive them. verily. The disproportion between/ his high claims (which moreover were unintelligible to the . the faithful wife who for twenty-five years had been his counsellor and support. so oft as I cry to- them.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. he expounded his doctrine of the unity or God and of the mission he had received as the Prophet of God to proclaim this faith at the same time he besought their protection against his persecutors in Mecca. a city about sixty miles from Mecca. they thrust their fingers into their ears and wrap them-selves in their garments. verily I have cried tomy people night and day and my cry only makes them flee . among whom the seeds of faith might find a more receptive and fruitful soil. and persist (in their error). In the same year the loss of Khadijah. At the time of the annual pilgrimage he was attracted by a. Scorned and rejected by his own townsmen. and a insult little later the death of Abu Talib deprived constant and most powerful protector him of his and exposed him afresh to and contumely." (Ixxi." They would taunt him " Thine own people and kindred should know with the words " thee best wherefore do they not believe and follow thee ? But at length the privations endured by Muhammad and his-kinsmen enlisted the sympathy of a numerous section of the Quraysh and the ban was withdrawn. from me " And the more. and pitilessly stoning him with stones they drove him from their city. ©n his return from Ta'if the prospects of the success of Muhammad seemed more hopeless than ever. . and the agony of his soul gave itself utterance in the words that he puts intothe mouth of Noah: "O my Lord.

The city of Yathrib had been long occupied by Jews whom some national disaster. may talk •" Yes. arrived at Yathrib and were admitted by alliance to a share in the territory. 16 little THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.d. a party of wandering emigrants." " Then will you not sit down awhile. when strife was between them had ever a Prophet arise and his time is at hand them." they answered. Yathrib. the government of the city passed •entirely into their hands. As their numbers increased they encroached more and more on the power of the Jewish rulers.: . God wrought wonderfully for Islam that there was. and he proclaimed unto them the true God and " Now so it preached Islam and recited to them the Qur'an. were favourable to his cause. Our countrymen have long been engaged in a most bitter and deadly feud with one another ." When now the apostle of God was speaking with these men and preached unto them the true God. and said to him. . who possessed scriptures and wisdom." So they believed in what he preached unto them and embraced Islam." replied they. addressing them. they returned to their is own country. possibly the persecution under Hadrian. as it was then " We are of " said he. Therefore we make known thee. and finally. and with him slay you with the slaughter of 'Ad and of Iram. when about 300 a. ' but now perhaps to the true God will unite thee and thy teaching. people whose antecedents had in some for the reception of his He had now met with a way prepared their minds as afterwards appeared. teaching and whose present circumstances. full of faith. Now the Jews oft times suffered violence at their hands. that I they sat down with you ? " " Assuredly. Then with him. in that were found in their country Jews. '' recognised as group of six or seven persons whom he Of called. towards the end of the fifth century. had driven from their own country. what tribe are you ? "Confederates of the Jews?" the :|aazraj. of whom the Jews have warned us come let us now make haste and be the first to join him. they said one to another "Know surely that this is the Prophet. coming from Medina." them this religion. them together through preach to them and that we have received from will So. the two Arab clans of l^azraj and Aws. or. Such the traditional account of this event which was the turning-point of Muhammad's mission. " Soon will him will we follow. while they themselves were heathen and idolaters. and said to .

haply the Lord will create peace amongst us and we will come back again unto thee. we pray thee." if . Muhammad had proposed to accompany his new converts. enter the city in which he had laboured for ten years with so meagre a result. at the head of 10. whose supremacy over the other tribes and whose worldly prosperity arose from the fact that they were the hereditary guardians of the national collection of idols kept in the sacred enclosure of the Ka'bah. and anything likely to bind the conflicting parties together by a tie of common interest could not but prove a boon city. the Khazrajites. When the time of pilgrimage again came round. These facts go far to explain how eight years after the Hijrah Muhammad could. Some of the Arabs 17 had embraced the Jewish religion. The people of Yathrib were thus familiar with the idea of a Messiah who was to come. and many to their homes. return unto effected with the Banu Aws. But this is anticipating. a deputation c . Just as the mediaeval republics of Northern Italy chose a stranger to hold the chief post in their cities in order to maintain some balance of power between the rival factions. and were consequently more capable of understanding the claim of Muhammad idolatrous to be accepted as the to Meccans whom Prophet of God. . and invited their people to the faith helieved. until a reconciliation could be " Let us. suspense. even though he was likely to usurp or gain permission to assume the vacant to the authority.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET.000 followers. so the Yathribites would not look upon the arrival of a stranger with suspicion. our people. to Yathrib himself. the city of Yathrib was distracted by incessant civil discord through a long-standing feud between the Banu Khazraj and The citizens lived in uncertainty and and the Banu Aws. Further. if possible. so that it contained in Muhammad's time a considerable Jewish population. than were the such an idea was entirely foreign especially distasteful to the Quraysh. so that there remained hardly a family in which mention was not made of the Prophet. Let the season of pilgrimage So they returned in the following year be the appointed time. but they dissuaded him therefrom. and prevent. and many still of the former masters of the city dwelt there in the service of their conquerors. Deadly jealousy at home had extinguished the jealousy of influence from outside. the civil strife which was so ruinous to commerce and the general welfare.

and had lately returned from Abyssinia thus he had had much experience. and with such zeal did they prosecute their mission. This young man had been one of the earliest converts. kill . and so well prepared was the ground. cherishing the seeds of religious and devotion that had already been sown and bringing them Mus'ab took up his abode in the house of As'ad ibn to fruition. that the rapidly from house to house new faith spread and from tribe to tribe. ten Aws. when Sa'd ibn Mu'adh. sometimes here and sometimes in a house belonging to the sons of Zafar. and severe training in the school of persecution had not only sobered his zeal but taught him how to meet persecution and deal with those who were . met him : — ' . These twelve men now returned to Yathrib as missionaries of Islam. our children we will abstain from calumny and slander we will obey the Prophet in everything that is right and will be faithful to him in weal and woe. neither will not worship any but the one God from Yathrib. so called to obey his teaching. ran as follows we will not steal. said to Usayd ibn Hudayr "Drive out this missionary and his companion from our quarter I would spare thee the trouble did not the tie that binds me and the sons of Zurarah prevent my doing him any harm" (for he himself was the cousin of As'ad). engaged in instructing some new converts. and two of the Banu the appointed spot and pledged him their word This. having come to know of their whereabouts. Zurarah. and gathered the converts together for prayer and the reading of the Qur'an. which was situated in a quarter of the town occupied jointly by this family and that of 'Abdu-1 Ashhal. the first pledge of 'Aqabah. according to another account he was sent by the Prophet upon a written requisition from Yathrib. They were accompanied on their return by Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr though. ." will we commit adultery or . The heads of the latter family at that time were Sa'd ibn Mu'adh and Usayd ibn Hudayr. men of the Banu :^azraj. We from the secret spot at which they met. it happened that Mus'ab was sitting together with As'ad in this house of the sons of Zafar. ready to condemn Islam without waiting to learn the true contents accordingly Muhammad could with the greatest of its teaching confidence entrust him with the difficult task of directing and . Hereupon Usayd took his spear and bursting in upon As'ad and Mus'ab : . instructing the zeal new converts. One day .1 THE PREACHING OF at ISLAM.

' They were commissioned Caussin de Perceval." Mus'ab begged him not to condemn the new faith unheard. " leading weak-minded folk you value your lives. say." "Then I swear. so Sa'd agreed to listen and soon the words of Mus'ab touched him and brought conviction to his heart. What thou darest bring into the midst of us doctrines that are opposed to our religion. "After me you have still another man to convince (referring to Sa'd ibn Mu'adh)." replied Sa'd. when the time of the annual pilgrimage again came round." do to enter this religion ? " answered Mus'ab. C 2 . After a time Usayd enraptured. amounting to seventy-three in number. hot with anger against As'ad " Wert thou not my cousin. If he is persuaded. all the descendants of 'Abdu-1 Ashhal embraced Islam." they answered." " Sit down and listen. the poet." Mus'ab answered quietly. 19 you doing ? he cried. " and confess that there is no God but God and that Muhammad is the prophet of God." Usayd at once complied and repeated the profession of faith. begone hence. Vol. accompanied their heathen fellow-countrymen from Yathrib to Mecca. " Sons of 'Abdu-1 Ashhal. " if thou hearest what displeases thee. with the exception of one branch of the Banu Aws. "nevermore to speak to any of the tribe of 'Abdu-1 Ashhal. His apostle. and he embraced the faith and became a Muslim. which held aloof under the influence of Abu you until And Qays. " What must I " Purify thyself with water. He went back to his people burning with zeal and said to them. a band of converts. 3-5. I would make thee repent of thy boldness. adding. while Mus'ab expounded to him the fundamental doctrines of Islam and read several passages of the Qur'an. " tho^i art the wisest and most illustrious among us. his example will bring after him all are If What ? " astray I will send him to you.i With such zeal and earnestness was the preaching of the faith pushed forward that within a year there was not a family among the Arabs of iledina that had not given some of its members to swell the number of the faithful. cried." from that day." Usayd stuck his spear in the ground and sat down to listen.MUHAMMAD THE " PROPHET. iii. we will go away. and soon after came Sa'd ibn Mu'adh himself. With these words he left : you believe in God and Muhammad. to invite Muhammad pp." them. The following year. what am I to you ? " " Thou art our lord.

by recommending his nephew as a scion of one of the noblest families of his clan. the scene of the former meeting with the converts of the year before." So. undertaking such a charge. returned to Mecca on this important occasion. and not first visit will never visit the : ! ! ! 1 hitherto afforded the prophet protection. and cleave steadfastly unto mine own faith. saying: " Ah. Immediately on his arrival he hurried to the prophet. " Then depart from my presence. Testify that there is no God but the Lord and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger." " Art thou then well satisfied with the miserable way thou hast fared in the land of Abyssinia and now again at Yathrib ? " Now he perceived that she was meditating his imprisonment. he went " Then I ween thou art to his mother. one of the Banu Khazraj. " What wilt thou force a man from his religion ? If ye seek to confine me. protesting that they were firm in their ." he replied. Muhammad came accompanied only by his uncle 'Abbas. sent a message to him. and his mission. which had dwelleth.20 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. allegiance to him as their prophet and their come to swear All the early converts who had before met the prophet leader. they should bethink themselves well before teachings . after he had greeted and conferred with Muhammad. hearing of his arrival. *' By the sparkling stars I will never make a fool of myself by entering into thy religion. though he was still an idolater. and had to take refuge in Yathrib from the fury of his enemies. a secret meeting was arranged at 'Aqabah. who. and resolve not to go back from their promise." and she began to weep. " Oh. Mus'ab was moved. my mother I give thee loving counsel." and the true faith of Islam." said. who thus accosted him He answered." But she replied. wilt thou enter a city in which thy mother her ? " " Nay. although rejecting his but now that he wished to take refuge among the people of Yathrib. disobedient son. I wash my hands of thee and thy concerns. " I follow the prophet of the Lord still a renegade." In order not to excite suspicion and incur the hostility of the Quraysh. " I house of any one before the prophet of God. and said. verily. on the two preceding pilgrimages. and exclaimed. I will assuredly His mother slay the first person that layeth hands upon me. 'Abbas opened the solemn conclave. Then Bara ibn Ma'riir. had been admitted into the secret. and Mus'ab their teacher accompanied them. told him of the success that had attended It is said that his mother. if once they undertook the risk.

" Verily. Then Bara ibn Ma'rur. taking his hand. " Yea. .MUHAMMAD THE fully ' PROPHET. . ." So quietly. and being set free by his master had amassed considerable wealth by successful trading) when he was about to emigrate the Meccans said to him. As soon : as the Quraysh gained intelligence of these secret pro- ceedings. "Thou earnest hither in need and penury but thy wealth hath increased with us. by name Suhayb. i: i : : :. and Muhammad advised them to flee out of the city. he said. 21 resolve to protect the Prophet of God. and a home in which ye may find refuge. " Depart unto Yathrib for the Lord hath verily given you brethren in that city. where they were heartily welcomed. besought ' ' '^ ^ ^ - - him to declare what he wished of them. that shall not be " and he . no attention from his faithful followers) until doubt. whom Muhammad called " the first-fruits of Greece " (he had been a Greek slave. Suhayb hath made a delayed his profitable bargain. we will protect thee as we would our own bodies. said. And when that was told unto Muhammad. will ye leave me free to depart ? " And they agreed thereto so. : : : Mecca. their co-religionists in that city vying with one another for the honour of entertaining them. "If I relinquish my property. of withdrawing Muhammad own . We are the sons of battle and men of mail. : him. taking his hand in theirs. to the number of about 150. and through thee revealed unto us His truth." departure (with the intention. not thyself only. and exhorted them to be true to the faith they had professed in the one God and the Prophet. and we swear allegiance to thee as our leader. by twos and threes they escaped to Yathrib.he parted with all his goods. and supplying them with such things as they had need of. but with all thy property." So they all in turn. swore allegiance to . the persecution broke out afresh against the Muslims. until thou hast reached thy present prosperity and now thou art departing. There is a story told of one of these Muslims. Muhammad began by reciting to them some portions of the Our'an. . By the Lord. by Him who sent thee as His Prophet.. His apostle he then asked them to defend him and his companions from all assailants just as they would their own wives and children. which we have inherited as worthy sons of worthy forefathers. Within two months nearly all the Muslims except those who were seized and imprisoned and those who could not escape from captivity had left . cried out.

delay warned him that further means of a stratagem. and he made his escape by His first care after his arrival in Yathrib. When all hopes of amalgamation proved fruitless and it became clear that the Jews would not accept him as their Prophet. 144. to serve both as a place of prayer and of general assembly for his followers. they had 1 The appointment of the fast of Ramadan (Qur'an ii. Muhammad bade his followers turn their faces in prayer towards the holy Ka'bah in Mecca. just as from time immemorial it had been a place of pilgrimage for all the tribes of Arabia. by according them perfect — freedom of worship and political equality. a duty that was to be performed by every Muslim at least once in his lifetime. There are many passages in the Qur'an that appeal to this germ of national feeling and urge the people of Arabia to realise the privilege that had been granted them of a divine revelation in their own language and by the lips of one of theirown country: nien. that thou mayest warn the mother of cities and those around it. the fast on the Day Aconemem ' of Atonement being thus abolished. " Verily We have made (xliii.) ^ This change of direction during prayer has a deeper significance than might at first sight appear. In many other ways. if S. 179-184) is doubtless another sign of the breaking with the Jews. (xlii. who had hitherto met for that The purpose in the dwelling-place of one of their number.22 THE PREACHING OF life ISLAM. the city of the Prophet-^ was to build a mosque. . might be fatal. but they met his advances with scorn and derision. worshippers at first used to turn their faces in the direction of Jerusalem an arrangement most probably adopted with the hope of gaining over the Jews. it an Arabic Qur'an that ye may haply understand. or Medina as it was a determined plot against his called from this period—Madinatu-1 Nabi. Muhammad endeavoured to conciliate the Jews. " 2-3.) " And We had made it a Qur'an in a foreign tongue. (ii. by constant appeals to their own sacred Scriptures. Of similar importance was the incorporation of the ancient Arab custom of pilgrimage to Mecca into the circle of the religious ordinances of Islam.) And thus We have revealed to thee an Arabic Qur'an. It was really the beginning of the National Life of Islam it established the Ka'bah at Mecca as a religious centre for all the Muslim people.

Muhammad sent in the year 628 a. the Merciful. to Hiraql the Qaysar of Rum.e." However absurd received it. 28-9. (xxvi. the Qur'an) is no other than an admonition These letters . tongue. (6 a. O people of the Book.. and that thou mayest warn the contentious thereby." (xix. and will God — Muslims and our religion is Islam. that haply they may fear (God). the governor of Egypt and the king of Abyssinia. (xli. It is this to worship none but God. As there was but one God. invitation to : An — road.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. If you turn away from the offer of Islam. come towards a creed which is fit both for us and for you. who is the servant of God and His apostle. " Of a truth it (i. found a practical illustration in the letters which . Verily I call you to Islam.. and not to call others God.h.) But the message of Islam was not for Arabia only the whole world was to share in it. if ye refuse. the Compassionate. the governor of Yaman. this summons may have seemed ceeding years showed that siasm. After this I say. then on you be the sins of your people. beware. Peace be on whoever has gone on the straight potentates of that time. Embrace • reward you twofold. This claim to be universal.) " Verily from the Lord the of all creatures hath this (book) come 192. 44. free from tortuous (wording). Muhammad. ' 23 Unless its verses be clearly explained (we will not receive " it)'. to those who then suc- it was dictated by no empty enthuonly gave a more open and widespread expression to the claim to the universal acceptance which is repeatedly made for Islam in the Qur'an.d. I9S-) in clear Arabic (i. Therefore. in thine own tongue. and not to associate anything with God. in order that thou mayest announce glad tidings thereby to the God-fearing.) And verily We have set before men in this Our'an eveiy kind : of parable that haply they be *' monished An Arabic Qur'an. 97.) to the great embrace Islam was sent in this year to the Emperor Heraclius. to hold sway over all men and all nations.e. down. . the king of Persia. so there was to be but one religion into which all men were to be invited. (xxxix. The letter to Heraclius is said to have been as follows " In the name of God. We are Islam. surely said. O ye people of the Book. " And We have only made it the Qur an) easy.

43-4-) ^ Schefer Trois Chapitres du Khitay Nameh.) ^ m)— a This claim upon the acceptance of all mankind which the Prophet makes in these passages is further prophetically indicated in the words " first-fruits of Abyssinia. p. 27. — j : .' the morning prayer he spent some time in praising and companions. 108).^ Thus long before any career of conquest was so much as dreamed of. some have denied that Islam was originally intended by its founder to be a universal religion.) is Qur'an." (Ixi. had been conceived but dimly. than to mankmd at " And have not sent thee otherwise and a clear no other than an admonition that against the warn whoever liveth. From first to last the summons was to Arabs and to none other. 9. ye surely know its and after a time shall message. 114. ' Come to me all of • It seems strange that in the face of these passages. etc.) persistently In the hour of his deepest despair. The idea." (xvi. points to the same claim to be a universal religion : " The Apostle of God said to his After suppli- you early in the morning. 69-70. to " He it is announce and to warn." used by Muhammad in the reference to Bilal. The following account of the sending out all of missionaries to preach Islam to nations. " (The Caliphate. spite of much prophetic tradition. . that He may make it victorious over to every other religion.24 THE PREACHING OF to all creatures. by Mahomet himself. and others were forced to flee from the country to escape the rage of their persecutors (xvi. when the people of Mecca turned a deaf ear to the words of their prophet (xvi. when the converts he had made were tortured until they recanted (xvi.) who hath sent His apostle with guidance and the religion of truth. PP. and " first-fruits of Greece. who em. and We large. S at all.) unbelievers sentence may be justly given. the Prophet had clearly shown that Islam was not to be confined to the Arab race. to (xxxvi. (xxxiv. 86. " One day we will raise up witness out of every nation. 43. " ISLAM. The seed of a universal creed had indeed been sown but that it ever germinated was due to circumstance rather than design. Further a tradition which represents the Prophet as declaring China to be within the sphere of his prophetic mission. braced the there is new faith in the first year of the Hijrah. " That the heritage of Islam is the world. and for it the new dispensation was ordained. 31. His world was Arabia. . This (book) (xxxviii. 23. . though the polytheists are averse it." to Suhayb first Persian convert was a Christian slave in Medina. Thus Sir William Muir says. 87-88. was an afterthought.). then was delivered the promise.

' Then each of these messengers came to speak the language of the people to whom he was sent. This is the greatest of the duties that they owe to God with respect to His servants. to him God shuts the gate of Paradise go forth and be not like the messengers of some in : ' : Jesus. through mutual jealousy.e. 40). after the clear tokens had whom the book had reached them. 25 was his wont then he turned to them and sent Be one direction and others in another. Mankind was but one people then God raised up prophets and He sent down to announce glad tidings and to warn with them the Book with the Truth. judgment would surely have been given between them in the matter wherein they disagree. When this was told to the Prophet he said. : (x. the religion of Lord hath guided me into a straight Abraham. but least of the early realisation of the missionary character of Islam.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. with men). significant at . § 10. follow the religion of Abraham. 124. 8. (ii. the son of Mary. 20.' " ^ ' its claim on the was the religion divinely appointed for the whole human race and was now revealed to them anew through Muhammad. And God guided those who believed into the truth concerning which they the disputes of : men had disagreed. as it had been to former generations by And the proof of the universality of Islam. that it might decide : : am no and none disagreed save those to been given. •'Men were of one religion only then they disagreed one with another and had not a decree (of respite) previously gone forth from thy Lord. lay in the fact that it other prophets. " the seal of the prophets " (xxxiii. eating God. for he was not of those who join gods with God.) " And revealed to thee. the sound in is Ibn Sa'd. of all acceptance of men. for whosoever is entrusted with any matter that concerns mankind and is not faithful in his service of them. for they went only to those that lived near and neglected those that dwelt in far countries.) "I " (xlvi. my path ' a true faith. This story may indeed be apocryphal.) Say : As : for me. by His will .' " (xvi. as forth . and God guideth whom He pleaseth into the straight path.) apostle of new doctrines. We ' the sound in faith. 209. and said faithful to God in your dealings with His servants (i.

We can thus understand how Muhammad could establish himself in Medina at the head of a large and increasing body of adherents clan. (vi. uniting only on some extraordinary occasion for common self-defence or some more than usually important warlike expedition. ." (xx. Follow therefore the religion of Abraham. who doth what is good and followeth the (iv. If looked up to him as their head and leader and acknowledged no other authority. the faith of your father Abraham. for with he was not of those who join gods . . 129. without exciting any feeling of insecurity. God. (ii. 89. unanimous resolve of regular Further.26 faith THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. or any fear of encroachment on recognised authority. (iii. In order properly appreciate his position after the Flight. There judicial was an entire absence of any organised administrative or system such as in modern times we connect with the idea of a government. it is important remember the peculiar character of Arab society at that time. there was no the ofSce of chieftain but he was generally chosen as being the oldest member of the richest and his fellow clansmen. transmission of . most powerful family of the qualified as being personally most such a tribe became too numerous. each of which continued to enjoy a separate and independent existence.) " Say in Nay. and to command respect. 162. who was not one of those who joined other gods with God. the sound (is our not one of those who join gods with God : faith and religion). Each tribe or clan formed a separate and absolutely independent body. the reUgion of Abraham. the sound in faith.) faith of Abraham. it would split up into several divisions. such as would have arisen in a city of ancient Greece or any similarly who — . and this independence extended itself also to the individual members of the tribe. far at least as this part of the peninsula was concerned. : named you the Mushms.) to to as But to return to Muhammad in Medina.) " " " Say God speaketh truth. the sound in faith ? He hath elected you.) And who hath a better rehgion than he who resigneth himself to God. 77. each of whom recognised the authority or leadership of his chief only as being the exponent of a public opinion which he himself happened to share but he was quite at liberty to refuse his conformity to the (even) . 124. and hath not laid on you any hardship He hath in religion.

MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. established a bond of brotherhood between the Meccan fugitives and the Medinite converts. pp. suddenly exhibits a political unity and swears allegiance to the will of an absolute ruler. (3). The clan-system was thus for the first time. Muhammad's word religion created a nation. Now only one great idea could have produced this result. Muhammad thus exercised temporal authority over his people just as any other independent chief might have done. it has always remained a political as well as a religious system. with himself at the head as vicar of God upon earth. had never known it was the ^ with their love of plunder and religion of Islam that had after his arrival in brought about this reconciliation. the only difference being that in the case of the Muslims a religious bond took the place of family and blood ties. " It was Muhammad's desire to found a new religion. and when Muhammad died ^yet — — there prevailed over by far the greater part of Arabia a peace of God such as the Arab tribes. the principle of national life in heathen Arabia. " Even before his death almost all Arabia had submitted to him Arabia that had never before obeyed one prince. and in this he succeeded but at the same time he founded a political system of an entirely new and peculiar character. In this bond. he substituted an absolute theocratic monarchy. Out of the numerous tribes. another. and in place of the tribal aristocracy under which the conduct of public affairs was shared in common by the ruling families. The idea of a under one common head bound the different tribes together into one political organism which developed its peculiar characteristics with surprising rapidity. . in theory at least. . organised 27 community. viz. big and small. von Kremer. if not entirely crushed (that would have been impossible) unity. — — . . clan distinctions were obliterated and a common religious life took the place of ties of ' A. 310. At first his only wish was to convert his fellow-countrymen to the belief in the One God Allah but along with this he brought about the overthrow of the old system of government in his native city. Islam thus became what. common made subordinate to the feeling of religious The great work succeeded. 309. revenge. of a hundred different kinds that were incessantly at feud with one ." One of the first cares of Muhammad Medina He was to give practical expression to this political ideal.

but now he appears rather as the unscrupulous bigot. moreover Muhammad had lived in Medina for a very short space of time before the rapid increase in the number of his adherents made so communistic a social system almost impracticable. the number of the Muslims was still small and the corporate life of Islam a novelty. THE PREACHING OF Even ISLAM.d. Ibn Sa'd gives a number of letters written by the Prophet from Medina to chiefs and other members of different Arabian tribes. but it is necessary to determine exactly in what relation they stood to the early missionary life of Islam.28 blood. the warner. the apostle of God to men. and from the altered circumstances of his life there.. inviting them to embrace Islam and in the following pages will be found cases of his having sent missionaries to preach the faith to the unconverted members of their tribes. every biography of Muhammad is largely taken up with the account of a long series of petty encounters and bloody battles between his followers and the Quraysh of Mecca. But it is false to suppose that Muhammad in Medina laid aside his r6le of preacher and missionary of Islam. And. To give any account of these campaigns is beyond the scope of the present work. But after the battle of Badr. the Prophet appears in an entirely new character. were set in case of death. using all means at his disposal of force and statecraft to assert himself and his opinions. ending in his triumphal entry into that city in 630 a. it was artiiicial bond was no longer needed to unite his necessary so long as abolished such an arrangement was only . 633 a. when such an deceased followers. located in a an outbreak of hostilities. He is no longer the preacher. up to the political hostile city. It was only to be expected that the growth of an independent body composed of refugees from Mecca. It has been frequently asserted by European writers that from the date of Muhammad's flight to Medina. as is well known. the claims of relationship property of his aside and the bond-brother inherited all the companion. whom he would persuade of the truth of the religion revealed to him.d. should eventually lead to time of his death. he ceased to invite unbelievers to accept the faith. and of his hostile relations with numerous other tribes. whose very ill-success in some cases is a sitrn of the . or that when he had a large army at his command. in addition to those addressed to potentates living beyond the limits of Arabia.

(De Gids. and afterwards with undisguised contempt. with a small band of devoted companions.) in Medina. It was on his followers twice however that the fury of persecution first spent itself — . to force the acceptii the conquered. had taken refuge in a foreign city a man who for years had striven to persuade his fellow-townsmen to adopt a faith that he : believed to be divinely inspired. For the defensive character of the first military operations Snouck Hurgronje. . " I am only a — that man like you. the first regular engagement in the annals of Islam. see . " It is only revealed to me your God is one God let him then that hopeth to meet his : Lord work a right work" (xviii. 624). under which some succumbed. : Here their position was by no means free from danger was no security of freedom from hostility on the part ' C. their Prophet." he would say. How far for the outbreak of hostilities? he the aggressor or was he the iirst to be attacked ? ^ And "T. Juni 1886. the Muslims fled to Medina. we need to obtaii^ some was ^^^_^s Muhammad himself responsible answer to the following questions. no). — were they compelled to flee for safety across the sea. he had to submit to insults and contumely of every kind a form of treatment which increased in virulence day by day. 464. when hostilities had been begun. pursued even many were put to the then by the hatred of their enemies cruellest tortures. followed by . Here was an exUe who. De Islam.s not such forced conversion the very purpose for which the Muslims first took up arms at all ? ''--* — The main dispute arises in relation to the circumstances which led to the battle of Badr (a. who only by a stratagem succeeded in escaping there of the with his life. Let us try to realise these circumstances. with no personal pretensions other than that of the truth of the doctrines he taught.^ new position. was use made of satisfactory -" o/- attended the Muslim arms. until his persecutors even sought to take his life. In order fully to appreciate his efforts 31 and the absen-with ^. Treated at first with silent scorn. p. as martyrs to the and when at length the cruelty of faith they would not abandon their persecutors became no longer bearable and a city was found to offer them protection. or indeed as many have maintameu . genuinely missionary character of their an appeal to force.d.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET.

In so doing he had not only acted without authority but had violated the sacred truce which Arab custom caused to be observed throughout the month of pilgrimagfls . 2) the Prophet had sent 'Abdu-llah ibn Jahsh and a party of eight men. bloodans^^ho had not hesitated to pursue some Medinite conver' 2^^ maltreat one they succeeded in capturing. His written orders were. purse paid blood-money for a Meccan who had lost his life in the fray. None of these expeditions.h. and returned to Medina with two prisoners and the sack of a caravan. Medina in large . the case clearly show that The ' facts of I. 100).) Accordingly we find mention of several reconnoitring parties that went out in small numbers to watch the movements of the Quraysh. some camels and one of the Quraysh chieftains. cherished a secret hostility agair^. would naturally turn again irif if their arrival brought upon their city an Quraysh and threatened it with disaster s increase of the therefore needful for the Muslims to be a-nistic a social sy jmoi c any hostile incursion on the part of t'' new-comers. with instructions to bring news of the movements of the Quraysh. . But on one occasion (a. "the men and wc •^roo'and children who m not able through their weakness to find the means of escap — j 1 i (iv." (iv. Muhammad command and from his received him coldly with the words. 77. march on and halt at NaJ^lah between Mecca and Ta'if there lie in wait Ibn Jahsh interfor the Quraysh and bring us news of them. i in bloodshed. Kurz ibn Jabir. " O Lord ! bring us forth from this oppressors city whose inhabitants ai champion from Thy presence and give u. in accordance with the old Arab custom." preted his orders in accordance with the impetuous impulses of his own warrior spirit. ^ from Thy presence a defender. to fight in the sacred own month " dismissed the prisoners.^ In the city it the Jews who inhal' ^fiey were not altogether among friends . Muhammad had great In AH. " When you read this letter. (' new Prophet and there were many others among the who though now indifferent. who . . made a raid upon flocks which were feeding in a plain a few miles from Medina. • i. and the hostile parties separated after mutual interchange of abuse and self-laudation. " I gave thee no . they forget their brethren whom thevitgrowth rCompelled to It behind in Mecca. left to the mercy of cruel persecutors cried. give us a .28 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. with one exception^ resulted a . numbers.

. and on the other a large army of nearly 1000 men collected by the Quraysh of Mecca. " 5..was thus forcing the Meccans to iight the battle of tiiords of the Qur'an and this.e u-first tooii^ropean 1 and Asiatic scholars to be to us the Prophet biography of'^es in antagonism as to what line of action is to be lis followers n in view of an impending attack of the Quraysh. and verily a part of the were quite averse to it. new ideal of life drawn proof enough '*-y and the frequent admonitions of the that has led to the Prophet being xvi. in the face not sucmy of Muhammadan historians. Rember how thy Lord caused thee to go forth from thy home ammad —present Medina) in the cause of truth. 7.MUHAMMAD THE hy PROPHET. .. — 1st.) off the uttermost part of the unbelievers. vol. Historians have generally assumed this rumour to have been true. And remember when God promised you that one of the two troops should fall to you. . 93-96. with the ostensible purpose of defending the caravan. 2 i. were on the one hand a richlyladen caravan coming from Syria with an escort of thirty or forty men.) bear witness to the same. E. its probable results. p. etc. ' The words of v. ein Charakterbild. 5-7. The caravan of Abii Sufyan and the army from Mecca. The necessity for the combat and ." The two troops here referred to.e. 31 in checking the impetuosity of his with orn love of fighting and plunder. "^en The contrast is the old and the of his task. under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. 6 . p. and to cut (viii.) (Berlin.liac^ lam on ilxr-. as if they were being led forth to death and saw it before them.. 6. must be — cognised . Arab followers. They disputed with thee about the truth ^ after it had been made clear. His words. 1878). But setting aside the fact that rumours circulated by one party — respecting the intentions of an opposing party are the last kind of statements to be accepted as evidence a consideration of the verses quoted above shows the falsity of such a supposition. i.alise this fact deliberate intention of plundering the caravan of . 13. Goergens : Mohammad. 5 would certainly seem to show that when A Mohammad 3 i'e' (Die Hauptquelle fur die Biographie des Sprenger. xv. which they had been informed it was Muhammad's intention to attack. P. and ye desired that they who had no arms should fall to you but God purposed to prove true the truth of ..e. ist der Koran. oelievers ..

and had not marched out to intercept the caravan. from which Medina owing to the peculiar character of the city. This is enough to show that the report brought into Mecca that Muhammad was preparing to attack the caravan was quite unfounded. as so many historians have maintained. they reveal by pressing on in the direction of Medina.u-fi t^. when on the road they 4th. die bald naher bald wdter ion ^^^"^ it e°n. Garten und Saatfeldern zertreut laZ mThr ein Synoecismus als s!""' «ine Stadt. men that formed the escort of Abu Sufyan's caravan could never have inspired such fear. Muhammad therefore cannot be blamed for advancing to meet them in defence object. Even granting that the receipt of this rumour was the cause of the expedition from Mecca. The ground of these persons' opposition to the orders of was that they felt as if they were being Ted forth to The small handful of death and saw it before them (viii.e j festem Hausern. Had Mecca instead of which. to intercept it on its way from Syria and not south towards Badr. ] the sole purpose of the Quraysh been the protection of the caravan. but the Prophet himself must be exonerated from the charge of precipitating the inevitable collision with the Quraysh. ivp^ 4 j : . Muhammad . The action of some of his followers might well have heard of its safe arrival in . in it from the horrors of a siege. they would have returned. already the dispute arose the Prophet was still in Medina. Muhammad then must have called upon them to face the invading army of the Quraysh. Had it been his intention to attack the caravan. surely he should have gone northwards from Medina. would necessarily suffer 1 very severely. but that they order to deliver of the city that had given shelter to him and his followers. still its large \ numbers show that the defence of the caravan was not their main had designs upon Medina itself. vol. i their real purpose ' given occasion for such a fear. and exactly in the direction that he would need to take in order to repel the attack of the Quraysh who threatened the city of his protectors." (Skizzen und Vorarbeiten.Sier ^^?f •""''"'1? Palmgruppen. which was on the highroad between Mecca and Medina. 2nd.^ If it be further objected that it was inconsistent with his mission ^ See Wellhausen "Medina war ein Komnlpv vnn r'. 3rd. and that some of his followers were unwiUing to follow him in his proposed march to resist the attack of the Quraysh. 6).32 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.

^ But. and show how forcible conversion was in no case the aim that any of them had in view. (In vol.MUHAMMAD THE as a prophet to intermeddle PROPHET. and at the invitation of the chief of this tribe forty Muslims were sent into Najd. is detail the .) 2 This would seem to be acknowledged even by Muir. exactly similar efforts were made to preach the faith of Islam and to convert the unbelieving Arabs after the Hijrah. D . vi. iv. who after the battle of Badr came to Medina with the intention of assassinating the Prophet. part I. vol. • Sayyid Ahmad Khan : Tafslru-I Qur'an. of Tasanif Ahmadryah. as before in the days of Muhammad's political weakness and in the following pages ful . sword in hand.h. so that the Prophet. it of his teaching to say. " My kingdom not of this world. This has already been done with the utmost detail in the work from which the above exposition has been taken and to this work the reader who desires to pursue this subject further. from a peace- preacher into a fanatic.d. iii.) an attempt was made to preach Islam to the Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah. abundant collected. or to punish them for not embracing it. must be 33 re- membered that is it was no part with affairs of war. on the contrary. 1 888. but they were treacherously murdered and two only of the party escaped with their lives. as some would have us believe. was not transformed at once. p. instances of such missionary activity have been In the midst of the wars and campaigns into which the hostile attitude of the Quraysh had now dragged Muhammad and his companions. forcing his religion on whomsoever he could.) (Aligarh. when speakmg of the massacre of the Banu Qurayzab (a.! It is enough here to have shown that Muhammad when he found himself at the head of a band of armed followers. Among whilom persecutor became one of the most distinguished of his disciples." Muir (2). In the fourth year of the Hijrah (625 a. but was won over to the faith." It would be beyond the scope of the present work to follow in campaigns of the Prophet. there was little opportunity for missionary labours except among the inhabitants of Medina itself and those few individual Meccans who voluntarily made their way to the the latter was 'Umayr ibn Wahb. referred. Vol. 282. for as yet he did not profess to force men to join Islam. 6) :— " The ostensible grounds upon which Mahomet proceeded were purely political.

' Then poor ? ' ' on the revelation thou hast brought. belonging to the tribe of the Banu Juhaynah. .' Ask whatever thou wilt. attracted every day members of various tribes. and I was the guardian of its shrine. the wisdom with which he composed their disputes. has Allah sent thee to all men ? ' ' man ' ' ' answered. iii. his ready attention to their grievances. When I heard of the Prophet. vol. 2 Sprenger. Yea. and he thus describes it :— " We had an idol that we worshipped.' rephed the Prophet. to distribute among the Muhammad answered again.' answered the Prophet. hath He commanded thee that thou shouldest take tithes from the rich. particularly those in the vicinity of Medina. made his name to be popular. I adjure thee by the Lord and the Lord of those who were before Muhammad thee. and spread his fame as a great and generous prince throughout the Peninsula. ' tell Yea.' me. vol. *' One day as we were sitting together in the mosque. tell me.34 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. ' by Allah. said the stranger. to swell the ranks of the foUowers of the Prophet and " the courteous treatment which the deputations oi these various clans experienced from the Prophet. I trust thou wilt take no offence at my asking thee some questions.). Yea. I broke it in pieces and set oif to Muhammad in Mecca. 107-8. however. . a Bedouin came riding up on a camel he made it kneel down in the courtyard of the mosque and tied it up.' of Abu-1 MuttaUb ? he asked. by Allah. ' ' He is the Art thou the son with his elbows resting on the cushions. ' Is Muhammad among you ? ' ' We answered. The date of his conversion was prior to the Flight.h. I am. asked.' I adjure thee by Allah." ^ It not unfrequently happened that one member of a tribe would come to the Prophet in Medina and return home as a missionary of Islam to convert his brethren we have the following account by an eye-witness of such a conversion in the year 5 (a. pp.' So he returned to his tribe and converted them to Islam. and am the messenger of my tribe. Then he came near to us and . The successes of the MusHm arms. who dwelt between Medina and the Red Sea. iv. I am pimam ibn Tha'labah. and the politic assignments of territory by which he rewarded an early declaration in favour of Islam. 202-3. by Allah. I adjure thee commanded thee that men should fest ' ' during this month ? Muhammad answered. pp. ' I believe ' Muir (2). Then he said."' Another such missionary was 'Amr ibn Murrah. hath He ' The other continued. by Allah.

and believed on what Muhammad declared to be allowed and forsidden. there were some members of this tribe who had had limmerings of a higher religion than the idolatry prevaihng round them. came out to Medina. and I lave girded up my loins to make my way to you over rough ways md smooth. I the Prophet. lough they knew not who he was and when Muhammad came irward as the apostle of this creator. and argued that the world must have nad a creator. D 2 . and among them some men of .lves to .peated the three last Surahs of the Qur'an.i am the When the viih the truce of Hudaybiyah (a. by name lat . At ufayl. many persons of that city. He then laid on the new convert the task of turning to his own people and of preaching to them Islam. Tufayl met with but little success. and a small and from the tribe of the Banu Daws came from the mountains form the northern boundary of Yaman. But this truce now lade communications with southern Arabia possible. and his efforts were crowned with such iuccess that there was only one man who refused to listen to his to ixhortations. The litherto continual warfare carried on with the people of Mecca had kept the tribes to the south of that city almost entirely utside the influence of the new religion. one of these men. and joined themthe Prophet in Medina. laded except his father. his wife.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. 35 where I accepted Islam and bore witness to the truth. sympathized with him in his search after religious Disheartened at the ill-success of his mission. to embrace the faith of slam. Even before the appearance of luhammad. id before and few persons were perand some of his friends who uth. to join myself to him who in himself and for his incestry is the noblest of men.h. who lad had the opportunity of listening to the teaching of Muhammad n the early days of his mission. and finally won him /er to Islam. 6) made friendly relations people of Mecca possible. he returned said. and " The Banu Daws § are a stiff-necked IbnSa'd. He recited own poems whereupon the Prophet .reat influence. •st. ) came to Mecca to learn Muhammad some of his . who the creator was.' " He was sent by Muhammad to jreach Islam to his tribe. And to this I my verses refer first : ' I bear witness that God is Truth and that abandon the gods of stones. the apostle of the Lord whose :hrone is above the clouds. ll8.

and those Arabs who had held aloof.H. were some of the most bitter persecutors of Muhammad in the earlier days of his mission. quoted by A.36 THE PREACHING OF . and called upon the people to While he was preaching. ISLAM." their allegiance to the after the fall of new religion. ibn Mas'ud. city." But Muhammad prayed. 8. . now hastened to give in Among those who came in " Mecca. " Let Muhammad and his fellow-tribesmen fight it out if he is vicafter . he returned to his native follow his example. pp. which city the Muslims had unsuccessfully attempted to capture. and the surrender of Mecca in a. while Tufayl set fire to the block of wood that had hitherto been venerated as the idol of the tribe. O God. One of his friends now assisted him in his efforts. - Al Bukharl. and returned from his journey shortly after the raising of the siege.h. 25J-6. He had met the Prophet two years before at Hudaybiyah. 7. and in spite of the of Muhammad to dissuade him from so dangerous an undertaking. 315. and by a.i In A. to whom his noble forbearance and forgiveness now gave a place in the brotherhood This same year witnessed the martyrdom of 'Urwah of Islam. preaching the faith. iii. publicly declared that he had renounced idolatry. fifteen more tribes submitted to the Prophet. guide the Banu Daws into the true path. he was mortally wounded by an arrow.H. and now came to Medina to embrace the new faith. vol. and they went let from house to house. and had conceived a profound veneration for him. one of the principal chiefs of the people of Ta'if. the whole tribe abandoned their idolatrous beliefs. 6 they succeeded in converting a great part of the tribe. In the ardour of his zeal he offered to go to Ta'if to convert efforts his fellow-countrymen." and sent Tufayl back again to commence anew his missionary labours. (3) p. people " thy curse fall upon them. He had been absent at that time in Yaman. saying. and Nu'aym ibn 'Abdi Kulal of Himyar Peace be A — — : : ' ' Sprenger. then is he a genuine prophet. torious. more successful missionary effort was made by another follower of the Prophet in Yaman probably a year later of which we have the following graphic account " The apostle of God wrote to Al Harith and Masruh. von Kremer. and united themselves to the Muslims. and died giving thanks to God for having granted him the glory of martyrdom. Two years later. the ascendancy of Islam was assured.

" &c. I found that all the people had decked themselves out for a festival I walked on to see them. there is no partner with Him."i In A. When I arrived. and Jesus is the Son of God. and found people collected in the courtyard of the building. and I am the first to believe. and one knotted like a cane. and created Jesus with his words. The Jews say. Bring the rods out and burn them in the market-place. and said When you reach their then carecity. And when they speak in a foreign tongue. : door. and unto Him we must return. " God is sufficient for me I believe in the Book sent down by Him. and they will receive it. then ask them for their three rods. His . " Translate ' : ' . but wait until the morning fully perform your ablutions." and the Christians say. (Surah 98) to the end of the Surah when you have finished. and did as he had bidden me and they gave heed to my words. I introduced myself to them as the messenger of the Apostle of God. a less successful attempt was made by a new convert. and it fell out as he had said. . " Muhammad has believed. I Ibn Sa'd. " to do as the Apostle of God had bid me. and to keep you safe from harm. . one rod of tamarisk that is spotted white and yellow. before which they gather together to pray. ." tells 'Ayyash. Then take my letter in your right hand. to induce his clan to accept the faith that he himself had embraced after an interview with the Prophet. say. Wathilah ibnu-1 Asqa'. and pray with two prostrations. and came at last to three enormous curtains hung in front of three doorways." And you will be able to meet every objection they bring against you. and I am commanded to do justice among you God is our Lord and your Lord to us belong our works. " The unbelievers among the people of the Book and the polytheists did not waver. " God is one of three. . He sent Moses with his signs. and every glittering book that they recite to you will lose its light." . and one black like ebony. And recite to them. say." He sent the letter by 'A3ryash ibn Abi Rabi'ati-1 Makhzumi. " Ezra is the Son of God.' So I set out. § 56." If they now accept Islam. and ask God to bless you with success and a friendly reception.H. I lifted the curtain and entered the middle it. upon you 37 so long as ye believe on God and His apostle. and say to them. . and to you belong your works there is no strife between us and you God wLU unite us. . go not in by night. and deliver it with your right hand into their right hands. God is one God.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. 9.

" and none were found willing with the exception of his sister. I lived in peace and in safety from my enemies " and the cry must have found an echo far and wide throughout Arabia. Their acceptance of Islam would seem to have been often dictated more by considerations of political expediency.38 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. there is continual mention of the promise of security against their enemies.i vided him with the means of returning to the Prophet at This ininth year of the Hijrah has been called the year of the deputations. 360-1. life that was making all others weak and ineffective. § 91. = See Sprenger.^ Islam was uniting together clans that hitherto had been continually at feud with one another. saying. him off. and as this great confederacy grew. " Woe is me for Muhammad " was the cry of one of the Arab tribes on the news of the death of the Prophet. because of the enormous number of Arab tribes and now sent delegates The introduction submission. to give in their Arab society of a new prin- ciple of social union in the brotherhood of Islam had already weaken the binding force of the old tribal ideal. 1 Ibn Sa'd. it more and more attracted to itself the weaker among the tribes of Arabia. and was more frequently a bargain struck under pressure of violence than the outcome of any enthusiasm or spiritual awakening. society conversion of an individual and his reception into the new was a breach of one of the most fundamental laws of Arab its and frequent occurrence had acted as a powerful solvent and had left it weak in the face of a national and firmly-knit as that of the Muslims had become. not merely as the head of the strongest military force in Arabia. that begun erected the fabric of society on the basis of blood-relationship. made to them by the Prophet on the occasion of their submission. The Arab tribes were thus impelled to give in their submission to the Prophet. vol. " father scornfully cast By God ! I will never speak to believe the a word to you again. In the accounts of the conversion of the Arab tribes. " So long as he was alive. They allowed themselves to be swept into the stream of what on tribal organisation life so enthusiastic ! . cities that into to the Prophet. who prodoctrines he preached Medina. to The life. . iii. but as the exponent of a theory of social In this way. How superficial was the adherence of numbers of the Arab tribes to the faith of Islam may be judged from the widespread apostacy that followed immediately on the death of the Prophet. pp.

) ' cholarly . to give their lives in the effort to preach to their brethren. 1885. particular tendencies. For it must not be forgotten how distinctly Islam was a new movement in heathen Arabia. " Sometimes the individual comes first.i For the introduction of Islam into Arab society did not imply merely the sweeping away of a few barbarous and inhuman practices. much less have recovered the shock given it by the death of the founder. the energy of whose spirit keeps it alive. (Glasgow. but a complete reversal of the pre-existing it ideals of life. so some upon 'Umar as the energising spirit in the early history of and would represent Muhammad merely as the mouthpiece Df a popular movement." 2 Now to St. and how diametrically opposed were the ideals of the two societies. and we miss the of the early converts in the cool. 39 now become fervent zeal a great national movement. and the man that is merely the mouthpiece of the aspirations and feelings of his generation. Auguste Comte has laid down the distinction between the genius that originates a movement. Ignaz Goldziher (Muhammedanische Studien. has frequently been contended that class. and binds them into one whole. i. More often in the case of great movements. But for such men as these. the individual appears many who gives them it a common centre. so vast a movement could not have held together. there is a spontaneous convergence of finally. till. and then gathers to himself the various partial forces that are necessary to achieve social it. fixes his mind on a determinate purpose. 1-om which I have derived the following considerations. calculating atti- tude of those who came in after the fall of Mecca. This has been nowhere more fully and excellently brought out than in the work of Prof. vol. Now this could only have been possible look Islam. 42-3. and ready. pp. Herein we have the most conclusive proof of the essentially missionary character of the teaching of Muhammad. 3n condition that Muhammad had found a state of society pre- pared to receive his teaching and waiting only for the voice that would express in speech the inarticulate yearnings of their hearts. as we have seen. 2 Edward Caird : The Social Philosophy of Comte.MUHAMMAD THE had PROPHET. Muhammad belongs the latter and just as Positivism has tried to put forward Paul in place of Jesus as the founder of Christianity. But even from among these must have come many to swell the ranks of the true believers animated with a genuine zeal for the faith. who thus comes forward as the exponent of a new scheme of faith and practice.

little fitted them to receive the teachings of one who maintained that " The most worthy most" (xlix. But just this spirit of expectancy that — means ready to receive the preaching of a new teacher. which suffered no distinctions between Arab and non-Arab. and the newly-converted Muslim was taught to consider as virtues. was an idea that ran directly counter to the proud clansideration who grounded his claims to personal conon the fame of his ancestors. the fundamental principles in the teaching were a protest against much that the Arabs had hitherto most highly valued. To the heathen Arab. and a Paradise. friendship and hostility were as a loan which he sought to repay with interest. joined with their intense pride of race. and looked down on any who acted otherwise as a weak nitherling. 98) as they desired the forgiveness of God. the equality in Islam of all believers and the common brotherhood of all Muslims. wine. delighted. Again. He is the perfect man who late and early plotteth still ill. qualities which hitherto he had looked down upon with contempt. vast as the heavens and the earth. of sight of 13). . of Muhammad Indeed. This self-sufficiency and this lack of the religious spirit. and one of the hardest parts of his task was to induce in them that pious attitude of mind towards the Creator. was prepared for those who mastered their anger and forgave others (iii. least of title of apostle all one who came with the (to them unintelligible) of God. and he prided himself on returning evil for evil. "Recompense evil with that which is better " (xxiii. God is he that feareth Him could they brook the restrictions that Islam sought to lay upon the license of their lives . between free and slave. The very institution of prayer was jeered at by the Arabs to whom Muhammad first delivered his message. towards Arabs They were by no Muhammad's efforts were at first directed. 22). To do a kindness to his friends and work his foes some To such men the Prophet said. to exist among the faithful. and in the strength of the same carried on the endless blood-feuds in which his soul feeling of the Arab. honour in the No more . they were to pass over and pardon offences (xxiv.40 THE PREACHING OF it is ISLAM. which Islam inculcates equally with Judaism and Christianity. is wanting among the whom those at least of Central Arabia. 128). but which was practically unknown to the heathen Arabs.

it was in the beginning. . so has continued to be up to the present day. from the very beginning. to convert them and persuade them and as it to enter the brotherhood of the faithful.MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET. and the Prophet was stern and severe in his injunctions respecting each of them. as wUl be the object of the following pages to show. and song were among the things most dear to the Arab's heart in the days of the ignorance. Islam bears the stamp of a missionary rehgion that seeks to win the hearts ofmen. 41 women. Thus.

it is of importance to discover what were the circumstances that made such successes possible. but.CHAPTER THE SPREAD III. in spite of the proMuslims in made by certain view of the then disturbed state of Arabia. Khalid. A great historian ^ has well put the problem that meets us here. Medina may become the prey of wild beasts. OF ISLAM AMONG THE WESTERN ASIA." This was the first of that wonderful series of campaigns in which the Arabs overran Syria.' exhibited in a very striking manner that mixture of force and persuasion whereby he and in the following words : " Was it the new strength of a faith now for the ' ) ' Dollinger. that attended the genuine religious enthusiasm. Persia and Northern Africa overturning the ancient kingdom of Persia and despoiling the Roman Empire of some of its fairest provinces. pp. while on the other hand all the greater was the number of those who had been brought into the ranks of the Muhammadans only through pressure from without or by the hope of worldly gain. . that sword of the swords of God. the army he had intended for Abu Bakr. first time blossoming forth in all its purity. but the army must carry out the wishes of Muhammad. It does not fall within the scope of this work to follow the history of " I will not — these different campaigns. that gave the victory in every battle to the arms of the Arabs and in so incredibly short a time founded the greatest empire the world had ever seen ? But evidence is wanting to prove that this was the case. in view of the missionaiy success Arab conquests. He silenced their expostulations with the words: revoke any order given by the Prophet. The number was far too small of those who had given their allegiance to the Prophet and his teaching with a free and heartfelt conviction. CHRISTIAN NATIONS OF After the death testations of Syria was despatched thither by Muhammad. 5-6.

.hat. stony deserts. they that they had been brought into a now at length had learned what was the and dignity of man. . driven on not only by greed and pride of race but also by famine and the pressure of want at home. "What a truth was here. The proud feeling too of a common nationality had much influence a feeling which was more alive among the Arabs of that time than (perhaps) among any other people. in the strength of this." But history gives us several other examples of peoples (e. for the fruitful and luxuriant countries of Persia. which oflFered them only a miserable subsistence. new spiritual world.g. namely. ! . which of in the sanie them succeeded amalgamating and uniting to themselves the subject races they had conquered ? Can a study of the Muhammadan conquests fail to show us how large a measure of their success was due to the marvellous enthusiasm that had its root in their religion and in their religion alone— their confidence in the truth of the new faith and its promises of reward here and in way with the practical realisation of its teaching of There may have been many in all believers ? whom worldly motives obscured these lofty views.' had been in ' Comparing what they now were with what they those times of their ignorance.' felt when they wor- shipped dead idols. maker and ruler of aU that such servants they were whose themselves submitting. when he said that God had seized them by the hearts and by the hair and compelled them to follow the Prophet.ompelling others to No wonder . 43 many of the QuraysH had been converted. . jlory . but still it was the faithful few who set the tone for the society as a whole.o have taken possession of a multitude of souls . innumerable tribes which had litherto done little but mutually bite and devour one another. to be the servant of the one Sod. together the brotherhood of : ' sword of God. As the late Archbishop of Dublin has eloquently said " Not Kaled alone. and which alone determined many thousands to give the preference to their countryman and his religion before foreign teachers. and DfBce it was to proclaim His power submit to His will.THE ARAB CONQUESTS. Still more powerful was the attraction offered by the sure prospect of gaining booty in abundance. the Huns and the Vandals) who poured out from the East to sack and plunder. Syria and Egypt. Yet which of these founded — such a world-empire as that of the Arabs. in fighting for the new religion and of exchanging their bare. but every Moslem warrior felt himself indeed to be the hereafter.

44 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. many Christians belonging to the Bedouin tribes on both sides of the Euphrates came to the Muslim general and said " The tribes that at the Now that Rustam first embraced Islam were wiser than we. worshippers were presently knit together into a nation. 121-2. Muhammad himself had entered into treaty with several Christian tribes. 13) when a disastrous defeat was imminent and the panic-stricken Arabs were hemmed in between the Euphrates and the Persian host. pp. 303. held sway over the desert east of Palestine and southern Syria. 2 * on Mediaeval Church History. of whom it was said that they were " Lords in the days of the that Arab tribes. many of whom voluntarily came forward to assist the Muslims in their military expeditions. 1879. : hath been slain. 14) in which the Persian army under Rustam had been utterly discomfited. we will accept the new belief.. who faith. to assist Muthannah the Muslim general in defending the bridge of boats which could alone afford ' p. vol. .h. now Among these was the tribe of the Banu Ghassan." ' Similarly. after hesitating a little. Mas'ud.) 3 Mui^'g Caliphate. (London. Lectures Id. p. tome iv. sprang forward like another Spurius Lartius to the side of an Arab Horatius. In the battle of the Bridge (a. a Christian chief of the Banu Tayy.h. 238. pp. ignorance and stars in Islam. and the bore some falsehoods into a society which of a thousand discordant ^ sort of similitude to a Church." After the battle of Qadisiyah (a. by Richard Chenevix Trench. p. 139. promising them his protection and guaranteeing them the free exercise of That force their religion old rights and authority. 299. 52. after the conquest of northern Syria. * may was not the determining factor in these conversions be judged from the amicable relations that existed between the Christian and the Muslim Arabs." many the Accordingly it is not surprising to find that tide of this great Christian Bedouins were swept into the rushing of movement and who for centuries had professed abandoned it to embrace the Muslim the Christian religion. ii. and to their clergy undisturbed enjoyment of their ^ A similar bond of friendship united his followers with their fellow-countrymen of the older faith. most of the Bedouin tribes. joined themselves to the followers of the Prophet. * Muir (2) .

. who dwelt within the limits of the Byzantine empire. but they felt it to be humiliating to their pride to pay a tax that was levied in return for protection of life and property. and petitioned the Caliph to be allowed to make the same kind of contribution as the Muslims did. So in lieu of the jizyah they paid a double Sadqah or alms. They threw themselves into the fight on the side of their compatriots and while the conflict was. was one of those that elected to remain Christian. crying as he passed in triumph I am he that hath slain the chief" ^ The tribe to which this young man boasted that he belonged. the means of an orderly retreat. notices of this tribe in the works of Arabic historians have .^ They were called upon to pay the jizyah or tax imposed on the Christian subjects.. : — ' ' The few meagre " Tabarl. rushing into the centre of the Persians. 2482.h. come now. Prima Series. became Musalmans. this youth. Muir's Caliphate. such as the Banu Namir and the. raging most fiercely. of the Musalmans. while other Bedouin tribes of Mesopotamia. 13). pp. slew their leader. and another great victory was added to the glorious roll of MusUm triumphs. One of the most gallant exploits of the day was performed by a youth belonging to another Christian tribe of the desert. who with his companions. " I am of the Banu Taghlib. a company of Bedouin Persians The had come up just as the Arab army was beingdrawn up in battle array. Banu Quda'ah.THE CHRISTIAN ARABS. but that they were not to oppose the conversion of any member of their tribe to Islam nor baptise the children of such as became Muslims. when they showed themselves unwilling to abandon their old faith. to retrieve this disgrace.8 horse-dealers. galloped back amidst the plaudits of the Muslim line. which was a poor tax levied on the fields and cattle. charge ye with me. and leaping on his richly-caparisoned horse. and in the ensuing battle of Buwayb (a. Muthannah rode up to the Christian chief and said : are of one blood with us . The Caliph 'Umar forbade any pressure to be put upon them. • 45 When fresh levies were raised among the reinforcements that came pouring in from every direction was a Christian tribe of the Banu Namir. etc. and fell as I charge." back before their furious onslaught. p. just before the final charge of the Arabs that turned the fortune of battle in their " Ye favour. and ordered that they should be left undisturbed in the practice of it. 90-94.

" You speak truly. The magistrates were also ordered to see that all. are more desirous of death than you are of life. especially on Fridays and in the month of Ramadan. then all that is ours shall be go into another country or stay in your own land. were regular in their attendance at public prayer. when two guides meet him wandering therein the one an Arab and the other not leaves the first and accepts the guidance of the yours. J. the spokesman of the deputation. Accordingly we find that the Caliph 'Umar appointed teachers in every country. tome iv." Unbelief is a Kh. This city by Khalid to induce them to accept the and to the was one of the most illustrious in the annals of Arabia. you would not have opposed us or hated our cause. for weal or woe. " Had you been what you say you are. " Ill-luck to you jizyah. or (2) pay jizyah.") (J.) ' Tabarl. whose duty it was to instruct the people in the teachings of the Qur'an and the observances of their new faith. hero of Islam it seemed that an appeal to mind of the impetuous to enrol themtheir Arab blood would be enough to induce them When the with the followers of the Prophet of Arabia. Arabs. selves Muslim general to besieged citizens sent an embassy to the arrange the terms of the capitulation of their city." we will pay pathless wilderness. 97-9. Verily." Due provision was made for while for the instruction of the new converts." Kh." 'A. " Our pure Arab speech is the proof of what I say. IX^^ s^rie. such as might naturally be feared in the case of ill-instructed fconverts. both in respect of creed and ritual. whole tribes were being converted to the faith with such rapidity. pp. or {3) I have come to you with a people who fight. by God 'A. p. Prima Series. The efforts made people of Hirah had likewise resisted all the Muslim faith. whether you choose to ! ! — 1 — stranger. 438-59. A. and foolish is the Arab who. we are are pure-blooded Arabs. Omiades. 2041. (" Le Chantre des . S. it was necessary to take precautions against errors. Now choose you one of these three things : either (i) accept our faith. "Nay. Khalid asked " Then them. " Nay." while others among us naturalised Kh. whether old or young. The importance attached to this work of instructing the new converts may be judged from the fact that been admirably summarized by P^re Henri Lammens.46 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. replied. " Who are you ? are you Arabs or Persians ? 'Adi.

G. employ the Arabic neighbours language in their religious services. an old woman. p. Arabs of the purest blood. encampment of Christian Arabs at Kerak. the Bedouin dress.' If with their Muslim we turn from the Bedouins to consider the attitude of the settled religion.) W. and that the last of them. populations of the towns and cities towards the new we do not find that the Arab conquest was so rapidly followed cities by conversions to Islam. 206-8. and was buried in the garden of the convent. who differed in no way.^ From the examples given above of the toleration extended first towards the Christian Arabs by the victorious Muslims of the century of the Hijrah and continued by succeeding generations. in the city of 47 Kufah it was no less a personage than the state treasurer who was entrusted with this task. has a population of 1200 souls.) . living in perfect harmony and wearing. von Kremer. so that there is no outward distinction between Christian and Muslim. : ^ Henry Layard Early Adventures in Persia. p. century there still who had not embraced half of whom are Syrian Christians. (2). 256. 564.* Many of the Arabs of the renowned tribe of the Banu Ghassan.^ The vUlage of Quraytayn. Susiana and Babylonia. to the east of the Dead Sea. 1872. to which indeed they stUl in large numbers cling. are a living testimony of this toleration Layard . 1887. still retain the Christian faith. in the desert. died in 1750. and since their submission to the Church of Rome. " * p. pp. A. 100. who embraced Christianity towards the end of the fourth century. (London. Muslim ^ and estimate the influences that led iv. (London. dwelling in the midst of a Muhammadan population. did so of their own choice and free wUl. vol. p. 91. tome Sir i. like them. about two centuries ago. to occasional Mas'udI. Palgrave : Essays on Eastern Questions. The Christians of the great of the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire seem for the most part to have remained faithful to their ancestral creed. from the Muslim Arabs. we may surely infer that those Christian tribes that did embrace Islam. (4). * Burckhardt.^ Burckhardt was told by the monks of Mount Sinai that in the last speaks of having come across an remained several families of Christian Bedouins Islam. either in dress or in manners. In order that we may fuUy appreciate their condition under the rule. twenty-four hours' journey south-west of Palmyra. The Christian Arabs of the present day.THE CHRISTIAN ARABS.

Missing Page .

Missing Page .

men who have retired into works in peace you may eat of the food that the people of the land will bring you in their and you vessels. had been unknown to them for many centuries." and when used of a sword comes to mean. : . They were allowed the free and undisturbed exercise of their religion with some few restrictions imposed for the sake of preventing any friction between the adherents of the rival religions. " to hit with the flat of a sword" here the action is a si-^n of the ° authority that the Muslims would henceforth exercise over them. ' Al Baladhurl.^ Go forward now in the name ^ of God the and may He protect you in battle and pestilence. and for eighty years the adherents of the two rival religions worshipped under the ' Lit.50 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. or arousing any fanaticism by the ostentatious exhibition of religious symbols that were so offensive to Muslim feeling. " Tabarl. These words have often been falsely translated. Abu Bakr " .u. p. making mention thereon of the name of God will come across people with shaven crowns. " Put them to death. The great Cathedral of St. The extent of this toleration seventh century — striking the history —may be judged from the terms granted so in of the to the conquered cities. slay neither flocks nor herds nor camels. touch them only perchance you may come across monasteries. in toleration of religious belief which protection of life and property and were given in return for submission and the payment of a capitation-tax. Caliph : for the .^ In Damascus. old men nor women nor cut down any fruit-bearing tree palm nor burn it with fire. 1850. 73-4. on account of their Monophysite and Nestorian opinions." For provinces of the Byzantine Empire that were rapidly acquired by the prowess of the Muslims found themselves in the enjoyment of a toleration such as. except for food. John was similarly divided. with the flat of the sword. pp. . . tap them a tap with the sword : Uii ui-Jlj -»yii. leave them and their . guidance of the first expedition into Syria Be just break not your plighted faith mutilate none injure not the dateslay neither children. Prima Series." but the word j-ii means originally " to hit so as to make a slight sound. another at the western gate received the submission of the governor of the city the churches were equally — divided between the Christians and the conquerors. which was held to have been partly taken by storm and partly to have capitulated for while one Muslim general made his way into the city by the eastern gate at the — point of the sword.

the merciful. grant to 'Umar. the compassionate : ! which I. as it was the appointed hour of prayer.. 1836. same 51 roof. i. their crosses. listened to the complaints of the Christians against the injustice that had been done them and gave them. For such thoughtfulness history of the Christians ' J. a^ a general rule. but abstained on finding that the terms of the capitulation forbade it. until (about a. as the Muslims suffered great annoyance from the loud chanting of the Christians. or for the generosity of the Caliph Mu'awiyah (661-680). his followers might afterwards claim it as a place of it is hard to find parallels in the later under Muhammadan rule. saying that if he following their religion . 3S4. conditions were drawn up The following are the terms of capitulation. When Jerusalem submitted to the Caliph 'Umar. 'Umar visited the holy places. nor destroyed. their churches. ^ p. nor injured neither their endowments. E 2 . but he thoughtfully refused. the servant of God. who rebuilt the great Church of Edessa at the rntercession of his Christian subjects. and all that appertains to all them in their and their lands and to of their religion. Faithful. impoverished. security for their lives. translated from the 'Arabic by Reynolds. four tribute was In company with for the middle class and three for the poor. from among them nor their dignity . A few years later 'Umar II. 16S-9. nor shall one of them be injured. the behaviour of the Caliphs Muslim worship. and their children. Their churches therein shall not be . The History of the Temple of Jerusalem. those churches of the city and its suburbs that had been confiscated at the time of the assault. 90) the Caliph Walid effected by force what others had sought to gain by fair means. vol.2 But. (London. Several others of the caliphs had sought in vain by offers of large sums of money to achieve the same object. the Commander of the I grant them the people of Jerusalem.) Finlay. pp. The Caliph 'Abdu-1 Malik wished to convert the whole into a mosque. and not a thing of their property neither shall the inhabitants of Jerusalem be exposed to violence in ." 1 A imposed upon them of five dinars for the rich. were to do so.h. the Patriarch. integrity.THE CHRISTIANS UNDER ARAB RULE. the Patriarch bade the Caliph offer his prayers there. their possessions. the following " In the name of God. and it is said while they were in the Church of the Resurrection. in exchange.



towards their Christian subjects has been guided by principles of toleration, and (if we except particular periods of persecution, such as the reign of Al Mutawakkil), the only restrictions imposed -were those found in the so-called Ordinance of 'Umar. This formula is traditionally said to have been the one adopted

by the Christian cities that submitted none of the earliest Muhammadan
William Muir

to the

Muslim army



historians give


doubts its authenticity and considers that it conoppressive terms that are more characteristic of later times tains than of the reign of the tolerant 'Umar. " In the name of God, This is the writing from the the Merciful, the Compassionate


of such

and such a

city to


ibnu-1 E^attab.


asked of you protection for ourselves, our families, our possessions and our co-religionists and we made this stipulation with you, that we will not erect in

you marched against


our city or the suburbs any new monastery, church, cell or hermitage ^ that we will not repair any of such buildings that may fall into ruins, or renew those that may be situated in the Muslim quarters of the town that we will not refuse the Muslims entry into our churches either by night or by day that we will open the gates wide to passengers and travellers that we will receive any Muslim traveller into our houses and give him food and lodging for three nights that we will not harbour any spy in our churches or houses, or conceal any enemy of the Muslims that we will not teach our children the Qur'an ;^ that we will not make a show of the Christian religion nor invite anyone to
; ; ; ; ;

1 €< -^Ye read in later days of the ' Ordinance of Omar,' regulating the condition But it would be a libel on that of Christian communities throughout Islam. tolerant ruler to credit him with the greater part of these observances ; . . the worst Ordinance were not imposed till a later period." disabilities of the intolerant (The Caliphate, p. 146-7.) It does not seem to be mentioned by any authority earlier than the eighth century of the Hijrah. (Steinschneider, pp. 165-187.) ^ Some authorities on Muhammadan law held that this rule did not extend to villages and hamlets, in which the construction of churches was not to be prevented. (Hidayah, vol. ii. p. 219.) ' " The Ulama' are divided in opinion on the question of the teaching ot the Qur'an the sect of Malik forbids it that of Abu Hanifah allows it ; and Shafi'i has two opinions on the subject on the one hand, he countenances the study of it, as indicating a leaning towards Islam ; and on the other hand, he forbids it, because he fears that the unbeliever who studies the Qur'an being still impure may read it solely with the object of turning it to ridicule, since he is the enemy of God and the Prophet who wrote the book now as these two statements are contradictory, Shafi'i has no formally stated opinion on this matter." (Belin, This very want of agreement on the part of these great Imams, or leaders p. 508.) of three of the orthodox sects of Islam, may well make us doubt whether these terms of capitulation can have been drawn up so early as the reign of 'Umar.
. . '
' '







embrace it that we wiU not prevent any of our kinsmen from embracing Islam, if they so desire. That we will honour the Muslims and rise up in our assemblies when they wish to take that we will not imitate them in our dress, either in their seats

the cap, turban, sandals, or parting of the hair



we wiU not

make use

of their expressions of speech,^ nor adopt their sur-




not ride on saddles, or gird on swords, or

take to ourselves arms or wear them, or engrave Arabic inscripthe front of our heads

wine that we will shave keep to our own style of that we wUl wear girdles round our dress, wherever we may be waists that we will not display the cross upon our churches or display our crosses or our sacred books in the streets of the on our rings












Muslims, or in their market-places
beUs ' in our churches lightly










not recite our services

in a loud voice, when a Muslim is present, that we will not carry palm-branches or our images in procession in the streets, that at

the burial of our dead



not chant loudly or carry lighted

candles in the streets of the

Muslims or their market-places that we wiU not take any slaves that have already been in the possession of Muslims, nor spy into their houses and that we will not strike any Muslim. AJl this we promise to observe, on behalf of ourselves and our co-religionists, and receive protection from you in exchange and if we violate any of the conditions of this agreement, then we forfeit your protection and you are at liberty to treat us as enemies and rebels."* To European readers, unaccustomed to the outward distinctions in dress, etc., that Orientals of different creeds naturally and
; ;

spontaneously adopt, these regulations
able infringement of personal liberty.


appear an unwarrantif

the brotherhood of

—what some modern writers are fond of calling the demanded some masonry of Islam, —was to become a
reality, it
' Such as the forms of greeting, etc., that are only to be used by Muslims to one another, 2 Abii Yiisuf (p. 82) says that Christians were to be allowed to go in procession once a year with crosses, but not with banners outside the city, not inside where the mosques were. ' The naqiis, lit. an oblong piece of wood, struck with a rod. * H. A. Incerti auctoris liber de expugnatione Memphidis et Hamaker (Lugduni Batavorum, 1825.) Alexandrise, p. 165-6. Von ICremer (l), vol. i. pp. 102-4. Journal Asiatique. IV""":. serie, tome xviii. pp. 495-9.




to prevent visible expression, and it was necessary refused to enter into the pale of Islam from imitating who the prevailing tendency among the new converts towards the adoption of Arab fashions in dress and speech.^ As to the restric-

outward and

imposed on the public exhibition of religious symbols and observances, these are only such as would be necessary for the preservation of public peace and order, and for avoiding any outbreak

of fanaticism




population, to



thing savouring of idolatry was so especially hateful. Had these regulations always been observed, many a riot involving loss of Christian lives and property would have been prevented but, as

they were put into force with no sort of regularity indeed, some outburst of fanaticism was generally needed for their
a matter of


Enough has been
days of the

said to

show that the Christians
conquest had

in the early


to complain of

way of religious


It is true that

adherence to


ancient faith rendered

them obnoxious

to the


of jizyah

or the capitation-tax, but this was too moderate to constitute

burden, seeing that
service that

them from the compulsory military was incumbent on their Muslim feUow-subjects.


Conversion to Islam was certainly attended by a certain pecuniary
advantage, but his former religion could have had very


on a convert who abandoned
the jizyah


merely to gain exemption from

in certain cases also, instead of the Idiaraj or land-tax,

he was allowed to pay a tithe on the produce, but in other cases the l^araj was exacted even after conversion.* But, instead of jizyah, the convert had now to pay the legal alms, zakat, annually levied on most kinds of movable and immovable property .^



of jizyah fixed

uniform, and the great Muslim doctors,

by the early conquerors were not Abu Hanifah and Malik,

Goldziher, vol.



Von Kremer

(i), vol.

pp. 109, 133. i, pp. 437.8, 177.







soUte die Kopftaxe entfallen ; allein da das Haupteinkommen des Staates eben auf der Grundsteuer und Kopftaxe der Andersgliiubigen beruhte, so verhielt man
dieselben, trotz ihres Uebertrittes diese Taxe unveriindert zu bezahlen. Als endlich der alte Grundsatz, dass kein Moslim Liindereien und andere Immobilien erwerben diirfe, gefallen war, machte man den Unterschied zwischen VollblutArabern und Neubekehrten, dass man diese trotz ihres Uebertrittes zum Islam verhielt, dennoch die Grundsteuer zu bezahlen, theilsweise sogar auch die Kopftaxe, wahrend die Ersteren nur die geringe Einkommensteuer (Zehent) zu ^ ' entrichten hatten. (Id. vol. 11. p. 154.) ' Goldziher, vol. i. pp. S0-S7i 427-430.

are not in


agreement on some of the


important details



following fects taken from the Kitabu-1 Kharaj,

drawn up by Abu

Yusufatthe request of Harunu-r Rashid
taken as generally representative of




under the Caliphate.
the middle classes 24,

The rich were whUe from the


pay 48 dirhams ' a year,
the field-labourers


and artisans, only 12 dirhams were taken. This tax could be paid in kind if desired cattle, merchandise, household effects, even needles were to be accepted in lieu of specie, but not pigs, wine, or dead animals. The tax was to be levied only on able-bodied males, and not on women or children. The poor who were dependent for their livelihood on alms and the aged poor who were incapable of work were also specially excepted, as also the blind, the lame, the incurables and the insane, unless they happened to be men of wealth this same condition applied to priests and monks, who were exempt if dependent on the alms of the rich, but had to pay if they were well-to-do and lived in comfort. The collectors of the jizyah were particularly instructed to show leniency, and refrain from all harsh treatment or the infliction of corporal punishment, in case of non-payment.' This tax was not imposed on the Christians, as some would have

us think, as a penalty for their refusal to accept the



but was paid by



common with

the other dhimmis or non-


subjects of the state

religion precluded

serving in the army, in return for the protection secured for

them from them

by the arms of the Musulmans.
tributed the


sum agreed upon, they expressly mentioned

the people of Hirah conthat they

on condition that " the Muslims and their leader protect us from those who would oppress us, whether they be Muslims or others." * Again, in the treaty made by iQalid with some towns in the neighbourhood of Hirah, he writes, " If we but if we do not, then it is protect you, then jizyah is due to us not due."* How clearly this condition was recognised by the Muhammadans may be judged from the following incident in the reign of the Caliph 'Umar. The Emperor Heraclius had raised an enormous army with which to drive back the invading forces
paid this jizyah


See Sale's note on Surah IX.



and A. von Kremer

(i), vol.



60, 436.
2 *

A dirham is about

five pence. Tabarl, Prima Series, p. 2055.

Abu Yusuf, pp. 69-71. Tabarl, Prima Series, p. 2050.


who had

all their

of the Muslims,

consequence to concentrate

energies on the impending encounter.

The Arab



'Ubaydah, accordingly wrote to the governors of the conquered jizyah that had cities of Syria, ordering them to pay back all the been collected from the cities, and wrote to the people, saying,.


you back the money that we took from you, as we have received news that a strong force is advancing against us. The agreement between us was that we should protect you, and as this is not now in our power, we return you all that we took. But if we are victorious we shall consider ourselves bound to you

We give

by the old terms of our agreement." In accordance with this order, enormous sums were paid back out of the state treasury, and the Christians called down blessings on the heads of the Muslims,' saying, "May God give you rule over us again and make you had it been they, they would not victorious over the Romans have given us back anything, but would have taken all that remained with us." ^ As stated above, the jizyah was levied on the able-bodied males, in lieu of the military service they would have been called upon and it is very noticeable to perform had they been Musalmans that when any Christian people served in the Muslim army, they were exempted from the payment of this tax. Such was the case
; ;

with the tribe of Jarajimah, a Christian tribe in the neighbourhood of Antioch, who made peace with the Muslims, promising to be their allies and fight on their side in battle, on condition that they should not be called upon to pay jizyah and should receive

When the Arab conquests were pushed to the north of Persia in a.h. 22, a similar agreement was made with a frontier tribe, which was exempted from the payment
their proper share of the booty.*

of jizyah in consideration of military service.^

We find similar instances of
of Christians

the remission of jizyah in the case

army or navy under the Turkish For example, the inhabitants of Megaris, a community of Albanian Christians, were exempted from the payment of this tax on condition that they furnished a body of armed men to guard the passes over Mounts Cithaeron and Geranea, which lead to the Isthmus of Corinth. Similarly, the Christian inhabitants of Hydra paid no direct taxes to the Sultan, but furnished instead a conserved in the



= AI Baladhurl, Yusuf, p. Si. p. 159. ' Tabari, Prima Series, p. 2665.

tingent of 250 able-bodied



to the Turkish fleet,

who were

supported out of the local treasury.^


Mirdites, a tribe of

who occupied the mountains to the north of were exempt from taxation on condition of supplying an armed contingent in time of war.^ In the same spirit, in consideration of the services they rendered to the state, the capitation tax was not imposed upon the Greek Christians who looked after the aqueducts that supplied Constantinople with drinking-water.* On the other hand, when the Egyptian peasants, although Muslim in faith, were made exempt from military service, a tax was imposed upon them as on the Christians, in lieu thereof.* Living under this security of life and property and such toleraAlbanian Catholics
tion of religious

thought, the Christian community

the towns


—especially in

a flourishing prosperity in the early days of

the Caliphate.

Christians frequently held high posts at court, e.g.

a Christian Arab,

Al Akhtal, was court

and the father of


of Damascus, counsellor to the Caliph 'Abdu-1 Malik (685-

In the service of the Caliph Al Mu'tasim (833-842) there 70^). were two brothers, Christians, who stood very high in the confidence the one, named Salmoyah, of the Commander of the Faithful

seems to have occupied somewhat the position of a modern

of state,

and no royal documents were



countersigned by him, while his brother, Ibrahim, was entrusted with the care of the privy seal, and was set over the Baytu-1 Mai or Public Treasury, an office that, from the nature of the funds and their disposal, might have been expected to have been put
into the

hands of a Muslim


so great

was the Caliph's personal

Ibrahim, that he visited him in his sickness, and was overwhelmed with grief at his death, and on the day of the funeral ordered the body to be brought to the palace and the
affection for this

Christian rites performed there with great solemnity .^

Nasr ibn

Harun, the prime minister of 'Adudu-d


(949-982), of the

Buwayhid dynasty of Persia, was a Christian, and built many churches and monasteries.^ For a long time, the government

especially in the

department of finance, were




Finlay, vol. vi. p. 30, 33.


3 *

Thomas Smith, p. 324. Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah Kitabu

De De

la Jonquiere, p. 14la Jonquiere, p. 265.

'Uyiinu-1 Anba'i fl Tabaqati-1 Atibba'i.



p. 164.

(Cairo, A. H. 1299.)
viii. p.

Ibnu-1 Athir, vol.




was such the

Christians and Persians

to a


later date

entirely monoin Egypt, where at times the Christians almost Christians polised such posts.' Particularly as physicians, the
in the frequently amassed great wealth and were much honoured the personal physician of the houses of the great. Gabriel, Caliph Harunu-r Rashid, was a Nestorian Christian and derived a yearly income of 800,000 dirhams from his private property, in

addition to an

his attendance

of 280,000 dirhams a year in return for on the caliph the second physician, also a Chrisreceived 22,000 dirhams a year.^ In trade and commerce,



the Christians also attained considerable affluence
frequently their wealth that excited against
cupidity of the mob,





them the



feeling that fanatics took advantage

to persecute and oppress them.

Further, the non-Muslim com-

ment placed

munities enjoyed an almost complete autonomy, for the governin their hands the independent management of their

internal affairs,

and their



exercised judicial

functions in cases that concerned


Their churches and monasteries were in no way interfered with, except in the large cities, where some of them were turned into
mosques, a measure that could hardly be objected to in view of the enormous increase in the Muslim and corresponding decrease in the Christian population. They were even allowed to erect new
churches and monasteries. The very fact that 'Umar II. (717720), at the close of the first century of the Hijrah, should have ordered the destruction of all recently constructed churches, and
that rather

more than a century later, the fanatical Al Mutawakkil (847-861) should have had to repeat the same order, shows how little the prohibition of the building of new churches was put into force.^ have numerous instances recorded, both by Christian and Muhammadan historians, of the building of new


churches e.g. in the reign of 'Abdu-1 Malik (685-705) a church was erected in Edessa and two others at Fustat in Egypt,' and one, dedicated to St. George, at Halwan, a village not far from In 711 a.d. a Jacobite church was built at Antioch by Fustat.?


Von Kremer
Von Kremer

(l), vol.
(i), vol.


p. 167-S. p. 180.1.

" 2 *
* <

Renaudot, pp. 430, 540.


p. 183.


Journal Asiatique. IV™« shie, tome xviii. (1851) pp. 433, 450. Michel le Grand, p. 247. Renaudot, p. 189. Eutychius, torn. ii. p. 369.

order of the Caliph




In the following reign,

!^alidu-l Kasri,

who was governor

of Arabian and Persian 'Iraq

from 724 to 738, built a church for his mother, who was a Christian, to worship in.' In 759 the building of a church at Nisibis was completed, on which the Metropolitan had expended


of 56,000 dinars.*



Sirjah in the ancient

From the same century dates the church Roman fortress in old Cairo.* In

the reign of

Al Mahdi (775-785) a church was erected in Baghdad the use of the Christian prisoners that had been taken captive
numerous campaigns
against the Byzantine Empire.^
city, in

during the

Another church was built in the same

the reign of

Harunu-r Rashid (786-809), by the people of Samalu, who had submitted to the Caliph and received protection from him ^ during the same reign a magnificent church was erected in

Babylon in which were enshrined the bodies of the prophets
Daniel and Ezechiel.'^


Al Ma'mun (813-833) was



he gave permission to two of his chamberlains to erect a church on Al Muqattam, a hill near Cairo and by the same caliph's

wealthy Christian, named Bukam, built several fine churches at Burah.* The Nestorian Patriarch, Timotheus, who died 820 A.D., erected a church at Takrit and a monastery at
leave, a


Abu Sayfayn was

In the tenth century, the beautiful Coptic Church of built in Fustat 1° in the same century the

prime minister, Na§r ibn Harun, of the Buwayhid 'Acludu-d Dawlah (949-982), who ruled over Southern Persia and new church 'Iraq, had many churches and monasteries built.^^ the reign of Az Zahir, the seventh Fatimid was built at Jiddah in Caliph of Egypt (1020-1035)." New churches and monasteries were also built in the reign of the 'Abbasid, Al Mustadi (i 1 70ii8o).i* In 1 187 a church was built at Fustat and dedicated to


Our Lady the Pure


Von Kremer

(l), vol.


p. 175.

' » <

Ibn KhaUikan, A.
J. Butler:



p. 485.

Elias of Nisibis, p. 128.

Ihe Ancient
p. 662.

Coptic Churches of Egypt.







(Oxford, 1884.)
* '


Yaqiit. vol.


Yaqut, vol. ". P- 670.

Chronique de Michel


p. 266.

* '

Eutychius, pp. 430, 432.

Von Kremer

(i;, vol.


p. I75-6-

" Ibnu-1

Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt. Vol. i. p. 76. '^ Renaudot, p. 399. Athir, voL viii. p. 281.


Grand,-p. 333.

" Abu

SSlili, p.


i Alternately petted and persecuted by the Persian kings. it alike representing Nestorius as a friend of doctrines as approximating to their own the . 3 Michel Grand. In the fifth century. . so far from the development of the Christian Church being hampered by the establishment of Muhammadan rule. the history of the Nestorians exhibits a remarkable outburst of religious life and energy from the time of their becoming subject to the Muslims. Barsumas. p. a Nestorian bishop. both of which were raised to the dignity of metropolitan sees in the eighth century about the same period they gained a footing in Egypt. Al Makin. who visited the East about the close of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century. and later spread the Christian faith right across Asia. pp. 12. and by the eleventh century had gained many converts from among the . it had passed a rather precarious existence and had been subjected to harsh treatment.) 2 Machometus mandauit Quod usque hodie le suis posteris.6o THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. at the instigation of his private physician. quod ipsi Nestorini amici fuerunt Machometi et confederati cum eo.' But the principles of Muslim toleration forbade such acts of injustice Dominican monk from Florence. when war between Persia and Byzantium exposed it to the suspicion of sympathising with the Christian enemy. by name Ricoldus de Monte Crucis. But.^ Another persecution was instituted against the orthodox by the Persian King. 236-7. quod Nestorinos maxime condiligenter obseruant ipsi Sarraceni. 128. a Jacobite. et rule right ipse seruarent. and persuaded the King that the orthodox would always be favourably inclined towards the Byzantines. If the other Christian sects failed to exhibit the same vigorous was not the fault oftheMuhammadans. had persuaded the Persian King to set on foot a fierce persecution of the Orthodox Church. Missionaries were sent into China and India. the security they enjoyed at home enabled them to vigorously push forward their missionary enterprises abroad. are said to have been butchered during this persecution. Persians and his as many as 7800 of the Orthodox clergy. with an enormous number of laymen. about I So years later. and furthermore were prevented from persecuting one another. All were tolerated by the supreme government." (Laurent. in whose dominions by far the majority of the members of this sect were found. under the rule of the Caliphs. speaks of the toleration the Nestorians had enjoyed under Muhammadan ' who was A quod up to his time : " Et ego inveni per antiquas historias et autenticas aput Saracenos. Tartars. by life. p. Indeed.

as these


on the contrary, it seems to have been their endeavour to by all their Christian subjects e.g. after the conquest of Egypt, the Jacobites took advantage of the expulsion of the Byzantine authorities, to rob the Orthodox of their churches, but later they were restored by the Muhammadans to their rightful owners when these had made good their claim to possess
deal fairly


In view of the toleration thus extended to their Christian
subjects in the early period of the





hypothesis of the sword as the factor of conversion seems hardly

and we are compelled to seek for other motives than But unfortunately very few details are forthcoming and we are obliged to have recourse to conjecture.^ Many Christian theologians ^ have supposed that the debased condition moral and spiritual of the Eastern Church of that period must have alienated the hearts of many and driven them to seek a healthier spiritual atmosphere in the faith of Islam which had come tQ_themJn_a]l.tbe-JagPur„pf new-born zeal.* For example. Dean Milman ' asks, " What was the state of the Christian world in

that of persecution.

the provinces exposed to the
Sect opposed to sect,


invasion of



clergy wrangling with clergy

upon the

most abstruse and metaphysical points of doctrine. The orthodox, the Nestorians, the Eutychians, the Jacobites were persecuting each other with unexhausted animosity and it is not judging too severely the evils of religious controversy to suppose that many

would rejoice in the degradation of their adversaries under the yoke of the unbeliever, rather than make common cause with


in defence of the




how many must

well remarks: " Wir verdanken dem unermiidlichen Sammelder arabischen Chronisten unsere Kenntniss der politischen und militarischen Geschichte jener Zeiten, welche so genau ist als dies nur immer auf eine Entfernung von zwolf Jahrhunderten der Fall sein kann ; allein gerade die innere Geschichte jener denkwiirdigen Epoche, die Geschichte des Kampfes einer neuen, rohen Religion gegen die alten hochgebildeten, zum Theile iiberbildeten

Renaudot, p. 169.

Von Kremer


p. 1-2.



in ihren allgemeinsten

Umrissen bekannt."

Von Kremer


' Cf. in addition to the passages quoted below, M'Clintoch & Strong's Cyclopsedia, sub art. Mohammedanism, vol. vi. p. 420. James Freeman Clarke : Ten Great Religions. Part ii. p. 75. (London, 1883.) • Thus the Emperor Heraclius is represented by the Muhammadan historian as Tabari, saying, " Their religion is a new religion which gives them new zeal."



2103. History of Latin Christianity.



pp. 216-217.



have shaken the foundations of their faith! It had been wonderful if thousands had not, in their weariness and perplexity, sought refuge from these interminable and implacable controversies in the simple, intelligible truth of the Divine Unity, though purchased by the acknowledgment of Again, Canon Taylor' the prophetic mission of Mohammed." " It is easy to understand why this reformed Judaism says spread so swiftly over Africa and Asia. The African and Syrian
this incessant disputation

doctors had substituted abstruse metaphysical dogmas for

the the

they tried to combat the licentiousness of age by setting forth the celestial merit of celibacy and angelic excellence of virginity seclusion from the world was
religion of Christ


road to holiness, dirt was the characteristic of monkish sanctity—
the people were practically polytheists, worshipping a crowd of martyrs, saints and angels the upper classes were effeminate and

corrupt, the middle

classes oppressed


taxation,^ the slaves

without hope for the present or the future. As with the besom of God, Islam swept away this mass of corruption and superstition.

was a revolt against empty theological polemics





masculine protest against the exaltation of celibacy as a crown of piety. It brought out the fundamental dogmas of religion— the unity and greatness of God, that He is merciful and righteous, that He claims obedience to His will, resignation and faith. It

proclaimed the responsibility of man, a future


a day of judg;

ment, and





upon the wicked


enforced the duties of prayer, almsgiving, fasting and benevolence. It thrust aside the artificial virtues, the religious frauds and foUies,

the perverted moral sentiments, and the verbal subtleties of It replaced monkishness by manliness. theological disputants.

gave hope to the


brotherhood to mankind, and


tion to the fundamental facts of



Islam has moreover been represented as a reaction against that Byzantine ecclesiasticism,^ which looked upon the emperor and


paper read before the Church Congress at Wolverhampton, October



system under the Byzantine Empire, see Gfroret! Byzantinische Geschichten. Vol. ii. pp. 337-9, 389-391, 450. s "Der Islam war ein Rlickstoss gegen den Missbrauch, welchen Justinian mit der Menschheit, besonders aber mit der christlichen Religion trieb, deren oberstes geistliches und weltliches Haupt er zu sein behauptete. Dass der Araber Mahomed, welcher 571 der christlichen Zeitrechnung, sechs" Tahre nach dem Tode Justinian's, das Licht der Welt erblickte, mit seiner Lehre unerhortes

For the oppressive



his court as a copy of the Divine Majesty on high, and the emperor himself as not only the supreme earthly ruler of Christendom, but as High-priest also.^ Under Justinian this system had been hardened into a despotism that pressed like an In 532 the widespread iron weight upon clergy and laity alike. dissatisfaction in Constantinople with both church and state,

burst out into a

revolt against the government of Justinian, which was only suppressed after a massacre of 35,000 persons. The Greens, as the party of the malcontents was termed, had

made open and violent protest
of the

in the circus against the oppression emperor, crying out, " Justice has vanished from the world

no more to be found. But we will become Jews, or rather return again to Grecian paganism." ^ The lapse of a century had removed none of the grounds for the dissatisfaction that here found such violent expression, but the heavy hand of the Byzantine government prevented the renewal of such an outbreak as that of 532 and compelled the malcontents to dissemble, though in 560 some secret heathens were detected in Constantinople and punished.^ On the borders of the empire, however, at a distance from the capital, such malcontents were safer, and the persecuted heretics, and others dissatisfied with the Byzantine state-church, took refuge in the East, and here the Muslim armies would be welcomed by the spiritual children of those who a hundred years before had desired to exchange the











adoption of the Arabic language throughout the empire of the
in the towns and the great centres of and the gradual assimilation in manners and customs that in the course of about two centuries caused the numerous conquered races to be largely merged in the national life of the ruling race, had no doubt a counterpart in the religious and

Caliphate, especially


intellectual life of

many members movement that so

of the protected religions.


powerfully influenced Muslim

theology from the second to the

century of the Hijrah


Gluck machte, verdankte er grossentheils dem Abscheu, welchen die im Umlcreise des byzantinischen Reiches angesessenen Volker, wie die benachbarten Nationen iiber die von dem Basileus begangenen Greuel empfanden." Gfrorer Byzan :

tinische Geschichten.

' '

Vol. ii. p. 437. Id. vol. ii. pp. 296-306, 337. Id. vol. ii. pp. 442-4. Id. vol. ii. p. 445.



very possibly have influenced Christian thinkers, and turned them from a religion, the prevailing tone of whose theology seems at

Muhammadan have been Credo quia impossibile. Hijrah has preserved for us a writer of the fourth century of the conversation with a Coptic Christian which may safely be taken as characteristic of the general mental attitude of the rest of the
this time to


Eastern Churches at this period " My proof for the truth of Christianity is, that I find its teachings contradictory and mutually destructive, for they are repugnant to common-sense and revolting to the reason, on account of their inconsistency and contrariety. No reflection can strengthen

them, no discussion can prove them and however thoughtfully may investigate them, neither the intellect nor the senses can provide us with any argument in support of them. Notwithstanding this, I have seen that many nations and many kings of learning and sound judgment, have given in their allegiance to the Christian faith so I conclude that if these have accepted it



in spite of all the contradictions referred to,



because the

proofs they have received, in the form of signs and miracles, have


to submit to it."


On the other hand it should be remembered that those that passed over from Christianity to Islam, under the influence of the rationalistic tendencies of the age, would find in the Mu'tazUite,
presentment of Muslim theology, very much that was common to the two faiths, so that as far as the articles of belief and the intellectual attitude towards many theological questions were concerned, the transition was not so violent as might be supposed. To say nothing of the numerous fundamental doctrines, that will at once suggest themselves to those even who have only a slight knowledge of the teachings of the Prophet, there were many other common points of view, that were the direct consequences of the close relationships between the Christian and Muhammadan theologians in Damascus under the Umayyad caliphs as also in later times for it has been maintained that there is dear

evidence of the influence of the Byzantine theologians on the development of the systematic treatment of Muhammadan
dogmatics. The very form and arrangement of the oldest rule of faith in the Arabic language suggest a comparison with similar

Mas'udI, vol.


p. 387.

treatises of St.




the ascetic

John of Damascus and other Christian fathers.^ Arab Sufiism, the trend of which was purely towards hfe (as distinguished from the later Sufiism which was

developed under the influence of ideas borrowed from India), originated for the most part under the influence of Christian

Such influence is especially traceable in the doctrines some of the Mu'tazilite sects,' who busied themselves with speculations on the attributes of the divine nature quite in the manner of the Byzantine theologians the Qadariyah or libertarians of Islam probably borrowed their doctrine of the freedom of the will directly from Christianity, while the Murjiyah in their denial of the doctrine of eternal punishment were in thorough agreement with the teaching of the Eastern Church on this

subject as against the generally received





opinion of orthodox hand, the influence of the more

orthodox doctors of Islam in the conversion of unbelievers is attested by the tradition that twenty thousand Christians, Jews

and Magians became Muslims

when the



Ibn Hanbal


celebrated doctor of the

AbQ-l Faraj ibnu-1
of his time, a

Jawzi (a.d.

the most learned


popular preacher and most prolific writer,
that just the
at his

said to

have boasted
faith of Islam

same number of persons accepted the


Further, the vast and unparalleled success of the Muslim arms

shook the faith of the Christian peoples that came under their

and saw in these conquests the hand of


prosperity they associated with the divine favour,

Worldly and the God of

battle (they thought) would surely give the victory only into the hands of his favoured servants. Thus the very success of the

Muhammadans seemed

to argue the truth of their religion.

Islamic ideal of the brotherhood of


was a

powerful attraction towards this creed, and though the
the ruling race to the

Arab pride

of birth strove to refuse for several generations the privileges of

new converts,
at first

stUl as " clients " of the various


tribes to


they used to be affiliated, they received

2 p. 5^ & (3)^ p. 32. (2), p. 8. the Mu'tazilite philosophers, Muhammad ibnu-1 Hudhayl, the teacher of Al Ma'mun, is said to have converted more than three thousand persons to

Von Kremer





Al Murtada, sub voc. Von Kremer (2), pp. 3, 7-8.
Wiistenfeld, p. 103.




Ibn Hiallikan, vol. i. p. 45. Michel le Grand, p. 231.



community, and by the close of the for this ideal its first century of the Hijrah they had vindicated and at least a theoretical recognitrue place in Muslim theology
a recognised position in the tion in the state.

But the condition of the Christians did not always continue to be under the earlier caliphs. In the interests of the true believers, vexatious conditions were sometimes imposed upon the non-Muslim population (or dhimmis as they were called, from the
so tolerable as

compact of protection made with them), with the object of
for the faithful superior social advantages.


Unsuccessful attempts

were made by several caliphs to exclude them from the public offices. Decrees to this effect were passed by Al Mutawakkil (847-861), Al Muqtadir (908-932), and in Egypt by Al Amir (1101-1130), one of the Fatimid caliphs, and by the Mamluk Sultans in the
fourteenth century .^
a sign of the

But the very


that these decrees


cluding the dhimmis from government posts were so often renewed,

want of any continuity or persistency

in putting

such intolerant measures into practice.




be traced either to popular indignation excited by the harsh

fanaticism which forced

and insolent behaviour of Christian officials,' or to outbursts of upon the government acts of oppression that ^vere contrary to the general spirit of Muslim rule and were
consequently allowed to lapse as soon as possible.

The beginning

of a harsher treatment of the native Christian

population dates from the reign of Harunu-r Rashid (786-809) who ordered them to wear a distinctive dress and give up the

government posts they held to Musalmans. The first of these orders shows how little one at least of the ordinances of 'Umar was observed, and these decrees were the outcome, not so much of any purely religious feeling, as of the political circumstances of the time. The Christians under Muhammadan rule have often had to suffer for the bad faith kept by foreign Christian powers in their relations with Muhammadan princes, and on this occasion it was the treachery of the Byzantine Emperor, Nicephorus, that
caused the Christian


to stink in the nostrils of Hariin.*

Goldziher, vol. i. chap. 3 & 4. last of these was prompted by the discovery of an attempt on the part of the Christians to bum the city of Cairo. (De Guignes, vol. iv. p. 204-5.) Journal Asiatique, IV^^ s^rie, tome xviii. (1851), pp. 454, 455, 463, 484, 491. ^ Assemani, tom. iii. pars. 2, p. C. Renaudot, pp. 432, 603, 607. Sir W. Muir The Caliphate, p. 475.




of the persecutions of Christians in
traced either to distrust of their loyalty, excited


and interference of Christian foreigners or to the bad feeling stirred up by the treacherous or brutal behaviour of the latter towards the Musalmans. Religious fanaticism is, however, responsible for many of such persecutions, as in
the reign of the Caliph

Muslim countries can be by the intrigues and the enemies of Islam,

Al MutawakkU (847-861), under whom measures of oppression were taken against the Christians. This prince took advantage of the strong orthodox reaction that had set in in Muhammadan theology against the rationalistic and
freethinking tendencies that

had had free play under former the champion of the extreme orthodox party, to which the mass of the people as contrasted with the higher classes belonged,i and which was eager to exact vengeance for the persecutions it had itself suffered in the two preceding reigns ^ he sought to curry their favour by persecuting

— and

came forward



the Mu'tazUites or rationalistic school of theologians, forbidding
further discussions


on the Qur'an and declaring the doctrine that it was created, to be heretical he had the followers of 'AH imprisoned and beaten, pulled down the tomb of Husayn at Karbala' and forbade pilgrimages to be made to the site. The Christians shared in the sufferings of the other heretics for Al Mutawakkil put rigorously into force the rules that had been passed in former reigns prescribing a distinction in the dress of dhimmis and Muslims, ordered that the Christians should no longer be employed


in the public offices,

doubled the capitation-tax, forbade them to have Muslim slaves or use the same baths as the Muslims, and

them with several other restrictions. One of his sucAl Muqtadir (908-932 a.d.), renewed these regulations, which the lapse of half a century had apparently made to fall into disuse. Indeed such severe measures appear to have been very spasmodic and not to have been put into force with any regularity, as may be judged from the fact that succeeding rulers were called upon to renew them. Further, such oppression was contrary to the tolerant spirit of Islam and the distinct usage and teaching of the Prophet, who had said, " Whoever torments the dhimmis, torments me "^ and the fanatical party tried in vain to

Von Kremer

(3), p. 246.



(i),'pp. 508, 516-17.

Al Makin,

p. II.





enforce the persistent execution of these oppressive measures for the humiliation of the non-Muslim population. "The 'ulama' (i.e. the learned, the clergy) consider this state of things they

weep and groan
of putting

in silence, while the princes

who have

the power


down these criminal abuses only shut their eyes to The rules that a fanatical priesthood may lay down for

the repression of unbelievers cannot always be taken as a criterion
of the practice of civil
fact that


failure to realise this


has rendered possible the highly-coloured pictures of sufferings of the Christians under Muhammadan rule

drawn by writers who have assumed that the prescriptions of certain Muslim theologians represented an invariable practice. Such outbursts of persecution seem in some cases to have been excited by the alleged abuse of their position by those Christians
held high posts in the service of the government they aroused considerable hostility of feeling towards themselves by their oppression of the Muslims, it being said that they took advantage of their high position to plunder and annoy the faithful,


great harshness and rudeness and despoiling and money. Such complaints were laid before the caliphs Al-Mansur (754-775), Al-Mahdi (775-785), Al Ma'mun (813-833), Al Mutawakkil (847-861), Al Muqtadir (908-932), and


them with


of their lands

many of their successors.^ They also incurred the odium of many Muhammadans by acting as the spies of the 'Abbasid dynasty and hunting down the adherents of the displaced Umayyad family.*
a later period, during the time of the Crusades they were accused of treasonable correspondence with the Crusaders* and brought on themselves severe restrictive measures which cannot
justly be described as religious persecution.

In proportion as the lot of the conquered peoples became harder more irresistible was the temptation to free themselves from their miseries, by the words, " There is no God but God and Muhammad is the Prophet of God." When the state
to bear, the

need of money— as was increasingly the case—the subject were more and more burdened with taxes, so that the condition of the non-Muslims was constantly growing more






Journal Asiatique. IV°": serie, tome xix. p. 109. (Paris Belin, pp. 435-440, 442, 448, 456, ' 459-461, 479-480



Id. p. 435, n. 2. * Id. p. 478.

) ' See A.i In the Patriarchate of Antioch there were. (1512-1520). they might have in swept away Christianity as easily as Ferdinand and Isabella drove Islam out of Spain. made Protestantism penal Jews were kept out of England for 350 years. and in the frequent temptation that was offered to the Christian slave by an indulgent master. and conversions to Islam increased in the same Further causes that contributed to the decrease of population may be found in the fact that the children of the numerous Christian captive women who were carried off to the harems of the Muslims. in the East Syrian or Assyrian Church.) have been quite possible hovrever for him to have enforced its execution as it would have been for the ferocious Sallm I.000 . (Maqriri (i). of purBut of chasing his freedom at the price of conversion to Islam. ii.D. 91.THE CHRISTIANS UNDER ARAB RULE. von Kremer (l). v. in the Patriarchate of Palestine. or of any systematic persecution intended to stamp out the Christian religion. who with the design of putting an end to all religious differences in his dominions caused 40.000. proportion. 490-492. or Louis France. pp. as heretical communions.^ that these isolated and scattered communities should have survived so long. 80. exposed as they have been to the ravages of war. throughout which no one would have been found to lift a finger on their behalf. The Eastern Churches in Asia were entirely cut oiF from communion with the rest of Christendom. 400. vol. Besides these.) ^ Athelstan (The Guardian.000 Shi'ahs to be massacred. we hear nothing.000 . to have completed this politic scheme by the extermination of the Christians also. any organised attempt to force the acceptance of Islam on the non-Muslim population. but It would yielded to their entreaties to revoke his orders. had to be brought up in the Christian the religion of their fathers. 29-30.) did in fact order all the Jews and Christians to leave Egypt and emigrate into the Byzantine territory. Riley: Synopsis of Oriental June 27th. in 1888. (Finlay. or the XIV. pestilence and famine.000 Christians . A. in the West Syrian or Jacobite Church. Al Hakim (996-1020. Had the Caliphs chosen to adopt either course of action. 50. pp. . he most certainly acted in accordance with the general policy adopted by Muhammadan rulers towards their Christian subjects. 200. p. So that the very survival of these churches to the present day is a strong proof of the generally tolerant attitude of the Muhammadan governments towards them. 1888. 69 unendurable. there are the Maronite Church of Lebanon and the other Uniat Churches in the East The marvel is that have submitted to the Church of Rome. But in allowing himself to be dissuaded from this design.* living in a country that was for ' The Caliph of Egypt. vol. Churches.

the the monastic ideal of continence so widespread in the East.' have gone over to Islam Some idea of the extent of these early may be formed from the fact that the income from taxation in the reign of 'Umar was firom 100 to 120 million dirhams. the Metropolitan of Ravarshir The sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204 may be taken as a type treatment that the Eastern Christians met with at the hands of the Latins. vol. It is to some such causes as those above enumerated. Vol. Jesujab III. that we must attribute the decay of the Christian populations of the East. pp. may have acted as checks on the growth of the Christian population.p. (i). the Christians appear in very large numbers.70 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. H. rather than to religious persecution on the part of their Muhammadan rulers. Milman. 506-8. and the Christian practice of monogamy together with the sense and their servile condition. Mongols and remembered that they were forbidden Crusaders.! it being further by the Muhammadan law to make good this decay of their numbers by proselytising efforts. it had sunk to forty millions while this fall in the revenue is largely attributable to the devastation caused by wars and insurrections. At the time occupation of their country by the Arabs. together of insecurity with a constant stream of conversions to Islam.267.. still it was chiefly due to the fact that such large numbers of the population had become Muhammadan : and consequently could no longer be called upon to pay the capitation-tax. Faraj complams Abu-1 that the monastery of Harran was sacked and plundered by Count Goscehn lord of Edessa. p. ii. in 1 184. p. while in the reign of 'Abdu-1 Malik. Bury: A History of thelater Roman Empire. as history abundantly shows. addressed to Simeon. * H. if indeed they had cared to do so. or a Turk. as we learn from a letter of a contemporary ecclesiastic. Of the details of conversion of the to first Islam to we have hardly any information. 172. just as though he had been a Saracen (Abu-1 Faraj vol. von. the Jacobite Patriarch. I' J. ii.B. CLond 1S80) r yj A. conversions in 'Iraq for example about SO years later. — Muhammadan conquest. ^ / . no healthy life is It has also been suggested that possible in a Christian church.) ii. without which. °V?^. vol. i. for they seem (with the exception of the Nestorians) even before centuries a continual battlefield. overrun by Turks. Kremer (i). 218. to have lost that missionary spirit.* This same period witnessed the conversion of large numbers of the Christians of Ehurasan.

are the sanctuaries not the coming of Satan or the mandates of the kings of the earth or the orders of governors of Persia it is Kirman and them waste and in ruins but the feeble demon. escaped the devouring flames of infidelity.. on the contrary. ? Where. fools. do honour to our priests and the saints of the Lord. too. like by love for a moiety of their goods. they as ye know well and yet they attack not the Christian faith. and this letter bears such striking testimony to the peaceful character of the spread of the new are faith. alas Out of so many thousands who bore the name of Christians. We possess so very few Christian documents of the first century of the Hijrah. O father Where is that great people of Merv. your people of Merv were willing to barter for a moiety of their goods and : — . from the true path and rushed head- long into the pit of faithlessness —into everlasting destruction. who was not deemed worthy of the honour of demons by those demons who sent him on his errand. they clung to a moiety of the goods of this fleeting world that faith which whole nations have purchased and even to this day do purchase by the shedding of their blood and gain thereby the inheritance of eternal life. nor was endowed by Satan the seducer with the provinces that have laid breath of one contemptible little — power of diabolical deceit. 71 and Primate of Persia. and have utterly been brought to nought. behold. not even one single victim was consecrated unto God by the shedding of his of blood for the true all faith. But forsaking the faith which brings eternal salvation. Why then have your Merv abandoned their faith for the sake of these Arabs ? and that too declare. And the Arabs. who though they beheld neither sword.. as the people of Merv themselves have not compelled them to leave their own religion but suffered them to keep it safe and undefiled if they gave up only a moiety of their goods. Alas. captivated only have turned aside. like brands snatched from the burning. they favour our religion. historians —that and has moreover been it so little noticed by modern " may well be quoted here at length. to whom God .. while two priests only (priests at least in name) have. but. when the Arabs.CONVERSION OF CHRISTIANS. bereft of sons ? Where fire thy sons. but merely time has given the empire of the world. nor or tortures. : benefits people of on churches and monasteries. that he might display it in your land by the nod of his command he has thrown down all the churches of your Persia . and confer at this are among you.

717-720) : was marked with very extensive conversions he organised a zealous missionary movement and oflFered every kind of inducement to the conquered peoples to accept Islam. He abrogated the decree passed in a." 1 ' « Assemani.. " with which the cause of Islam was prosecuted The thoughts of the Agarenes. Tom. Bishop Theodore Abu Qarah. p." him" as if . pp. Gr. and enabling us to form attitude some slight idea of the activity at this period. less. iii. then tell air oi vra(semi>/ance and make them a. vol.. His pupil. were eminently successful in the way the pious-minded caliph desired they should be.72 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. but was compelled to continue to pay it as before. according to which the convert to Islam was not released from the capitation-tax. * Migne: Patr. and the frequent repetition of such phrases particularly as " If the Saracen asks you. and imposed upon them the far lighter burden of a tithe. pp.^ It must not however be supposed that such worldly considerations were the only influences at work in the conversion of the Christians to Islam. 97. and enormous numbers hastened to enrol themselves among the Musalmans.. 440. .d. 700 for the purpose of arresting the impoverishment of the treasury. John of Damascus. Migne: Patr. also wrote several controversial dialogues* with Muhammadans. 1548-61. give us glimpses of the zealous Muslim striving to undermine by his arguments the foundations of the Christian faith. (a. These measures. of the same century. though financially most ruinous. Pars Prima. The controversial works of St. it being no part of this great theologian's purpose to enshrine in his writings an apology for Islam. i. Gr.TpTpezt they were intended to provide the Christians with ready answers to the numerous objections which their Muslim neighbours brought against the Christian creed. .d. 1528-9.1348."i even The reign of the CaHph 'Umar II. . 1336. 96. 130-1. August MUller. in which the disputants range over all the points of dispute between the two faiths.^ That the aggressive of the Muhammadan disputant is most prominently brought forward in these dialogues is only what might be expected. —give thexa an —" If the Saracen says . pp. Tom. Tom. The very dialogue form into which these treatises are thrown. the Muslim as before being the first to take up the cudgels. He no longer exacted the Hjaraj from the Muhammadan owners of landed property.

and held in high esteem by Al Ma'mun himself. in secret plotted against evil. 73 "and 1 all their zeal. 1557. are directed towards the denial of the divinity of effort to this God the Word. * Al Kindl. But just as the Prophet returned good for these persons with courtesy the Caliph resolves to treat and forbearance until God should record of this complaint on the part decide between them.PROSELYTISING EFFORTS. p. 111-113. by attempting to force his own faith upon others when : Id. in terms of affectionate appeal and in language that strikingly illustrates the tolerant attitude of the Muslims towards the Christian church at this period. and takes the form of a letter ^ written by a cousin of the Caliph to a Christian Arab of noble birth and of considerable distinction at the court. 430-1.) ' ^ Hashimi ila 'Abdi-I Masihi-bm Isljaqi-1 ' Appendix For an account of Muslim controversial literature. This letter occupies an almost unique place in the early history of the propagation of Islam. Appendix III. pp. says the bishop.' In the same work we have a report of a speech made by the Caliph at an assembly of his nobles.not abuse his royal power. and compares them to the Hypocrites who while pretending to be friends of the Prophet. in which he speaks in tones of the strongest contempt of those who had become Muhammadans merely out of worldly and selfish motives. In this letter he begs his friend to embrace Islam. such as Transoxania and Farghanah. so his life. . 1-37.5 At the same time he did. see II.* is The of the Caliph interesting as indicating that disinterested and genuine conviction was expected and looked for in the new convert to Islam. Al Ma'mun himself was very zealous in his efforts to spread the faith of Islam. would seem to date from the reign of Al Ma'mun (813-833). and they strain every end. Risalatu •Abdi-llahi-bni Isma'Ili-1 Kindi. The earliest document of a distinctly missionary character which has come down to us. pp." These details from the first two centuries of the Hijrah are meagre in the extreme and rather suggest the existence of proselytising efforts than furnish definite facts. and that the discovery of self-seeking and unworthy motives drew upon him the severest censure. and has on this account been given in full in an appendix. 1885. pp. (London. and sent gracious invitations to unbelievers even in the most distant parts of his dominions. ^ Al Baladhuri.

* much as it would be if brought forward by a ' It is very probable that the occasion of this visit of Yazdanbakht to Baghdad was the summoning of a great assembly of the leaders of all the religious bodies of the period. vol. vol. AI Ma'mun. having abjured Christianity for Islam. the other. before his consecration he was called Mark bar Qiqi." who do not from resenting the force ill-success of his efforts. Theodore. the Caliph furnished him with a bodyguard. the contemporary chronicler of the conversion of the Jacobite Patriarch. p. that he might not be exposed to insult from the fanatical In the early part of the next century. About a hundred years later. . office for who had held this twenty-five years.* the Jacobite Metropolitan of Takrit. had such existed. iii.) : ' Kitabu-1 Fihrist. before his death. named Joshua. vol. in which he was utterly silenced. .!' Nestorian Bishop of Beth Garmai became a Musalman. as there would undoubtedly have been. ' Aba-l Faraj (i). and there is no mention of any force or compulsion by the ecclesiastical historian * who records the fact. makes no mention of such a failing.) " In fact Elias of Nisibis. The Christian chronicler hints at immorality in both cases. and the unbelievers are said to have acknowledged that the Muslims had satisfactorily proved their point. your advice is heard and your words have been listened to but you are one of those religion. taking the name of Abu Muslim. became a Muhammadan in 151 7. " Commander of the faithful. a certain Yazdanbakht. ^ • Aba-I Faraj (l). where prostrate at the door of a church in penitential humility he suffered all who went in or out to tread over his body . Elias of Nisibis. . but is such an accusation uncorroborated by any further evidence open to suspicion.74 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. the Caliph tried to induce him to embrace Islam. 288-290. Two similar cases are recorded in the annals of the Jacobite Patriarchs of Antioch in the sixteenth century: of these one. (Al Murtada sub. Ni'matu-Uah (flor. 847-8. set out for Bagdad and embraced Islam in the presence of the Caliph AI Qadir. when it had come to his ears that the enemies of Islam declared that it owed its success to the sword and not to the power of argument in this meeting. pp. in 1016. 1560). pp. 338. but afterwards recanting fled to Cyprus (at that time in the hands of the Venetians). p. He returned to the Christian faith.^ It would be exceedingly interesting if an Apologia pro Vita Sua had survived to reveal to us the religious development that took place in the mind of either of these converts. All the Jacobite Patriarchs assume the name of Ignatius . the Muslim doctors defended their religion against this imputation. pp. vol. i. came on a visit to Baghdad 1 and held a disputation with the Muslim theologians. 230. saying. sought absolution of Pope Greeory XIII in Rome ts / (Abu-l Faraj (i). the populace. voc. which took place about twenty years later. by Al Ma'mun. men to abandon their So far Ignatius. 153-4. ii. a leader of the Manichsean sect. however. iii. But Yazdanbakht refused.

in the capacity chaplain to Louis VII. . Tome ii. Rainaud and his personal followers abandoned their unfortunate companions and went over to the Turks. 15 (p. 75 Roman Catholic when recording the conversion of a priest of his 3wn communion to the Protestant faith. for example. abody of Germans and Lombards under the command of a certain knight. and she that was brought up in scarlet. It is doubtless owing church that the conversion of two prominent ecclesiastics of two hostile Christian sects has been handed down to us. have been the orthodox Eastern Church and the heretical communions that had sprung out of it. very remarkable incident of a similar character. not merely isolated instances we have the valuable evidence of Jacques de Vitry. C. During this period. In the first Crusade.CONVERSION OF CHRISTIANS. which maintained a precarious existence for nearly two centuries." 1 So far the Christian churches that have been described as coming within the sphere of Muhammadan influence. nay rather Land grievously wounded. she hath sunk down. runs as follows. The history of the ill-fated Second Crusade presents us with a making a sortie. Denis. as by Odo of Deuil. had separated themselves from the main body and were on pretence of besieged in a castle by the Saljuq Sultan. told The story. 15. who. accompanied him on this Crusade and wrote a graphic account of it. (Seconde Partie) p. who thus speaks of the Eastern Church from his experience of it in the Holy " Weakened and lamentably ensnared. But with the close of the eleventh century a fresh element was added to the Christian population of Syria and Palestine. by the lying persuasions of the false prophet and by the allurements of carnal pleasure. a monk of St. While endeavouring to make their way overland through Asia of private Minor to Jerusalem. occasional made from among these foreign immigrants. Arslan . in the large bodies of Crusaders of the Latin rite who settled in the kingdom of Jerusalem and the other states founded by the Crusaders.) De Guignes. the Crusaders sustained a disastrous defeat > ^ Historia Orientalis. among whom they embraced Islam. Bishop of Acre (1216-1225). 45. named conversions to Islam were Rainaud. while that of more obscure indiviBut that these conversions were duals has not been recorded.. hath embraced dung:o their exalted position in the these : — hills.

) Diogilo. who imposed forced labour upon them. though it is : ! certain that contented with the services they performed. on condition that they provided an escort for the pilgrims and took care of the sick until they were strong enough to be sent on after the others. ." p. they went in safety among the infidels who had compassion upon them. the hands of the Turks in the mountain-passes of Phrygia (a.d. disease and the arrows of the enemy carried havoc and destruction through the camp of these unfortunates. pietas omni proditione crudelior Dantes panem fidem toUebant. kindness more cruel than all treachery They gave them bread but robbed them of their faith. more than three thousand joined themselves to the Turks when they retired. So great was the contrast between the kind treatment the pilgrims received from the unbelievers and the cruelty of their fellow-Christians. " Vitantesigitursibicrudelessociosfidei. town of Attalia. survivors would have been utterly hopeless. torn. Patr. Driven to desperation a party of three or four thousand attempted to escape. neminem negare cogebant." ' Odo de O ! . they ^ compelled no one among them to renounce his religion. inter infidelessibi compatientes ibant securi. but were surrounded and cut to pieces by the Turks. 148). Migne. Oh. (De Ludovici vii. who now pressed on The situation of the to the camp to follow up their victory. Lat. contenli servitio. took ship for Antioch while the sick and wounded and the mass of the pilgrims were left behind at the mercy of their treacherous allies. and with difficulty reached the seaport all who could afford to satisfy the exorbitant demands of the Greek merchants. But no sooner had the army left. Itinere. and lavishly distributed it among the needy. They tended the sick and relieved the poor and starving with open-handed liberality. hundred marks from Louis. and. the Greeks. beat them and robbed them of what little they had left. Some even bought up the French money which the Greeks had got out of the pilgrims by force or cunning. than the Greeks informed the Turks of the helpless condition of the pilgrims. that many of them voluntarily embraced the faith of their deliverers. and quietly looked on while famine. 1243. the Greeks. cxcv. who received five Here.76 at 1 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. As the " Avoiding their co-religionists who had old chronicler says been so cruel to them. quamvis certum sit quia. as we heard. et sicut audivimus plusquam tria millia iuvenum sunt illis recedentibus sociati. had not the sight of their misery melted the hearts of the Muhammadans to pity.

during the frequent truces. on the in who took in very this new departure bad part. it is not surprising that have been drawn into the pale of Islam. did not fail to exercise a corresponding One of the most remarkable influence on religious opinions. and they strongly resented the interference with the devotions of their guest part of a newly-arrived Crusader. features of this influence is the tolerant attitude of many of the Knights towards the faith of Islam an attitude of mind When that was most vehemently denounced by the church. Prutz. during a period of truce. the Knights Templar. by their personal intercourse with the Muslims to form a juster estimate of their religion. but they seem to have left no record of their labours.* would be interesting to discover who were the Muslims who winning these converts to Islam. Ibn Munqidh. in certain cases. their bail was not accepted. 187-8. Tome ii. a Syrian Amir of the twelfth century. p. Assises de Jerusalem. 234 Ibn Munqidh Premiere Partie. assigned to adjoining it.CONVERSION OF CRUSADERS. which so strikingly distinguishes the later from the earlier chroniclers of the Crusades. p.It would indeed have been strange if religious questions had not formed a topic of discussion on the many occasions when the Crusaders and the Muslims met together on a friendly footing. who Christian — had occupied the Masjidu-1 Aqs'i.) . especially when it was religion itself that had brought the Crusaders into the Holy Land and set them upon When even Christian theologians were led these constant wars. 18S2. p. » the twelfth many should The renegades in century were in sufficient numbers to be noticed in the statute books of the Crusaders. and contact with new modes of thought was unsettling the minds of men and giving rise the direction of religious freedom to a swarm of heresies. We know. according to which. : J.. the so-called Assises of Jerusalem.) Guizot: Histoire de la Civilisation en Europe. It busied themselves in ' ^ ' * (Paris. Assises de la Cour des Bourgeois. him a small chapel for him to say his prayers in. visited Jerusalem. p. however. on the part of the Crusaders of the virtues of their opponents.^ the numerous imitations of Oriental manners and ways of life by the Franks settled in the Holy Land. 325. 266-7 1 r(Recueil dei historiensjdes Croi?adcs. The increasing intercourse between Christians the growing appreciation 77 and Musalmans.

king of Jerusalem. according to which he was to induce his followers to abandon the Christian faith and go over to the Musalmans but the sudden death of the Count effectually put a stop to the execution of this . who accom- " ' * Bahau-d din.d. being among the prisoners." deserted the king and escaped into the camp of Saladin. pp.!* Two years later. ii. pp. where of their own accord they became Saracens. p. six The heroic life . gave up Christianity for Islam and afterwards married a grand-daughter of Saladin. vol. .12. ii. 307. with a certain English Templar. On the eve of the battle. while others embracing Islam became good Musalmans. p. 316. . these deserters ' is recorded also by the chronicler 25. Roger Hoveden. from famine and disease. on the other hand many elected to throw in their lot with the Musalmans some taking service under their former enemies. drove many of them to desert and seek relief from the cravings of hunger in the Muslim camp. vol. of his knights.. who in 1185 a. vol. Guy. the chief Acre (1189-91. Alban's. for example. 150.78 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. vol. with a devilish spirit. pp.^ At the same time Saladin seems to have had an understanding with Raymund HI.d. that they had at their head the great Saladin himself. who is described by his biographer as setting before his Christian guest the beauties of Islam and urging him to embrace it.^ The conversion of . Count of Tripoli. still remained true to the Christian faith and (we are told) were well pleased with their new masters.). " possessed scheme. Saladin invaded Palestine and utterly defeated the Christian army in the battle of Hittin. p. ii. a. ii. 11. named Robert of St. Roger Hoveden. many made their way back again after some time to the army of the Crusaders. Benedict of Peterborough. Of these deserters. The fearful sufferings that the Christian army was exposed to.* The fall of Jerusalem and the successes Land stirred up Europe to undertake the incident of which was the siege of of Saladin in the Holy third Crusade. 20-21.i and character of Saladin seems to have exercised an especial fascination on the minds of the Christians of his time some even of the Christian knights were so strongly attracted towards him that they abandoned the Christian faith and their own people and joined themselves to the Musalmans such was the case. 322. ' Abu Shamah. Benedict of Peterborough.

who brance. p.) the reign of Richard I. 262. they deserted and to the Turks nor did they hesitate to become renegades : . ' Mas Latrie (l). came to bring a present to the king he had accompanied King John of Jerusalem on his expedition against Damietta in 12 19 and had remained in Egypt. p." written about 1266 of the travelled in the he found at held in Holy Land about 13 So. and had been in the service of a Westphalian knight. born at Provins. he requests the Pope and the legates of France and Sicily to prevent the poor and the aged and those incapable of bearing arms from crossing the sea to Palestine.Joinville. a Frenchman. high honour by the Soldan and other who was Muhammadan ' and Memorials of (London. they purchased eternal death with horrid blasphemies. upon this Crusade " Some of our men (whose fate cannot be told or heard without grievous sorrow) yielding to the severity of the sore famine. 238. while he flees from the death that must inevitably come soon. 72. might prolong their temporal life a little space. in achieving the salvation of the after fled in — body. Id. speaks of three renegades Hebron they had come from the diocese of Minden . : 79 panied Richard I.3 and while this business of paying the ransom was still being carried on. ' (Chronicles Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Richardi. O baleful trafficking O shameful deed beyond all punishment O foolish man likened unto the foolish beasts. p. for such persons either got killed or taken prisoners by the Saracens or turned renegades. Louis by his Muhammadan captors when he was called upon to promise to pay the ransom imposed upon him (a. 1864). vol. For the greater part of the affliction was past. The terms of which was proposed to St. another renegade. . 1250). 131. incurred the damnation of their souls." 1 From the this quently to be time onwards references to renegades are not infremet with in the writings of those who travelled to Holy Land and other countries of the East.^ The danger of the pilgrims to the Holy Land becoming converts to Islam was so clearly recognised at this time that in a " Rememthe oath : by Amaury de la Roche. p.CONVERSION OF CRUSADERS.d. he shuns not the death order that they ! ! unending. married a Muhammadan wife and become a great lord in that country. Edited by William Stubbs. were suggested by certain whilom priests who had become Muslims . the master Knights Templar in France. ii.* Ludolf de Suchem. .

p. 35^ DeWmery and Saneuinetti's . 141. vol. or for us whether his remarks refer to : here owne wykkednesse. and even had such an idea occurred to them they would hardly have ventured to expose themselves to the thunders of ecclesiastical censure by giving open expression to it. of which no record has come down to us : e. outher for povertee. ' ^ 3 Id. or elles for also that the Sultan of sive conversions of Christians to Islam. bear unwilling testimony to the existence of instances of the former and represent the motives of the renegades in the worst light possible.8o princes. The so-styled Sir John Mandevile. p.g.i THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. in whose service he claims to have spent several years. The possibility of any Christian becoming converted to Islam from honest conviction. quoted in the preface of edition of Ibn Batutah. p. " Lionardo Frescobaldi." he says. we have to depend for our knowledge of both of these classes of events on Christian writers. Consequently." He tells us Egypt. . Mandevile. there were said to be about 25. but does not tell members of the Eastern or the Western Church " Also it befallethe sumtyme.^ who represents himself as having travelled in Palestine about the middle of the fourteenth century.000 rene- gades in the city of Cairo towards the close of the fifteenth century. probably never entered into the head of any of these writers. could only suggest that in the absence devile.^ These scattered notices are no doubt significant of more extensymplenesse. tried to persuade him to abandon his own " law and belief" and become a Muslim. who.* and there must have been many also to be found in the cities of the Holy Land after the disappearance of the Latin princedoms of the East. Ludolf de Suchem. p. 71. to turn their attention to religious changes in the lives of obscure individuals far as I and (as have been able to discover^ they as little notice the conversions of Christians to Islam as of those of their own coreligionists to Christianity. xl. while they give us detailed and sympathetic accounts of the latter. makes mention of renegades. " that Cristene men becomen Sarazines. But the Muhammadan historians of this period seem to have been too busily engaged in recording the exploits of princes and the vicissitudes of dynasties. Even Sir John Man- who claimed to have lived nearly half his life in Muhammadan countries and did not allow bigotry to influence his judgment on their faith. i.

and that when Muhammadans resumed their sovereignty over the Holy Land. qui ea ultra mare Yndiam et Ethiopian! nomen Christi confitetur et predicat. balivos suos et exactores in terris illis ponunt. et Sarraceni sive alii. audivl. quod semper in omni loco et regno preterquam in Egypto et Arabia. they must have been fools. before ^they who were final took the step persuaded in their own minds and were not forced thereto. vel aliis quibuscumque. cum impugnantur a Sarracenis. This language is undoubtedly exaggerated and the good monk was certainly rash in assuming that what he observed in the cities of the Crusaders and of the kingdom of Little Armenia held good in other parts four per cent. quod Christiani omnes transmarini natione sunt orientales. subiciuntur eis et tributis pacem et quietem emunt. preter solos Sarracenos et <]uosdam Turcomannos. quia tamen usum armorum non habent multum. But his words may be certainly taken to indicate that during the period of the Crusades there had been no widethe spread conversion to Islam. if From the historical sources quoted above. simpletons . ita quod pro certo assero. Et inde contigit. The monk Burchard." (Burchardi de Monte Sion Descriptio Terras Sanctse. qui licet sint Christiani. sicut per memet ipsum vidi et ab aliis. suffering them to 13resumption "purchase peace and quiet " by the payment of the jizyah. of base motives. The is that the conversions that took place were of individual Christians. we must remember that such was the attitude of mind of the Christian writers who recorded them. qui eis dominantur. pro uno Sarraceno triginta vel amplius invenies Christianos. licet •volunt que non viderunt. quod regnum illud dicitur esse Sarracenorum. quibus notum erat. qui in Cappadocia sedem habent. To estimate these accounts at their true value. Tartaris. they extended the same toleration to the Christians as before. a few years before the Crusaders were driven out of their last strongholds and the Latin the East came utterly to an end. 90. in rei veritate. ubi plurimum habitant Sarraceni et alii Macliometum sequentes. Instances have already been given of Christians who took service ' " Notandum autem asserere.) G . que est subdita dominio Tartarorum. cum tamen in rei veritate sunt omnes Christiani preter ipsos balivos et exactores et aliquos de familia ipsorum. sicut oculis meis vidi in Cilicia et Armenia minori. Verum tamen. the latter Christian (except in — Egypt and Arabia) forming not more than three or whole population. 8r the Christian converts to Islam must have been they were neither rogues nor starving. of the of the East. p.THE CHRISTIAN CONVERTS. we have as little information respecting the proselytising efforts number of these converts as of the made to induce them to change their faith. represents the population as largely outnumbering the Muslims throughout the whole of the Muhammadan world. quod oriens totus quidam contrarium senciant.i writing about power in 1283.

in tome ii.) " Finlay. pp. (London. qui jam Christianis hostes effecti et rebelles dictis Corosminis universaliter adhseserunt. R. the Armenian church has probably given fewer of its members (in proportion to the size of the community) to swell the ranks of Islam.) . p. Of the former it may be said that of all the Eastern churches that Muhammadan rule. also. H.82 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. H. 150. iv. than any other. but also of the persecuting spirit of the Greek Church. Assises de Jerusalem. suscipientes a rusticis redditus et tributa. ' ' Pmtz. viz. enjoyment of their own. in the full under faith. Krause : Die Byzantiner des Mittelalters. (Halle. " those and the Assises of Jerusalem make who have denied God and follow another law "and "all those who have done armed service to the Sarracens and other a distinction between miscreants against the Christians for day. " (Matthei Parisiensis Chronica Majora. 1244). occupantes eandem. et inter se quasi propriam dividentes. ed. Luard. Muhammadan masters. iii. 1244. whom Sultan Ayyub had called in to assist him in driving out the Crusaders :—" Per totam terram usque ad partes Nazareth et The prelates of the Holy Land wrote Saphet libere nuUo resistente discurrunt. 146-7. the Turks were often invited take possession of the smaller towns in the interior of Asia Minor the empire by the inhabitants. as follows. not only on account of its oppressive system of taxation. and for ever into the hands of the Muslims to the Christian population of Palestine seems to have welcomed the new masters and have submitted quietly and contentedly to their rule. 1869. vol.) p. 325. dominions. vol. about the same time to welcome the advent of the Saljuq Turks as their deliverers from the hated Byzantine government.d. that they might escape from the tyranny of and both rich and poor often emigrated into Turkish . 1872-83. 343. 276.* Some account still remains to be given of two other Christian churches of Western Asia. p. per villas et cazalia Christianorum legatos et bajolos praeficiunt. concerning the invasion of the Klswarizmians. (1261-1282). In the reign to of Michael VIII. which had with such cruelty crushed the heresies of the Paulicians and the Iconoclasts. quse Christianis prostate solebant." 1 more than a year and a The native Muhammadans fell finally Christians certainly preferred the rule of the to that of the Crusaders.^ led This same sense of security of religious life under Muslim rule many of the Christians of Asia Minor. So have come under ' Recueil des historiens des Croisades.^ and when Jerusalem (a. p. the Armenian and the Georgian. 358-9. (J.

" The Georgian Church (founded in the early part of the fourth century) was an offshoot from the Greek Church.ARMENIA AND GEORGIA. but this too disappeared in the fourteenth century. in spite 83 of the interest that attaches to the story of the struggle overwhelming odds and of the fidelity through centuries it does not of warfare and oppression. their religion and the national church served as Though a the rallying point of their eager. Tavemier impose upon them either their It is this circumstance— that a (i). " There may be some few the loss of their independence. A band of fugitives founded the kingdom of Lesser Armenia. more striking contrast the normally The fierce independent spirit of not brook a foreign rule has often the Georgians that could exasperated well-nigh to madness the fury of their Muhammadan unsettled state of the country. yet the bulk of the As Tavernier^ race has remained true to its ancient faith. p. 174- G 2 . with which she has always remained in communion. that embrace Mahometanism for worldly interest. rather unsympathetically remarks. certain number no doubt embraced Islam. Turks and Mongols. Arabs. although from the middle of Georgian the sixth century the Patriarch or Katholikos of the Church declared himself independent. and most firm to their superstitious principles. but they are generally the most obstinate persons in the world. The national life of the Armenian people still survived in spite of was the case in Greece under the Turks. but in the eleventh century was overthrown by the Saljuq Turks. the history of this heroic warrior people is one of almost uninter- rupted warfare against foreign foes and of fiercely contested feuds between native chiefs : the reigns of one or two powerful monarchs who serving only to bring out in secured for their subjects brief intervals of peace. The Armenian kingdom survived the shock of the Arab conquest. and. neighbours. and in the ninth century rose to be a state of some importance and flourished during the decay of the Caliphate of Bagdad. Persians. persecution and exile come within the scope of the present volume to do more than briefly indicate its connection with the history of the Muhamof this brave nation against with which it has clung to the Christian faith — — tnadans. Torn asunder by internal discords and exposed to the successive attacks of Greeks. as Armenians. undying patriotism. civil when they ' failed to authority or their religion.

the "5.84 change of THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Kabardes and T^-M°^!''^"r' . and though for a brief period the rule of Alexander I. by plundering the property of the Church and appropriating to their own use the revenues of churches and monasteries.* later date. while the annals of the Greek church during the same period have no such honoured roll to show. leaving ruined churches and monasteries and pyramids of human heads to mark the progress of their destroying hosts.P. in the hope (it decline in the tianity — — — : -was said) of thereby supplanting his elder brother. Djikhethes. some added to the sufferings of the clergy. After the fall of Constantinople and the increase of Turkish power in Asia Minor. 3 Id. Both Turks and Persians sought to secure the allegiance of these troublesome subjects by means of conversion to Islam.^ In 1400 the invasion of Timur added a crowning horror to the sufferings of Georgia. 4 David Chytrsus. ever ready to break out into open revolt at the slightest opportunity.PJCisthethes fell away from the Christian faith about this time "" ^^. the conquests of the Turks brought districts in At a rather of the some the very centre of Georgia into their power. p. the inhabitants of Akhaltsikh^ and other districts to the west of it became Muhammadans. faith impUed loss of political independence—which explains in a great measure the fact that the Georgian church inscribes the names of so many martyrs in her calendar. after his death it was again broken up into a number of petty princedoms.^ In 1579 two Georgian princes—' brothers came on an embassy to Constantinople with a large retinue of about two hundred persons here the younger brother together with his attendants became a Musalman. from which the Turks and the Persians wrested the last shreds of independence.AH the Ap'hkhazes. 143. owing to the armies of the numbers and learning of the clergy that Chrisbegan to lose ground. (1414-1442) delivered the country from the foreign yoke and drove out all the Muhammadans. 49. and thus hastened the decay of the Christian faith. Ossetes. p.^ Even among those who still remained Christian. ."7. But the Muhammadans always found Georgia to be a turbulent and rebellious possession. and consequently the spiritual wants of the people had remained long unprovided for. It was not until after Georgia had been overrun by the tating devas- Mongols.

* The rest of Georgia had submitted to Persia.GEORGIA. p. 160-161. its rulers and people were recognised the suzerainty of Turkey allowed to continue undisturbed in the Christian faith. but whei the clergy of Samtzkh^ refused allegiance to the Katholikos of Karthli. 1842. son of king Alexander II. * ' Joselian. of Kakheth. and the churches and monasteries falling into decay were replaced by mosques. he found it divided into two kingdoms.^ One of the first of such princes was the Tsarevitch Constantine. 157. at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 124. 149. 123. Id. Description geographique de la Georgie par le Tsarevitch Wakhoucht. had also been brought up in Persia and he and his successors to the end of the century were all the church. p. p. ' Joselian.) ^ The Six Voyages. even before their conversion. II=. pp. Muhammadans. Partie. and when Tavernier visited this part of the country. 79. Brosset. but from 1625 the ruling dynasty became Muhammadan and gradually all the chiefs and the aristocracy followed their example. (St. Petersburg. pp. 123.* From this period there seems to have been a widespread apostacy. the Tsarevitch Rustam (1634-1658).' Tavernier describes the Georgians as being very ignorant in matters of religion and the clergy as unlettered and vicious . p. which were provinces of the Persian empire. there ceased to be regular provision for made supplying the spiritual needs of the people : the nobles. 126. some of the heads of the church actually sold the Christian boys and girls as slaves to the Turks and Persians. pp.) about twelve thousand. and were governed by native Georgian princes who had to turn Muhammadan before being advanced to this dignity . 227-235. hold upon the peasants Chris'^ianity retained its much longer. who had been brought up at the Persian court and had there embraced Islam. p. * Muhammadans at . Tavernier (I). had taken to plundering the estates of and after becoming Musalmans they naturally ceased to assist it with their offerings. He estimates the number of (Id. about the middle of the seventeenth century.* The first Muhammadan king of Karthli. inhabitants of 85 which embraced the creed of the conquerors.^ : From this period Samtzkhd. especially among the higher classes and those who sought to win the favour ' 1" livraison. the most western portion of Georgia.

Wakhtang V.) Garnett. In Daghistan a certain Darwesh Mansur endeavoured to unite the different tribes of the Caucasus to oppose the Russians preaching the faith of Islam he succeeded in converting the princes and nobles of Ubichistan and Daghistan. 7. the king of Georgia placed his people under the protection of the Russian Hitherto their intense patriotic feeling had helped to keep the Christian faith alive among them so long as their foreign invaders had been Musalmans. who have remained faithful to Islam ever since many of the Circassians. p. and in 1800 Georgia was formally incorporated in the Russian empire. ix. 194. it is said that his younger brother. in bf the Persian court. and drove him out of the kingdom. 85. if the crown were bestowed upon him. and preferred exile to submitting to the Russian rule. were converted by his preaching. it at the price of apostacy." Towards the close of the eighteenth century. 451. ofTered to abandon Christianity and embrace Islam. 181.86 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. too. A..i Karthli.' But in 1791 he was taken prisoner. Brosset jeune. Partie. pp. tome de la G^orgie avec la par M. (J. p. Muhammadan (1832).. although he was the Patriarch of Georgia. . but though invested by the Persians with the royal power. lie. . ' Brosset. sur les relations diplomatiques recueillis France vers la 2""= Serie. was a Christian 1703 the occupant of the throne of for the first seven years : of his reign he was a prisoner in Ispahan. I« * Documens originaux fin livraison. same feeling operated in some of the districts north of the Caucasus to the advantage of Islam. where great efForts were made to induce him to become a Muhammadan when he declared that he preferred to lose his throne rather than purchase . 197. the Georgians refused to accept him as their ruler. Christian. but now that the foreign power that sought to rob them of their independence was crown. In 1864 more than half a million Circassians migrated into Turkish territory. pp. ' du regne de Louis XIV. Mackenzie. this .

. On payment of the tribute. life the To these Copts. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHRISTIAN NATIONS OF AFRICA. The Jacobites. but also and chiefly on account of the bitterness of theological rancour.) ^ Renaudot. who hated the Byzantine rule not only for its oppressive administration. 'Amr left them in undisturbed possession of their ecclesiastical churches and guaranteed to matters. Justinian is said to have had 200.* called. (London.CHAPTER IV. 1678. he that had been so grievous a burden under the previous rule laid his hands on none of the property of the churches and com' Amelineau. had been very roughly handled by the orthodox adherents of the court and subjected to indignities that have not been forgotten by their children even to the present — — day. p. Three years later the withdrawal of the Byzantine troops abandoned the vast Christian population into the hands of the Muslim invaded Egypt under the conquerors. as the Jacobite Christians of Egypt are Muhammadan conquest brought a freedom of religious such as they had not enjoyed for a century. 11. p. 161.i Some were persecutors. and the persecutions of his successors drove many to take (Wansleben : The Present State of Egypt. many real followed their Patriarch into exile to escape from the hands of their while a large number disguised their opinions under a pretended acceptance of the Council of Chalcedon.d. thus delivering them autonomy in all them from the continual interference . tortured and then thrown into the sea .000 Copts put to death in the city of Alexandria.) refuge in the desert. The rapid success of the Arab invaders was largely due to the welcome they received from the native Christians. p. 3. JsLAM was first introduced into Africa by the Arab army that command of 'Amr ibnu-1 'Ass in 640 a. who formed the majority of the Christian population.

they had embraced it. c'est-a-dire de Mahomet . 584. days of the mitted no act of spoliation or pillage. 4th ed. Prior to that period. p. saying. the revenue derived from Egypt amounted to twelve millions a few years later. Alexandria. vol. " I should be glad if all the Christians became Muslims." and a few years later the set was followed by many others.) ' ^ : John of Nikiu.88 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. "Or beaucoup des %yptiens. ' " Sans aucun doute il y eut dans la multiplicite des martyrs une sorte de resistance nationale centre les gouverneurs Strangers. the condition have been fairly tolerable. et accepterent la detestable doctrine de ce monstre. reni^rent la sainte religion orthodoxe et le bapteme qui donne la vie.* In the 'Uthman (643-655 a. 560. 585. 153. But the exactions and hardships that. p.' and there is no evidence of their widespread apostacy to Islam being due to persecution or unjust pressure on the part of their new rulers. posed that in future the converts should not be exempted from the payment of the capitation-tax. hardly allow us to extend this period " Von Aegypten weiss man durch die bestimmtesten so far as Von Ranke does Zeugnisse." ' Dozy (2).^ the assurance that a paradise of delights was opened to the martyr who died under the hands of his tormentors. (717-720) it fell still lower. Jacobite bishop of Nikiu (second half of seventh century). but the sufferings of the martyrs in the persecution of Diocletian. p. the Copts had to endure about seventy years after the conquest." Am^lineau. so that the governor of Egypt pro- example these had reign of ." (Weltgeschichte. many of them went over to Islam. . while the capital. all these things stirred up an enthusiasm that resulted in an — John.). tome i. 58. les ennemis de Dieu. p. p. * Id. it had fallen to five millions owing to the enormous number of conversions under 'Umar II.^ In the early of the Copts seems to Muhammadan rule then. a very small section ! of the population of the valley of the Nile was Christian. p.d. the stories of by the sense the miracles they performed. dass sich die Einwohner in den nachsten Jahrhunderten unter der arabischen Herrschaft in einem ertraglichen Zustand befunden haben. ils partagerent I'egarement de ces idol^tres et prirent les armes centre les Chretiens. v. the national feeling excited of their opposition to the dictates of the foreign government. in the reign of Mu'awiyah (661-679). still held out. according to MaqrizI. in the beginning of the fourth century. Even before the conquest was complete. qui etaient de faux Chretiens. 225. for God sent His Prophet to be an apostle to men and Christians of In fact many of the not a collector of taxes " ^ Egypt seem to have abandoned Christianity as lightly and as rapidly as. ' . embrasserent la religion des Musulmans. but this the pious caliph refused to allow.

that Christ our Lord to Whom be glory the canon-law. and in the absence of any separate ecclesiastical organisation in wfiich it separate sect. intelligible truth of the Unity of God and the mission of His Prophet. the Messiah. He announced with his impure mouth. without any preaching. clothed as he was in the monastic habit. than to the inability of such a Christianity basis for the existence of the Jacobites The theological had so long and at so great were embodied in doctrines of the most abstruse and metaphysical character. " learned in the doctrines of the Christian and the duties of the monastic life. to a faith that was summed up in the simple. or instruction being given. and skilled in the But Satan caught him in one of his nets for he began to hold opinions at variance with those taught by the Three Hundred and Eighteen (of Nicaea) and he corrupted the minds of many of those who had no knowledge or instruction in the orthodox faith. was at least closely allied thereto. When ' he was questioned as to his religion and Amelineau. as the other countries of the East were. Even within the Coptic church itself at a later period^we_Jind evidence of a movement which.CONVERSION OF THE COPTS. could the early days of the have been intelligible to a very few. He associated with the lowest among the followers of his religion. Egypt embraced Christianity in a fit of wild enthusiasm. 89 " Instead of being converted by preaching. in his wicked discourses. monk named religion rules of Anthony (near Itfih on the Nile). a Balutus. probably contributed to the increase of the converts to Islam." 1 of eternal happiness on who confessed In the seventh century Christianity had probably very on a great mass of the people of Egypt. to stir them feelings hatred and opposition to the Byzantine government. Muhammad. the tenets that they a cost struggled to maintain. p. if not distinctly Muslim. and many doubtless turned in utter perplexity and weariness from the interminable controversies that raged around them. little hold The up theological catchin words that their leaders of made use of. might find-expression. In the beginning of the twelfth century. . incredibly rapid spread of the Christian faith. . and the rapid spread of Islam in Arab occupation was probably due less to definite efforts to attract to retain. 57-S. all who bestowed a Him. with hardly any knowledge of the new religion life beyond the name of Jesus. as a . — — was like one of the prophets. there was in the monastery of St.

was when Menas. is a very sad one. 32057 pieces of gold. 35. and his memory was cut off for ever. Palestine and Spain at the same period finds themselves. 69-70. in the face of the more human morality of Islam. there are yearly conversions of the those Copts to the Muslim faith. they have come to be considered faith of Islam Prophet as much more inclined to the than any other Christian sect. and many abandoned the religion of their fathers in order to escape from burdensome taxes and unendurable indignities. 168) says 585. the Christian prefect of Lower Egypt. as lacking the peculiar circumstances of loss to the monastery or of recantation that made such instances of interest to him (pp.90 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. extorted from the city of Alexandria. ° Still.* and even in when Egypt is said to be the most tolerant of all Muhammadan countries. Renaudot (p. 142). ' ' Abu Abu Salih. Luttke(i). 546. and though they have had to endure the most severe oppression and persecution on many occasions. and these are probably representative of a larger number of whom the historian has left no record. Lane. The vast difference in this respect between their condition and that of the Christians of Syria. vol. pp.d. 30. 163-4. 549. Salih gives an account of some monks that embraced the faith of the rrophet. about seventy years after the Muhammadan conquest. p. One of the very first occasions on which they had to complain of excessive taxation. the Copts suffered as much at its hands as at the hands of * ' the Muhammadans themselves. and the story of the sufferings of the fellow Jacobite church of Egypt.' little On account of the large numbers of Copts that from time to time have become Muhammadans. . 128. Unity of God." ^ Further. 53-4. expression in asceticism of the grossest type^ could offer attraction. pp.) that after the restoration of the Orthodox hierarchy. 1123) then he died. i. (John of Nikiu. instead of 2adoo which 'Amrhad fixed as the amount to be levied. Christians " — persecuted alike by their and by the followers of the dominant faith. its explanation in the turbulent character of the Copts Their long struggle against the civil and theological 2 Amelineau. pp. he professed himself a believer in the . pp. His doctrines prevailed during a period which ended in the year 839 of the Righteous Martyrs (a. who have changed their religion voluntarily. a theory of the Christian life that found its highest his creed. yet the Copts that have been thus driven to abandon their faith are said to have been few in comparison with by the followers of the the present day. persecution and oppression have undoubtedly played a very large part in the reduction of the numbers of the Copts.

189. series of risings taxation — and insurrections. pp. 212. 91 despotism of Byzantium seems to have welded the zealots into a national party that could as little brook the foreign rule of the The rising of the Copts masters in 646.) ' Renaudot. and caused — —was welcome they had before the first of a long Egypt to be harder to bear than that of any other Christian sect in this or other countries under Muhammadan rule. Maqrizi (2).CONVERSION OF THE COPTS. and for nearly a century under the successors of force of ^ Maqrlzi mentions five other risings of the Copts that had to be crushed by arms. that of the Greeks. * Renaudot. against their new Byzantine troops (who however treated the unfortunate Copts as enemies. pp. when they drove the Arabs for a time out of Alexandria and opened the gates of the city to the Arabs as. under the rule of many of whom the Christians enjoyed the utmost tranquillity. 540. rose to positions of great affluence They filled and importance in the state. (Paris 1881.1042). p.^ offices. publie par Charles Schefer. But the history of these events belongs rather to a history of the lot of the Jacobite Christians of Muhammadan persecution and intolerance It than to the scope of the present work. .^ To such a period of the peace of the church belongs an incident that led to the absorption of many Christians into the body of deration the faithful. the condition of the Christians was very happy under the auspices of this tolerant ruler the taxes that had been imposed upon them were lightened and several swept away altogether . 430. During the reign of Salahu-d din (Saladin) (11 69-1 1 93) over Egypt.* The annals of their church furnish us with many instances of ecclesiastics who were held in high favour and consi- by the reigning princes of the country. 155-6. they crowded into the public offices as secretaries. 432. 225. Relation du Voyage de Nassiri Khosrau. pp. . Sefer Nameh. 374. 76-82. the posts of secretaries and scribes in the government taxes. 314. accountants and registrars ' . not having yet forgotten the given to the Muhammadan invaders). Id. 603. pp. must not however be supposed that the condition of the Copts was invariably that of a persecuted sect on the contrary there were times when they . 540. ' Id.^" excited frequently by excessive which exposed them to terrible reprisals. 374. 607.^ farmed the and in some cases amassed enormous wealth. before. pp. within the first century of the Arab domination. pendant les annees de I'Hegire 437-444 (1035.

* To this bald statement of the historian of the Coptic church. and had Saladin. and even ten thousand gold pieces that were offered in order to induce him to secure the election of one of the influence. and consequently all the Copts on the island either accepted Islam or the Council of Chalcedon. they enjoyed the nothing to complain of except the corruption and degeneracy of Simony had become terribly rife among them their own clergy. The consequence was that and moral training of the people was utterly neglected and there was a lamentable decay of the Christian life. but all to no purpose. who enjoyed the protection of the Byzantine emperors. that they all became Musalmans. Macarius alone there were only four priests left as compared with over eighty under the last Patriarch. episcopal sees fell vacant and there was no one to take the place in the of the bishops and priests that died in this interval monastery of St.) Wansleben.a successor was to be elected. when. circumstances) of the decay of the Coptic Church. in spite of the spiritual worthy and fit persons. who pushed less for the claims of for kept up a fierce and irreconcilable dispute nearly twenty years. 388. : . if only they would put aside their disputes and come to Meanwhile many some agreement. refused the enormous bribes of three. and all this time cared the grievous scandal and the harmful consequences of their shameless quarrels than for the maintenance of their dogged and obstinately factious spirit. and even offered to was customary for a newly-elected Patriarch to pay. postulants for the sacred office their being the priesthood was sold to ignorant and vicious persons. five. 31. (Id.9a THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 2 ' pp. we unfortunately have no information to add. while who were unable to pay the sums demanded for ordination. same toleration and favour. p. 574-5. Wansleben mentions another instance (under different 30. which was formerly under the jurisdiction of the Coptic Patriarch here they were so persecuted by the Orthodox clergy. the seventy-fourth Patriarch of the Jacobites. of the positive efforts made by the Musalmans to bring these Christians over to their faith. on the death of John. On more than one occasion the reigning sultan tried to make peace between the contending parties. That such there were. were repulsed with scorn. ' Renaudot. Id.i So corrupt had the church become that. 571. 567. in the island of Cypras. p. candidates by the pressure of official remit the fee that it — . that the Patriarch could not induce priests to go there. the contending parties rival candidates. in I2i6. p. and their churches were all shut up.^ So utterly neglected were the Christians of the western dioceses.

575. were freed from the restrictions that forbade them to ride on horses or mules. . whom he by their help * Id. Relation du voyage du Sayd ou de la Thebayde fait en 1668. (Thevenot. had full and complete freedom of public were allowed to restore their churches and even to build new ones. ten monkeys and one giraffe. In the reign of Al Mu'tasim (833-842). and retained their independence when Egypt was conquered by the Arabs a treaty was made according to which the Nubians were to send every year three hundred black slaves. there can 93 that the be very little doubt. oil and raiment. Grand.® In 1275 the nephew of the then king of Nubia obtained from the Sultan of Egypt a body of troops to assist him in his revolt against his uncle.^ these conversions were not due to persecution. we know from Christians held public disputations direct historical evidence that during this vacancy of the patriar- chate.) Chronique de Michel le • Idrlsj. 32. Capuchins Missionaires. while the Arabs were to furnish them with corn. p. century they were still all Christian. as do the Abyssinians to the present day. ' yol. 377. while the monks were exempted from the payment of tribute and granted certain privileges. ^ Renaudot.CONVERSION OF THE NUBIANS. p. 272-3. * ii. and some of them had not gone to confession or communion for fifty years. A similar neglect lost to Christianity the Nubian church which recognised the primacy of the Jacobite Patriarch of Alexandria. pp. it is difficult to say (a parallel case of neglect) is mentioned by two Capuchin missionaries who travelled up the Nile to Luxor in the seventeenth century. where they found that the Copts of Luxor had no priest.* and retained their old independence in spite of the frequent expeditions sent against them from Egypt. 2^' partie. p. and were tried in law-courts of their own. 131.^ Under such circumdecay of their numbers can readily be understood. p. p. especially as we know and engaged in written conThat troversies on the respective merits of the rival creeds. among the Copts. The Nubians had been converted to Christianity about the middle of the sixth century. par les PP.^ How far this incident is a typical case of conversion to Islam . the Christians worship. Protais et Charles-Fran9ois d'Orleans. tome i.* In the twelfth stances the . and the king of Nubia visited the capital where he was received with great magnificence and dismissed with costly presents. 3. * Maqrizi (2). ambassadors were sent by the Caliph renewing this treaty.

p. p. .) the repeated expeditions of the Muslims so late as the had not succeeded in pushing their conquests south of the first cataract. 100. though the king of their chief Nasir ibn Qalaun. one of the Dongola. still the story shows that there was such a thing as conversion to Islam Ibn Salim says that he once in Nubia in the fifteenth century. When asked about his religion. (Fire and Sword in he Sudan. Though the convert referred to is neither a Christian nor a Nubian. 1896.^ while Christianity seems to have extended as far up the Nile as Sennaar. and is mentioned on the monuments. though a slave.) ° Ibn Salimu-1 Aswani. succeeded in deposing in return for this assistance he had to cede the two northernmost provinces of Nubia to the Sultan. a. But it is probable that the progress of Islam in the country was all this time being promoted by the Muhammadan merchants and others that frequented it. who called it after his own name. but paid tribute to Bahnesa. Maqrizi (writing in the early part of the fifteenth century) quotes one of those missionary anecdotes which occur so rarely in the works of Arabic authors it is told by Ibn SaIimu-1 Aswani. In the latter half of the fourteenth century Ibn Batutah * tells us still Christians. 85. (This however is impossible. quoted by Maqrizi Kitabu-l Khitat. ' Vol. inasmuch as Dongola was in existence in ancient Egyptian times. who told him that he came from a city that lay three months' journey from the Nile. and is of interest as giving us a living picture of the Muslim propagandist at work. an annual tribute of this one dinar for each male was imposed upon them. this Dangal.h. Burckhardt (l). iv. the Coptic bishop of the entire district lying between the present Sarras and Debba. Dangal. p. p. 494. "My Creator and thy Creator is God the Creator of the universe and of all men is One. pp. he replied.) According to their tradition. 1340 A.) (London. 128-130. and His dwelling-place is in heaven.i But inde- Muhammadan overlordship was temporary only. p. and the Nubians of the ceded provinces soon re-asserted their pendence. 13. ' Maqrizi.94 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. vol. 396. i. or when pestilence attacked them or fifteenth century .* had embraced Islam in the reign of Nasir (probably Mamluk Sultans of Egypt.) ' . rose to be ruler of Nubia. near which was their last fortified place. . Slatin Pasha records a tradition current among the Danagia Arabs that this town was founded by their ancestor. '' ^ : (Cairo 1270. who died . ii.^ that the Nubians were city. See Vivien de SaintMartin." When there was a dearth of rain. met a man at the court of the Nubian chief of Muqurrah. vol.D. and as the inhabitants elected to retain their Christian faith.

and as they had lost touch with the Christian that churches beyond their borders. but this the king refused to do without the permission of the Patriarch of Alexandria. who from 1520-1527. also. Lord Stanley of Alderley in his translation of Alvarez' Narrative from the " he said to them original Portuguese. "The truth must indeed have been with them. Jews nor Muhammadans.CONVERSION OF THE NUBIANS. gives the answer of the king as follows that he had his Abima from the country of the Moors. but still " ignorance. . his tain 95 fellow-countrymen would climb up a high mounand there pray to God. I believe in them. country . 1881. A Portutravelled in Abyssinia guese priest. 193. 352). the unfortunate ambassadors returned unsuccessful to their own of Abyssinia. their cattle." Through the fault of their clergy they had sunk into the grossest laws .2 The same writer was informed by a Christian who had Nubia. . who accepted their prayers and supplied their needs before even they came down again. Ibn Salim recounted to him the story of the prophets Moses and Jesus Muhammad. and how by the help of God they had been many miracles. in each of which were still to be seen the figures of the crucified Christ. and now there were no bishops or priests left among King them . (London. of the Virgin Mary." (p. when they did these and enabled to perform things and if they performed these deeds. and had already won countrymen to the acceptance of it. When he acknowledged that God had never sent them a prophet. that were scattered throughout the country. but had come to be without faith and without ' they lived with the desire of being Christians. . i. p. accordingly they sent an embassy of six men to the praying him to send priests and monks to instruct them. ' Maqrlzi: Kitabu-1 Hiitat." 1 Very slowly^and gradually the Nubians seem to have drifted . has in this state of tran- preserved for us a picture of the sition . In all travelled in the fortresses. tions in witness to its living over some of their whose followers had so long borne power among them. another gave them.) ' : . it was only natural they should seek for an expression of their spiritual aspirathe religion of Islam. and other saints painted on the walls. from Christianity into their Muhammadanism. that he had found 150 churches there. and as this could not be obtained. that is to say from the how then could he give priests and friars since Patriarch of Alexandria . vol. And he answered. and as no movement of reform sprang up in their midst. . The spiritual life of church had sunk to the lowest ebb. Nubians he says that they were neither Christians.

. who had spoken of by — been incorporated into the Muhammadan empire of the Funj. •* Alvarez ^ Alvarez.i Christianity had entirely disappeared from pastors. p. lying between that in the army of this Sultan there were country and Sennaar 15. from the account given of them. in the early part of the sixteenth century. Nubia " for want of were to be found still standing throughout the whole country . p. torn. in spite of their Muslim faith. there were churches.^ it is probable that they had only a few years before been converted to Islam. change of religion was a voluntary one and could never have been forced upon them by pressure from without. p.) S ' Wansleben. These Belloos.<)6 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Nerazzini. tributaries of the Christian king of Abyssinia * and if they may be identified with the Baliyun. the proselytising efforts of the Muslims Nubia for centuries past . p. in the twelfth century. it effected a junction about 1534 with the army of the Sultan of Maseggia or Mazaga. 133. s Idrisi. 32. 200. are Idrisi. pp. 157. Burckhardt (1). separating them from Abyssinia. the Muhammadan state of the Belloos. etc. i. p. 250. we may certainly conclude from all we know of the independent character of this people and the tenacity with which they clung to the Christian faith. a province under Muhammadan rule but tributary to Abyssinia.000 Nubian soldiers who. appear to have been Musalmans. (Ramusio. who. were. to which who had travelled in no doubt contributed a great deal on the north were Egypt and the Arab tribes that had made their way up the Nile and extended their authority along the banks of that river -^ on the soyth. the when these latter extended their conquests in 1499-1530 from south up to the borders of Nubia and Abyssinia and founded the powerful state of Sennaar.* Fragmentary and insufficient as these data of the conversion of the Nubians are. so long as it was a living force among them. .2 The Nubians had yielded to the powerful Mfihammadan influences that surrounded them. as being Jacobite Christians. that . Let us now pass to the history of Islam among the Abyssinians. 30." but the closed churches Before the close of the following century. When the army of Ahmad Gragne invaded Abyssinia and made its way right through the country from south to north. together with their neighbours. 250. — the Bajah (the inhabitants of the so-called island of Meroe). their ' Viaggio nella Ethiopia al Prete lanni fatto par Don Francesco Portughese (1520-1527). at the same time as the Bajah.

82. they were forbidden to carry arms or put on war' Maqiizi (2). 97 who had received Christianity two centuries before the Nubians. 249. 183. between Abyssinia and the southern extremity of the Red Sea." 2 Musalmans are also mentioned as being in the service of the king and being entrusted by him with important posts * while some of these remained faithful to Islam. each band having its Christian "captain. . 33. and drive the Abyssinians into the the early part of the sixteenth century. What was implied in the fact of these of Muhammadan communities being tributaries of the king Abyssinia. which the king of Abyssinia . The tide of Arab emigration does not seem to have set across the Red Sea. it is difficult to determine. pp. In 1300 a missionary. and in the following year. " Alvarez.g. while the powerful Muham- madan kingdom of Adel. owing to the civil made it possible for the various Arab In settlements along the coast to entire sea-board make themselves masters of the interior. calling on the people to embrace Islam. religion of the country. named Abu 'Abdu-llah Muhammad. had along with other tribute to give up every year to the king a this custom was in maiden who had to become a Christian accordance with an ancient treaty. besides this. made his way into Abyssinia. others embraced the prevailing . torn. and like them belonged to the Jacobite church. tome ii. he attacked the ruler of in Amhara several engagements. in Massowah there kept the flocks of the Abyssinian seigniors. The Musalmans of Adia has always made them observe. i. but at the end of the twelfth century the foundation of an Arab dynasty alienated some of the coast-lands from the Abyssinian kingdom. e. 218. wandering about in bands of thirty or forty with their wives and were Arabs who Some children.ABYSSINIA. pp. having few families collected Muhammadan around him 200. a Up to the tenth century only were to be found residing in the coast towns of Abyssinia. 3 (Ramusio.000 men.) Nerazzini. the western shores of which formed part of the Abyssinian kingdom. until many centuries after Arabia had accepted the faith of the Prophet. 242. wars that distracted it. " because he was the stronger " . there were others again that formed peaceful tributaries of " Prester John " . and some others were bitterly hostile to the Christian power.! At the close of the same century the disturbed state of the country. p. 2°"= partie.

. The Christian chiefs who went over to Islam undoubtedly did so of their own free will. 155. 84. and the widespread character of the conversions in several districts give the impression of a popular movement. 154-5." they said. as we are told.^ and on the south and the south-east of the kingdom. 127.98 apparel. 31 . pp. = -i Id. pp. " we have always obeyed. 127. 74. p. II. Ahmad Gragne himself said to have been the son of a — Christian priest of Aijjo. 8 Id. 73. in some cases very ignorant of their own religion. They were. . however. Certain it is. cover her with a cloth then we carry her to the door of the house and chant the prayers for the dead over her and give her up to the people of the king and . is matter only of conjecture. 14. « Plowden. pp. who had left his adopted Islam in that of the Adels * invaded Abyssinia from 1528 to 1543. thus did our fathers and our grandfathers before us. and putting her on a bed. 8 and thus the change of chiefs faith was a less difficult matter. and that suspicions were entertained of the genuineness of the allegiance of the new converts.* others — own country and embraced the religion of the conqueror. Id. and •' THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. that when the independent Muhammadan ruler of Adel. 52. their horses were not to be saddled these orders.^ But the contemporary Muslim historian himself tells us that in some cases this conversion was the result of fear. Nerazzini. p. many Abyssinian chiefs with their followers joined his victorious army and became Musalmans." ^ These Muhammadan tributaries were chiefly to be found in the low-lying countries that formed the northern boundary of Abyssinia. p.' But such apparently was not universally the case. pp. if they rode. so that the Every Icing may not put us to death and burn our mosques. 113. year the king sends his people to fetch the maiden we take and wash her. Id.^ What influence these Muhammadans had on the Christian populations with which they were intermingled. 172. 166. and whether they made converts to Islam as in the present century. passim. Id. and could only have made use of their personal influence and the arts of persuasion in inducing their troops to follow their example. from the Red Sea westward to Sennaar. Particularly instrumental in conversions of this kind were those Muhammadan ^ who had previously entered the service of ^ ' ' Nerazrini. and though the Christian populations of some districts preferred to pay tribute.

the Abyssinians succeeded Muhammadan conquerors and -Ahmad Gragne himself was slain in 1543. Accept my confession and forget the past.^ But with the help of the Portuguese. but with care I shall gradually succeed in inducing fact them to become Musalmans " . the greater part of his army elected to follow their general including the women and children their jQumbers are said to have amounted to 20.mmentarius. 49. 17. Islam had however in shaking off the yoke of their . M.000 souls. 474. The con- dition of Abyssinia •and anarchy.ABYSSINIA. affairs which the troublous condition of during the remainder of the sixteenth and the following century enabled it to retain. excited violent and opposition in the mass of the indeed so bitter was this feeling that some of the chiefs openly declared that they would rather submit to a Muhammadan ruler than continue their alliance with the Abyssinian Christians . to devote much attention to their proselytising of the Jesuits common enemy. 77. pp.gained a footing in the country. 76-8.) ^ ' l"> '^o. Historiam ^thiopicam 2 C. — and in . —and :set exclusion of all foreign Christians from the country. of then speedily became one of terrible confusion which some tribes of the Galla race took advantage. p. . p. rapidly assumed such vast proportions as to -lead (about 1632) to the expulsion of the Portuguese and the Portuguese ^ . and those renegades tunity of the invasion of the country 99 who took the oppor- army to throw off their allegiance by a conquering Musalman at once to Christianity and the Christian king and declare themselves Tnore. — the semi-religious. ^ Id. the king of Abyssinia. the rival Christian churches being too busUy engaged in contending with one another. Ahmad made a Christian by but in my taken prisoner and heart I have always clung to the religion of Islam now I throw myself at thy feet and at the feet of the religion of Muhammad. The soldiers that are under me belong to the king of Abyssinia.i Muhammadans once One Gragne of these in 1531 wrote the following letter to : —" I was formerly a Musalman. for I return to thee and to my God. H . lobi Ludolfi ad suam <(Frankfurt a. For the successful and other Roman Catholic missionaries in all civil and the active interference of the Portuguese jolitical matters. semi-patriotic movement on foot thereby. 1691. Nerazzini. was force .

vol. taught to read and write. ii. 366. ii. 328. elevati alia dignitk di Ras. razza. The absence of any strong central government in the country favoured the rise of petty independent chieftains. and as governors of -Christian provinces made use of all their influence towards the spread of Islam.) Riippell. par le R. abjured the faith in ." (Id. passo coU'andar del tempo sotto il giogo dell' islamismo. Manoel d'Alraeida. 206. too. vol.) 2 Massaja. vol. though (in accordance with a fundamental law of the state) all the Abyssinian princes must belong to the Christian faith . " Ognuno comprende che movente di questeconversioni essendo la sete di regnare. he says that they were more active and energetic that every Muhammadan had his sons. p." One of the chief reasons of the success of this faith seems to have been the moral superiority of the Muslisis-as . way right into the very centre of the country.de la Haute Ethiopie. p. pp.loo THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. ricchezze e favori e cosl I'Abissinia cristiana invasa e popolata da questa pessimi. (Thevenot. si circondavano di mussulmani. £ percio accadeva che. moral superiority of the Muhammadans of Abyssinia over the of the Abyssinian aristocracy. aspiring to the dignity which they had been born and preteaded-conversion to Chr4Stianity_in order to get themselves enrolled in the order of the -n«bles. the choice always fell upon a Muhammadan. dando ad essi la maggior parte degli impieghi e colmandoli di titoli. whereas Christian children were only educated when they were intended for the priesthood. many of whom had strongMuhammadan sympathies.i During the following century the faith of the Prophet seems steadily to have increased by means of the conversion of isolated individuals here and there. Riippell~iays that he frequentlyTTOticed in the course of his travels in Abyssinia that when a post had to be filled which required that a thoroughly honest and trustworthy person shouM be selected. P. In comparison with the Christians. their settlements to thrust their where remain to the present day. the Muhammadans. Christian population goes far to explain the continuous though slow progress made by Islam during the last and present centuries? ' Histoire . i. who tells us that in his time the adherents of this faith were scattered throughout the whole of Abyssinia and formed a third of the entire population. 205-6. progress achieved by Islam during this period may be estimated from the testimony of a traveller of the seventeenth The century. nel fatto non si riducevano che ad una formalitk esterna. : . restando poi i nuovi convertiti veri mussulmani nei cuori e nei costumi. pp.' This.compared with that of the Christian population of -•Abyssinia. 7.

generation. 51-2. Isenberg. one of the vice-regents of Abyssinia and practically master of the country 1 occupied in ceaseless wars with their neighbours. as the Muhammadans here are said to have been by no means fanatical nor to have borne any particular enmity to Christianity . madan influences to the north-west of Massowah. Plowden. 2 ' "" pp.'' Such deep roots has this faith now struck in Abyssinia that its followers have in their hands all the combefore the accession of a Christian. speaking of the Hababs. xi. who was English consul in Abyssinia from 1844 to i860. says that they have Muhammadan feith.. p. Msssaja. a Christian have a firm hold upon the mass of the people. too much become and all. apparently entirely through neglect. 36. have left Muhamfiree to work undisturbed. " within the last 100 years. and through the gradual and now entire abandonment of the country by the Abyssinian chiefs. Though himself he distributed posts and even the spoils of the churches among the followers of Islam. X. Mr.^ who found numbers of Christians to be continually passing over to that faith." of the population of the — King Theodore in 1853. Reclus. . loi the degradation and apathy of the Abyssinian clergy and the interminable feuds of the Abyssinian chiefs. the whole of Abyssinia would become and the Muslim propagandists to arise Ahmad Gragne ' Plowden. merce as well as all the petty trade of the country. 15. Id. rates zeal of the say that were another so high as to and unfurl the banner of the Prophet. 125. a pastoral tribe dwelling between 16° and 17° 30' lat. save the latest They have changed their Other sections northern districts of the country were similarly converted to Islam during the same period. vol. are masters of large towns and central markets. p. through the constant influence of the Muhammadans with whom they trade. missionary the success who lived for thirty-five years in this country.2 Similar testimony to the progress of Islam in the early part of this century is given by other travellers.ABYSSINIA. Beke. 8-9. vol. bear Christian names. 247. p. p. because the^ priests had abandoned these districts and the churches had been suffered to fall into ruins. pp. and during his reign one half of the population of the central provinces of Abyssinia embraced the feith of the Prophet. and Indeed. enjoy vast possessions. The Muhammadans were especially favoured by Ras Aly.

Tome x. 2 Id. p. 307 pp.* Seeing that their conversion has gone no further than baptism and the payment of tithes. . Reclus. 77-8. it is not surprising to learn that the only result of these violent measures has been to increase the hatred and hostility of both the Muslim and the heathen Abyssinians towards the ^ Massaja. 124. vol. the Muslims in secret protested their loyalty to their old faith. as well as 20. years. vol.3 These mass conversions were rendered the more ineffectual by being confined to the men. and the heathen within five. Oppel. Embroilments with the Egyptian government (with which Abyssinia was at war from 1875 to 1882) brought about a revulsion of feeling against Muhammadanism hatred of Muhammadan.* By 1 880 King John is said to have compelled about 50. a circumresign their posts.000 Muhammadans to be baptised. xi.000 members of one of the pagan tribes and a half a million of Gallas. King John II. 247.J03 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. fewdays later the king promulgated an edict that showed how little worth was the three years' grace allowed to the Muhammadans for not only did he order them to build Christian churches wherever they were needed and to pay tithes to the priests: resident in their respective districts. in order to have this enforced baptism wiped off by some holy man of their own faith. — stance that will probably prove to be of considerable significance in the future history of Islam in Abyssinia. In 1878. Christians of all sects other than the Jacobite were given two years in which to become the Muhammadans were to reconciled to the national church submit within three. 125. as Massaja bears striking testimony to the important part the Muhammadan women have played in the diffusion of their faith in this country. p. who proclaimed him supreme arbiter in matters of faith and ordained that there should be but one religion throughout the whole kingdom. xi. . Massaja saw some such go straight from the church in which they had been baptised to the mosque. and while outwardly conforming. for as the royal edict had made no mention of the women they were in no way molested. 124. p. « Id. but also gave three months' .i : the foreign Muslim foe re-acted upon their co-religionists within the border. A notice to all Muhammadan officials to either receive baptism or Such compulsory conversion (consisting as it did merely of the rite of baptism and the payment of tithes) was naturally of the most ineffectual character. summoned a Convocation of the Abyssinian clergy. pp.

12 . till We 698 that the fall of Carthage brought the Roman rule in Africa to an end for ever. but to tolerate and said respect the convictions of others and to extend his protection and the king of all favour to honest religion . 84. 6o-i vol. there were in horrible there ^ Massaja. ments of a bloody and long-protracted war.2 it is and upright men irrespective of their creed and in. which had emerged out of so many persecutions. pp. vol. and had so stoutly championed the cause of Christian orthodoxy. the king of Shoa (who became Abyssinia after the death of King John in 1889). bringing the Byzantine rule to an end. against of all. 81. Cyprian and St.THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF NORTH AFRICA. vol. seems to have victorious faded away like a mist. In the absence of definite information. when the Arabs were pushing their conquests from East The comparatively easy conquest to West along the North coast. probable^ that Islam has received but a very slight check to its progress must return now to the history of Africa in the seventh century. 79. . and half a century elapsed before the Arabs succeeded in making themselves complete masters of It was not the north coast from Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean. p. devastation and all the other accompanian assertion. and the subjugation of the Berbers made the Arabs supreme in the country. consider. Augustine. The details of these given such saints and theologians to Christendom ? The church of TertuUian. Christian faith. is to be no fanatic as his predecessor was. . Unfortunately the materials available for such a purpose are lamentably sparse and What became of that great African church that had insuiEcient. xi.i 103 and as Menelik. ' Id. found no parallel in the bloodyTTampaigns and the long-continued resistance that here barred their further progress. ix. p. xi. St. pp. First is the absence of definite evidence in support of such Massacres. campaigns it is no part of our purpose to but rather to attempt to discover in what way Islam was spread among the Christian population. But there are many considerations that militate such a rough and ready settlement of this question. it has been usual to ascribe the disappearance of the Christian population to fanatical persecutions and forced conversions on the part of the Muslim conquerors. vol. where so many of the inhabitants assisted the Arabs in of Egypt.Abyssinia. x.

^^ q6'7. it will be well to realise how very small must have been the number of the Christian population at the end of the seventh century —a circumstance that renders rule still its continued existence under bility Muhammadan more significant of the absence of forced conversion.^ and spread far inland it is doubtful whether Christianity ever among the Berber tribes. But before attempting to enumerate these.) " : " dd. O. 212.i Though there were as 500 bishoprics just before the Vandal conquest. (Migne : Patr. ii. owing practice observed in the African church of appointing bishops the most inconsiderable towns and very frequentlj. Gr. this serve as no criterion of the many as number can to the to number of the faithful.* and this province of Cyrenaica never covered from their devastations. Numidians.^ fifth When the power of the Roman Empire declined in the century. and the survival of the native Christian church for more than eight centuries after the Arab conquest is a testimony to the toleration that alone could have rendered such a survival possible. so that the breadth of the seldom exceeds 80 or 100 miles.104 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and leaves such a hypothesis much less plausi- than would have been the case had the Arabs found a large and flourishing Christian church there when they commenced their conquest of northern Africa. The Roman provinces of Africa. Id. different tribes known to the Romans under the names of Moors. 161. 1826.. The causes that brought about the decay of Christianity in North Africa must be sought for elsewhere than in the bigotry of Muhammadan rulers. Ixvi. tion was confined. pillaged and burnt the churches and carried off the sacred vessels for their re- own idolatrous rites. abundance. p. vaders were certainly heathen. to which the Christian popula. but of^actual religious persecution we have little mention. Libyans. swarmed up from the south to ravage and destroy the wealthy cities of the coast. ^ ' (Milan. C. The Libyans.) Synesii Catastasis. and Christianity was probably almost extinct here at the time of the Muslim invasion. vol. never extended far southwards the Sahara coast forms a barrier in this direction. The ' Gibbon. whose devastations are so pathetically bewailed by Synesius of Cyrene. These inof this great race.to the most obscure villages. etc. p. p. Castiglioni Recherches sur les Beiberes Atlantiques. i. Tom. 1569. ^ . vol.

Gibbon. . who had been ill-treated by the Vandals. For nearly a century the Arian . 115.THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF NORTH AFRICA. ' * Gibbon. once so flourishing. V. p. to an hundred and sixty thousand warriors. At Tijani. vol.^ When in 534. 320. Neander ' (2). Belisarius crushed the power Vandals and restored North Africa to the Roman Empire. The wealthier citizens abandoned a country whose commerce and agriculture. but respected the churches and clergy of the orthodox. he will take vengeance on those who insult There is some him. the number of the faithful must have been very much reduced. only 217 bishops met in the Synod of Carthage ^ to resume the direction of the Christian church. Vandals persecuted the orthodox with relentless fury and cruelly tortured those of their sent their bishops into exile. p. Moorish chieftain in the district of Tripolis. vol. or the slaves. and during the century that elapsed before the coming of the Muhammadans. and kept the mountains. After the fierce and longcontinued persecution to which they had been subjected. p. Id. " I do not know who the God of the Christians is. v. had been irretrievably ruined. 'But whatever church. and above all the deso-\ of the lating all plagues that signalised the latter half of the sixth century. who shut the Romans up in the cities and other centres of population. of combined to carry on the work of destruction. iv. vol. the women. that in many parts a stranger might wander whole days without meeting the face either of a friend or an enemy. pp. The nation of the Vandals had disappeared they once amounted . but if he is so powerful as he is represented. "Such was the desolation of Africa. Five millions Africans are said to have been consumed by the wars and government of the Emperor Justinian. without including Their numbers were the children. 201. declared his heathenism when he said. it may have been the extent of the Christian received a blow from the Vandal persecutions from which it never recovered. and succour those who do him honour. the 105 who was at war with Vandal king Thorismund (496-524).* the 'prevalent disorder and ill-government. the desert and the open country for themselves." 1 probability that the nomads of Mauritania also were very largely heathen. forbade the public exercise of their religion who refused to conform to the religion conquerors. p. 122. 331-3. the inroads of the barbarian Moors.

by the number of Moorish families extirpated the same destruction was retaliated on the Romans and their allies. Wiltsch Hand-book of the geography and statistics of the church. 1890. T. Neander (i). who perished by the cUmate. and wrote synodal letters to the Emperor and the Pope. after sustaining a siege Gibbon. i. During the fifty years that elapsed before the Arabs assured their victory. when zeal for Christian doctrine and political animosity to the Byzantine court both combined in stimulating this move- ment. it may certainly be inferred that the Christian population at the time of the Muhammadan invasion was by no means a large one.) vol. From the considerations enumerated above. 433-4." ^ In 646. Byzacena and Africa Proconsularis. more in these than in the two other dioceses which were It is nearer to the seat of government. p. 32-3 (Tours. and in consideration of the numerous causes con- tributing to a decay of the population. the year before the victorious Arabs advanced from Egypt to the subjugation of the western province. the Africaa Church that had championed so often the purity of Christian doctrine. Numidia. the archbishopric of Mauritania. E. and when Africa took the most prominent part in stirring up the opposition that led to the convening of the great Lateran Council of 648. but when the bishops of the four ecclesiastical provinces Carthage. v." exceedingly unlikely that any of the bishops were absent on an occasion that excited so much feeling. there were only sixty-eight bishops who assembled at Carthage to represent the last-mentioned province. Boumichon : L'Invasion Musulmane en Afrique. This diminution in the number of the African bishops certainly points to a vast decrease in the Christian population. and forty-two The numbers from the other two dioceses are not given. 254-5. but the Christian population had undoubtedly suffered much for Byzacena. The city of Tripolis. (London. too great stress even must not be laid upon the number of these. the Christian population was still further reduced by the devastations of this long conflict.io6 THE PREACHING OF war . 1859. vol. pp. ISLAM. because an episcopal see may be continued to be filled long after the diocese has sunk into insignificance. T. pp.) ' = : . held councils to condemn Monotheletism. was stirred to its depths by the struggle against Monoinfinitely surpassed in a relentless theletism in . and the rage of the barbarians. viz. pp. 214. their mutual quarrels. J. vol. v.

many of the great Roman Boniface by Pope Gregory 11. was sacked. the sixteenth century. p.THE CONQUEST OF NORTH AFRICA. F." (Id. ou qui (conservant leur 'oi) ne voulurent pas s'obliger a payer la capitation. and remained uninhabited for a long time or were even left to fall to ruins entirely.io Leo Africanus. ° Leo Africanus. aliqui rebaptizati isepius sunt probati. una citta antichissima edificata da Romani dove confina Bnggla col diserto diNumidia. (Ramusio. ounded a. founded a. Tome ii. all the males were put to the sword and the women and children The number of such captives is said to have carried off captive. iv. and of the inhabitants part were put to sword and the rest carried off captive into Egypt and Arabia. 65. Ixxxix.H. 201.) ' ^ il regno di Pavy. in the face of the fact that traces of to be found even so late as native Christian community were Idris. when he had just begun to carve out a kingdom for himself with :he sword. Tom. Tol. Tom. 66. who . pp. Lat. 303 .^ the Another city. p. was defended a large garrison which bravely endured whole year when at last it was taken by storm.) Qayrwan or Cairoan.d. " Tons ceux qui ne se convertirent pas a I'islamisme. 75.^ Many of the imoimted to several hundreds of thousands. Masilah.^ Christians took refuge in flight. 502. p. 7. iv. . 69. founded A. 76. quia aliqui eorum Manicha:i. 198. i. 200. Abu-1 Fida. bordering on the Numidian desert. 187. 70. p.) * ' ' ^ Leo Africanus." At Tijanl. this incident without parallel in the history of the native church of North Morocco that bore his name. i. founded A. durent prendre la fuite devant es armees musulmanes. 424. as far as I have been able to discover.) ' §alih ibn 'Abdu-1 Halim. pp. several cases :hief the conquerors chose entirely new sites for their towns. 185 .) " Deusen.* some into Italy and Spain. For 1 As to the scattered remnants of the once flourishing Christian still remained in Africa at the end of the seventh it can hardly be-Supposed that persecution is responsible their final disappearance.^ but. the founder of the dynasty in is indeed said to have compelled by and Jews to embrace Islam in the year 789 a. 16 '" A doubtful case of forced conversion is attributed to 'Abdu-I Mu'mm. 191. (Ramusio. founded A. (Migne : Patr. p.^ cities were quite depopulated. 68. of six 107 months. D.^ and seem that others even wandered as far as Gerit would almost many.H. 186. Marccco.) ' "Afros passim ad ecclesiasticos ordines (procedentes) prsetendentes nulla atione snscipiat (Bonifacius). judging from a letter addressed to the diocese of St.* church that century. 315 . Tom.^ while in by a J Roman Count with blockade of a . i. p." Epist. 50 Fez. Almahdiyah. In fact.h. p. (Ramusio. Force Christians is iMrica..h.H.

visitant I'Afrique orientale au quatorzieme siecle. Tom. Lat. I'autre El-Tidjani.) . Papae Epist. p. Leonis IX. de leur commerce et de leur religion . and in 1246 the bishop of Morocco conquered Tunis iu 1159. the Christian still church declined further. to consecrate two bishops to act as coadjutors of the Archbishop of Carthage but the numbers of the faithful were still so large as . 449. c'est que les chrltiens et les juifs ne tarderent pas a reparaitre a Tunis et qu'on voit les Chretiens avant la fin du r^gne d'Abd-el-Moumen etablis a Tunis et y jouissant comme par le passe de la liberie. 728. contemporain. conquerant le pays et les villes. Gregorii VII. 628-9. il traversa victorieusement les terres du Zab et de I'Ifrikiah. About 300 years after the Muhammadan conquest there were still nearly forty bishoprics left. for9a les Chretiens et les juifs etablis dans cette ville k embrasser I'islamisme. tant il etait contraire au principe de la liberty religieuse respect^ jusque-la par tous les princes maugrebins. (2) pp.' canon law. ^ A. and it was necessary for Pope Gregory VII. p. and it is quite possible that the disordered condition of Africa at the time may have kept the African bishops ignorant of the condition of other sees besides their own and those immediately adjacent. laments that only five bishops could be found to represent the once flourishing African church. and that accordingly the information supplied to the Pope represented the number of the bishops as being smaller than it really was. ii. accordant I'aman a ceux qui le demandaient et tuant les r&akitrants.io8 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. (Liber tertius. Ce qu'il y a de certain.i and when in 1053 Pope Leo IX. . dit un ancien auteur maugrebin. (Migne : Patr. Ibn-al-Athir. il dut etre elud^ ou r^voque. pp. slowness of its The very it decay is a testimony to the toleration must have received. cxliii. ont ecrit que le sultan. Nous doutons de la realite de toutes ces mesures. See De Mas Latrie. in accordance with the demands of anarchy. Si I'arret fatal fut prononce dans I'emportement du triomphe et pour satisfaire quelques exigences momentanees. the African church could not provide the three bishops necessary for the consecration of an aspirant to the dignity of the episcopate. vol.' Ces derniers mots confivment notre sentiment sur sa politique a I'egard des Chretiens qui accepterent I'arret fatal de la destin^e. which was too heavy for these three bishops to perform unaided.) letter deals with a quarrel for precedence between the bishops of Gummi Carthage. . MUller.) (Migne : Patr. Tom. to demand the creation of fresh bishops to lighten the burden of the work. . cxlviii. * S. "Deux auteurs arabes. 27-8. maitre de Tunis.^ the cause is most probably to be sought for in the terrible bloodshed and destruction wrought by the Arab hordes that had poured into the country a few years before and filled it with incessant conflict and In 1076. et que les refractaires furent impitoyablement massacres. Ixxxiii. S. de leurs etablissements. ]^ De Mas " This and Latrie (2). mais vivanta Damas axi milieu de I'exaltation religieuse que provoquaient les victoires de Saladin. Lat. 77-8.* In the course of the next two centuries. pp. Epistola xix. ' Accompagne ainsi par Dieu meme dans sa marche.

they lost even what little knowledge they but the first new faith had at possessed. xxxiii. as in the Christian religion. To do away with this unhappy state of things. fi'om their purge them of whatever errors may still cling to them former belief in Christianity make them understand the religion of our Lord Muhammad may God have .DECAY OF CHRISTIANITY IN NORTH AFRICA. C. and thus the way of their conversion were very considerable. . so much so that they even forgot the Muslim formula of prayer. Let not these mountaineers wallow any longer in their pitiable ignorance of the grand truths of our religion go and breathe upon the dying fire of their faith and re-illumine its smouldering . but the honour of winning an entrance among them Granada for the Muslim faith was reserved for a number of Andalusian Moors the taking of in who were driven out 1492. They had taken of Spain after refuge in this monastery and were recognised by the shaylch to be eminently fitted for the arduous task that had previously so completely bafHed the efforts of his disciples. this Before dismissing them on pious errand. Trumelet : Les saints de I'lslam (Paris. without God or religion. they successfully resisted the Arab element into their midst. 226. one of which runs as follows: "That neither ' — — De Mas ' . he thus addressed bent " It is a duty incumupon us to bear the torch of Islam into these regions that them : have lost their inheritance in the blessings of religion . introduction of the difficulties in Shut up in their mountain fastnesses and jealous of their independence. years went by. embers that in . ' Compare the articles published by a Junta held at Madrid in 1 566. p. for the reformation of the Moriscoes. compassion upon him dirt is not. looked upon as acceptable in the eyes of God. these tribes had received period. Sajiatu-1 Hamra. 1881). Up still 109 was the sole spiritual leader of the remnant of the native church. some slight instruction in the tenets of Islam at an and as had taken very little hold upon them. and have no shaykb to teach their children the laws of morality and the virtues of Islam so they live like the brute beasts. I have determined to appeal to your religious zeal and enlightenment. p.^ I will not disguise Latrie. for these unhappy Kabils are wholly unprovided with schools.^ to the to same period traces of the survival of Christianity were early- be found among the Kabils of Algeria - . Some unsuccessful attempts to start a mission among them had the been made by the inmates of a monastery belonging to the Qadariyah order.

Trumelet : Les Saints de I'lslam. and that all their bathing houses should be pulled down and demolished. Their austerities and prolonged devotions soon excited the curiosity of -various directions the Kabils. 299).no THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. There is little more to add to these sparse records of the decay themselves. p. 256. p. The in they went in rags. Go. of the mechanical arts. xxviii-xxxvi." missionaries started off in parties of five or six at a time . ii. but your irresistible zeal and the ardour of your faith will enable you. and Students. painted black crosses on their the hand. and bring back again to God and His Prophet these unhappy people who are wallowing in the mire of ignorance and unbelief. but . (Ramusio i. similarly the Banu Mzab to cheeks and palm of the present day still keep up some religious observances corresponding to excomanunication and confession (Oppel. their women. though Muhammadans." (J. attracted by the learning of the new-comers.) . and may God "be with you and uphold you. by the grace of God. Go. cut off as they were from the rest of the Christian world and unprovided with spiritual teachers.) ' C. pp. (De Mas Latrie (2). Little by little the missionaries gained the influence they desired through their knowledge of medicine. gathered round them and in time became missionaries of Islam to their fellowcountrymen. ^ Leo Africanus says that at the end of the fifteenth century all the mountaineers of Algeria and of Buggia. •each hermitage became a centre of Muslim teaching. to overcome all obstacles. €stablished hermitages in caves and clefts of the rocks. they could have had little in the way of positive religious belief to oppose to the teachings of the Muslim teaching. and some nomad tribes of the Sahara observe the practice of a kind of baptism and use the cross as a decoration ioi their stuffs and weapons. Morgan.for. and choosing out the wildest and least frequented parts of the mountains. and other advantages of civilisation. 8. p. missionaries.^ The above incident is no doubt illustrative of the manner in -which Islam was introduced among such other sections of the independent tribes of the interior as had received any Christian whose knowledge of this faith had dwindled down to the observance of a few superstitious rites . my children. vol. p. bearing the message of salvation. from you the fact that your task is beset with difficulties. my children. until their faith spread throughout all the country of the Kabils and the villages of the Algerian Sahara. nor any other persons should be permitted to wash or bathe themselves either at home or elsewhere . 61). who after a short time began to enter into friendly relations with them. staff in hand.

De Mas Latrie (2).^ the last we hear of the native Christian church in North The very fact of its so long survival would militate against any supposition of forced conversion. i. p. De Mas I'Afrique. A Muhammadan traveller . e. (Paris. 273. vol. still of the fourteenth century. At the end of the following century there was still to be found in the city of Tunis a small community of native Christians. (Ramusio. living together in one of the suburbs. <apture of Tunis in 1535. and Innocent IV. who had contented themselves mosque in front of each of these churches. i. who employed Christian soldiers. after the . 67. of the •visited iii North African church.* granted by frequent treaties the free exercise of their religion to Christian merchants and settlers. they were employed as the bodyguard of the Sultan. even if we had not abundant This is Africa. p.i who Al Jarid. vii.. in the early part the Christian churches. De Tome De Mas .. 61-2. while exhort- ing the latter to serve their Muhammadan rulers faithfully. not having been by the Arab conquerors. p.g. tells us that although in ruins.' ' " ' ' At Tijani.) Latrie (2). the southern district of Tunis. 266-7 i L. Tom.DECAY OF CHRISTIANITY IN NORTH AFRICA. p. Gregory Yll. Innocent III. Leo Africanus.) . 54. were destroyed with building a standing in his day. 1667. Pavy. Gregory IX.' These were doubtless the same persons as were congratulated on their perseverance in the Christian faith by Charles V. ^ and to whom Popes ^ recommended the care of the native Christian population. 203. p. evidence of the tolerant spirit of the Arab rulers of the various North African kingdoms. 192. pp. del Marmol-Caravajal ii. quite distinct from that in which the foreign Christian merchants resided far from being oppressed or persecuted. ' • ' Latrie (2). p.

whUe a subse- quent law forbade anyone under pain of confiscation of his property and perpetual imprisonment. SPAIN. But these triumphs of the civilised life art and poetry. p. ponderating influence in the ecclesiastics sat in ' Baudissin. science and philosophy we must pass over here and fix our attention on the religious condition of Spain under the Muslim rule.CHAPTER V. which met to . the Evangelical Institutions. and the Holy Sacraments. and chief The clergy had gained for their order a pre1 the bishops affairs of the State the national councils. When the Muhammadans iirst brought their religion into — Spain they found Catholic Christianity firmly established after its conquest over Arianism. and would vigorously enforce the law against all dissentients. to call in question the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. The sixth Council of Toledo had enacted that all kings were to swear that they would not suffer the exercise of any other religion but the Catholic. She had inaugurated the age of chivalry and her influence had passed through Provence into the other countries of Europe. 22. During the Muslim Spain had written one of the brightest pages in the history of mediaeval Europe. and it was from her that Christian scholars received what of Greek philosophy and science they had to stimulate their mental activity up to the time of the Renaissance. . centuries that elapsed between these two dates. the definitions of the Fathers. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHRISTIANS OF In 7 11 the victorious Arabs introduced Islam into Spain in 1502 an edict of Ferdinand and Isabella forbade the exercise of the : Muhammadan religion throughout the kingdom. bringing into birth a new poetry and a new culture. the decrees of the Church.

- slaves. Dozy (2). turning to it from a religion whose ministers had left them ill-instructed and uncared for. p. Dozy (2). p.* probably followed their example. ratified the election of the king and claimed the right to depose him if he a refused to abide by their decrees. The Muhammadans received as warm a welcome from the whose condition under the Gothic rule was a very miserable one. tome ii. i.'' punishment sent from God on those who had gone astray into the paths of ' * ° ' Helffericli. embraced the new creed. from the lower and middle classes. These down-trodden slaves were the first converts to Islam in The remnants of the heathen population of which we find mention as late as 693 a. and whose knowledge of Christianity was too superficial to have any weight when compared with the liberty and numerous advantages they gained. and busied with worldly ambitions had plundered and oppressed their flocks. quae sic a Deo recedentes fornicatje sunt. p. 463. pp. vol.) Provincise et Burgundionum populis contigit. Epist.* Many converts were won. 45-6.SPAIN BEFORE THE ARAB CONQUEST. too. Boniface (a. * A. ^ Baudissin. 68. but from genuine conviction. by throwing in their lot with the Musalmans. p. they garrisoned the captured cities on behalf of the conqueror and opened the gates of towns that were being besieged. tome ii. 44-6- ' So St.d. Al Makkari. who may well have embraced Islam. of a brutally severe were passed against such as refused to be baptised 1 and they consequently hailed the invading Arabs as their deliverers from such cruel oppression. 280-2. Ixii. donee index omnipotens talium criminum ultrices poenas per ignorantiam I . settle 113 the most important business of the realm. Miiller. also. 7. The edicts Christian clergy took advantage of their power to persecute the Jews very large character who formed community in Spain . Spain. of the Christian nobles. pp. viction or whether from genuine confrom other motives. ii.^ Having once become Muslims. and they and their children Many Muhammadan joined themselves to the Puritan party of the rigid theologians as against the careless and luxurious At the time of the Muhammadan life of the Arab aristocracy.^ conquest the old Gothic virtues had declined and given place to «iFeminacy and corruption. "Sicut aliis gentibus Hispaniae et 745. vol. so that the to Christian theologians to be a Muhammadan rule appeared vice. not merely outwardly.. these Spanish converts showed themselves zealous adherents of their adopted faith.d.

forsaking his sinful fast in life." (Migne. 377-8. Pair." (Migne.d. gentis Saracenicffi) ditione nostro compellente facinore sceptrum Hispanias translatum est. . Bishop Egila who was sent to Southern Spain by Pope Hadrian I. i. unde tradidit nos Dominus qui iustitiam diligit." (Migne. p. (Helfferich.* and sought a more congenial atmosphere spiritual life in the pale of Islam. et cuius vultus sequitatem decernit. he might "abide stead- the law of the Lord. 210. it the corrupt lives of whose ministers had brought into discredit. torn. 531-2. there had been some slight — revival in the Spanish church just before the Arab conquests- may have predisposed men's minds to accept the new faith whose Christology was in such close agreement with Arian doctrine. on a mission to counteract the growing influence of Muslim thought. who in 838 a.114 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. dass unmittelbar nach dem Einfall der Araber die verwandten Voi-stellungen des Mohammedanismus unter den geknechteten Christen auftauchten. we hear nothing.) * Alvari Cordubensis Epist xix. too. pp. wie wichtig gerade die alttestamentliche Idee des Prophetenthums in der Chnstologie des germanischen Arianismus nachklane und auch nach der Annahme des kathohschen Dogma's in dem rehgiosen Bewusstsein der Westgothen haften blieb. Indeed. a deacon at the French court in the reign of Louis the Pious." * It is very possible. 381. it was probably in a great measure their tolerant attitude towards the Dei et per Saracenos venire et sasvire permisit. Patr. (2).) Eulogius lib. nostra desidia peperit mala. p. " Ob meritum jeternfe retributionis devovi sedulum in lege Dommi consistere.* Of forced conversion or anything like persecution in the early days of the Arab conquest. tome ii. " In cuius (i." (pp. 79-80. for the moral and Had ecclesiastical writers cared to chronicle them.. § 30. in order that (as he said)." (Helfferich p 82 ) . nostra monim obsccenitas .e. became a Jew. torn. and these in their turn bestowed the office of the priesthood on low and unworthy persons. " Et probare nostro vitioLat.i2 ) 5 me Helfferich. 83. torn. § 18.^ we may well suppose that in the province of Elvira ^ it was not only that Christians turned from a religion.) 2 Dozy Samson. Lat. nostra levitas. 761. indeed.) Similarly Alvar (2).. cxv. p. inlatum intentabo flagellum. Ixxxix. so wird man es sehr erkliirlich finden. p. Spain would doubtless be found to offer instances of many a man leaving the Christian church like Bodo. Nostra htec. towards the end of the eighth century. nostra impuritas. As time went on. denounces the Spanish priests who lived in concubinage with ' ' married women.. Lat. when episcopal sees were put up to auction selves and even atheists appointed as shepherds of the faithful. fratres. Patr. '^' ^ ^ " Bedenkt man nun. that the lingering remains of the old Gothic Arianism of which. ipsi bestise legis : conrodendos. 761. matters do not seem to have mended themand when Christian bishops took part in the revels of the Muhammadan court. cxxi p i. p.

Eulogius. to wear a distinctive dress as sign of their humiliation. tion-tax of forty-eight middle classes. children. 11 13). tome ii. colunt et amplectuntur. ' ^ Dozy (2). "inter ipsos molestia fidei Id. and the festivals of They do not appear to have been condemned. lesistere potestati Baudissin. ^ . Dozy (2). lib. 2 . 751). for women. the Christians were tried with their own laws. twenty -four for the for those non-Christian subjects. the . 41. lohn of Gorz (who visited Spain about the middle of the tenth century) § 124. tome sine ii. onsilii. 115 Christian religion that facilitated their rapid acquisition of the country. qui in regno eius libera divinis suisque rebus utebantur." Spanish bishop thus described the condition of the Christians to John of ' A "Peccatis ad haec devoluti sumus. Baudissin. this. like their co-religionists in Syria and Eg)^t. § 30. 859 (Mem. cetera eii obsequamur. solemnities of the Catholic ritual the choir. verbo prohibemur apostoli. monks. md in the ninth century at least. and the as exempted therefrom oppressive selves. with the swinging of censers. Tantum hoc unum relictum est olatii. Sanct. § 18. 11-13. i. against The only complaint that the Christians could bring their new rulers for treating them differently to their was that they had to pay the usual capitadirhams for the rich. " Quos nulla prsesidialis violentia fidem iuam negare compulit. 3) speaks of churches recently The chronicle falsely ascribed to Luitprand rected (ecclesias nuper structas). p. Pro tempore igitur hoc videmur tenere imul ipsorum convictu delectantur. pp. p.THE SPANISH CHRISTIANS UNDER ARAB RULE. sermons preached to the people. nee a cultu sanctje piteque religionis amovit" (p. ut paganorum subiaceamus ditioni. and twelve : who made their living by manual labour levied being in lieu of military service. ib. 302).* They were at one time 5ven allowed to build new churches. as the halt. 196.^ and the sick. legimus " (p. jorz. 761). iii. * Eulogius: Mem. ob. was only on the able-bodied males. ut quia religionis nulla infertur iactura. c. by their own judges and in accordance They were left undisturbed in the exercise and all the other the psalms were chanted in of their religion * the sacrifice of the mass was offered. i. 16-17. ^ ' ecords the erection of a church at Cordova in 895 I (p. ' lib. mendicants and slaves were it must moreover have appeared the less being collected by the Christian officials themblind. the ringing of the bell.* . iussisque orum in quantum fidem non impediunt obtemperemus " § 122 (p. 39. pp. lib. Sanct. the Christian laity woie the ame kind of costume as the Arabs. quod in tantje calamitatis male legibus nos propriis uti non prohibent [ui quos diligentes Christianitatis viderint observatores. Except in the case of offences against the Muslim religious law.* which was quite contrary to church observed in the usual manner. (Christiani).

* toleration of the The Muhammadan government towards its Spain and the freedom of intercourse between the adherents of the two religions brought about a Christian subjects in certain amount of assimilation in the two communities. id est. See the letter of Pope Hadrian I. p. communem vitam gerentes cum ludaeis et non baptizatis paganis. and the edicts passed on their behalf not avail to make the lot of these unfortunate exiles more tolerable. to the Spanish bishops ' ' Porro diversa capitula quse ex illis audivimus partibus. The monks could appear publicly in the woollen robes of their order and the priest had no need to conceal the mark of his sacred ofSce. namely at Beja. 8l2.^ We nor at the same time did their religious profession prevent the Christians from being entrusted with high offices at court. a despised and ill-treated class of later times. p. lib. in spite of which they had soon again evil to complain against the nobles who robbed them But the all of the lands that had been for a little time did assigned to them.ii6 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. had little and it is very noticeable that during the whole of the eighth century we hear of only one attempt at revolt on their part. pp. we probably meet again the Spanish colony that fled away from Muslim rule to throw themselves upon the mercy of their Christian co-religionists. tome ii. Baudissin. II. Three years later Louis the Pious had to issue another edict on their behalf. In 812 Charlemagne interfered to protect the exiles who had followed him on his retreat from Spain from the exactions of the imperial officers. 16. and in this they appear to have followed the lead of an Arab chief. p. Mem. Intermarriages became frequent^. § 128 (p. who could reconcile themselves to complain of. read also of the founding i of several fresh monasteries in addition to the numerous convents both for monks and nuns that flourished undisturbed by the Muhammadan rulers. tarn in : . who fiercely inveighs ' Eulogius: id.* Those who migrated into French territory in order that they miight live under a Christian rule. 306." Certainly those Christians.) ^ ^ Baudissin. canes Gothi). (p. to the loss of political power. c. Sanct. and John of Gorz. certainly fared no better than the co-religionists they had left behind. iii. 21. quod multi dicentes se catholicos esse. and in the Cagots (i.e. Christian the stipulations usually made on the conquest of a country. was only checked to break out afresh. 96-7. Isidore of Beja.) • * « Dozy (2). 42.

e.* language of Christian theology came gradually to be neglected and forgotten. records the marriage of 'Abdu-1 son of Musa. with the widow of King Roderic. 117 the Muslim conquerors. John of Gorz. (Von Some Arabic Schack. cares. p. 303). ecclesiastics his correction is Abbot Samson gives us specimens of the bad Latin written by some of the .g. II. | 35 (p.) Where nowadays can number of the we find any learned to layman that. xiii. we are but setting up as an idol the (Apoc. ' tome xcviii. 385. and are escis quamque suas quod inhibitum filias cum et illud diversis erroribus nihil pollui se inquiunt liceat iugum ducere cum infidelibus.^ It could hardly be expected that the laity would exhibit more zeal in such a matter than the clergy. § 123 (p. is significant of the tendencies that rapidly so were at work. verses ol a Christian poet of the eleventh century are still extant. 18." in potu et in : est. I. refuting the Scriptures. The study of Arabic very that the began to displace that of Latin throughout the country. and in outward observances imitated to some extent their Muhammadan neighbours. ipsi enim (Migne Patr. are showy young men. § 123 (p. ' * Hadrian John of Gorz. 385. et sic populo gentili tradentur. "Cum contempt! essemus simplicitas Christiana.404. which exhibit considerable skill in handling the language and metre. the Muslim) sects of their sacred ordinances and meeting together to study the — not for the purpose of philosophers — their but for the exquisite charm and for the eloquence and beauty of their language — neglecting the reading of or rather philobraggers errors. 95. many were circumcised. Letter of Lum. 406). 53). e. or the Prophets. Even some of the higher clergy ren- by their ignorance of correct Latinity. The very term Muzarabes to must'aribin or Arabicised) applied the Spanish Christians living under Arab rule. § 42 (p.g.e. absorbed in the study of the Holy Scriptures. beast.^ and in matters of food and drink followed the practice of the "unbaptized Aziz." ^ (i.) Isidori Pacensis Chionicon. e. "contenti essemus simplicitati christians: (pp.) * of his time. look at the works of any of the Latin Fathers ? Who is there with or any zeal for the writings of the Evangelists.THE SPANISH CHRISTIANS igainst UNDER ARAB RULE. with their elegant airs in their dress and carriage." but " hardly much better. p. and in 854 a Spanish writer dered themselves ridiculous brings the following complaint against his Christian fellow-coun: trymen — " While we are investigating their (i. 303). alio benedicent. without word of blame.i Many of the Christians adopted Arab names. ^ Alvar: Indie. ut nulli : Lat. 1266). the 1 pagans. ? Apostles Our Christian and fluent speech.

the Latins pay so little attention to their own language.ii8 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. knowing nothing of the beauty of the Church's literaand looking down with contempt on the streams of the Church that flow forth from Paradise alas the Christians are so ignorant of their own law." i In fact the knowledge of Latin so much declined in one part of Spain that it was found necessary to translate the ancient Canons of the Spanish Church and the Bible into Arabic for the use of the Christians.e. and having been baptised. . famed intoxicated with Arab for the learning of the gentiles eloquence they greedily handle. every line ending with the same letter. ! rabble of all kinds of them who can learnedly roll out the grandi- loquent periods of the Chaldean tongue. p. while you may find a countless . I ^ ^ ^"'"^'™c" J"'?'''-vol." 3 own whom we diligent From such close intercourse with the Muslims and so SS4-6). and could with difficulty find teachers to induct them even into this low level of culture. from Rome or subject as we are to the infidels who have we have never ventured to ask for teachers France and they have never come to us of their . They can even make poems. As time went on this want of Christian education increased more and more. ture. 928. p. * 35 (pp. . freely observe the Christian ordinances but we have never had it in our power to be fully instructed in our : . u. those who desired an education in Christian literature had little more than the materials that had been employed in the training of the barbaric Goths. Orderic Vitalis. that in the whole Christian flock there is hardly one man in a thousand who can write a letter to inquire after a friend's health intelligibly. While the divine religion long oppressed us. 96. In 1125 the Muzarabes " We and our fathers have wrote to King Alfonso of Aragon up to this time been brought up among the gentiles. eagerly devour and zealously discuss the books of the Chaldeans (i. and make them known by praising them with every flourish of rhetoric. .^ fascination brilliant literature of the Arabs exercised such a and was so zealously studied. accord on account of the barbarity of the heathen obey. which display higher flights of beauty and more skill in handling metre than the gentiles themselves possess. Muhammadans). for. Von Schack.

doubtless (as was suggested by Pope Leo III." (Migne Patr. we may judge Christians of Spain was very that the influence of Islam upon the of considerable.) * Pseudo-Luitprandi Chronicon. tome cxxi." (Migne : Patr. a study of their literature 119 we find even so bigoted an acknowledging that the Qur'an was composed in such eloquent and beautiful language that even we should Christians could not help reading and admiring it and such naturally expect to find signs of a religious influence indeed is the case. presided over Catalonia. autumantes. ne Christiani detrimentum acciperent convictu Saracenoram. 862. et venusto confectas eloquio." ' There is little record of such. Helfferich. sed apertis vocibus vatis sui dogmata prsedicant.* influenced by their contact with Muhammadans. quo providetur. priedicationis deliramenta.) : : ' ' * Enhueber. 353. but on his return to Spain he relapsed into his old heresy. but they seem referred to in the following : sentences of Eulogius (Liber Apologeticus Martyrum. " Compositionem verborum. indeed in a. 313. § 26. p. 88. 936 a council consider the best means was held at Toledo to preventing this intercourse from faith. 810). § 20).d. Elipandus. at the timej owing to his intercourse with the pagans (meaning thereby the Muhammadans) who held When prominent churchmen were so profoundly similar views. Lat. which was under French protection.^ contaminating the purity of the Christian It may readily be understood how these influences of Islamic efforts at thought and practice — added to definite conversion ^ ' Alvar Ind. nos ho die per eorum volumina et oculis legimus et plerumque miramur. et preces omnium eius membrorum quotidie pro eo eleganti facundia.' by Charlemagne. Bishop of Toledo (ob. and made to abjure his error. tome cxv. non modo privatis. p. Lum. Lat. fugiens ad paganos consentaneos periuratus effectus est. Bishop of Urgel in opponent of Islam as Alvar 1 —when — : — — Felix was brought before a council. tome ci.) . on Muhammad: "Cuius quidem erroris insaniam. § 29. 546. Lat. (Migne Patr. IIIS). et impise novitatis praecepta quisquis catholicorum cognoscere cupit. p. "Basilius Toletanum con§ 341 (p. " Postmodum transgressus legem Dei. evidentius ab eiusdem sectfe Quoniam sacrum se quidpiam tenere et credere cultoribus perscrutando advertet. while it was successfully propagated in Septimania.^ This new doctrine appears to have spread quickly over a great part of Spain." Frobenii dissertatio de h^eresi Elipandi et Felicis.MUSLIM INFLUENCES ON CHRISTIAN THOUGHT. by Felix. an exponent of the heresy of Adoptionism according to which the Man Christ Jesus was Son of God by adoption and not by nature is expressly said to have arrived at these heretical views through his frequent and close intercourse with the Muhammadans. p. p. § xxiv. cilium contrahit .

the only approach to anything like persecution during the whole period of the Arab rule is to be found in the severe measures adopted by the Muhammadan government to repress the madness for voluntary martyrdom that broke out in Cordova in the ninth century.^ But the majority of the converts were no doubt influence of the faith of Islam won over by the imposing itself. p.! and as early as the beginning of the ninth century we read of attempts several later occasions they made by them to shake off the Arab rule. Besides. Taking into consideration the ardent religious feeling that animated the mass of the Spanish Muslims and the provocation that the Christians gave to the Muhammadan government through their treacherous intrigues with their co-religionists over the border. With the exception of three or four cases of genuine martyrdom. Some few apostatised to escape the pay- We ment of some penalty inflicted by the law-courts. to the devout mind Islam in Spain could offer the attractions of a pious and zealous Puritan party with the orthodox Muslim theologians at its head. would lead to much more than a mere approximation and would very speedily swell the number of the converts to Islam so that term denoting their descendants. the study of which may well by itself have served as an incentive to the adoption of their religion.I20 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. . Again. p. 2 Samson. have little or no details of the history of the conversion of these New-Muslims. and on come forward actively as a national party of Spanish Muslims. having a poetry. At this time a fanatical party ' Dozy (2). the so-called Muwallads—a formed a large and important those not of Arab blood— soon party in the state. which at times had a preponderating influence in the state and struggled earnestly towards a reformation of faith and morals. a philosophy and an art well calculated to attract the reason and while in the lofty chivalry of the Arabs dazzle the imagination there was free scope for the exhibition of manly prowess and the : knightly virtues —a career closed to the conquered Spaniards that remained true to the Christian faith. tome ii. 379. the learning and literature of the Christians must have appeared very poor and meagre when compared with that of the Muslims. 53. presented to them as it was with all the glamour of a brilliant civilisation. the history of Spain under free Muhammadan rule is singularly from persecution. indeed the majority of the population of the country.

History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. vol. would very speedily bring upon its followers the destruction of hell-fire. 342. Pref. (p. p. ? seek the eternal salvation of the Gospel of the faith of Christ " 1 On another occasion two Christians forced their way into a mosque and there reviled the Muhammadan religion. into perdition. 794). deliver yourselves from such dangers ? consume him !). he burst out " He hath lied unto you (may the curse of God with the words : who. § 2.) ^ ' Id. they declared. who.) .3 Though the number of such fanatics was not considerable. for in fact. and will expiate Why do ye not. for example. in the silence of their and the decay of religious zeal.) (London 1846. hath led so many men and doomed them with himself to the pit of hell. of which the tolerathey went forth to win the martyr's crown tion of their infidel rulers was robbing them by means of fierce attacks on Islam and its founder. cxv. by such misguided assertion of their This strange passion for self-immolation displayed itself mainly over among It priests. cloisters. The number of the martyrs : Prescott (W. 737. had to send an army against the Christians at Toledo. which set and unprovokedly to insult itself openly the religion of the Muslims and blaspheme their Prophet. which. when the Qadi had expounded to him the doctrines of the Prophet. n. Thus. such contempt for their authority and disregard of their laws against blasphemy.^ fearing that the Muhammadan government grew alarmed. endowed with understanding. came before the Qadi and pretended that the decline of Christian influence — — he wished to be instructed in the faith of Islam . c. p. is said not to have exceeded forty. he hath given you a cup of deadly wine to work disease in you. monks and nuns between the years 850 and 860. argued a widespread disaffection and a possible general insurrection. would seem that brooding. (Migne. ' Bulogius: Mem. being his guilt with everlasting damnation. Why do ye not. in 853 Muhammad I. Sanct. xiii. Filled with Satan and practising Satanic jugglery. lar came into existence among the Christians in this part of Spain (for apparently the Christian Church in the rest of the countryhad no sympathy with the movement).THE MARTYRS OF CORDOVA. with the deliberate intention of incurring the penalty of death Christian bigotry. by name Isaac. i. full of wickedness. H. torn. a certain monk. renouncing the ulcer of his pestilential doctrines.

nemo urbanus. iii. Dei Nonne pastores Christi. qu£E nee et publica imminente mortis sententia erant dicenda. . Lum. proceres et magnati. absque interrogatione. One of the Spanish Muhammadans who was driven out of ' Dozy (2). Lum. 529." ^ Alvar Ind. by Eulogius. blasphemy with the utmost party in the Church seconded the efforts of the government the bishops anathematised the fanatics. qui credebantur electi.i is have ordered a general massacre of the Christians. haereticos eos esse publice clamaverunt? professione sine desquisitione. the king contented himself with putting The moderate . p. spontanea voluntate. but when it was pointed out that no men of any intelligence or rank among the Christians had taken part in such doings ^ (for He said to Alvar himself complains that the majority of the Christian into force the existing laws against rigour. martyres infamavenmt? abbates. c. nemine provocante. (p. Sanct.) " Quid obtendendum est de illis quos ecclesiasAlvar Indie. imo feraliter et belluino terrore coegimus. p. vii. had risen revolt on the news of the sufferings of their co-religionists. : : : * Baudissin. : tome ii. Eulogius Mem. § 15. imo Epicureorum. the chief apologist of the martyrs. priests condemned the martyrs 3). doctores Ecclesiee. qui § 14. 199. 805). But such incidents are excepMuhammadan his — Jews and the tions to the generally tolerant character of the rulers of Spain towards their Christian subjects. p. protulerunt " (Migne tom. I. there was an outburst of fanaticism on the part of the theological zealots of Islam in which the Christians had liberal section of the to suffer along with the the poets and the Muhammadan population the philosophers. after martyrdom are recorded which there was none as long as the Arab rule lasted in Spain.122 incited in THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. et maledictum ne maledictionibus impeterent? Evangelio et crace educta vi iurare improbiter fecimus. quos non pneit personalis dux ^ " Nonne ipsi qui videbantur columnE. minantes inaudita supplicia. et monstruosa promittentes truncationum membrorum varia et horrenda dictu audituve flagella?" (Migne tom. cxxi. iudicem adierunt. i6l-2. et libero mentis ? arbitrio. cxxi. et in pnesentia Cyniconim. and an ecclesiastical council that was held in 852 to discuss the matter agreed upon methods of repression * that eventually quashed the movement. nullusque procerum Christianorum huiuscemodi rem perpetrasset." But under the Berber dynasty of the Almoravids at the beginning of the twelfth century. et a quibus ne aliquando ad martyrii surgerent palmam iuramentum extorsimus? quibus errores gentilium infringere vetuimus. " Pro eo quod nuUus sapiens. idcirco non debere universes perimere asserebant.) : ad prfelium. episcopi. tice interdiximus. nuUo cogente. 530. putabantur Ecclesi^e petrte. later —the One or two isolated cases of last in 983. p. men of letters. presbyteri.

on account of different persuasions in points of faith. when it was in their power? not suffer your forefathers to enjoy the free use of their rites at the injunction of our Prophet. pp. and being emwithout reserve we contenting ployed in posts of trust. 345."^ made one of the main articles an account of the " Apostacies and Treasons of the Moriscoes. and only attempted by men who had not the fear of God. vol. by compulsion. makes : the following vindication of the toleration of his co-religionists " Did our victorious ancestors ever once attempt to extirpate Did they Christianity out of Spain. taking to wife our daughters. without ever offering to examine their consciences.. are ever open to receive all who are disposed but we are not allowed by our sacred to embrace our religion over consciences. that anywise approaches your execrable Inquisition. Our proselytes have all Qur'an to tyrannize imaginable encouragement. . and have no sooner professed God's Unity and His Apostle's mission but they become one of us. as follows : " That they Morgan. honour and profit ourselves with only obliging them to wear our habit. among us. have acted directly and diametrically contrary to the holy precepts and ordinances of Islam which cannot. formal tribunal.8. . or to embrace what other belief they themselves best approved of ? If there may have been some examples of forced conversions. that same time that they wore their chains ? Is not the absolute whatever nation is conquered by Musalman steel. outward appearance. and to seem ." drawn up by the Archbishop of Valencia in 1602 when recomThis very spirit of toleration was in mending their expulsion to Philip 1 III. and who. before their eyes. without sacrilege. it is true. . and the Prophet. Our arms. any epithet of Musulman bloodthirsty. 297. provided they do not openly revile or profane our religion if they do that.THE TOLERATION ENJOYED BY THE CHRISTIANS. how absurd soever. upon the payment of a moderate annual tribute. we indeed punish them as they deserve since their conversion was voluntarily. ii. should. be violated by any who would be held worthy of the honourable You can never produce. be permitted to persevere in their own pristine persuasion. in so doing. native 123 country in the last expulsion of the Moriscoes in 1610 while protesting against the persecutions of the Inquisition. and was not true believers in : . they are so rare as scarce to deserve mentioning.

draws attention to the fact that among the Moors were a few Christians who had vol.* Finally.' ' Morgan. these unfor- tunate people still clung to the faith of their fathers. so commended nothing much as that Hberty of conscience.^ These Moriscoes were probably all descendants of the original inhabitants of the country. and suffer their subjects to enjoy. nearly one million of them " those who go are said to have been expelled at that time lowest make the numbers of the then expelled Moriscoes to amount to six hundred thousand a terrible blow for a country which. Islam won converts to the faith. not more than 500 were of Arab descent. was not overstocked with natives. which the Turks. 227. p. seven years after the fall of Granada. even then. p. it is of interest to note that even up to the last days of its power in Spain. 310. Stirling-Maxwell. What deep roots Islam had struck people may be judged from the fact of the Moriscoes in the hearts of the Spanish that when the last remnant was expelled from Spain in 1610. derived from a letter written in 131 descendants of converted Spaniards. p.000 Muhammadans then living in the city of Granada. in all all matters of religion. * i.124 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.) . ' ^ Id. that may be adduced . p. in which it is stated that of the 200. with little or no admixture of Arab blood the reasons ruins. 337. lately embraced the faith of the Prophet. although for more than a century they had been forced to outwardly conform to the Christian religion. I15. in support of this statement are too lengthy to be given here one point only in the evidence may be men1. there . all the rest being tioned. when writing of events that occurred in the year 1499. 289. Id. ii. (Vol. ' Id." ^ Whole : : towns and villages were deserted and the houses fell into being no one to rebuild them." ^ other Muhammadans. p. and in spite of the emigrations that had taken place since the fall of Granada. for the historian.

Thessaly and Thrace. which. their dominions stretched from the ^gsean to the Danube. In 1353 the Ottoman Turks first passed over into Europe and a few years later Adrianople was made their European capital. increasing the petty states into Vienna in 1683. Bosnia and Servia. IN We first hear of the Ottoman Turks at the commencement of the century.. Under Bayazid (1389-1402). Murad II. they came to the help of the Sultan of thirteenth Iconium. annexing kingdom after kingdom.^ From the subjects. Albania. (1451-1481) by the overthrow of Constantinople. earliest Asia Minor. (1520-1566) added Hungary and made the JEgxan an Ottoman sea. Sulayman II. became master of the whole South-Eastem peninsula. when fieeing before the Mongols. This was the nucleus of the future at first by the absorption of which the Saljuq Turks had split up. Macedonia. afterwards crossed over into Europe.000. and in return for their services both against the Mongols and the Greeks. In the seventeenth century Crete was won and Podolia ceded by Poland. had assigned to them a district in the north-west of Asia Minor. with the exception of Chalkidike and the district just round Constantinople. until its victorious growth received a check before the gates of Ottoman empire.CHAPTER VI. Muhammad II. to the number of about 50. (1421-1451) occupied Chalkidike and pushed his conquests to the Adriatic. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHRISTIAN NATIONS EUROPE UNDER THE TURKS. after the capture of Constantinople and the established ' This is no place to give a history of these territorial acquisitions. which may summed up thus. the but fell it days of the extension of their kingdom in Ottomans exercised authority over Christian was not until the ancient capital of the Eastern Empire the into their hands in 1453 that the relations between Muslim Government and the Christian church were definitely on a fixed basis. be briefly . One of the first steps taken by Muhammad II. embracing all Bulgaria. with the exception of the parts of the coast held by Venice and Montenegro.

never was left entirely in his hands and those of the grand Synod which he could summon whenever he pleased and hereby he could decide all matters of faith and dogma without fear of interference on the part of the state.i But not only was the head of the church treated with all the respect he had been accustomed to receive from the Christian emperors. . as the protector of the orthodox Phrantzes. Ottoman prefects over the orthodox population. patriarch after the Turkish conquest. and we find that the higher clergy were generally more active as Turkish agents than as Greek priests. Gennadios. 305-6. but further he was invested with extensive civil power. received from the hands of the Sultan himself the pastoral staff. matters (in The complete control of and ecclesiastical which the Turkish govern- civil power of the Byzantine empire. on which he was privileged to ride with his train through the city. The Greek bishops in the provinces in their turn were treated with great consideration and were entrusted with so much jurisdiction in civil affairs. the enjoyment of the old privileges. re-establishment of order in that city. thus taking the aristocracy which had been exterminated by the conquerors. and they always taught their people that the Sultan place of the old Christian possessed a divine sanction.126 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. The patriarch's court sat to decide all cases between Greek and Greek it could impose fines. As a recognised officer of the imperial government. the first tions enjoyed under the former rule. and in some cases even condemn to capital punishment while the ministers and officials of the government were the Greek church. that up to modern times they have acted in their dioceses as a kind of ment. unlike the interfered). which was the sign of his office. . by bringing the acts of unjust governors to the notice of the Sultan. was to secure the allegiance of the Christians. by proclaiming himself the protector of Persecution of the Christians was strictly was granted to the newly-elected patriarch which secured to him and his successors and the bishops under him. imprison offenders in a prison provided for its own special use. ' . forbidden a decree : : directed to enforce spiritual its judgments. pp. he could do much for the alleviation of the oppressed. revenues and exemp. together with a purse of a thousand golden ducats and a horse with gorgeous trappings.

iii. the life •eligious toleration thus granted them. 502. were equally unlikely to be averse The degradation and tyranny that characto a change of rulers. and the protection of md jf to property they enjoyed. would offer a possible chance of improving it. or of their cattle." Martin Baumgarten. p. and authorising them to celebrate their religious )rthodox the use of such churches as ites publicly according to their national usages. armies of tax and custom collectors. soon reconciled them to the change masters and led that of them to prefer the domination of the Sultan any Christian power. 52-4. Besides. terised " the dynasty of the Palseologi are frightful to contemplate. 373. to work for the State two days of the week wherever they shall please to appoint him and if any shall fail. traveller virho visited Cyprus in 1508 draws the following picture of the ' the inhabitants of ' All tyranny of the Venetians in their foreign possessions Cyprus are slaves to the Venetians. its monopolies. being obliged to pay to the state a third part of all their increase or income. ^ p.3 The Greeks who lived under the immediate government of the Byzantine court. . A charter was subsequently published. ' left the degraded people neither rights nor seconde partie. since it could not make their condition worse. vol. and though their deliverers were likewise aliens. aristocracy. and still more.i Consequently. yet the infidel Turk was infinitely to be preferred to the heretical Catholics. securing to the had not been confiscated to brm mosques.^ to whom a change of rulers. in many parts of the country. vol.) iii. or for indisposition of body. these had reduced the people to the miserable condition of serfs. iii. the as Ottoman conquerors were welcomed by the Greeks from the rapacious and tyrannous rule of the who had so long disputed with Byzantium for the possession of the Peloponnesos and some of the adjacent parts of Greece by introducing into Greece the feudal system. 522. p. Pitzipios. its clergy. the oppression of perverted law. vol. though the Greeks were numerically superior to . there is yearly some tax or other are absent from their work imposed on them. wine. 127 hurch. by reason of some other business of their own. or any other thing. race and creed. (The Finlay. Indeed. the exactions of a despicable govern- ment.THE GREEK CHRISTIANS UNDER MUSLIM RULE. d'Ohsson. p. : : : A that Travels of ^ they hardly have wherewithal to keep soul and body together. were hated by their subjects. their deliverers Franks and the Venetians . p. every man of them is bound oil. a tyrannical A corrupt and innumerable its fiscality. M. whether the product of their ground or corn. 75.he Turks in all the European provinces of the Empire. and as aliens in speech. Finlay. then they are made to pay a fine for as many days as they and which is more. with which the poor common people are so flead and pillaged.

p. in tanta tanl:e urbis coUuvie. inter barbaros. At length the Lord poured out His thunder on these unworthy rulers. and raised up Muhammad. p. 3 Martin Cnisius writes in the same spirit " Et mirum est. Constantinople bring a similar indictment against its government. 82. and made himself extremely popular among them by admitting them freely to his society. and whose judges do not betray their trust. quam inlidelibus) iustitia administretur. and punished without mercy those of his officials who oppressed any For at least a century after the fall of Conof his subjects.128 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Id. the story of the capture of Constantinople tells us how even the impetuous Bayazid was liberal and generous to his Christian subjects. the Greek . p. quod omnes miseri. by a firm and vigorous administration. 81." ° (Turcogrsecia." i such a judgment appear dictated by a spirit of party bias. vol. 437. 92. vim Iniustam non ferri. neither chance of ameHoration nor hope of redress. : Karamsin. 1584. and an admirable civil and judicial organisation. . nuUas caedes audiri. ius cuivis dici. 487. Ideo Constantinopolin Sultanus. quoted by Clark ^ : : tam '' Christianis. a Lest contemporary authority may be appealed to in support of its The Russian annaUsts who speak of the fall of correctness. peace and order throughout their dominions. " Without the fear of the law an empire is like a steed without Constantine and his ancestors allowed their grandees to reins.) i(Basile.e. v. ibi tutissime latent quodque omnibus (tarn infimis quam summis ' Urquhart. . if it did not provide alike. distinguished himself by his attention to the administration of justice and by his reforms of the abuses prevalent under the Greek emperors. called upon to protest against Turkish injustice but it is clearly and abundantly borne out by the testimony of contemporary hisThe Byzantine historian who has handed down to us torians. Refugium totius orbis scribit. courts there was no more justice in their law oppress the people no more courage in their hearts the judges amassed . whose warriors delight in battle.* Murad II. p. institutions. treasures from the tears soldiers -citizens and blood of the innocent . an absolutely impartial justice for Muslims and Christians Races of European Turkey.^ •stantinople a series of able rulers secured. the the soldiers were not ashamed to fly." ^ This last item of praise ^ may sound strange in the ears of a generation that for the last fifty years has constantly been .) Phrantzes. were proud only of the magnificence of their dress did not blush at being traitors . p. .

' There is however one notable exception to this general good treatment and toleration. ^ Finlay. they assumed the dress and manners of Turks. S. The Turkish dominions were certainly better governed and more prosperous than most parts of Christian Europe. the Ottomans were great makers of roads and bridges. it formed for centuries the mainstay of the despotic power 3f the Turkish Sultans. which capitulated to Urkhan in 1330 under the most Turkish conquest 'avourable terms after a long. pp. The Muhammadan legists attempted to apologise for this ' ' Hertzberg.protracted siege. 123. They were trifling harassed by fewer exactions of forced labour. under the government of the Sultan than their contemporaries did under that of many Christian nonarchs. and the mass of the Christian population engaged in the :ultivation of the soil enjoyed a larger measure of private liberty md of the fruits of their labour.^ Like the ancient Romans. v. 646. for the early Sultans were always ready foster trade and commerce among their subjects. p. and many of :he great cities entered upon an era of prosperity when the had delivered them from the paralyzing fiscal Dppression of the Byzantine empire. Finlay. viz. too. when the officers of the Sultan the districts on which the tax was imposed.i A great impulse. was given to the commercial sxtraordinary contributions )aid were a ictivity .o of the country. ret 129 caused the Greeks to be far better off than they had been lefore. vol. who were forcibly taken from their parents at an early age and snrcUed in the famous corps of Janissaries. and rnade a selection from among the children between the ages of six and visited line. one of the first of them being Nicaea. Foreign states which the Catholics had hitherto always refused to the af members Greek church. K . 650.GREEK CHRISTIANS UNDER OTTOMAN RULE. and the taxes they burden compared with the endless feudal )bIigations of the Franks and the countless extortions of the Byzantines. and was kept alive by a regular contributhe tion exacted every four years. 156-7. were rarely levied. but now sailing under the Ottoman flag. v. the tribute of Christian children. pp. vol. Instituted by Urkhan in 1330. md and their empire were compelled to admit the Greek merchants into ports from which they had been excluded in the time of the Byzantine emperors. 467. and thus secured Erom the nations of Western Europe the respect and consideration thereby facilitated trade throughout .

in quibus egregia indoles pr« ceteris ad publica officia militise togatse et bellies in Aula educari curarunt ita Turci. who would otherwise have been left to perish further.* and the circumstances under which this tribute was first imposed may go far to explain the apathy which the Greeks themselves appear to have exhibited. p. x. officers who collected the appointed number them of children.130 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. tome iii. the custom so widely prevalent at that time of selling Christians as slaves may have made this tax appear less appalling than might have been expected. oppidis. 100. by representing these children as the fifth of the which the Our'an assigns to the sovereign. mus par leur fanatisme. .! and they pretribute ^ inhuman spoil scribed that the injunction against forcible conversion should be observed with regard to them also. Les principes du gouvemement s'y opposaient aussi bien que les preceptes du Cour'ann et si des ofticiers.^ Christian Europe tax. usaient quelquefois de contrainte. 472. 12-13. its numbers were rapidly swelled by voluntary accessions fi-om the Christians themselves. since these captives were brought up and educated as ' they were the Sultan's 2 own children. occupato Gi-secorum imperio. certum numerum elucebat. ex singulis liberorum. and pic- has always expressed tures of desolated horror at such a barbarous Turkish dominions have painted touching homes and of parents weeping for the children torn from their arms. " Sed hoc tristissimum : est.* This Qur'an." (M. but rather that the parents were often eager to have their children enrolled in a service that brilliant career. The whole country had been laid waste by war. viii. "On Qur'an. and families were often in danger of perishing with hunger the children who were thus adopted were in many cases orphans. ne for5ait cependant pas les jeunes Chretiens a changer de foi. 397. leur conduite k cet ^gard pouvait bien 8tre tolerie mais elle n'^tait ." (David Chytraus. jamais autoris^e par les chefs. been maintained to have been only a continuation of a similar usage that was in force under the Byzantine emperors. But when the corps was first instituted. secured for in many cases a and under any circumstances a little if well-cared-for and comfortable existence. M. ' Hertzberg. 42. d'Ohsson.) * Creasy.) ^ . usurpant. although the tender age at which they were placed under the instruction of Muslim teachers must have made travellers in the it practically of its none effect .^ It has even been said that there was seldom any necessity of an appeal to force on the part of the . delegerunt quos : pp. pp. p. This custom has. * quod. tome iii. idem ius eripiendi patribus familias liberos ingeniis eximiis praeditos. d'Ohsson. moreover. 99. among . 397-8. p. 99. ut dim Christiani imperatores.

p. ' In a work published by Joseph Georgirenes. and the following year two. 648 . the Papas or Parish Priest of the Church of his Residence presents him fifteen or twenty dollers. i.e. p. these Wretches pecunia p. 11. the value of the dollar was fixed at eighty aspers (Finlay. it should be borne in mind that he speaks of the capitation-tax as " At his (i. 487 . coming.THE JANISSARIES. institution 131 if it appears in a less barbarous light be true that the by a money payment. 272. 5 and 10 piastres a head for every full-grown male. § * Georgirenes.) ' Joseph von Hammer vol. according to his income. p. Every Layman pays him forty-eight aspers— (In the commercial treaty with England. he gives us an account of the income of his own see. and the ease with which men acquiesce in any established usage though serving in no way as an excuse for so inhuman an institution may help us to understand the readiness with which the Greeks seem to have fallen in with this demand of the new government that so materially improved their condition.' and seventeenth speak of this tax as being a ducat a head. 8-9).* The fluctuating exchange value of the Turkish coinage in the seventeenth century is the probable explanation of the latter variations. parents could often redeem their children — — Further. 5 or 5| crowns or dollars. p. De la Jonquiire. as Tournefort points out.) (London.) " Veram tamen hos (liberos) redimere a conquisitoribus ssepe it parentibus licet. (An account of a late voyage to Athens. the Archbishop's) first being three crowns or dollars (p. during a visit to London. 28) and the following years twentyfour. pays three or four " — (PP. 56 J Ilertzberg. The first year of his coming. (2). To estimate with any exactitude how far this tax was a burden to those who had to pay it. p. the Christian subjects of the Turkish empire military service. 91 . as they were here set down for the benefit of English readers : in comparing the sums here mentioned. in 1678. had to pay the capitation tax. Archbishop of Samos. Tournefort." (David Chytraeus.^ but it is also variously described as amounting to 3.^ But by itself it could hardly have formed a valid excuse for a change of faith. p. vol. These extenuating circumstances at the outset.33-4-) K 2 . Georgieviz. : when writing in 1700 of the con- version of the Candiots ' " It must be confessed. in return for protection and in lieu of The rates fixed by the Ottoman law were 2^. Scheffler. 9 . p. the details of which are not likely to have been considered extortionate. 13. p. The Samians pay one Doller for a Licence . p. concluded in the year 1675. 67 . v. Tavemier (3). every Parish Priest pays him four doUers. all Strangers two j but he that comes after first marriage for a Licence for a second or third. would require a Christian writers of the sixteenth centuries generally lengthened disquisition on the purchasing value of period money at that and a comparison with other items of expenditure. 1676. De la Guilleti^re mentions in 1669 as one of the privileges of the Athenians. ii. 151. Sansovino. 267. 9S-9 . ' Martin Crusius. p. they of the other Churches according to their Abilities.

however." . th( Christians in Turkey are subjected. . and the Servians. and the Privilege of being exempt from the year.^ The land taxes were the same both for Christians and Musalmans. p. 24-5. . arf rarely found to exist in the time of a nation's decay. p. In the eighteenth century. their Souls a they get in exchange for their Religion. is a Vest. * I ' Finlay. were not only contrary to the Muham- Such acts of oppression madan law. Denn es ist zwar wahr. 346. sufferings which l^araj was paid by the non-Muhammadan was not recognised by the Ottomans. Tournefort. so werdet ihr mit § 56." Rev. But it is very noticeable that in those very times in which the condition of the Christians had been most intolerable there is authorities to go unpunished. and those on proprietor.132 sell THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. . . which has instigated those acts ol atrocity to which. vol. when the ' condition of the Christians was worse than at any other i. but were rare before the central government had grown weak and suffered the corruption and injustice of local There is a very marked difference between the accounts we have of the condition of the Christians during the first two centuries of the Turkish rule in Europe and those of a later date. p. vol. p. W.. war contributions. which is not above five Crowns a represent the condition of the Scheffler also.^ least record of conversion to Islam. i. admits that the one ducat a head was a trifling matter. ^ Scheffler. vol."i Capitation-Tax. and still more at the present day.) . both in former times. sharpened by personal hatred. 15. v. und miissen von den Tiirckischen Unterthanen so wohl gegeben werden als bey uns. Denton. " The hard lot of the Christian subjects of the Sultan has at all times aiisei) from the fact that the central authority at Constantinople has but little real authority throughout the Empire of Turkey. 1862.^ for the old distinction between lands on which tithe was paid by the Muhammadan proprietor. Hammer (2). when the period of decadence had fully set in. etc. Servif . position to extort who took advantage of their official money from those under their jurisdiction. that they were called upon to pay. and has to lay stress on the extraordinary taxes. In the days of a nation's greatness justice and even magnanimity towards a subject race are possible these. (London. 91.* Whatever the Christians had to endure proceeded from the tyranny of individuals. demselben in eurem Sinn ebener massen greulich betrogen. dass der Tiirckisclie Kayser ordentlich nicht mehr nimt als vom Haupt einen Ducaten: aber wo bleiben die Zblle und ausserordentliche Anlagen! nehmen dann seine Konigliche Verweser und Hauptleute nichts ? muss man zu Kriegen nichts ausser ordentlich geben ? Was aber die ausser ordentliche Anlagen betrifft die steigen und fallen nach den bosen Zeiten. who is anxious to Pennyworth : all Christians under Turkish rule in as black colours as possible. " Was aber auch den Ducaten anbelangt. It is the petty tyranny of the village officials.

pp. plus corbes sous le joug que ceux qui meconnaissent le prophete.) ' It was in the sixteenth century that the tribute of children fell into desuetude.THE CAPITATION-TAX." (W. a I'arbitraire. In some parts of the kingdom the poverty of the Mussulmans may be actually worse than the poverty of the Christians." (William Forsyth The Slavonic Provinces South of the Danube. In his private affairs. vi. 446. (London. pp. qui naissent de I'oppression .) (t^ondon. M. . sont peut-etre plus indignement spolies. the lowest order of Christians are not in a worse condition in Asia Minor than the same class of Turks . vol." (Finlay. 43-4. a Greek had a better chance of obtaining justice from his bishop and the elders of his district than a Turk from the cadi or the voivode. however. of the satisfaction of seeing that as they are themselves . period. pp. "The central government of the Sultan has generally treated its Mussulman subjects with as much cruelty and injustice as the conquered Christians. en Turquie.) "L'Europe s'imagine que les Chretiens seuls sont soumis. aux souffrances. 133 at all.i to A further proof that their sufferings have been due misgovernment rather than to religious persecution is the fact Muslims and Christians suffered alike. 7. pp. also Laurence Oliphant : The Land of Gilead. and if the Christians of European Turkey have some advantages arising from the effects superiority of their numbers over the Turks. aux avilissements de toute nature. in the north of Asia Minor) falls upon the Mohammedan population equally with the Christian.e. 4-5.) "All this oppression and misery (i. Leake : Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor. to which the conquered Greeks seem to have submitted with so little show of resistance. p. by the direct exercise of the sultan's power. 320-3. insurrection against its continuance. and it is their condition which most excites the pity of the traveller." (De la Jonquiere.' The Christians would. il n'en est rien ! Les musulmans. those of Asia have the the Turks are as much oppressed by the men in power and they have to deal with a race of Mussulmans generally milder.) It would be a mistake to suppose that the Christians are the only part of the population that is oppressed and miserable. p. 1880. and falls with a heavy hand upon all alike." (James Bryce Transcaucasia and Ararat. 507. and the last recorded example of its exaction w^s in the year 1676. and better principled than those of Europe. 157-8.) Cf. not to any revolt or obtaining redress at law. p.) ruling class rather than '' : (London. we find hardly any mention of conversions and the ' Turks themselves are represented as utterly indifferent to the progress of their religion and considerably infected with scepticism and unbelief. Turkish misgovernment is uniform.) " To judge from what we have already observed. more religious. precisement parce que nulla puissance etrang^re ne s'interesse i eux. But if we except the tribute of the children. 1824. naturally be more exposed to extortion and that ill-treatment owing to the difficulties that lay in the way of and some of the poorest may thus have sought a relief from their sufferings in a change of faith.^ ' — the treatment of Businello. The sufferings of the Greeks were caused by the insolence and oppression of the ' and the corruption that reigned in the Othoman administration. and which owed its abolition. 381. 1876. but to the increase of the Turkish population and of the number of the renegades who were constantly entering the Sultan's service.

p. 34.' and the Cossacks who belonged to the sect of the Old Believers and were persecuted by the Russian state church. And why do I pronounce them (the Poles) accursed? Because they have shown themselves more debased and wicked than the corrupt worshippers of idols. hbre mit grosser Verwunderung und Bestiirtzung. by the Ottoman emperors— at least for conquest of Greece exhibits a toleration their Christian subjects two centuries after their such as was at that time quite unknown in the rest of Europe. so ware man frey . long preferred to submit to the Turks rather than fall into the hands of the fanatical house of Haps- — burg 1 and the Protestants of Silesia looked with longing eyes towards Turkey..* the Sultan the toleration which their Christian brethren denied Well might Macarius.^ It was to Turkey that the persecuted Spanish Jews fled for refuge in enormous numbers at the end of the fifteenth century. congratulate himself when he saw the fearful atrocities that the Catholic Poles inflicted : " We all Orthodox Eastern Church thousands of martyrs who were killed by those impious wretches. and would gladly have purchased religious free. Jews or Samaritans 333 . Denn ich : ." ^ • De " la Jonquiere. p. herkommen. p. .. sondern auch Gottlose Vermessenheiten seynd. and the Unitarians of the latter country. und iiber ihr eigen Ungliick frolocken welches nicht allein Halssbriichige. es sey unter dem Tiircken auch gut wohnen wann man einen Ducaten von Haupt gebe. Item er liesse die Religion frey man wiirde die Kirchen wieder hckommen und was vergleichen sondern dass auch andre. The number probably amounted to seventy or eighty thousand souls. that you should murder them ? . dass nicht allein unter den gemeinen Pbvel Reden im Schwange gehn. sich dessen erfreuen. Patriarch of Antioch in the seventeenth of the century. 650. dom at the price of submission to the Muslim rule. § 48. § 45-6.. the enemies of the faith. die aus keinem andrem Grunde. thinking to abolish the very name of Orthodox. be their subjects Christians or Nazarenes. als aus dem Geist der Ketzerey. die es wol besser verstehen sollten. found in the dominions of them.134 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and enter into no account of religion. 4 De la Jonquiere. O you infidels O you monsters of impurity O you hearts of stone What had the nuns and women done ? What the girls and boys and infant children. Scheffler. . in these forty or fifty years. The Calvinists of Hungary and Transylvania. der zum AulTruhr und gant/. : (Scheffler.) ' Hertzherg.licher Ausreitung des Christenthumbs geneigt ist. by their cruel treatment ! ! ! — on the Russians wept much over the of Christians. God perpetuate the empire of the Turks for ever and ever For they take their impost.

THE TOLERATION OF THE OTTOMAN TURKS. p. i. vol. §§ 51.) " Quidam obganniunt. tells us that " There is seldom any compulsion of conscience. ' ' ' De : . 1538. and snatches away Christ by fraud out Macarius." * testimony is borne by others an English gentleman who visited enjoying : might enjoy the freedom Turkey in the early part of the seventeenth century. vol. fol.' It is then clear that Islam was not spread by force in the dominion of the Sultan of Turkey. Yet it has been said by one who was a captive among them for twenty-two years that the Similar Turks " compelled no one to renounce his faith.. Vivis De Conditione Vitae Christianorum sub. "Alii speciem sibi quandam confixenint stultam libertatis . 183. to whose rule was no untried experience them. build churches. p. It would have been wonderful indeed if the ardour of proselytising that animated the Ottomans at this time had never carried them beyond the bounds of toleration established by their own laws. SchrifFt says. Turca. for fourteen years (1685-1699)." (Othonis '538. quam Christianus." the author « ^ Writing Tiircken- about thirty years later (in 1663). pp.' Even in Italy there were men who turned longing eyes towards the Turks in the hope that as their subjects they and the toleration they despaired of under a Christian government. the Turk) wins (converts) by more than by force. a. quod quum quasi is sub Christiano consequuturos se desperent. craft of a " Meanwhile he (i. 225." (Basileae.) Bninfelsii ad Principes et Christianos omnes Oratio. > Blount. 548.. la Jonqui^re. gladly welcomed back their former masters. ideo vel Turcam mallent (loannis Ludovici benignior sit in largienda libertate hac. after enduring the yoke of the Venetians the tyrannical Jews.e. pp. liberam esse sub Turca fidem. p. though willing to serve them them to the authority of the enemies of . 165. Finlay.) (Basileae. the Turks. spurcitise suggillatio. xvii." 1 The Greeks of the Morea in the seventeenth century. and then not by death. 342.) * Turcbica. p. 53. who did not even permit them to nor leave them any priests that knew the mysteries of their faith. from the brethren of Christ. 220. 135 whereas these accursed Poles were not content with taxes and tithes but they subjected Christ. where no criminal offence gives occasion. vol. such cases were rare in the first two centuries of the Turkish rule in Europe. and though the want of even-handed justice and the oppression of unscrupulous officials in the days of the empire's decline. may have driven some Christians to attempt to better their condition by a change of faith.. to which period the mass of conversions belong. v. 133. 222. ' Scbeffler. i.

136 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. by punishments and rewards.. Alexander Ross. upon a horse and led in If he was known to be genuinely honest in his change of faith and had voluntarily entered the pale of Islam. why will you not turn Musalman. Georgieviz. ' ' * Thomas Smith. p. For the Turk. p."* These zealous efforts for winning converts were rendered the ' Dousa. or if he was a person of good position. tells us that while he was admiring the great mosque of Santa Sophia." About a century later.! end they left no method of persuasion untried Dutch traveller of the sixteenth century. saying to him..*' . p.' that " The Turks are preposterously zealous in praying for the conversion. 190. and become their Proselytes. p. and every day in their Temples. ix. ct qu'il puisse appeller son convci li. he was received with high honour and some provision made for There was certainly abundant evidence for saying his support. you will be able to come here every day of your life. Thomas Smith. they will ask a Christian civilly enough. Busbecq. or perversion rather. 38. 42. i. in eflFecting of which they leave no means unassaied by fear and flattery. 548. an English traveller . Blount. qui soit capable de recevoir sans peine toutes sortes d'impressions. some Turks even tried to work upon his religious feelings through his aesthetic sense. p. vol. p.. p. may imbrace the Alcoran. What then has become of the Christians ? They are not of the hearts of expelled from the country. of Christians to their irreligious religion : that Christians they pray heartily. 276. at the present time compels no country by violence to apostatise but he uses other means whereby imperceptibly he roots out Christianity . afin de meriter I'honiieur d'avoir augmentc le nombrc ties fidMcs." show a The Turks considered that a man was to bring him and to this the greatest kindness they could into the salvation of the faith of Islam. i. " If you become a Musalman. Cf. 20. "On croit meriter beaucoup que de faire un Proselyte. neither are they forced to embrace the Turkish faith : then they must of themselves have been con- verted into Turks. il n'y a personne asscz riche pour avoir uil esclave qui n'en veiiille un jeune.had a similar experience " Sometimes out of : an excess of zeal. 32. The public rejoicings new convert to the faith. p. testily to which made these men such zealous ? " The new Muslim was set triumph through the streets of the city. and be as one of us that hailed the accession of a the ardent love for souls proselytisers. it is true. men. . vol. also Rycaut. as I have been asked myself in the Portico of Sancta Sophia.

O settatori di antichristo. che Tedeschi. Foremost Church. gladly accepted the clear and intelligible theistic teaching of Islam. e che ogni altra generation d christiani. Krniise: Die Byzantiner Latini. fol. The religion of the people had degenerated into a scrupulous observance of outward forms. rank and cona better provision for those of how the Turks monks and priests who embraced the Muslim creed. The only thing that disturbed this lethargy was the fierce controversial war waged against the Latin Church with all the bitterness of theological polemics and race hatred. Adrianople was still the Turkish capital (i. of pictures and relics. che gli Ungari. and the intense fervour of their devotion found an outlet in the worship of the Virgin and the saints. before 1453). more effective by certain conditions of Christian society 137 itself. che i . dannati alls pene infernali. se Greci. i qual: domenlicatisi della fede Christiana. ch' i non i pessimi christiani? lo son testimonio. There were many who turned from a church whose spiritual life had sunk so low. dition . among the but also learned men made of every class. pp. J.PROSELYTISING EFFORTS OF THE TURKS. 385-6. I-I. (a. not only from simple folk. the court was thronged with renegades and they are said to have formed the majority of the magnates there.) Lionardo of Scio. e ch: ' insegno a' turchi I'ordine." (Sansoviuo. among these was the degraded condition of the Greek Side by side with the civil despotism of the Byzantine had arisen an ecclesiastical despotism which had crushed air energy of intellectual life under the weight of a dogmatism that interdicted all discussion in matters of morals and religion. fol. in order that their example might lead While others to be converted. p.) ' Turehicae spurcitiae suggillatio.^ Byzantine princes and others often passed over to the side of the Muhammadans. welcome among them one of the earliest of such cases dates from 1140 when a nephew of the emperor John Comnenes embraced Islam and married a daughter of and received a ready : Mas'ud. mescolati co' turchi inipararono I'opere e la fede loro. 1S69. 258. By an anonymous writer who was a captive in Turkey from 1436 to 1458 TurchicEe spurcitiae suggillatio. We are told^ of large numbers of persons being converted. Archbishop o Mitylene.) des Mittelalters. xvii.e. xi. empire.) ' (Hnllc. espugnavano la citta O enipij che rinegasli Christo. and such trivialities as the use of leavened and unleavened bread in the Blessed Sacrament. the Sultan of Iconium. (b. and weary of interminable discussions on such subtle points of doctrine as the Double Procession of the Holy Spirit. speaks of the large number of renegades in the besieging army: "Chi circondo la citti. queito e hora i! vostro tempo. who was present at the taking of Constantinople.' After the fall of Constantinople.

p. 6l6. there no longer remains any room for suspicion in their minds. i. There is every reason to think that such was . " if difficulty lies in this profession of faith. . relics and saints. For only a persuade himself that he is a worshipper of the The whole man can One God. p.) Rycaut. Bizzi. (a. Turchicae Spurcitiae Suggillatio. fol. and the names of many other such individuals have found imperial family of the a record." The faith of Islam would now be the natural refuge for those members of the Eastern Church who felt such yearnings after a purer and simpler form of doctrine as had given rise to the Paulician heresy so fiercely suppressed a few centuries before. This the mill-stone that them into the pit hung about the necks of despair. xix. This movement had been very largely a protest against the superstitions of the Orthodox Church. For when many has plunged these fools hear the Turks execrate idolatry and express their horror of every image and picture as though it were the fire of hell. fol.138 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and the learned George abandoned Christianity in his declining Amiroutzes of Trebizond years. 7 10-71 1.) . the result of the unsuccessful attempt to Protestantise the Greek Church in the beginning of the seventeenth century. pp. v. the religion. Finlay. 49 (b. vol. vol. and an effort after simplicity of faith and the devout life. ii8.i The new is . fallen is poison of his error easily infects him under the guise of This is the rock of offence on which many have on of struck and into the snare that has brought perdition their souls. against the worship ol images. As some adherents of this heresy were to be found in Bulgaria even so late as the seventeenth century. such dissentient spirits would doubtless find a more congenial atmosphere in the religion of Islam. the upper classes of Christian society showed much more readiamong the ness to embrace Islam than the mass of the Greeks converts we meet with several bearing the name of the late Palseologi. and so continually profess and preach the worship of One God. creed " There of religion only demanded assent to its simple no god but God and Muhammad is the prophet ^ God " as the above-mentioned writer says.' the Muhammadan conquerors doubtless found many who were dissatisfied with the doctrine and practice of the Greek Church and as all the conditions were unfavourable to the formation of any such Protestant Churches as arose in the West. The guiding ' ^ ' Hertzberg.

148. spirit 139 of this movement was Cyril Lucaris. rejects the authority of the Church in the interpretation in of Holy Scripture. . as :he first 'oUowers ' had done.CYRIL LUCARIS. Greek Church his efforts Calvinists of in this direction were warmly supported by the Geneva. to assist the work by translating into Greek the writings of Calvinist which he strove to introduce into the theologians. doctrines of the Church of England nor of the Lutherans attracted Constantinople. the mass of the Greek clergy. who finally compassed the death of the In 1629 Cyril published a Confession of Faith. five times Patriarch of . p. we : — » Pichler. supported by the Catholic ambassadors. he denies the infallibility of the Church. for the purpose of studying theology in the seats of Protestant learning. him liberally the Jesuits. thus fulminated its curse upon him and his " With one consent and in unqualified terms. Id. and an his return he kept up a correspondence with doctors of the But neither the reformed faith in Geneva. he inclines rather to Calvinism than to the teachings of the Orthodox Church. ' * Id. and actively the seconded the intrigues of the party of opposition among Greek clergy. excited violent opposition among . on the other hand. pp. as a young man he had from 1621 to 1638 visited the Universities of Wittenberg and Geneva. 183. his S3mipathies so warmly as the teachings of John . tried in every way to thwart this attempt to Calvinise the Greek Church. and a few weeks after Cyril's death a synod was held to condemn in 1 642 a his opinions and pronounce him to be Anathema second synod was held at Constantinople for the same purpose. 172. the Patriarch.* main object of of the : The promulgation of this Confession of Faith as representing the teaching of the whole Church of which he was the spiritual head. named Leger. and condemns the adoration of pictures his account of the will and in many other questions. 143Id. the especially assisting Dutch and English ambassadors with funds .9. pp. p. who sent a learned young theologian.^ Cyril also found warm friends in the Protestant embassies at Constantinople.' From Calvin he borrows the doctrines of Predestination and salvation by faith alone. Holland and England. Calvin. which seems to have been to present the doctrines Orthodox Church in their opposition to Roman Catholicism in such a way as to imply a necessary accord with Protestant teaching. which after refuting each article of Cyril's Confession in detail. 164.

p. decried the authority and the very institution of the priesthood. the Son and the Holy Ghost in this life and in the life to come. All those who read and keep it as true and blameless. excommunicated.) . but in calumnious fashion has falsely charged his own Calvinism on us.—would certainly find a more congenial atmosphere in Islam than in the Greek Church of the seventeenth century. maintained the doctrines of absolute Predestination.!^ We have no definite information as to the number of the followers of ' Pichler. and command that whatever be their rank and station. followers we thrust out of the community of the faithful as and partakers of his heresy and corruptors of the Christian Church. and indeed inculcated many articles of faith which were more in harmony with the tenets of Mushm theologians than with those of the orthodox Church. be lost after death." i In 1672 a third synod met at Jerusalem to repudiate the heretical articles of this Confession of Faith and vindicate the orthodoxy of the Greek Church against those who represented her as infected with Calvinism. (Gmclm. and defend it by written word condemn or speech. the reputation conversion thanlhc p. and there can be little doubt that among the numerous converts to Islam during that century were to be found men who had been alienated from the Church common of their fathers through their leanings towards Calvinism. and which moreover she had often attacked in her controversies with : failed to achieve success cally her Muhammadan adversaries. Let them be laid under an anathema for ever and cut off from the Father. this It is this approximation to Islamic thought which gives a history of the spread movement towards Calvinism a place in of Islam a man who inveighed against : the adoration of pictures.140 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 226. and likewise declare that its compiler has nothing in common with our faith. and was in sympathy with the stern spirit of Calvinism that had more in with the Old than the New Testament. 21. denied freedom to the human will. and be partakers of everlasting punishment. As regards the Christian captives the Protestants certainly among the Turks of showing a greater inclination towards had = LatholiLs. this whole Confession as full of heresies and utterly opposed to our orthodoxy. The attempt to Protestantise the Greek Church thus completely the doctrines of Calvin were diametriopposed to her teachings. they be treated as heathen and publicans. accursed.

as stated above. pp. 1636). i. and another Greek. 132. pp. 228. he describes how he had made his influence felt in Candia. pp. ' » ' i. Le Quien. a friend of Cyril.CYRIL LUCARIS. 128. torn. who was Patriarch of Constantinople from was at heart a thorough Calvinist. had no such moreover the names of some few of these have persons existed come down to us Sophronius. 226. p. 181. so as to introduce the teachings of Calvin that Leger had gained a large his writings among his fellow-coun- trymen. and had thus been impugned through wished to represent the heretical patriarch as standing alone in his opinions. . Greek Church the clergy. 173Id. p. p. . and though he venture openly to teach the doctrines of Calvin. of converts to in another letter and preaching ^ addressed to Leger. 335. published a Catechism vindicated the suspicion of Calvinism. . i. who had brought a printing-press from London and issued heretical treatises therefrom. torn. 222.. p. those who refused to bow to the tainly anathemas of the synods that condemned their leader. whose orthodoxy and immunity from heresy were so boastfully by her children. Id. Id.i** Thus the influence of Calvinism was undoubtedly 1644 to 1646. was rewarded with a metropolitan see by Cyril in return for his services ^ the philosopher Corydaleus. Id. 211. ^ * ' Id. opened a Calvinistic school in Constantinople. was a warm supporter of the Reformation * a monk named Nicodemus Metaras. had cermore in common with their Muhammadan neighbours ' ^ ' PicMer.* His successor in the patriarchal chair was banished Calvinism by to 1639. 227. 337. 473. 172.^ But a following he his Confession of Faith had received the undoubtedly had sanction of a synod composed of his followers ^ those who sympathised with his heresies were anathematised both by the second synod of Constantinople (1642) and by the synod of Jerusalem (1672) ^ surely a meaningless repetition. still his known sympathy with them caused him to be deposed and sent into exile. Cyril writes number . : . 143. 143Hefele. Cyril 141 Lucaris and the extent of Calvinistic influences in the . Id. p. did not more widespread than the enemies of Cyril Lucaris were willing to admit and. '" p. — : . vol. jealous of the reputation of their church.* In a letter to the University of Geneva (dated July. Id. Gerganos.' Carthage and there strangled by the adherents of Lucaris in Parthenius II. p. Metropolitan of Athens.

Theodore Bent. with many other mysteries of the faith. . p. 118-9. 94.S0 became a Muslim. p. 57. 140. and even among the highest dignitaries of the Church. but in 15. Herewith will the Holy Triunity and the crucified Son of God. (l). son Muhammad IV. pp. if you likewise become Turks. the ordinary intercourse of life and see that they pray and sing even the Psalms of David that they give alms and do other good works that they think highly of Christ.142 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. ' However. besides. (Joselian. . vi. any ass may become parish priest who plies the Bassa with presents. . ii.* In 1676 it is said that in Corinth some Christian people went over every day to " the Turkish abomination. in 1675. edited by J." and that three priests had become Musal- mans the year before* gade monk. Spon. of Calvinistic influences — such as a former Metropolitan of Rhodes. §§ 53-6. hold the Bible in great honour. which seem quite absurd to the unenlightened reason. and the like that. p. numerous other instances may be found A contemporary writer (1663) has well described the mental " When you mix with the Turks in attitude of such converts. 1893. embraced the Confession of Augsburg. and he will not urge Christianity on you very much so you will come to think that they are good people and will very probably be saved and so you will come to believe that you too may be saved. in an earlier attempt made by the Protestant theologians of Tubingen (1573-77) to introduce the doctrines of the reformed church into the eastern church. it is to Islam. vol v. vi. vol. vol. 364. . the Vaivode Quarquar of Samtskheth in Georgia. p. easily pass out of your thoughts.. true.* and in writings of this period.) Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant. . in There is no actual evidence. • Hammer Hammer (i). who cast than with the Orthodox clergy them out of their midst. and imperceptibly Christianity will quite die out . 210 (London. p. in 1679 is recorded the death of a rene- On the occasion of the circumcision of Mustafa.) ^ ' * ' SchefHer. Finlay.^ of proselytes .' Frequent mention is made of cases of apostacy from among the clergy. vol. there were at least two hundred made during the thirteen days of public rejoicing.i but in the absence of Turkey facilitating conversion any other explanation it certainly seems a very plausible conjecture that such were among the factors that so enormously increased the number of the Greek renegades towards the middle of the seventeenth century a period during which the number of renegades from among the middle and lower orders of society is said to have been more considerable than at any other time.

in 143 you. Seconde Partie. Tournefort Patriarch. the Turk extorts two and twenty he that gives . .^ The evidence of contemporar)- eye-witnesses to the oppressive behaviour of the presents a terrible Greek of clergj- picture of the sufferings of the after Christians. in 1700. confession. . and you will think that 1 it is all the same whether you be Christians or Turks. the better to secure an immunity for their excesses and escape the punishment of their crimes under the protection of this corporation that the weakness of the Ottoman rulers had allowed to assume such a the Janissaries. particularly the higher clergy. 83-7. the Archbishops and Bishops of his clergy is he imposes upon them. powerful position in the state. goes into Greece to cite the Prelates. Some of the clergy even formed an unholy alliance with bishops and several had their names and those of their households inscribed on the list of one of their Ortas or regiments. holy communion. was the corruption and degradation of its pastors. baptism. these latter torment the Papas never spare their Suffragans the Papas flea the Parishioners and hardly sprinkle the least drop of Holy Water. and enjoins them very strictly by a second letter to send the sum demanded. and the purchasers sought to recoup contributed themselves they by exacting levies of all kinds from their flocks burdened the unfortunate Christians with taxes ordinary and extraordinary. indulgences. : : most for it. otherwise their dioceses are adjudg'd The Prelates being used to this trade. is Tyranny succeeds : Simony to all : thing he does to signify the Sultan's order his greatest . pp." Another feature in the condition of the Greek Church that to the decay of its numbers. 29. made them purchase all the sacraments at exorbitant rates. ' Pitzipios.CONVERSIONS TO ISLAM. Usually for twenty thousand crowns that the clergy is tax'd so that he has the two at. Pichler. p. he farms out the gathering of it to the highest bidder among the Turks study a tax to know exactly the revenues of each Prelate . ' Scheffler. The sees of bishops and archbishops were put up to auction to the highest bidders." " If afterwards the Patriarch has occasion for money. but what they are paid for beforehand. § 55. and the right of Christian burial. describing the election a new to says: "We need not at all doubt but the new Patriarch makes the best of the first his time. to the highest bidder.

Gaultier de Leslie. Spon uses much the same language. assist villages suffered the fate of sacked cities. pp. to deliver themselves offered itself. there were said to be hardly twelve persons in the whole Turkish Tournefort. and the sufferings of the Christians of the Greek Church illustrate in Bosnia. 56. Id. 258). d4test6 de son ^v^que.* many of the Christians from such tyranny.^ still they were very ignorant and illiterate. Similarly Mackenzie and Irby say : " In most parts of Old Serbia the idea we found associated with a bishop. 29. Finlay. thousand crowns for his pains. he deprives and interdicts from all ecclesiastical The functions. J. p. similar account of the clergy of the Greek Church is given by a writer in the Revue des Deux Mondes (tome 97. and the Turkish authorities had orders to levying their exactions and whole Christian . has often stirred revolt. was that of a person who carried off what few paras the Turks had left" (p. 107. 137. vol. vol.^io. 87. exactly the words of Tournefort. un certain pope du nom de Joachim. Le soleil n'^lait pas couch^ qu'il devenait bon Musulman. et. p.144 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. i. Mais notre homme ^tait vigoureux . vol. to get money for their simoniacal designs. p. for refusing. those prelates who refuse to pay their tax. re9ut I'ordre. p. un jour. Seconde Partie. besides having his charges borne in every diocese. to comply with the exorbitant demands of Christian Prelates. At the end of the seventeenth century. 267. p. The Metropolitan of Serajevo used to wring as year from his miserable flock much this —a sum as . A. before the Austrian occupation. i Tirnova. In virtue of the agreement he has made with the Patriarch. adore de ses ouailles."i Christian clergy are even said to have carried off the children of their parishioners and sold them as slaves. 153-4.^ The extortions practised in the seventeenth have found their counterpart in the present century.'' ^ went over ^ ^ A : : * ^ ' Pitzipios. s'en fut tout chaud chez le cadi. p. who narrates the following story " Au debut de ce si^cle. or often being unable. 87. II se rebiffa aussitot la valetaille I'assaillit k coups de fourche. p. . il se d^battit. de faire la corvee du fumier dans r^curie episcopale.ooo a exactly double the salary of the Turkish Governor himself — and to raise enormous sum the clergy in the unfortunate parishioners were squeezed in every possible way. Seconde Partie. laissant sa tunique en gage.^ protect the Christian population. It is it Such un- bearable oppression on the part of the spiritual leaders who should up to open whenever a favourable opportunity has not surprising then to learn that to Islam. 336). p. Evans. Pichler.^ Though the mass of the parish clergy were innocent of the charges brought against their superiors. i. iv.

to the Sultan. Busbecq.* ' Tournefort. 182. p. * Turchic^ XX. 32. i. 29. and he even goes so far as to say. Christian writers constantly praise these Turks for the their zeal in earnestness and intensity of their religious life . especially eulogises the devoutness and regularity of the Turks in prayer. Greek language be able to read. L ."' Even the behaviour of the soldiery receives its meed of praise.^ The embassy from the Emperor Leopold I. 104. See also Georgieviz. : : son Createur.CHRISTIAN EULOGIES OF THE TURKS. spurcitije suggillatio. vol. (a). que les Turcs temoignent beaucoup plus de soin et de z&le k I'exercice de leur Religion que les Chretiens n'en font paroitre i la pratique de la leur Mais ce qui passe tout ce que nous experimentons de devot entre les Chretiens c'est que pendant le terns simplicity of life observable annalist of the : : vous ne voyez pas une personne distraite de ses yeux vous n'en voyez pas une qui ne soit attachee a I'objet de sa prifere et pas une qui n'ait toute la reverence exterieure pour de la pri^re. . i. ^ fol. pp. lol. 73.i While there was so much in the Christian society of the time. the performance of the observances prescribed by their faith . vol. 53-4. During the march of an army the inhabitants of the country. (b) . p. GauUier de Leslie. even in the great and powerful. 689. it was considered a great merit in the clergy to while they were quite ignorant of the meaning of words of their service-books. Rycaut. and no wine was allowed to be sold to the soldiers their under pain of death. simony and corruption of the Greek ecclesiastics. (b) ' Veniero. Spon. 174. 44xvii. had no complaints to make of being plundered or of women being maltreated. -xiii. (b) fol. the 145 dominions thoroughly skilled in the knowledge of the ancient . pp. the outward decency and modesty displayed in their apparel and mode of living the absence of ostentatious display and the . 31. pp. 36. i. qu'on peut exiger de la Creature. fol. and the superiority of the early Ottomans as compared with the degradation of the guides and teachers of the Christian church would naturally impress devout minds that revolted from the selfish ambition. Picliler. p. there was much in the character and life of the Turks to attract. p. p. pp. vol. we are told by the secretary to the Embassy sent by Charles II. Cf. 180. and Menavino. "Nous devons dire a la confusion des Chretiens. xv. to repel. All the taverns along the line of march were shut up and sealed two or three days before the arrival of the army. to the Ottoman Porte in 1665-6.

p. : very poor opinion of their religion." The same conclusion is drawn by a modern historian. Of Lyes. at our injustice. vol." destined to a speedy dissolution. both for the Poor and for Travellers if we observe their Justice.146 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and is accustomed to hearing it spoken of as the " sick man. and reverend in their Mosques. as his scald head was of scurf). up in judgment against us and surely their devotion. how obedient to their Priest. how devout. as the personal ambition of individuals. "ahodg podge made up of these four Ingredients. how hours of prayer five times a day wherever they are. cleanly. and how careful of strangers. piety.^ who will rise . . i. of which were numerous in the fifteenth century. piety. must find it difficult to • Alexander Ross. of praise is Many a tribute by Christian writers who bore them no love given to the virtues of the Turks even one such who had a . read and observe the Laws and Histories of the Mahometans. find that many Greeks of high talent and moral " character were so sensible of the superiority of the Mohammedans. both in devotion and charity. 4. v. and works of mercy are main causes of the growth of Mahometism. . p. ix. and other moral Vertues. may be seen by their Hospitals. 2. and oppression doubtless these Men . he calls the Qur'an a "gallimaufry of Errors (» Brat as_ deformed as the Parent." A generation that has watched the decay of the in Turkish power Europe and the successive curtailment of its territorial possessions. 3.^ speaks of them as follows " Even in the dirt of the Alcoran you shall find some jewels of Christian Virtues and indeed if Christians will but diligently . . Of Contradictions. and as full of Heresies. intemperance. Of Blasphemy. or however employed ? how constantly do they observe their Fasts from morning till night a whole month together how loving and charitable the Muslemans are to each other. and charity. Temperance. 29. . they how zealous they are in the works of devotion. that even the great Turk blush to see may himself will attempt nothing without consulting his Mufti careful are they to observe their . Of ridiculous Fables. they voluntarily embraced the faith Mahomet. that even when they escaped being drafted into the Sultan's writes : — We household as tribute-children." — Fmlay. The moral superiority of Othoman society must be allowed to have had as much weight in causing these conversions. we may truly blush at our own coldness.

pp. vol. " Is it possible that God would allow the Muhammadans to increase in such countless numbers without good reason ? Is it conceivable that How can so many thousands are to be damned like one man ? such multitudes be opposed to the true faith ? since truth is stronger than error and is more loved and desired by all men. fol. Christian literature of the latter half of the fifteenth is and of the sixteenth centuries fate full that threatened Christian Europe unless the . it is gress of the Turk was arrested — — not possible for so many men to be fighting against it. victorious pro- he is represented as a scourge in the hand of God for the punishment of the sins and backslidings of His people. But what is most important to notice here some men began to ask themselves. appealed strongly to the Christian peoples that lived under the Turkish rule and with especial force to the unhappy Christian captives who watched the years drag wearily on without hope of release or respite firom their misery. Turchics spurcitia suggillatio. since the truth built ? God always helps and upholds How upon the rotten foundation of error could their religion so marvellously increase. 141-2. but would have helped you to gain your freedom and return to it again. xii. we ? " ^ are told. ' Lord Houghton's Poetical Works. Mark held sway on the shores the eternal City ^ itself of the Adriatic alone. and Hungary yielded up their independence as Christian states. many a Pope believed the demon Turks Would scour the Vatican. Ottoman Empire its rise 147 the feelings which the inspired in the Europe.[MPOSING realise CHARACTER OF TURKISH CONQUESTS. if Such thoughts. The proud Republic of Venice saw one possession after another wrested from it. xiii. ere he could die.). (a. He would not have thus abandoned you. Can we be surprised when we find such an one asking himself ? " Surely if God were pleased with the faith to which you have clung. (b). Servia. until the Lion of early days of in : St. But as He has closed every ' And Till the bright Crescent haunted Europe's eye. Even the safety of of was menaced by the capture of direful forebodings of the Otranto. i. One Christian kingdom after another fell into their hands Bulgaria. L 2 . How could they prevail against truth. The rapid and widespread success of the Turkish arms filled men's minds with terror and amazement. Bosnia. or on the other hand as the unloosed power of the Devil working for the destruction of Christianity under the hypocritical guise of religion.

p. (a). p.. perchance it is His pleasure that you 1 should leave it and join this sect and be saved therein.. durch deren Fleiss und Bemiihung sie sich einen Nutzen schaffen konnen. Huius rei testimonium innumerabilis multitudo fidelium esse potest. the aged. vi. fol. that it was impossible for them to agree. felt more and more strongly. while the physician and the handicraftsman received more considerate treatment from that best repaid the their masters. . John Harris : Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca. and that if he alleged that their tempers were so opposite. and those of noble birth suffered most. fol. of As organised by the Muhammadan Law.ii. vol. the priests and monks. as being servants money spent upon them. nor in Turkey at least does it seem to have been accompanied by such barbarities and atrocities as in the pirate states of Northern Africa. and it is even said that a slave might summon his master before the Qadi for ill usage. Quorum multi promptissimi essent pro fide Christi et suarum animarum salute in fide Christ! mori quos tamen conservando a morte corporali et ductos in captivitatem per successum temporis suo infectos veneno fidem Christi turpiter negare facit. als die Christen die ihrige. " The Christian slave who thus describes the doubts that arose in his mind as the slow-passing years brought no relief. after long years of captivity. ^ Menavino. sehr wol und oft besser. cf. the Qadi could oblige his master to sell him. (a). und wann ein ' '^ : : : .* The galley-slaves Turchicse Spurcitiae Suggillatio. violence would have failed. others who held positions in the households of private individuals.^ The condition of the Christian captives naturally varied with circumstances and their own capabilities of adapting themselves to a life of hard- ship . xxvii.148 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM." Turchicae Spurcitiae Suggillatio. Many who would have been ready to die as martyrs for the Christian religion if the mythical choice between the Qur'an and the sword had been offered them. i. halten . The slaves.. until at last he broke away from the ties of his old faith and embraced Islam. dass sie die Diener und Sclaven. the influence of Muham- madan thought and Christian captives practice. 1764. were often no worse of off than domestic servants in the rest of Europe.) • " Dieses muss man den Tiirken nachsagen. fol. had their rights.^ and humanity won converts where For though the lot of many of the pitiable was a very one. avenue of freedom to you. 96. " Dum corpora exterius fovendo sub pietatis specie non occidit interius fidem auferendo animas sua diabolica astutia occidere intendit. (London. like other citizens. doubtless gives expression here to thoughts that suggested themselves to many a hapless Christian captive with overwhelming persistency. 819. slavery was robbed many its harshest features.

pcrseveraverint. Similarly Menavino. von den die Gefangenschaft nirgend ertraglicher als bey den Tiirken seye. von den Driesch. C. 23. Ashore.i little relieved the hardships incident to such an occupa- Further. mit der Scharfe zu ihren Glauben zu bringen suchen wann aber dieser Sturm iiberwunden. vol. well die Turken selbige entweder mit Schmeicheln. . .^ The number of the Christian slaves who embraced Islam was enormous some few cases have been recorded of their being threatened and ill-treated for the very purpose of inducing them to recant. : — mento voglia contrafare" (p. 102-3. the lot of the slaves more pitiable than that of those private individuals. " Die ersten Jahre sind fiir solche ungliickliche Leute am beschwehrlichsten. p. naturally suffered 149 most of all. and the clergy were allowed to administer the consolations of religion to the galley-slaves. : John Harris Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca. " Grata k la compagnia che essi fanno a gli schiavi loro. statuitur certum tempus serviendi. absonderlich wenn sie noch jung. li. ." • (Vol.) Moreover Georgieviz says that those who persevered in the " Si in Christiana fide Christian faith were set free after a certain fixed period. Id. p. 132. the Christian in Turkish chains probably had the advantage . ^ The majority of the converted . gehet ihm nichts anders als die Freyheit ab. for in the Sultan's vessels the oar-gang was often the property of the captain. nee certum tempus est serviendi. 16. perhaps. wann dieses nichts verfangen will. pp.^ of their religion their . 810. was ein freyer Mensch sich nur wiinschen kan. a Turkish or Algerine fare. after which they let them in the state-prisons at Constantinople. 132. but as a rule the masters seldom forced them to renounce their faith. and the owner's natural tenderness for his own was sometimes supposed to interfere with the discharge of his duty. if there were degrees of misery. wird man finden. alone to follow their slaves own faith. spes libertatis solummodo pendet a domini Cantacuzenos gives this period as irbitrio " (p. who were state property was who had been purchased by As a rule they were allowed the free exercise had and chapels. dass (G. but at sea. quo elapso liberi hunt Veram illis qui nostram religionem abiurarunt." Driesch. Oder. 128). p. and day own free choice when the Christian embassies were never sure from day to that some of their fellow-countrymen that had accompanied therefore changed their religion of their Knecht in einer Kunst erfahren ist." G. more noisome in its filth and darkness than a prison at Naples or Barcelona .) p. C. . indeed the kindest treatment could have but tion. percioche seven years Maumetto gli ha fra I'altre cose comandato che egli nou si possa tener in servitii uno schiavo piu che sette anni. ausser welche er alles andere hat.* and put the greatest pressure upon them during the first years of their captivity. et percii nessuno o raro h colui che a tal comanda* . nee uUum ius in patriam redeundi. ' ' ' i. p. and hard knocks were the lot of both. 87). they own priests . prison was. Gmelin. p. hard miserable than the galley-slaves under the sign of the Cross. ' Sir William Stirling-Maxwell says of these : " The poor wretches who tugged at the oar on board a Turkish ship of war lived a life neither more nor less Hard work. 65. .CHRISTIAN SLAVES UNDER THE TURKS.

allows. vv 144-S . and soon forget their original country. The second class consisted . and are no longer looked upon as strangers. und man that gut daran. die nach der Tiirkei oder in andere muhamedanische Lander kamen. might not tum Turk. but pass for natives. hatten Aniass genug zur Trauer iiber die Haufigkeit des Abfalls ihrer Glaubensgenossen. they avoided having anything to do with them and their religious worship. not caring to trouble themselves to learn anything about the religion of their masters infidels. and their knowledge but slight whereof some are frightened in the principles and grounds of it Turcism by their impatience and too deep resentments of the into hardships of the servitude others are enticed by the blandish. in their education being but which they were educated mean." Much of course depended upon the individual character of the different Christian slaves themselves. fearing lest they should be led astray by their errors. . divides into three classes : those who passed their days in simplicity. p. ob ihnen nicht Leute von ihrem Gefolge davoniliefen. to speak first. und besonders die Schriften der Ordensgeistlichen sind vol! von solchen Klagen. Von den Driesch. was enough to know that the Turks were captive condition and their yoke of slavery allowed. they renounce their Saviour and their Christianity. often quoted above. would yield to the influences that beset them and would feel few restraints to hinder them from entering a new and a new religion. p. Bei den Sclaven konnte sich immer noch ein GefUhl des Mitleids dem der Missbilligung beiniischen. . so whose long captivity made him so competent them all on their condition. 161. and striving to observe the Christian faith as far as their knowledge and power went. The anonymous writer. 22. and the allurements they have of making their condition better and more easy by a change of their Religion having no hope left of being redeemed. for them it and so." (Gmelin. as far as their 1 "Fromme Christen. 2 Thomas '^mi'tb. aber oft genug musste man die bittersten Erfahrungen auch an freien Landsleuten machen. and found little in their surroundings to strengthen and continue the teachings of their earlier years. of retaining the Christian Faith.ISO THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.) Of. den Tag nicht vor dem Abend zu loben. Die christlichen Gesandten waren keinen Tag sicher. An English traveller ' of the " Few ever return to seventeenth century has said of them and fewer have the courage and constancy their native country society : . ments and flatteries of pleasure the Mahometan Law . to Constantinople as domestic them servants.i it can easily be understood that slaves who had lost all hope of return to their native country.

like the Christian slaves from early surroundings and associations. hereby not only compassing their own destruction. and understanding enough for the investigation of them and light of reason to find the interpretation thereof. p. (a). by the help of God. • Von den Driesch. li. they had time enough to dive into their secrets. but setting a bad example to others of such men the number is their : infinite. release for as some writers have affirmed.* and would make provision for his old many others who. iii. they own faith and embrace the false religion of the Mushms. they not only came out of the trial unscathed. most of ' ' Turchicae spurcitiae suggillatio. p. would also freely emancipate the Christian slave. 133.^ Conversion to Islam did not. vol. 621. on the other hand. Hertzberg. Menavino. p. xxxv. but had those doings of the : their own faith strengthened. the slave from his captivity and make him a free man. examining the dive into its Muslim religion without due caution. age. * fol. depths and find the interpretation of it and so are believing the errors of the Turks to be the truth. The third class includes those who. emancipation was solely at the discretion of the master who promised to set any slave free. himself a faithful servant.* have may well become merged into the mass of the Muslim population by almost imperceptible degrees. 250. transported from conquered provinces in Europe into Asia Minor. P-9S' Von den Driesch.CHRISTIAN SLAVES UNDER THE TURKS. p. were easily persuaded to settle there and adopt the faith of Islam. without the payment of ransom. provided he had proved indeed often . The crowds of Christian workmen that came wandering from the conquered countries in the fifteenth century to Adrianople and other Turkish cities in search of employment. TurchicjE Spurcitiae Suggillatio. found themselves cut loose from old ties and thrown into the midst of a society animated by social and religious ideals of an entirely novel character. p. fol. if only he would embrace Islam ^ but. as was the case with the Armenians carried away into Persia by Shah 'Abbas I. There were separated Similarly the Christian families that Muhammad II. 131-2. . Georgieviz. (1587-1629). of 151 whose curiosity led them to study and investigate the Turks if. M. even though he had persevered in his religion. 87 (quoted above). fail to deceived lose . d'Ohsson.' .

did not surrender until 1571. ' that fair . Servia.^ inhabit the mountainous country that stretches along the east shore of the Adriatic from Montenegro to the Gulf Arta. " The terms of capitulation now The old People dying. For a short time it regained its independence under George Castriot. the young ones generally turn Mahumetans : so (1655) you can hardly meet with two Christian Armenians in all those Piams. Kroia. together with his three brothers. the young Albanian threw off his allegiance to Islam. appear to have passed whom over to Islam in the second generation. and for twenty-three years maintained a vigorous and successful resistance to the Turkish armies. vi. ' For a list of these. as a hostage for the payment of the tribute imposed by the Turks. When a boy he had been surrendered. though revolts were frequent and the subjection of the country was never complete.152 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Durazzo was captured in 1501. 16. as the history its conquest by the Ottomans presents some special features of interest in the history of the propagation of Islam. 28-9. Their country was first conquered by Bayazid I. fell into their hands eleven years later. the capital of the Castriot dynasty. his brothers were put to death and the principality seized by the Sultan." Tavemier (i). who is better known under his Muhammadan name of Scanderbeg or Sikandarbeg. p. the Turks began again to take possession of Albania. On the death of his father. pp. who thought that he had bound Sikandar securely to himself. Some of the of the oldest They form one sea-port towns held out much longer . by his father. and from this date there appears to have been no organised resistance of the whole country. the despot of Epirus. After the death of Sikandarbeg in 1467. in the early part of the fifteenth century. He was circumcised and brought up as a Muslim under the especial favour of the Sultan. who made him commander of 5000 Turkish horse. Bosnia and Crete. while Antivari.! In the following pages it is and particular account of the spread of each of these countries after proposed to give a more detailed of Islam among the Christian populations of Albania. of and purest-blooded races in Europe and belong to the Pelasgic branch of the Aryan stock. but thirsting for revenge. which their fathers were sent to manure. vol. see Finlay. with the exception of some settlements in Greece. the northernmost point of the sea-coast of Albania. The Albanians.

that the churches and chapels should remain uninjured and might be rebuilt if they fell into decay that the citizens . so the just as The Christian and they speak the same do they cherish the same traditions. p. Muselmanner und Christen haben lets. Though vassals of the Sultan. if asked what he is. sich der gleichen techte erfreuend.' Side by side they serve in the irregular troops. they would not brook the interference of Turkish officials in their internal administration. The name by which the Albanians always call themselves." (Wassa Effendi: Albanien ^ : . auf gleichem Fusse gelebt. and observe same manners and customs and pride in their common nationality has been too strong a bond to allow differences of religious belief to split the nation into separate communities on this basis. 250. sie haben dieselben Sitten. and had not already established his influence by his arms.ALBANIA.autonomy. were that the city should retain that there 153 its old laws and magistrature. and there is reason to believe that the Turkish Government has never been able to appoint or confirm any provincial governor who was not a native of Albania. mit wenigen Ausnahmen. The Albanians under Turkish rule appear always to have maintained a kind of semi.) . an Albanian Christian. Muhammadan Albanians language. and both :lasses have found the same ready employment in the service of . and to the present day the Albanian. rock-dwellers. says iegen die Sachen ganz anders. speaking of the enmity existinp " Aber fiir Albanien Jetween the Christians and Muhammadans of Bulgaria.' before saying whether he is a Christian or a Muhammadan a very should retain all their — remarkable instance of national feeling obliterating the fierce distinction between these two religions that so forcibly obtrudes itself in the rest of the Ottoman empire. 1879. and the several tribes and clans remained as essentially independent as they were before the conquest. (Berlin. sie und die -hristen haben sich niemals gehasst. sie olgen denselben Gebrauchen. p. sic haben dieselben Traditionen .^ Their racial pride is intense. Der Unterschied der Religion war niemals ein zu einer ystematischen Trennung treibendes Motiv . nti die Albanesen. movable and immovable property and should not be burdened by any additional taxation. that soon after the Turkish conquest became the main dependence of the government in all its internal administration. will call himself a Skipetar. alike. Die Muselmanner Albaniens sind Albanesen. lit. dieselben Pflichten erfiillend. 59). ' Leake. should be free and public exercise of the Christian religion. ' One of themselves. policy or connections. zwischen ihnen herrscht koine Jahrhunderte Ite Feindschaft. vie die Christen sie sprechen dieselbe Sprache.

Marco Crisio. b. 1652. 1610. and not under pressure of foreign influences. have always displayed the same fierce. and no member of their tribe has ever abjured his faith . The details that we possess of this movement are very meagre. unless he succeeded in making good his escape from Albania. the local pashas. 46. with a very small admixture of ' Muham- Finlay. therefore. Fra BonaVentura di S. p. * Alessandro Comuleo. 1651. is almost a blank what knowledge we have. were any Mirdite to attempt to do so. 1593. Bizzi. and been animated with the same intense national feeling as their brethren who had embraced the their creed of the Prophet. vol. ' . v.1 54 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. For an ecclesiastic of those times to have even entertained the possibility of a conversion to Islam from genuine conviction much less have openly expressed such an opinion in . untamable spirit. In 1610 the Christian population exceeded the Muhammadan in the proportion of ten to one. 60. Antonio.^ and as most of the villages were inhabited by Christians. as the history of Albania from the close of the fifteenth century to the rise of 'Ali Pasha three hundred years later. — — writing to his superiors — is well-nigh inconceivable. conversion.^ and the reports sent in from time to time to the Pope and the Society de Propaganda Fide. Hecquard : Histoire de la Haute Albanie. he would certainly be put to death.* But it goes without saying that the very nature of these sources gives the information derived from them the stamp of imperespecially in the matter of the motives assigned for fection. Islam appears to have made but little progress. for it appears to have been propagated very gradually by the people of the country themselves. is derived from the ecclesiastical chronicles of the various dioceses. the diocese of Alessio) will not suffer a Muhammadan to live in their mountains. During the sixteenth century. 175-7. 1703. though the tide of conversion had already set in. The Mirdites who are very fanatical Roman Catholics (in Clark. ' Published in Farlati's Illyricum Sacrum.i and though they have perhaps been a little more quiet and agricultural than their Muslim fellow-countrymen. of the slow but continuous accession of converts to Islam during this period. proud. Zmaievich. pp. Christian Albanians served in the Ottoman army in the Crimean War. being accounted the bravest soldiers in the empire. they have always retained still the difference has been small : arms and military habits. p.' The consideration of these facts is of importance in tracing the spread of Islam in Albania. " Biizi. fol. 224.

" There are about 600 houses inhabited indiscriminately by Muhammadans and Christians both Latin and Schismatics (i. 227) I would hazard the conjecture that the Latin Christian community at this time amounted to rather over a thousand souls. p. both high-born and low. . for example. 1579-1598) had found it prudent to go into exile.) ' Bizzi. 49Mahometans are married to Greek women. madans.ALBANIA. see W. vol. Leake (London. and in the absence of any sharp line of demarcation between the two communities. and for Christian women to make no objection to such unions. having attacked Islam " with more fervour than caution. we find some clue to the manner in which Muhammadan influences gradually gained converts from among the Christian population in proportion as the vigour and the spiritual life of the church declined. a.^ • This was also the custom in some villages of Albania.. vii. 107. — for the needs of the community * . 35. inveighing against Muhammad ard damning his Satanic doctrines. fol. 34. of the Orthodox only roughly — : Greek Church) excess of the number of the Muhammadans is a little in the Christians." (Farlati. : . also . seems justified by the change in the religion of the In 16 10 two collegiate churches only remained in the people. 1835) :— " In some villages Northern Greece. . pp. vol. as Veniero." From a comparison with statistics given by Zmaievich (fol.e." the daughters as Christians ' Bizzi. p.^ The male children born of these mixed marriages were brought up as Musalmans.' hands of the Latin Christians. but it had been left unoccupied for eight years as Archbishop Ambrosius (flor. fol. the sons are educated as Turks. 9. and that of the Latins in excess of the Schismatics.^ As the number of churches were converted into mosques a measure which. . but these appeared to have sufficed grew less and less to Islam increased. It is Farlati. fol.* ^ complained that the Archbishop's palace was appropriated by the Muhammadans. 38 b.' the conversions appear to the large towns. though contrary to the terms of the capitulation. vol. fol. went over gradually to the Muslim faith. 27 b . the majority of who remained. daughters in marriage to but the girls ' were allowed to follow the religion of their mother. . elected to 155 in have been more frequent In Antivari. ' B^zzi. M. where he says." we have of the social relations between the and the Muslims. what this amounted to can be guessed from the words of Marco Bizzi. so that the Christian population accessions day by day. In the accounts Christians It had become very common for Christian parents to give their Muhammadans. "E comunicai quella mattina quasi tutta la Christianiti latina. i. 104. Travels in late as the beginning of the present century. vii. while those many Christians emigrate into the neighbouring Christian countries. and and pork and mutton are eaten at the same table. 107.

' Bizzi. But even then they kept which was specific against leprosy. as the majority of them had Christian wives. 267.' Under such circumstances it is hardly surprising to learn that many openly professed Islam.* Marco Bizzi has three explanations to offer for such a lapse. a. the desire to avoid the payment of tribute.g. 38. 1858. b. 38. by the action Such permission was rendered practically ineffective of the Christian ecclesiastics who ordered the mothers to bo excluded from the churches and from participation in the sacra- ments. 38. il qual quotidianamente vien fatto dai miei preti a richiesta di qualsivoglia plebeo " (fol. fol. 153.^ Even to the present day we are told that Albanian Muhammadans revere the Virgin Mary and the Christian saints. « Id.^ and consequently (though the parish priests often disregarded the commands of their superiors) many of these women embraced the faith of their husbands. Muhammadans Bizzi at the festivals e. (Paris. p.^ of the two religions This good feeling between the members similarly illustrated by the attendance of of Christian saints of St. fol. Farlati. —the attraction of worldly advantage. 36. and the want of a sufficiently large number of intelli- • ^ ' Bizzi. b). vii. fol. fol. Muhammadan lady of high rank wished to have her child baptised by the Archbishop himself. 10. up a superstitious observance of the supposed to be a sovereign superstition for rite of baptism. Bizzi. who tells us that she complained bitterly to one of the leading Christians of the city that "io non mi fossi degnato di far a lei questo piacere. 162. torn.^ In the town of Calevacci.) « Garnett. the followers of the Prophet contributed towards the support of the parish priest. * For modern instances of the harmonious relations subsisting between the followers of the two faiths living together in the same village. 158. witches and wolves.^ and Christian priests were found ready to pander to this any Muhammadan woman who * is wished to have her children baptised.iS6 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. b. 10. Marco the says that on the feast-day (for whom Albanians appear to have had a special devotion) there were as many Muhammadans present in the church as Christians. and make pilgrimages to their shrines. Shortly after Marco 34. while Christians on the other hand resort to the tombs of Muslim saints for the cure of ailments or in fulfilment of vows. . 'Bizzi. Bizzi's arrival at Anlivari a fol. p. fol. 200). b. Veniero. b. see Hyacinthe Hecquard: Histoire et description de la Haute Albanie (pp. . Elias . where there were sixty Christian and ten Muhammadan households. 37. while satisfying their consciences by saying that they professed Christianity in their hearts. a.

) 12-13. especially when the former wee convicted of treasonable correspondence with the Venetiar' and other Christian states and were suspected of a wish ^n revolt. As no details impossible to judge whether there was for the complaint. 38. (Businello.^^^^"/^ in the eighteenth century wr '^J' a Turkish piaiitre. b . p." we should be better able to determine how far this could have had such a preponderating influence as is ascribed to it but the evidence alleged seems hardly to warrant such a conclusion. : Muhammadans and unjust Christians as Christians. of three reals a year) was the only imposed on the Christians exclusively. Venetian real i . 61. a . The vicious practice followed by the Ottoman Court of selling posts in the provinces to the highest bidder and the uncertainty of the tenure of such posts. Bizzi fol.^ Though it certainly an avaricious easier official may have found to oppress th than the Muslims.ALBANIA. 5. are given. ^' fol. ^ fol. or really sufficient whether this was conduct alleged by the renegades in order to make some kind of excuse to their former co-religionists.'' Men must have had very little attachment to their religion to abandon it merely in order to be quit of so slight a penalty. 94. gent clergy to supply the spiritual needs of the country. a 33. or indeed an exaggeration on the part of ecclesiastics to whom a not the apology for their ground — genuine conversion to Islam absolute impossibility. . Zmaievich. ar per ' Bizzi. fol. The 37. 5. and whole it is have apostatised to avoid payment of the tribute. often resulted in the occupants trying to amass as large a fortune as possible by extortions of every kind. But such burdens are said to have weighed as heavily on of a tax. burden . tax on rational grounds seemed an A century for was six reals a head later (in 1703) the capitation each male and this (with the exception termed sciataraccio.^ versions are frequently ascribed to 157 Con- the pressure of the burden of villages are said taxation to imposed upon the Christians. Zmaievich. If only we had something more than vague general complaints against the " Turkish tyranny. and with no other motive and the very existence of so large a body of Christians in Albania at the present time shows that the burden could not have been so heavy as to force them into apostacy without any other alternative. b.

fol. courtesy and friendliness are praised by Marco it Bizzi. with whom he used to discuss religious questions. and their ignorance number of Christians who grew and even died without being confirmed and apostatised almost everywhere * and unless this were remedied he prophesied a rapid decay of Christianity in the country. b.* It may here be observed that the Albanian priests were not the repositaries of the national aspirations and ideals. (Paris. 31. and were so ignorant of the duties of their sacred calling that they could not even repeat : the formula of absolution by heart ^ . may well have made its way. as they were ignorant of any language but their mother tongue. il gran numero de Christiani. V. whose sincerity. did not know how to write. 153-4. 60. fol. 64." ' For'e I'Albania non ricevera qualche maggior agiuto in meno di anni anderi a followers asi tutta quella Christianitsk per il puoco numero del Vescovi e dei Hecquard. drunkenness. b. traditionary knowledge of the truths of their religion. conof idered. Clark. " Qui deriva il puoco numero de Sacerdoti in quelle parti e Id. 'Bizzi. pp. et anco morono senza il sacramento della Confermatione et apostatano dai mit'ede quasi per tutto. and for the large the small numbers of the clergy. as were the their clergy of the Orthodox Church in other provinces of the Turkish Empire. 290.di qualche intelligenza. this However may have been. there can be activity influence exerted by the zealous little doubt and vigorous of the life of Islam in the face of the apathetic and ignorant Christian clergy. in true feudal spirit.iS8 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. » Id. 1851. 36. ? Bizzi. that as they were the masters ' rani that 2 Id. a. moca loro intelligenza in quel mestiero . the Albanians cherished a national feeling that was quite apart religious belief. there were very few who could understand any of it. fol. che Bizzi. " Id. though they could read a little. . b. b. and with regard to the Turks. as for Marco Bizzi considered for these the inadequate episcopate of the country responsible of their sacred calling. foivol. fol. fol.i The majority of the Christian clergy appear to have been wholly unlettered most of them. and they had only a vague. 33. who in spite of their ignorance kept nucleus of the national "^from life alive among people that devotion to the Christian faith which formed the of the Greeks. p. If Islam in Albania had many such exponents as the Mulla. though they had to recite the mass and other services in Latin.' Several priests were also accused of keeping concubines. fol. a. Id.^ evils.'^ On the contrary. 61. and of old . fol. lo-ii. non nxhiano.

38. b . we find an approximation to the Muhammawhich makes marriage a civil contract. dissension by the Mollah into the fold of the True Believers. as there were only two families of Roman close of E quel miseri hanno fermata la conscientia in creder di non peccar per coniuntioni (i. In 1624 there were only two thousand Catholics in the whole at the diocese of Antivari." " Bizzi. the social conditions and other factors indicated above. and one day the latter came to the church in great crowds. as follows when all the country was Christian. fol. were received " For some cause or other. 6j. however. there stood in the city of Scutari a beautiful image of the Virgin Mary.) Che obbedirli quando comandano qualsivoglia cosa.ALBANIA. ceremony. and be healed of their There is a curious story of conversion which taken place : infirmities. trampled them under their feet. until they had conformed to the ecclesiastical law and rehgious dan law. and in the city itself only one church . gone through the service in the regular manner. going to the nearest mosque. b. it fell out that there was between the priest and the people. the giving of Christian girls in marriage to Muhammadans) per esser i turchi signori del paese. declaring that unless the priest yielded to them they would then and there abjure the The faith of Christ and embrace in its stead that of Muhammad.e. whether right or wrong. bore fruit abundantly.i is said to have owing to a want of amicable relations between a " Many years since. p. In order to remedy this evil. 268. the 159 country they ought to be obeyed whatever commands they gave. fol. even this church was no longer used for Christian worship. a. namely the practice of contracting marriages without the sanction of the Church or any . the husband and wife were to be excluded from the church. e che peri> non si possa. 38. and the numbers of the Christian population began rapidly to decline.^ In the course of the seventeenth century. the century. still remaining firm. his congregation tore the rosaries and crosses from their necks. perform their devotions. n^ devea far altro (Bizzi. Christian priest and his people. and." ^ Through the negligence and apathy of the Christian clergy many abuses and irregularities had been allowed to creep into the Christian society in one of which. ' " simil . priest. ' Gamett. to whose shrine thousands flocked every year from all parts of the country to offer their gifts.

' ^ » Zmaievich. pp. the of parish priests continued to countenance the open profession Islam along with a secret adherence to Christianity. fol. 159. fol. 137. of their flocks. * '" " Informatione Bizzi. by administering to them the Blessed Sacrament the result of which was that the children of such persons. Zmaievich. * Marco Crisio. 227.^ in spite of the fulminations of the higher clergy against such indulgence. Bizzi. 202. who very seldom went to confession and held drunken revels in their parsonages on festival days they sold the property of the Church. frequently absented themselves from their parishes. 124.^ whereas less than a hundred years before. parish priests countenancing such unions by administering the sacrament to such women. vii. 13-14. 13. Zmaievich.' Matters were still worse at the close of the century. * in had decreased by about half the Archbishopric of Durazzo the Christian population in twenty years. being brought up as Muhammadans. the face of the accusations brought against them the majority of them are accused of being scandalous livers. vol. they had outnumbered the Muhammadans in the proportion of 10 to I . Christian parents the gave their daughters in marriage to Muhammadans. 158. fol. the Catholics being then fewer in number than the Muhammadans.^ still Similarly. and when censured. ' Farl.' In spite of the frequent protests and regulations made by their ecclesiastical superiors. fol. as the male population had apostatised in such large numbers to Islam. 196.^" The Reformed Franciscans and the Observants who had been sent to minister to the spiritual wants of the people did nothing but quarrel and go to law with one another. 60. 141. 157. Zmaievich." . 38. torn. much to the scandal of the laity and the neglect of the mission. circa la missione d'Albania.' Such action on the part of the lower clergy can hardly however be taken as indicating any great zeal on behalf of the spiritual welfare of their flocks. p. . Zmaievich. b. « fol. the majority ot the Christian community in 1651 was composed of women. in . Farlati. succeeded in getting off by putting themselves under the protection of the Turks.iti. b. were for ever lost to the Christian church. fol.i In the whole country generally. on the of part many male members .i6o Catholics THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. vii. p. ^ in another town (in the diocese of Kroia) the entire population passed from Christianity to Islam in the course of thirty years. fol. left. II. fol. the proportions being about I to i^. Zmaievich. fol.

13. fol. fol. Id." 3 The bishop of Scutari was looked upon as a tyrant by his clergy and people. ' [ ' Marco Marco Crisio. priests to 6348 country.i In some parishes in the interior of the had been no priests for more than forty years and no way due to the oppression of the " Turkish tyrant. Crisio. to the great prejudice of his diocese. this and had appointed as his vicar an ignorant priest notorious evil-liver and." . 202. 205. b. Bizzi. Farlati.400 souls under his charge. not surprising to learn that the common people had no know'' ' Crisio. 205. Tom. 204. fol. " through the absence of the danger of his losing his own soul and compassing the destruction of the souls under him and of the property of the Church. 109. p. but tice. 19. diocese with forced contributions. and quadruple for a third marriage). when at last four Franciscan missionaries were sent. twelve for every first marriage (and double the amount for a second. is bishop there . fol. * vii. and only succeeded in keeping his post through the aid of the Turks* and Zmaievich complains of the bishops generally that they burdened the parishes in their the ecclesiastical visitor. Thus the Archbishop of Antivari (1599-1607) was allowed to " exact and receive " two aspers from each Christian family. * Zmaievich. 201. fol.^ It appears that Christian were authorised by the Sultan to levy contributions on their flocks. had been long Venice. Fra Bonaventura. and there were only two . fol. Marco Crisio condemns life this prac- as such priests were in danger of finding in Italy so pleasant that they refused to return to their native country. M .^ Throughout the whole of Albania there was not a single Christian school. fol. says : man had who was a 12.'^ and the priests were profoundly ignorant some : were sent to study in Italy. where he is said to have lived a vicious life. it is With a priesthood so ignorant and so careless of their sacred duties. they reported that they could their of sacred office without go through the country and exercise any hindrance whatever. In the i6i Albanian sees were vacant visited middle of the seventeenth century five out of the twelve the diocese of Pullati had not been by a bishop for thirty years. and one gold piece from each parish annually. there this for was in souls. 205.ALBANIA. and it seems to have been possible to obtain the assistance of the Turkish authorities ecclesiastics in levying these contributions.!' The bishop resident in Sappa.

* superstitious Muhammadan children was Such being the state of the Christian Church in Albania in trifling the latter half of the seventeenth century. 11. ' • ' Crisio. but in 1645 war broke out between Turkey and the Republic. and that numerous abuses and corruptions sprang up among them.1 62 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. p. 151. the Republic of Venice. which " wrought Many the utmost desolation to this vineyard of the Lord. Zmaievich. fol. fol."i Christians lived in open concubinage for years. ledge even of the rudiments of their faith. which before the Turkish conquest had been in their possession for more than three centuries (1262-1571). vii. The Albanian Catholics who had sided with the enemy and secretly given them assistance were severely punished and deprived of their privileges. fol. vol.^ — which the habits of the two communities the Christian and the Muslim is further illustrated by the admission of Muhammadans as sponsors at the — baptism of Christian children. of the Catholics either ' Zmaievich. still however being admitted to the sacraments. . 11. 204. the thirty-ninth Archbishop of Antivari (1635 -1644). while the Greek Christians (who had everything to fear in the event of the restoration of the Venetian rule and had remained faithful to the Turkish government) were liberally rewarded and were lauded as the saviours of their country. 32. and the Venetians made an unsuccessful attempt to capture the city of Antivari. leaders of the Christian rule who through the bishops of Durazzo. Farlati. peace with the Turks a this As in his opportunity for the hatching of plot did not occur. Zmaievich. Many fol. some very incentive would have been enough to bring about a widespread apostacy. Scodra and Alessio tried to induce the community to conspire to the against the Turkish and hand over the country fitting neighbouring Christian time Venice was at power. The rebellious movement referred to seems to have been instigated by George. while the old still custom of baptising sanctioned by the priests.^ while others had a plurality of In this latter practice we notice an assimilation between wives. and the punishment inflicted on the rebellious Catholics in the latter half of the century was a determining factor more than suflttcient to consummate the tendencies that had been drawing them towards Islam and to cause large numbers of them to fall away from the Christian Church.

. p. while heavy fines were imposed upon the very unlikely that this . some cases to the from what has been desire to avoid said above. but. ' a M 2 . nor any attempt to force the acceptance Islam upon them. "Plerique. he says. 20.ALBANIA. fol. odium of their position after the failure of and could have gained the same end and have at the same time retained their Christian faith by joining the Greek Church. Many Albanians whose influence was feared were transported from their own country into the interior of the Turkish dominions a body of 3000 men crossed the border into Venetian territory those who remained were overawed by the erection of fortresses and the marching of troops through the disaffected districts. which was not only officially recognised by the Turkish government but in high favour in Antivari at this time so that those who neglected to do so. being again the main instigator of the movement and the leading citizens of Antivari. . avoid the did so to their plot. But this plot also failed and the insurrection was forcibly crushed by the Turkish troops. and give us no whether or not such complaints were justified by the facts. Scodra and other towns conspired to throw open their gates to the army of the Venetian Republic. were common also Zmaievich. vol. became fact is 163 of of Muhammadans or joined the Greek Church. an Archbishop of Antivari. 131. Tom. 4-5. so that they apostatised to Islam. The same remark holds good of the numerous conversions to Islam in the succeeding years : : Zmaievich attributes the them in payment of tribute. Joseph Maria Bonaldo (1646-1654). malcontents. The latter very significant as showing that there was no persecution the Christians as suc/i. pp. vii. but all these. aided by the dissensions that arose among the Christians themselves." ' Farlati. The Catholics who became Muhammadans. fol. paullatim (Farlati.^ general expressions. it is was the sole determining motive.i Unfortunately the Christian writers just tributes and vexations " with who complain of the "unwhich the Turks oppressed the make use only of details to enable us to judge' Albanians. 126-132. vii.) Christiana religione deficere coeperunt. could have had very little attachment to the Christian religion. In 1649 a still more widespread insurrection broke out. ut se iniquis tributis et vexationibus eximerent. Zmaievich prefaces his account of the apostacy of two thousand persons Christians with an enumeration of the taxes and other burdens the had to bear.

" and one their contracting marriages with of the chief causes of their falling away from the Christian faith was Turkish women. " The of three reals a year. What active efforts gain over the Muhammadans Christians to Islam. whose joint population of nearly a thousand souls was " exposed to the obvious risk of apostatising through lack of any pastor. 137. I'l. But we find mention of a district. Id. 5. Muhammadans. we themselves were making to can hardly expect to learn from the report of an ecclesiastical visitor. 3 ' Id." ' There this is very little doubt but that the widespread apostacy at time was the result of a long series of influences similar to those mentioned in the preceding pages. termed sciataraccio. fol. fol.1 64 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. fol'. and another tax. 197. had "contracted the vices of these infidels. and that the deliverance from the payment of the tribute was the last link in the chain. the inhabitants of which. namely. . 4 » Id. speaking of the clergy who were : to be parish priests and their practice of administering the sacraments to apostates and secret Christians. to the consideration of which it has a singular six reals a : leaning either by nature or by necessity. fol. has given just cause for lamenting the deplorable loss of about 2000 souls who apostatised from the true is nothing in faith so as his report to not to be subject to the tribute. " these are precisely the two causes from which have come all the losses that the not fit Christian Church has sustained in Albania. fol. from their intercourse with the Turks. fol. 149. IS. as also in the two parishes of Biscascia and Basia." and were " much tempted ' Zmaievich. and though he attributes many conversions to Islam to the desire of escaping the tribute. nation. '' Id. with the exception of the capitation-tax of to the year for each male.8 in great measure also to their practice of admitting to the sacraments those who openly professed Islam while in secret adhering to the Christian faith * in another place he says.' There were no doubt strong Muhammadan influences at work here. wounded by these taxes in its worldly interest.i He concludes with the words weakest part. he says expressly that these apostacies from the Christian faith are mainly to be ascribed to the extreme ignorance of the clergy . constituted so intolerable a burden as to force them to renounce their creed." ^ There show that the taxes the Catholics had to pay. 5. Id.

the elder of these had been "wheedled " by the prominent related to study for of the place. but also by the Supreme Pasha of Albania himself. when they showed themselves who was himself an Albanian. 143-4. who gave him the place of honour in his Divan. 9." the Zmaievich speaks of one of the old noble Christian families in neighbourhood of Antivari which was represented at that time by two brothers . ^ If any of the Christian clergy were roughly treated by the Turks." gave more substantial marks of good feeling towards the Christians by remitting at the Archbishop's request the tribute due for the ensuing year from four separate towns. Id." not only by the Turkish officials generally. ' of having Zmaievich. on account of his familiar intercourse with ' Muhammadans. in which office "he would be of much . fol. * " Zmaievich.^'^• ' * Tom. . always accompanying him to the door on his departure and receiving him there on his arrival. who were closely him." the fact that the ^ This indeed is another indication of to be Muhammadans Zmaievich. into denying his faith the younger wished to the priesthood. did not ill-treat the Christians. justly. such suspicions. Id.f°'. I<^.* This " barbarian " who " showed himself more like a generoushearted Christian than a Turk. vii. as many of the Archbishops of Antivari — — correspondence with the enemies of the seem also to have excited Otherwise the and in many cases." 6 they received from the Muslims Zmaievich even one parish priest being " much beloved by the principal and doubtless there were parallels in Albania to the . fol.' was received with " extraordinary honours " and with "marvellous courtesy. fol. universally respected. case of a priest in the diocese of Trebinje in Herzegovina. Christian clergy seem to have had no reason to complain of suspicion of treasonable Turks . Muhammadans assistance to which the Turks the Christian church through the high esteem in held his family which though poor was . fol. and took up his residence in his diocese instead of in Venetian seem to have done. but only politically disaffected. merely as such. 17. Farlati. 141.ALBANIA. it seems generally to have been due to the territory. in their faith. 1 6s and needed i to be strengthened in it by wise and zealous pastors. p 141. who in the early part of the eighteenth century was suspected. ecclesiastical visits to Italy — the treatment speaks of Turks. 7.

and formed with him a league of brotherhood. Bayazid. where both the king of Servia and the Turkish The successors of the two sultan were left dead upon the field. Stephen was present with his Servian troops and fought bravely for his brother-in-law. and asked him. acknowledged the suzerainty of Turkey. formed an intention to embrace Islam. and every man ' shall be free to pray in whichever he Farlati. p. Then he sought victorious. and stood by the sons of Bayazid until they recovered their father's throne. sovereigns entered into a friendly compact. "If you . when the Turkish power was annihilated and Bayazid himself taken prisoner by Timur. what " If ? will you do?" "Establish the Roman out the sdtan Catholic faith. which gave to the Turks assured possession of the whole Balkan peninsula. remained his engagement.1 66 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. the devotion of the Servians to the Greek Church led them to prefer the tolerance of the Muhammadans : the Latins. vol. but when Hunyady more under province. time The Turks and the Hungarians were at war George Brankovitch sought out John Hunyady and asked him. and instead of taking this opportunity of securing his independence. On the field of Angora (1402). . — An to the uncompromising proselytising spirit of old legend thus represents their feelings at this are victorious. George Brankovitch. the Servian contingent turned the wavering fortune of the battle and gave the victory to the Turks. Stephen. Then for a time Servia had to acknowledge the suzerainty of Hungary.^ The kingdom of Servia first paid tribute to the Ottomans in 1375 and lost its independence after the disastrous defeat of Kossovo (1389). Under the successor faithful to of Stephen. the young Servian prince. tribute at Varna and in 1459 she in 1444 finally brought her once became a Turkish Catholic rule of When given the choice between the Roman Hungary and the Muslim rule of the Turks. except the district surrounding Constantinople. but the defeat of John independence. gave his sister in marriage to the new sultan. his country was again overrun by the Turks. with our religion you come out " " By the side what will you do of every mosque shall stand a church. in Servia enjoyed a semi- 1438 he raised the standard of revolt. vi. and was accordingly sent by his bishop to Rome under safe custody . At the battle of Nikopolis (1394). 317." was the answer.

243) it contains Prizren. p. after the ill-success of this rising. A map of this country is given by Mackenzie and Irby (p. and the ' : * battle-field ' ' of Kossovo. welcomed the Turkish troops that in 1600 delivered them from the rule of their Catholic neighbours. Kanitz. well nigh denuded this part of the country of its original Servian population. Islam began to spread more 1690 emigrated : : ' • Enrique Dupuy de L6me De la Jonquiere.^ After this Albanian immigration.^ The spread after of Islam the battle of Kossovo. has there been any very considerable number of contheir troubles Servia. the seat of the Servian Patriarch. and only in Stara Serbia or Old which now forms the North-eastern portion of modern Albania. p. Muhammadanism proceeded when the Austrians III. p. pp 37-8- Kanitz. ^ * (Madrid. induced the Servians to rise in revolt and. though from time to time it is recruited by fresh arrivals from the mountains the new-comers however usually follow the example of their predecessors. in with 40. but after they settled in Old Servia they gradually adopted Islam and at the present time the remnant of Roman Catholic Albanians is but small.000 families under the leadership of Arsenius IV. Mackenzie and Irby. 37. Id. Id. the then Patriarch.* In these converted nobles the sultans found the most zealous propagandists of the new faith. among the Servians began immediately when a large part of the old feudal alive nobility. 250-1. went over voluntarily to the faith of the Prophet. Jovanovitch. 1877). 215. the old Servian capital . ." 1 167 The treachery of some Servian priests forced the . such as still remained and did not take refuge their in neighbouring Christian countries.SERVIA. Even here the spread of very slowly until the seventeenth century. Arsenius Tsernoievitch. 290. pp. = But the majority of the Servian people clung firmly to their old religion through all and sufferings. 37. pp. Ipek. 17-18. in order to keep old privileges undisturbed. and after a while become Muhammadans. p. : Los Eslavos y Turquia.* versions.^ Albanian colonists from the south pressed into the country vacated by the fugitives these Albanians at the time of their arrival were Roman Catholics for the most part.000 Servian families across the border into Hungary. garrison of Belgrade to capitulate to the Turks ^ similarly the Servians of Semendria. another exodus in 1739 of 15. chooses. on the Danube.

every house in the city was looked upon as Muhammadan. they neither preached to the people nor taught them the catechism. The churches were filled with Greek bishops. ' Fariati. 39-40. ^ j. 120 Roman Catholic households. < Id. 200 Greek and 180 Muhammadan^ less than a hundred is inhabitants of the place. which had begun to become Muhammadanised soon after the great exodus of 1690. at least occasionally. the Patriarch of Ipek. was appointed by the Patriarchate Porte. but at the present day this village. etc. pp.. and fell the consecrated buildings district of Opolje. consequently in whole villages scarcely a man could be found who knew the Lord's Prayer or how many commandments there were . 39. 127-8. similarly. fol._ Zmaievich. vii. 374-5. together with the surrounding .g.^ About the middle of the eighteenth century. pp. burials were conducted without the blessing of the church. were Christian. into decay . the village of Ljurs was entirely Catholic in 1863 there were 90 Muslim and 23 Christian families. they could only manage with difficulty to read their service-books and hardly any rapidly had learned to write . who made common cause with the Turkish Beys and Pashas fortunate Christians : in bleeding the un- was proscribed and the Old Slavonic service-books. the Servians that still Christian faith should decline : clung to the Christian faith. weddings and . 182.^ With such a clergy it is not surprising that the their national language e. vol. were collected and sent off to Constantinople.. Id. The Servian clergy were very ignorant and unlettered. the ecclesiastical capital of Servia. with some of the children. Kanitz. years later.^ In the neighbouring the present Muslim population of 9500 souls probably for the most part descended from the original Slav At the beginning of the seventeenth century. in the commune of Gora (in the district of Prizren). ' Mackenzie and Irby.i After the insurrection of 1689. the Servian was entirely suppressed and the Servian Church made dependent upon the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople. as the head of each family professed this faith and the women only.1 68 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. among the remnant of the Servian population.* . Bizzi found in the city of Jagnevo. . p_ -jg • 5 K Bi^^i j^. pp. but in 1737. as the result of another rebellion. but all in vain their children remained unbaptised. appealed again and again to the Greek bishop of Prizren to send them priests. even the priests themselves were quite as ignorant. p.

Pope John XXII. — In 1325. ^ Until recently some ingering survivals of their old Christian faith. in 1246. all the converted Montenegrins who would not hope for their forswear Islam blood. . on of the Muhammadans living among them. The Inquisition was established in 1291. Christmas Eve. the wild highlands of Montenegro afforded a refuge to hose Servians who would not submit to the Turks but were ertain villages. lere to It is not the place centuries of relate the history of the heroic struggles of this brave )eople against . „ . knowing that thou art a faithful son of the " To we therefore charge thee to exterminate the heretics in ' Kanitz. L. ' ' Montenegro was ruled by bishops from 1516 to 1852.. lave adherence to the Christian faith it could hardly have Islam would have made its way among them. in 1221. pp. wrote thus to our beloved son and nobleman. illages.. „. how through rule of their prince-bishops. Stephen.^ they kept alive a free Christian state when all their brethren of same race had been compelled to submit to Muhammadan :he While the very basis of their separate existence as a nation rule. such as the if burning the Yule-log at Christmas. but in the seventeenth century many Montenegrins in the frontier districts became Muhammadans and took service with the neighBut in 1703.' and embrace Christianity were massacred to Bosnia : in cold To social pass now — in this country the religious and conditions of the people. p. in 1337. overwhelming under the odds. m . called Bogomiles. the then bouring Pashas. XII. Innocent IV. who from the thirteenth century had been exposed to the persecution of the Roman Catholics and against whom Popes had on several occasions a heretical preached a Crusade. were still to be met within now fast dying out. but such customs are After the battle of letermined to maintain their independence. 362-3. Kossovo and the downfall of the Servian Lmpire. 169 has wholly given up Christianity.* the king of Bosnia : Prince of Bosnia. etc. Clark. Gregory IX. was their firm been expected that reigning bishop. merit especial attention. church. Benedict Honorius III.SERVIA. called the tribes together only and told them that the country and their faith lay in the destruction Accordingly. „ * 1238.ontinual warfare. K. . MONTENEGRO. 38. to The majority of the population belonged Christian sect. before the Turkish conquest. Daniel Petrovitch.

. and Muhammad II. trusting there to sow their obscene errors and dwell there in safety. sheep's clothing. covering their . his numerous conquests. These men. the royal city of Bobovatz. 42-95. as in 1462 we are told that heresy was as powerful as ever The following year. as. his subjects : the keys of the . . when Bosnia was invaded in this country. for the king of Bosnia and the priests were pushing the persecution of the Bogomiles to an extreme which perhaps it had never reached before as many as forty thousand of them fled from Bosnia and took refuge in neighbouring countries others who did not succeed in making their But even these violent escape. measures did little to diminish the strength of the Bogomiles in Bosnia.principal fortress. and the rest seem to have From to gradually followed later. xxxvi-xlii. and armed with the venom of their falseness. embraced Islam with the intention of returning to their faith when a favourable opportunity presented itself. 96-7. were sent in chains to Rome. Asboth. this . the Catholic king found himself deserted by their . by Muhammad II. pp. the sufferings of the Bogomiles became so intolerable that they appealed to the Turks to deliver them from unhappy condition. and are wolves in. at least in the earlier period of the conquest. pp. added Bosnia to the number of . being con' ^ Asboth.1 70 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and to render aid and assistance to Fabian. It has been supposed by some ^ that a large proportion of the Bogomiles. but in secret they kill. forasmuch as a large multitude of heretics from many and divers parts collected hath flowed together into the principality of Bosnia. and they creep in with humility.. thy dominions. while the Bosnian Roman Catholics emigrated into the neighbouring territories of Hungary and Austria." In the fifteenth century. pp. our Inquisitor. bestial fury as a means to deceive the simple sheep of Christ. imbued with the cunning of the Old Fiend. corrupt the minds of Catholics by outward show of simplicity and their speech the sham assumption of the name of Christians crawleth like a crab. seem time forth we hear but little of the Bogomiles they have willingly embraced Islam in large numbers immediately after the Turkish conquest. were handed over to the Turks by the Bogomile governor the other fortresses and towns hastened to follow this example and within a week seventy cities passed into the hands of the Sultan. Evans.

and that it is not the body of God. quoted ment. in contrast to the gaudily decorated churches. length have been entirely forgotten by their descendants. and wan with hypocritical fasting. when this favourable opportunity never intention must have gradually been lost sight of and . pp. ^ Surah iv. " Son opmi' Cf. the admiration of the Turks for Charles XII. in the numerous points of likeness between their peculiar beliefs and the tenets of They rejected the worship of the Virgin Mary. evidence to support willingness of the the general We may rather find the reason for the in Bogomiles to allow themselves to be merged mass of the Musalman believers. Wetzer und Welte. and they shared the Muhammadan which they styled " the devil's trumpets. 36. Such direct a supposition is however a pure conjecture and has no it. p. silent. stantly 171 persecuted. 156. p. 975.) vol. and bay at them as dogs at horses. repeating the Lord's Prayer with frequent kneelings. the inIslam. . Asboth. As to the Lord's Supper. p. and leave their person incompt.^ general austerity of their mode of life and the stern severity of their outward demeanour would serve as further links to bind them to " You will see heretics quiet and Islam. but ordinary bread. to the teachings of Islam. itrete i s'abstenir du vin. leur fesaient dire: C'est un vrai musulman." by Evans.^ for it was said of them peaceful as lambs without. of Sweden.BOSNIA. 1785.) (Paris. they assert that it is not kept according to God's command- Kosmas. who do not speak much nor laugh loud." Tome * ' 23. unadorned. Roman dislike Catholic of bells. 1 nated the cross as a religious symbol. who let their They prayed five beard grow. and they call orthodox priests blind Pharisees. p. xxxi.^ and would thus find it very little change I have brought together to join in the services of the mosque. which here the many points of likeness : : ' " They revile the ceremonies of the church and all church dignitaries. ii. 200. Kosmas. quoted by Evans." Christ They believed that substituted in his place was not himself crucified but that some phantom was in this respect agreeing partially with Their condemnation of wine and the the teaching of the Qur'an. et sa regularite a assister deux fois par jour aux prieres (CEuvres de Voltaire." * times a day and five times a night. this at but that. they may have learnt to deny their faith for the time being arrived. and considered it idolatry to bow down before religious pictures and the images and relics Their houses of prayer were very simple and of the saints. xxx-xxxi. publiques. They abomistitution of Baptism and every form of priesthood.

but there were. which in 1669 was wrested from the hands of the Venetian Republic when the city of Candia was taken after a long and desperate siege of nearly three years.^ In the beginning of the thirteenth century. and it remained in their power for nearly a century and a half (a. some still. the people were con. vol. 205-8.! During this period well-nigh the whole population of the island had become Muslim. ii. to whose lot it had fallen after the partition of the Byzantine empire. . and the churches had either fallen into ruins or rule. doctrines of a distinctly Christian character which an orthodox Muslim could not hold easily be . 260. verted again to their ancient faith through the skilful preaching of an Armenian monk. p. with so much in common. Duke of Montserrat. and it is probable that many rightful heirs of ancient houses who had been dispossessed for heretical opinions by the Catholic faction among the nobility. The Turks. and the Christian religion became the only one professed on the island. and they ruled it with heavy hand. vol. All who embraced Islam were allowed to retain their lands and possessions. apparently looking upon it only in the light of ' a a Amari. * Cornaro. the Venetians purchased the island from Boniface. p. been turned into mosques but when the authority of the Byzantine empire was once re-established here. pp. offered every advantage to induce the Bosnians to accept their creed. it can the Bogomiles may gradually have been persuaded to give up those doctrines that were repugnant to the Their Manichaean dualism was equally irreMuslim faith. find in this we Bogomilian heresy. of course. which closed a struggle of twenty-five years between these rival powers for the position The latest territorial acquisition of possession of the island. 825-961). This was not the first time that Crete had come under Muslim Early in the ninth century the island was suddenly seized by a band of Saracen adventurers from Spain. the Ottoman conquests was the island of Crete. 163 i. vol.172 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. as was their usual custom. but Islam has always shown such theological speculations provided that they did not issue in a schism and that a general assent and consent were given to the main principles of its theory and practice.d. understood how concilable with itself tolerant of Muslim theology. . i. now embraced the opportunity of regaining their old by submission to the dominant creed.

151. pp. worse condition than that of slaves. oxen and a mules could be seized for the service of the lord. in the condition of the islanders. vol. 284. p. 39I'2. How terrible was their lot at time we learn from the reports of the commissioners sent by the Venetian senate in the latter part of the same century. peasant had to do twelve days' forced labour for his feudal lord every year without payment. who had thousand other devices for squeezing the unfortunate peasant.* the The protests of these commissioners proved ineffectual to induce Venetian senate to alleviate the unhappy condition of the Cretans and put a stop to the cruelty and tyranny of the nobles : it preferred to hsten to the advice of a certain in 161 5 Fra Paolo Sarpi who Greek colonies thus addressed the Republic on the subject of its " If the gentlemen of these Colonies do tyrannize : over the villages of their to see it. so that these districts remained barren and uncultivated for nearly "phe terrific cruelty with which the Venetian senate a century. but fraud and force combined generally succeeded in appropriating as much as two-thirds . and it was forbidden under pain of death to sow any corn there. his vineyards were mulcted his in a third of their produce. The peasants down by the cruellest oppression and order to inquire into were said to be crushed tyranny on the part of the Venetian nobles. 30 i vol. . their feudal lords. p. ii. p. and that " they would not I'errot. purchase that 173 government was to be exploited for the benefit of the home and its colonists. that there may be no dominion. Their administration was so oppressive and tyrannical as to excite several revolts. and could then be compelled to go being reduced to a on working for as long as his lord required his services at the nominal rate of a full penny a day ." 3 It is Cretans longed for a not surprising to learn from the same sources that the change of rulers. which were on one of these occasions whole crushed with pitiless severity cantons in the provinces of Sfakia and Lassiti were depopulated. 298. ' ^ Pashley.CRETE. Pashley. suppressed the last of these attempts at the beginning of the sixteenth century added a crowning horror to the miserable condition of the this unhappy Cretans. vol. so that Each they never dared even to complain of any injustice.i . ii. the best way is not to seem kindness between them and their subjects. i.

These did their utmost to root out the Greek faith and establish that of Rome in its place. 319. of the island. vol. 285. where many embraced Islam. good-will by restoring the Greek hierarchy.^ who constituted nine-tenths of the population The Turks on the other hand conciliated their Tliis. following in the footsteps of countless others. p. " according to a Venetian writer. It would be needful for him to act in a way different from the line followed by the Venetians. who appropriated the endowments that belonged of right to the Greek ecclesiastics. with which interest they had made an injunction that there should be no Greek bishops in the island.^ Especially galling to the Cretans were the exactions of the Latin clergy. they thought the more easily to gain control over the scattered flocks. vol. By thus removing these venerated and authoritative shepherds. much stick at submitting to the Turk. who from time to time had taken refuge there. was brought about in the following manner A certain papas or priest of Canea went to Cusseim the" Turkish general. p. it was necessary for him to bear in mind that the staunchest of the links which keep civilized society from falling asunder is religion. Perrot. 151. and told him that if he desired to gain the goodwill of the Cretan people. i Large numbers of them also emigrated to Egypt. and the Greek Patriarch was bidden to institute an archbishop who should be metropole of the Province of Candia. Here they are approved. that it would be a means of concihating the people if they were assured that they would not only be confirmed in the old privileges of their rehgion. many at this time iied into Turkey to escape the intolerable burden of taxation. to Pasliley. ii. . p. having the example of all the rest of their nation before their eyes.174 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. These arguments seemed to Cusseim so plausible that he wrote at once further Constantinople with a statement of them. He added. and bring detestation upon the name of Venice. ' Pashley. but that new privileges would be granted them." Indeed. i. and did everything they could to insult the Christians of the Greek rite. This prohibition had caused such distress in the minds of the Cretans that they were ready to welcome with joy and obedience any sovereignty that would lend its will to the re-institution of this order in their hierarchy an order so essential for the proper — exercise of their divine worship.

in days when the Cretan Muslims were very generally in the habit of taking as their wives Christian maidens. not only in the towns but also in the villages. From one end of the island to the other." The Turkish conquest seems to have been very rapidly followed It by the conversion of large numbers of the Cretans to Islam. vol.CRETE. Perrot. ii. and to the present day there other the not. is There never has been. 90-92. •). habits mountains. it seems almost incredible that violence should have changed the religion of a people who had for centheir old faith — turies before clung firmly to their old faith despite the persecu- and a foreign creed. p. any language spoken on the island of Crete except Greek even few Turks to be found here have to adopt the language of all the Pashas are read the firmans of the Porte and decrees of the and published in Greek. which at once raised them from the position of subjects to that of equals and gave them a share in the political life and government of their country. Whatever may have been the causes of the widespread conversions of the Cretans. vol. Pashley. pp. * (London.) ' ' p. is not improbable that the same patriotism as made them cling to under the foreign domination of the Venetians who kept them at arm's length and regarded any attempt at assimilation as an unpardonable indignity . : Letters from Crete. and often stood as godfathers to ' Charles Edwardes Pashley. thirty years after the conquest we are told that the majority of the Muslims were renegades or the children of renegades.2 and always tried to may have led impress on their subjects a sense of their inferiority them to accept the religion of their new masters. Whatever may have been means by which the ranks of Islam were filled. p. was by no means so virulent before the outbreak of the Greek revolution.-* The bitter feehngs between the Christians and Muhammadans of Crete that have country and made the history of this island during the present century so sad a one. were (and are still) found Cretan and speech are thoroughly Greek. 1887. 159. .^ and in little more than a century half the population of Crete had become Muhamtion of a hostile the madan. in the inland districts and in the very heart of the Muslims who in figure. ^ I7S Under the metropolitan seven other bishops were also to be nominated. who retained their own faith. . i. 15 1-2.

^ Pashley. : i. The social the children of their Christian friends. 195. 1865. Spratt Travels and Researches in Crete. 47 (Lond. 10. T. as the Cretans of both creeds dress so much alike that the distinction is often not even recognised by residents of long standing or by Greeks of the neighbouring islands. B. vol.i tion between the communica- two communities was further signified by their common dress. i.176 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. pp. A. . vol. p.

now became . the mass of the people offered little resistance the reigns of the last representatives of the Sasanid dynasty had been marked by terrible anarchy. policy of priests The Zoroastrian state . La Saussaye.^ The followers of all these varied forms of faith could breathe again under a rule that granted them religious freedom and exemption from military service. the great centuries dynasty of the Sasanids that for four had fallen. Manithose religious bodies — — chsans and Buddhists found expression. Jews. 55-6. Sabaeans and numerous sects in which the speculations of Gnostics. on ' payment of a light tribute. tion In all of these. IN PERSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA. very large share in the of their administraall They took advantage position to persecute (and they were many) that dissented from them. 45-6. and the sympathies of the people rulers had been further alienated from their on account of the support they gave to the persecuting the state religion of Zoroastrianism. Besides the numerous adherents of older forms of the Persian religion. and the vast empire of Persia had withstood the might of Rome and the heritage of the Muslims. and so caused the Arab conquest to appear in the light of a deliverance. vol. When the armies of the state had been routed. By the middle of the seventh century. persecu- had stirred up feelings of bitter hatred against the established religion and the dynasty that supported its oppressions. N . Arab we must retrace our steps to the period of the first conquests. ii. had acquired an enormous influence in the all-powerful in they were well-nigh the councils of the king and civil arrogated to themselves a tion. A de Gobineau (i). pp. there were Christians. pp. the course of the spread of Islam westward into Central Asia.CHAPTER THE SPREAD OF ISLAM In order to follow VII. Byzantium.

but to Zoroastrians and Sabaeans. though in a rather different form he would meet again Ahuramazda and Ahriman under the names of Allah and Iblis the creation of the world in six periods the angels and the demons the story of the primitive innocence of man the resurrection of the body and the doctrine of heaven and hell.^ Nor were the conversions from Zoroastrianism itself less striking the fabric of the national church had fallen with a crash in the general ruin of the dynasty that had before upheld it having no other centre round which to rally.e. on the ground that each man was a priest in his own household and had no need of any other. p." i. . and the followers of Zoroaster when they adopted Islam were enjoined by their new faith to pray five times a day just as they had been by the Avesta. p."p. to worshippers of idols. to the Zoroastrian creed. toleration For the Muslim law granted and the right of paying jizyah not only to the Christians and Jews. the followers of this creed would find the transition to Islam a simple and easy one. of fire and of stone.^ But the Muslim cre^d was most eagerly welcomed by the townsfolk. 5. conquer his ' Abu Yusuf : * A de Gobineau (2). 306-310. soul. the industrial classes and the artizans. .* Even in the details of daily worship there were similarities to be found. 157. ' 2 < j(j_ j^ (i). and equal in a brotherhood of faith. taught that a man should love his neighbour. and who thus. the Jews and Christians.i It was said that the Prophet himself had distinctly given directions that the Zoroastrians were to be treated exactly like " the people of the book. 73. and believing in a supreme being and the immortality of the . and that jizyah might also be taken from them in return for protection. .= Those tribes iri«the north of Persia that had stubbornly resisted the ecclesiastical organisation of the state religion. For the : . . Dozy Haneberg.178 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. outcasts in the eyes of the law and treated with scant consideration in consequence. Persian could find in the Qur'an many of the fundamental : doctrines of his old faith. embraced with eagerness a creed that made them at once free men. Kitabu-1 Siaraj. pp. because in the pursuance of their trade or occupations they defiled earth or water. owing to the numerous points of similarity in the old creed and the new. whose occupations made them impure according fire.

pp. Mas'iidi. the son of 'Ah with Shahbanu. Even to the present day there are some small communities of fire-worshippers to be found in this is That violence certain districts of Persia. one of the daughters of Yazdagird. i. p.) (Paris. '(Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists. passions. (London.). in almost province of Persia. 509-511. [861. Ears. and we even read of a Muhammadan general (in the reign of Al Mu'tajim (833-842 a. eYfflV Khurasan. three centuries after the conquest -of the country.000 families of ' Dozy ' : fire-worshippers in •meridionale * * Kirman at the end of the last century. Chwolsohn.^ their ancestors the early Hijrah enjoyed a remarkable degree of toleration. vol. their fire-temples were respected. that had come under persuasion to induce the influence of Christianity. vol. 55. the last monarch of the Sasanid dynasty. Sijistan. who centuries of the ordered an imam and a mu'adhdhin to be flogged because they had destroyed a fire-temple in Su^d and built a mosque in its place. 193. Jibal. 191.) (London.^ widespread conversion was not due to force or evidenced by the toleration extended to those who still clung to their ancient faith. A. vol. par Ahmed-Bey Agaeff. fire-temples were to be found in 'Iraq. Les croyances Mazdeennes dans la religion Chiite. In addition to the causes above of enumerated of the rapid spread Islam in Persia. vol. 287. 86. i.) K 2 . ii.* In the tenth century. pp. p. iv. de Gobineau (i). (Memoire sur la partie de I'Asie ceiitrale. p. 179 and strive patiently after a better life little —such men could have needed very faith with them to accept the of the Prophet. i.e. and though these have in later years in often had to suffer persecution. p. Kirman.) Nicolas de KhanikofF says that there were 12. Adharbijan and Arran.) ^ Dosabhai Framji Karaka History of the Parsis. 1884. p.^ Islam had still more points of contact some of the heretical sects of Persia.d. In the descendants of Shahbanu and Husayn the Persians saw the heirs of their ancient iings and the inheritors of their national traditions and in this patriotic feeling may be found the explanation of the intense devotion of the Persians to the 'Alid faction and the first behalf of the national sympathies of the new religion beginnings of Shi'ism as a separate sect.PERSIA. 1893.56-9i 62-7.^ In Ears itself there were few cities in (i). it should be remembered that the political and conquered race were also enlisted on through the marriage of Husayn.

Karim ibn Shahriyar was the first king of the Qabusiyah dynasty who became a Musalman.i8o THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. (Hamburg. the governor of Kiurasan. .D. viii. a noble of BalHsi havmg received assistance from Asad ibn 'Abdu-llah. Sharastani also (writing as late as the twelfth century).h. to accept Islam many of them responded to his call. Mordtmann. ix. edited by Cureton. renounced Zoroastrianism. who had been a fire-worshipper. invited the inhabitants of Tabaristan and Daylam.^ In the face of such facts. was converted to Islam by a still more famous poet. ' Mas'udl. of the 'Alid dynasty on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. render it probable that the acceptance of Islam was both peaceful and voluntary. who were partly idolaters and partly Magians. Ash of which fire-temples and Magians were not to be found. 4-5. von A. a native of Daylam. Hasan ibn 'All. who was his master in the poetic art. About the beginning of the ninth century. 1845. Abu-1 Hasan Mihyar. * Ibn Khallikan. makes in the neighbourhood Bagdad itself. and in 873 a large number of fire-worshippers were converted to Islam in Daylam through the influence of Nasiru-1 Haqq Abu Muhammad. vol. (1003-4 A. p. part i. vol. 62-3. p. yet the very fact that such can be found up to three centuries and a half after the Muslim conquest is clear testimony to the toleration the Persians ' Das Buch der Lander von Schech Ebu Ishak el Farsi el Isztachri. about 912 a. The number of Persians who embraced Islam in the early days of the Arab rule was probably very large from the various reasons given above. while others persisted in their former state of unbelief. In the following century. About the close of the eighth century.* Scanty as these notices of conversions are. 517.i mention of a fire-temple at Isfiniya. p.. 279 vol.). p. it is surely impossible to attribute the decay of Zoroastrianism to violent conversions made by the Muslim conquerors.) ^ Kitabu-1 milal wa-n nihal. who is said to have been a man of learning and intelligence and well acquainted with the religious opinions of : different sects. the Sharif Ar Rida. iii. D. but the late survival of their ancient faith and the occasional record of conversions in the course of successive centuries. p. iibersetzt .d. embraced Islam and named his son Asad after his protector it is from this convert that the dynasty of the Samanids (874-999 ^^) took its name. a famous poet.^ In the year 394 a. Saman. 198.

to the Jews that of the insight into with — : . This is not the place to enter into a history of this sect or of the theological position taken up by its followers. The founder organisation — which rivals that of the Jesuits for the keen human nature it displays and the consummate skill which the doctrines of the sect were accommodated to varying capacities and prejudices was a certain 'Abdu-Uah ibn Maymun. or of the social and political factors that lent it strength. that the aspirations of of 'All as and to the Christians that of the Comforter.THE enjoyed. to ISMA'ILIANS. completion of the Shi'ah system of In the more esoteric doctrines of the Isma'ilian sect. as it were. the Isma'ilian missionary was to put himself forward as the zealous partisan of upon the cruelty and injustice and liberally abuse the of the Sunnis towards having thus prepared the way. Messiah. and accommodating their teaching to the varying capacities and opinions of their hearers. and. . He sent out his missionaries in all directions under various guises. insinuate. to Islam i8i and argues that their conversion some extent at least. he was to speak with contempt of both . he was to Sunni Malifahs all the Shi'ah doctrine. To the devout they appeared as models of virtue and religious zeal to the mystics they revealed the hidden meaning of popular teachings and initiated them into various grades of Taking advantage of the occultism according to their capacity. They captivated the ignorant multitude by the performance of marvels that were taken for miracles and by mysterious utterances that excited their curiosity. is was peaceful In the middle of the eighth century. they declared to the Musalmans the approaching advent of the Imam Mahdi. but it demands attention here on account of the marvellous missionary organisation wfhereby of this it the sect of the Isma'ilians. very frequently as sufis but also as merchants and traders and the like they were instructed to be all things to all men and to win over different classes of men to allegiance to the grandmaster of their sect. but taught each could alone be realised in the coming the great deliverer. who early in the ninth century infused new life into the Isma'ilians. eager looking-forward to a deliverer that was common to so many faiths of the time. With the Shi'ah. of interest in the missionary history of Islam. gradual. Persia gave birth to a movement that viz. by speaking to each man. as the necessary faith. dealing with the Jew. was to dwell 'Ali and his sons. in his own language. was propagated.

141-8. to which the Isma'ilian system alone could supply the key he was also cautiously to suggest that the Christians had somewhat misinterpreted the doctrine of the Paraclete and that it was in 'All that the true Paraclete was to be found. When Ibn Qutaybah went to Samarqand. but gradually lead him to believe that this promised Messiah could be none other than 'All. They also wrote a Mahdi Purana and composed hymns in imitation of those of the Vamacarins or left-hand Saktas.^ sect The history of the spread of Islam in the countries of Central Asia to the north of Persia presents little in the way of missionary activity.e. but as the means he adopted were religious and the one common bond if any that bound his followers together was the devout expectation of the coming of the Imam Mahdi. many idols who dared Vrittant. ix.s There .i By such means as these an enormous different faiths number of persons of were united together to push forward an enterprise. the — — missionary activity connected with the history of this deserves this brief mention in these pages. Ixvu-lxxvi. the Isma'ilian missionaries who made their way into India endeavoured to make their doctrines acceptable to the Hindus^ by representing 'Ali as the promised tenth Avatar of Visnu whowas to come from the West. undeterred by such superstitious fears. pp. ' Khoja m " Al Baladhuri. tome i. and agree with his intended convert in Christians and Muslims still looking forward to a promised Messiah. he was to dwell upon the obstinacy of the Jews and the ignorance of the Muslims. For a further account of Isma'ilian missionaries India. but gently hint that they were symbolic and pointed to a deeper meaning. . the real aim of which was known to very few. (they averred) from Alamut.1 82 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. ' pp. see chap. p. the great Messiah of the Isma'ilian system. 421. If h® sought to win over the Christian. i. cxlvm-clxu. set fire to the idols whereupon the idolaters embraced Islam. whose mysticism already predisposed their minds to the acceptance of the esoteric doctrines of the Isma'ilians. The aspirations of 'Abdu-Uah ibn Maymun seem to have been entirely political. 2 Le Bon Silvestre De Sacy : Expose de la Religion dts Druzes. to profess reverence for the chief articles of the Christian creed. Similarly . the Muslim conqueror. whose worshippers maintained that any man outrage them would at once fall down dead. he found there.

^ and large converted through the preaching of a certain Abu Sayda in the reign of Hisham (724-743).! BuH^ara and opposition to the but those new faith was so violent and obstinate that Samarqand the none and for who had embraced Islam were allowed to carry arms^ many years the Muslims dared not appear unarmed in the new converts. ' Vambery Tabari. and the earliest authentic mention of conversion to Islam from among the Afji^ans seems to be that of a king of Kabul in the reign of convert their fellow-tribesmen. 833-842) that ' * ° ' Vambery ^ * (2). while spies had to be set to keep a watch on the The conquerors made various and even tried to encourage attendance at the Friday prayers in the mosques by rewards of money. He returned to Muhammad accompanied by a deputation of six or seven reprethese. 201.d. 15-16. i. vol. 183 history of however but scanty record of such conversions in the earl)^ the Muslim advance into Central Asia moreover the . In the first century of the Hijrah they occupied the Gior country to the east of Herat. them to join the standard of the Prophet. 431. 1507 sqq. p. 402. p. p. ii.^ but it was not until the reign of some of the 'Umar II. p. 717-720) to embrace Islam. sentative men of the Afghan people and their followers when they went back to their own country. Bellew. (i). and allowed the Qur'an to be recited in Persian instead of in Arabic^ in order that it might be intelligible to all. 426. 33-4- Al Baladhurl. .^ The traditions of the A fgh an people represent the new faith as having been peaceably introduced among their tribes.d.' Islam was generally adopted probably being the more intimate one of the reasons (a. pp. ^ probably without Al Ma'mun. Id.* In the north the progress of Islam people of was very slow invitation Transoxania accepted the (a. set to work to . p. pp. numbers were : of Al Mu'tasim there. mosques or other public places. and it was there that i^alid ibn Walid is said to have come to them with the tidings of Islam and to have invited efforts to gain proselytes. people of this country Islam for seem often to have pretended to embrace' a time and then to have thrown off the mask and jn renounced their allegiance to the caliph as soon as the conqueringarmies were withdrawn.CENTRAL is ASIA. This tradition is however any historical foundation in fact. Al Baladhurl.

in 956 a. p. August Miiller. whose wars and conquests revived the fading glory of the Muhammadan arms and united into one empire the Muslim kingdoms of Western Asia. relations established at this time Muhammadan Bagdad. Thus the founder of the dynasty of the Ilak ^ans of Turkistan.d. ^ 2 Hammer (i). 7. led their clansmen to follow their example in a body. through the enormous numbers of Turks that flocked in thousands from these parts to join the army of the caliph. This was the origin of the famous Saljuq Turks. 520. with the then capital of the world. vol. when the conversion of some of their chieftains to Islam. and when Muhammad Ohori was extending his empire from Khurasan eastward across the north of India. whom p.]84 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. p.i Islam having thus gained a footing among the Turkish tribes seems to have made but slow progress until the middle of the tenth century. i.^ Among the Turkish chieftains that took part in the wars of this dynasty was a certain Saljuq who. migrated from the Kirghiz steppes with all his clan to the province of Bu^ara. who for a time united under their rule the Turkish tribes from the Caspian Sea to the borders of China.. where he and his people enthusiastically embraced Islam. the Saljuq Empire had lost all power except in Asia Minor. who set about the task of proselytising with remarkable energy and boldness. vol. became a Muslim together with two thousand of his tribe. to families he gave the name of Turkomans to distinguish them from the Turks that still remained unconverted. like that of Clovis and other barbarian kings of Northern Europe to Christianity. there was a great revival of the Muslim faith among the Afghans and their country was overrun by Arab preachers and converts from India. i. Bellew. When at the close of the twelfth century. 96. .^ Of the further history of Islam in Persia and Central Asia some details will be found in the following chapter.

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231. C. pp. Christians and Muhammadans. and the adherents of these three great missionary faiths entered into rivalry with one another for the — the conversion of their conquerors. It so happened that the civilised races with which the conquest of the Mongols brought them in contact comprised large numbers of Buddhists.* Lamas of Thibet who showed themselves most zealous this work of conversion. whose priests were exempted from taxation and allowed perfect freedom of worship. p. and by the beginning of the fourteenth century the Buddhist the reign of faith It Muslim Imams was the in seems to have gained a complete ascendancy over them. as do the Kalmuks who migrated to Russia in the seventeenth century. The primitive worshipped a spirits 187 religion of the while recognising a Mongols was Shamanism..THE MONGOLS AND THEIR RELIGION. the Shamanist Mongols showed themselves remarkably tolerant of other religions. wizards or medicine-men. To propitiate these powers of the heaven and of the lower world. . When not carried away and insult that usually characterised their campaigns. by the furious madness alike enjoyed the patronage of the Khaqaan. and the people of Mongolia to the present day cling to the same faith. had responded to their civilising influences. 488. Buddhist priests held controversies with the Shamans in the presence of Jingis ^an and at the courts of Mangu Khan and Khubilay !^an the Buddhist and Christian priests and the for destruction . who were credited with elements one that possessing mysterious influence over the and the spirits of the departed. possessed of a systematic theology capable of satisfying demands of the reason and an organised body of religious teachers ^when once the Mongols had been brought into contact with civilised races. * ' Guillaume de Rubrouck. and begun to pass out of their nomadic barbarism. and the souls of ancestors who were considered to exercise an influence on the lives of their descendants. recourse was had to the Shamans. which supreme God. but of inferior divinities. 203.^^ In the latter monarch the Mongols in China began to yield to the powerful influences of the surrounding Buddhism. tome ii. 200. d'Ohsson. De Guignes. pp. offered no prayers to Him. i6j. Their religion was not was calculated to withstand long the efforts of a prosely- tising faith. especially the evil number whose powers for harm had to be deprecated by means of sacrifices. tome iii.

and especially to the Nestorians. When this tribe was conquered by Jingis Khan. But these reports were soon discovered to be without any foundation in fact. p. though William of Rubrouck found that the — ' '^ De Guignes. he married one of the daughters of the then chief of the tribe. Ogotay's son.the influence of whose Christian wife led him to show much favour to the Christians.i The Christian powers both of the East and the West looked to the Mongols to assist them in their wars against the Musalmans. The Nestorian priests were held in high favour at his court and he received an embassy from Pope Innocent IV. .i88 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. The famous Prester John. The Nestorian missionaries in the seventh century had carried the knowledge of the Christian faith from west to east across Asia as far as the north of China. had given rise to a belief that the Mongols were Christians a belief which was further strengthened by the false reports that reached Europe of the conversion of various Mongol Khans and their zeal for the Christian cause. 204. p. Id. vol. chief minister Kuyuk Khan. around whose name cluster so many legends of the Middle Ages. to which his and one of his secretaries belonged. who was mainly instrumental in persuading Mangu Khan to despatch the expedition that sacked Baghdad under the leadership of Hulagu. while his son Ogotay took a wife from the same family. 115. 125. It was under this delusion that St. and scattered communities were still to be found in the thirteenth century. is supposed to have been the chief of the Kara'its.^an to persevere in his supposed efforts for the spread of the Christian faith.^ The marvellous tales of the greatness and magnificence of Prester John. at first was by no means inconsiderable and great hopes were entertained the influence of the Christian Church of the conversion of the Mongols. to exhort the great .. iii. It was Heythoum. p. ' Klaproth. although he did not himself become a Christian. showed great favour towards this faith. that fired the imagination of mediaeval Europe. a Christian Tartar tribe living to the south of Lake Baikal. the Christian King of Armenia. Louis sent an ambassador. itself finally Although Buddhism made supreme in the eastern part of the empire. Many of the Mongols who occupied the countries of Armenia and Georgia were converted by the Christians of these countries and received baptism. William of Rubrouck.

babies in their cradles.^ As for the Nestorians. i. the Mamluk Sultan^of ii. Greeks. and many other circumstances contributed towas very . 128-9. honest and intelligent person. advantage of their opportunities. The priests were eaten up with simony. the alliance between the Christians and the U^ans of Persia In the western parts of the looked to the newly-risen was short-lived. Buddhism and Islam were gaining a firm footing for themselves. even the. Christian 189 religion was freely tolerated at the court of Mangu made But so . little theological differences into there hope of much progress being made. they have been too degraded and apathetic to take much Of the Nestorians in China.^an. xcviii. The haughty pretensions of the Roman Pontiif soon caused the proud conquerors of half the world to withdraw from his emissaries what little favour they might at first have been inclined to show.3 Mongol empire. ' C. and the adhesion of the Christian priests some few Mongols still to this faith hopeful of further conquests. tome ^ Of this writer "He ." ' Guillaume de Rubrouck. d'Ohsson.BUDDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY AMONG MONGOLS. Yule says. Nestorians and Armenians carried their the very midst of the Mongol camp. made a traffic of the sacred rites of their church and concerned themselves more with money-making than with the propagation William of Rubrouck- says that they — : ofthefaith. for the narrative of Rubruquis gives one the impression of being written by a thoroughlyCathay and the way thither. where the Christians.. which deserves more weight than such statements regarding those looked upon as schismatics generally do. appear to who had been first in the field.. and makes an unfavourable comparison between Their bishop paid their lives and those of the Buddhist priests. p. polygamy and in Syriac. the failure of the Roman mission. literature and morals of their clergy. 226-7. vol. on them very rare visits sometimes only once in fifty years such occasions he would ordain all the male children. and among the preachers of it is probably this very want of union Christianity that caused their efforts to meet with so little success among the Mongols so that while they were fighting among one another. long as Latins. power to help them in their wars with the Musalmans and to secure for them the possession of the Holy Land. covetousness. pp. pp. were very ignorant and could not even understand their service books. which were written He accuses them of drunkenness. as the victories of Baybars. gives an unfavourable account of [the Col.

* Arghun (1284-1291) the fourth Ill^an persecuted the Musalmans and took away from them all posts in the departments of justice and finance. 273. tome i.190 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. p.^ for the most part the laid in ashes : the theologians and pious doctors of the faith. ' MaqrizI ^ (Howorth. For the Muslims had suffered more from the storm of the Mongol invasions than the others.i For Islam to enter into competition with such powerful rivals as Buddhism and Christianity were at that time. pp. however. iii.^ During the reign of death. 98. This edict was only withdrawn when it was found that it prevented Muhammadan merchants from visiting the court and that trade suffered in consequence. gave the Il^ans quite enough to do to look after their own interests. must have appeared a well-nigh hopeless undertaking. (2). as many poor persons took advantage of this ready means of gaining wealth. p. and fordade them to appear at his court. i. . had been tivity. and this ordinance Kuyuk Khan (1246-1248). who by oiFering rewards to informers set on foot a sharp persecution that lasted for seven years. vol. vol. Those cities that had hitherto been the rallying points of spiritual organisation and learning for Islam in Asia. as showing how the Mongol horsemen behaved towards the Musalmans. and slaves accused their masters. 159. 1 06. So notoriously brutal was the treatment they received that even the Chinese shovvmen in their exhibitions of shadow figures exultingly brought forward the figure of an old man with a white beard dragged by the neck at the tail of a horse. did much to discredit the Christian name in Western Asia. The excesses that the Christians of Damascus and other cities committed during the brief period in which they enjoyed the favour of this Mongol dynasty of Persia. ^ ' Howorth. 265.^ In spite of all difficulties. who left the conduct of affairs entirely to his two Christian ministers and whose court was filled with Christian monks. i. the Muhammadans were made to suffer great severities. De Guignes. in order to gain their freedom. pp. 112. 165. the Mongols and the savage Premiere Partie. i.) ^ Howorth. either slain or carried away into capall religions Mongol rulers usually so tolerant towards some who exhibited varying degrees of hatred towards the Muslim faith. Jingis Khan ordered all those Among —there were — who killed animals in the Muhammadan fashion to be put to was revived by Khubilay Kfean. vol. vol. p. Egypt (1260-1277) and his alliance with Baraka Khan.

named Kurguz.' He is said one day to have fallen in with a caravan coming from Bu^ara. 63-4. of the followers of the Prophet who and unknown.^ In the of Timur ^an(i323-i328). p. who were much attached to him. and on his refusing to abandon his faith he But he was shortly after set at liberty. to win unbelievers to the In the reign of Ogatay Khan (1229-1241). ' ' * Abu-1 Sihazii tome ii. who had given a hospitable reception to a body of troops. pp. d'Ohsson. ' C. were at length brought to submit to the faith of those crushed beneath their feet.SPREAD OF ISLAM AMONG THE MONGOLS. tome ii. Muslim peoples whom they had Unfortunately history sheds little light on the progress of this missionary movement and only a few details relating to the conversion of the more prominent converts have been preserved to us. and they expounded to him their faith so persuasively that he became converted in all sincerity. p.^ The first Mongol ruling prince that embraced Islam was Baraka Man. belonging to the Golden Horde these Egypt. and an account of the (Steinschneider. who in his Buddhism and became a Musalman. 121. The initiative .a grandson of Khubilay reign ghan and viceroy of Kansuh. whom he induced to follow his example. was a zealous Musalman and had converted a great many persons in Tangut and won over a portion years abjured command to the same faith. Baraka of the troops under his to court summoned ^an entered into a close alliance with the Mamluk Sultan of came from the latter. . d'Ohsson. fear of an insurrection among the inhabitants of Tangut. to have questioned them on the doctrines of Islam. It is of interest to note that Najmu-d Din Mukhtaru-z ZahidI in 1260 compiled for Baraka Ehan a treatise which gave the proofs of the divine mission of the Prophet. for was cast into prison. there laboured successfully faith. Ananda. He was and efforts were made to induce him to conform to Buddhism. He first revealed his change of faith to his youngest brother. C. and then made open profession of his new belief. 181. who was chief of the Golden Horde from 1256 to 1265. two hundred in number. voL iii. tribes 191 that followed in their wake. p.) controversies between Christians and Muslims. a refutation of those who denied it. we read of a many certain later Buddhist governor of Persia. and taking two of the merchants aside. 532-3.* After his conversion. Scattered up and throughout the length and breadth of the must have been down Mongol empire. Ruknu-d Din Baybars.

King Charles of Sicily and King James of Aragon to solicit their alliance against the Muhammadans to the same end also. 215. to bear a letter to Baraka Kh. His favourite wife was a Christian and favourably disposed the mind of her husband towards her co-religionists. brought many of the Mongols of the Golden and Baraka Khan Horde into Egypt. was the first of the IlHians who embraced^Islam. took flight into Syria. 180-1. such as the king of Armenia and the Crusaders. an embassy of sixteen Mongols was sent to the Council of Lyons in 1274. and his son Abaga Khan married the daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople. observing the growing enmity between their Khan and Hulagu. In order to strengthen himself against the attacks of Baraka ^an and the Sultan of Egypt.an. p. his court was filled with Christian priests. Id. 187.* In Persia. and he sent envoys to several of the princes of Europe St. Hulagu accepted the alliance of the Christian powers of the East. His brother Tokudar. in whose army they were serving. ' Maqrizi (2). p. 222.an. who persuaded them to embrace Islam. Id. Wassaf calls him NikudSr before.192 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. his conversion. whence they were honourably conducted to Cairo to the court of Baybars. men. the progress of Islam among the Mongols was much slower. Louis of France.s to bear the news of the conversion of himself and his These friendly relations between Baybars subjects to Islam.^ Baybars himself was at war with Hulagu. .^ While on their way the envoys of Baybars met an embassy that had been sent to Egypt by Baraka Q. he had recently defeated and driven out of Syria. Great hopes were entertained of the conversion of Abaga. and Ahmad after. where Hulagu founded the dynasty of the Il^ans. On their return these envoys reported that each princess and amir at the court of Baraka Khan had an imam and a mu'adhdhin and the children were taught the Quran in the schools. He had been brought up as — — . the conqueror of Bagdad. where the spokesman of this embassy embraced Christianity and was baptised with some of his companions.^ who succeeded him. tome i. pp. He sent two of the Mongol fugitives. p. but they proved fruitless. where they were prevailed upon to become whom Musalmans. with some other envoys. Though Abaga Khan did not himself become a Christian. " ^ ' ^ Id. 188.

CONVERSION OF TOKtJDAR. despite its vastness. the mandate of Ahmad to the Sultan of Egypt. up to the time when the succession to the empire •came to us from our illustrious father and brother. our sons. • Whom God shall please to guide. so that in his time many Tartars were converted to the faith This prince sent the news of his conversion to of the Saracens. vi. •"he was baptised when young and called by the name of Nicholas. hath guided us in our early youth and vigour into the true path of the knowledge of His deity and the confession of His unity." the Sultan of Egypt in the following letter " By the power of God Almighty.' We ceased not to incline our heart to the promotion of the faith and the improvement of the condition of Islam and the Muslims. for (as a contemporary Christian writer 1 tells us). c. whose fury and fierce onset would fill the hearts of men all with fear. appear too narrow. 60. they were agreed on carrying out the order of our elder brother. he brought about their conversion by giving them honours and favours and gifts. generals and of the army and captains of the forces. ii. on this their resolution and we concluded that it ran Tom. that man's breast will He open to Islam. through his intercourse whom he was very fond. viz. and He revealed to us the bride of the kingdom. and to reverence His saints and His pious servants. -with Saracens. = .p. renouncing the Christian faith. being animated with a courage before which the mountain peaks bow down. and wished to be called might that the Tartars should be converted to the faith and sect of Muhammad. so that in the abundance of His favours our hopes were realised. Muhammad Khan. and a firm purpose that makes the hardest rocks grow soft. not daring to force them. he became a base strove with all Saracen. wherein our brothers. 193 a Christian. of But when he was grown up.) Heythoum (Ramusiot Qur'an. and she was brought forth to us a noble spouse. 125. to summon here a vast levy of our troops whose numbers would make the earth.spread over us the glory of His grace and kindness. great nobles. and. and God . A Kuriltai or general assembly was his : — convened. and when they proved obstinate. We reflected all. God Almighty (praised be His name !) by His grace preventing us and by the light of His guidance. which expressed the wish of ^ . met to hold council . to bear witness that Muhammad (on whom rest the highest blessings !) is the Prophet of God.

Our resolve to carry out whatever appears to us good and advantageous has been strengthened by the counsels of the Shay]^u-1 Islam. and that God Almighty has put it into our hearts to follow the truth and those who practice it.^and borne witness to it in all our orders and our practice. saying May God pardon the past We have reformed all matters concerning the pious^endowments of Muslims given for mosques. and the rebuilding of caravanserais we have restored their incomes to those to whom they were due according to the terms laid|down by the donors. to issue any order that will not tend to prevent bloodshed. We have appointed our chief justice. who has given us much assistance in religious matters. to strengthen the lies in our power. we had to promote the common in view ordinance of Islam never. If some convincing proof be required. and that Islam annuls all that has gone before it. . . ' ! ' : . By the grace of God. we have raised aloft the standards of the faith. until we have first declared the right path. let men observe our actions. and make and prosperity to countries to rest known to those who advanced this that God has put into our hearts possible proposal (of a levy) what it is to do. God inspired us to quench this fire and put an end to these terrible calamities. . so that the ordinances-of the law of Muhammad might be brought to the fore and firmly established in accordance with thelprinciples. i. and will permit it only after setting forth the truth and establishing it with proofs. and putting off what should only be appealed to as the last remedy. charitable institutions. to employ all means for the healing of all the sickness of the world.e. and shown them indulgences. remove the ills of men. to make known to you our course of action and bear witness to our good intentions for the common weal of the Muslims and to make it known that God has enlightened us. blow on all lands. and the kings of other upon the couch of affection and benevolence. Qutbu-d Din and the Atabak. Whereby we have filled the hearts of the people with joy. whereby the commands of God will be honoured and mercy be shown to the people of God.194 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. . Bahau-d Din. and cause the breeze of peace counter to the aim — . namely. For we desire not to hasten to^appeal to arms. . both trustworthy persons of this flourishing kingdom.of justice laid down by Ahmad. have granted free pardon to all oflFenders. . as far as weal. the model of divines. colleges. We hav& ordered the pilgrims to be treated . Herein.

out against him. provision to be securing their 195 made for their caravans and for on the pilgrim routes we have given perfect freedom to merchants. travelling from one country to and we have another. vol. with respect. the seventh and greatest of the llKhans. became a Musalman and made Islam the ruling religion of Persia. reign (1284-1291). This conversion of their chief and the persecutions that he inflicted on the Christians gave great offence to the Mongols. until. O 2 . which sound strange coming from such lips." To the student of the history of the Mongols it is a relief to pass from the recital of nameless horrors and continual bloodshed to a document emanating from a Mongol prince. in 1295. were dismissed from their posts and driven away from the and quietness. pp. and ' Wassaf. that gives expression to such humane and benevolent sentiments. these terrible calamities be put down. that all peoples may dwell in peace and the necks of the Muslims be freed from the ^ ills of humiliation and disgrace." He seeks the alliance of the Sultan of Egypt " so that these countries and cities may again be populated. who occupied the throne for a few months only important in 1295. the Christians were once more restored to favour. although not Christians themselves. the sword be safety . : returned to the scabbard . that they may go wherever they please strictly prohibited our soldiers and police from interfering with them in their comings or goings. while the Musalmans had to suffer persecution in their tum. who. court. During the last three reigns the Christians had entertained great hopes of the conversion of the ruling family of Persia.ISLAM UNDER THE ILOJANS. De Guignes. pp. 263-5. headed by his nephew Arghun. the offices of state. and they denounced their chief to Khubilay Khan as one who had A revolt broke abandoned the footsteps of his forefathers.2 The successors of Tokudar were all heathen. who had shown them such distinguished favour and entrusted them with so many His immediate predecessor. insurgent Baydu. carried his predilection for Christianity so far as to try to to put a stop the spread of Islam ' among the Mongols. Giazan. who compassed During his brief his death and succeeded him on the throne. had been long accustomed to intercourse with the Christians. iii. 231-4.

his learned minister and the historian of his reign. would espouse his cause. Id. " asks his apologist. according to a prophecy. faith accordingly forbade anyone to preach the doctrines of this among them.. 148. ' Id. pp. pp. vfho had ment of the come into Persia in large numbers since the establishMongol supremacy over that country . and used to hold discussions with the learned doctors of each faith. 2.i Qiiazan himself before his conversion had been brought up as a Buddhist and had erected several Buddhist temples in Khurasan. p. and his officers and soldiers followed his example he distributed alms to men of piety and learning and visited the mosques and tombs of the saints and in every way showed himself an exemplary MusUm ruler. what interested motive. " could have led so powerful a sovereign to change his faith much : less.^ After hesitating a little.196 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Muhammadan Amir who had espoused his cause and who hailed him as the prince who. 132. though his contemporaries (and later writers have often re-echoed the imputation) represented him as having only yielded to the solicitations of some Amirs and Shay^s. ib. under the name of : ' C. whose pagan ancestors had conquered the world ? " His conversion however certainly won over to his side the hearts of the Persians. 354. iv. delivered from the grievous yoke of the Pagan Mongols. the religious observances of which he zealously tept throughout his whole reign. 148. p. * Id. and took great pleasure in the company of the priests of this faith. 128. ib. ' .* " Besides. These were a the very considerations that were urged upon Ghazan by Nuriiz.^ He appears to have been naturally of a religious turn of mind. ' Id. lb. was to appear about this time to protect the faith of Islam and restore it to its former splendour if he embraced Islam.^ Rashidu-d Din. 141. ib. he could become the ruler of Persia the Musalmans. Ghazan made a public profession of the faith. d'Ohssoii. tome 365. His brother who succeeded him in 1304. and God recog: : nising in him the saviour of the true faith from utter destruction would bless his arms with victory. when he was contending with Baydii for the throne. and the Muhammadan Mongols in the army of his rival a prince deserted to support the cause of their co-religionist. f9r he studied the creeds of the different religions of his time. was therefore probably correct in maintaining the genuineness of his con- version to Islam. pp.

but after his mother's death while he was still a young man. is said to have owed their chief this his conversion to a holy man from BuJiara. Muhammad Khudabandah. saying that for nothing in the world would he dare accept baptism. he became a convert to Islam through the persuasions of his wife.i Ibn Batutah says that his example exercised a great influence on the Mongols. which the breakup of the Jagatay dynasty had erected into a separate kingdom.^ But at first the success of Islam was short-lived. but when we were getting ready to administer to him the sacrament of baptism. who when they followed the example of time remained true to their new faith. ii. for after the death of this prince. blessedness of receiving the light of the faith " was Buraq Khan (a great grandson of Jagatay). p. After hearing of the benefits that accrued to men from faith in the Incarnation. he suddenly leapt on his horse The next morning he came saying that he would go home to consult his wife. vol. vol. an honoured position among the Mongols and many instances might be given of their having taken a prominent part in political affairs. as he (Guillaume de Rubrouck. 182. had been brought up the faith of his 197 as a Christian in mother and had been baptised under the name of Nicholas. . This prince. Tuqluq Timur :^an (1347-1363). was not until the next century that the conversion of Tarmashirin ©an the (1322-1330) caused Islam to be at all generally adopted by Jagatay Mongols. The details that we possess of the progress of Islam in the Middle Kingdom that fell to the lot of Jagatay and his descendants. would no longer be allowed to drink mare's milk.* and it was not until some years later that we hear of the first Musalman king of Kashgar. The first of this line who " had the are still more meagre. 47. tome in. and absolution from sin by baptism. p. p. just as already several cases have been mentioned of the influence they exercised on their husbands in religious matters. But even now the ascendancy of Islam was not assured.From this time forward Islam became the paramount faith in the kingdom of the Il^ans. tome ii. 159- " I^n Batutah. the last judgment.) ' ' Ibn Batutah. those who had been converted during his reign relapsed into their former heathenism and it . who embraced Islam two years after his accession to the throne and took the name of Ghiyasu-d Din (1266-70).ISLAM IN THE MIDDLE KINGDOM. $7' Abu-1 Giizi. the resurrection of the dead. for his successor persecuted the Muslims. back. not improbable that the captive Muslim women took a considerable Women appear to have occupied part in the conversion of the Mongols to Islam. by name Shay^ Hammer-Puigstall Geschichte der Ilchanen. ii. a Saracen came to talk with us and we expounded to him our faith. p. he said that he wished to be baptised." ' : It is : P-5I. William of Rubrouck tells us how he found the influence of a " On the day of Muslim wife an obstacle in the way of his proselytising labours Pentecost.

" For the empire of Jagatay had by this time been broken up into a number of petty princedoms. the prince said that "Yes. I should not be able to lead my But bear with me a little and when I have entered into the possession of the kingdom of my forefathers. whereupon Rashidu-d Din delivered his father's message. " Were I now to make profession of the faith of Islam." bold Persian to be brought before ' Struck with his reply. fail not to go and salute him in my name and fearlessly remind him of the promise he made me. Jamalu-d Din. This Shaytt in company with a number of travelhad unwittingly trespassed on the game-preserves of the prince. and so terrible a picture did the holy man draw of the state of unbelief. the 'J^a. where he fell dangerously subjects into the true path. but he could not gain an audience of the devised the following expedient one day in the early morning. Enraged at having his slumbers disturbed in in spite of all " Tuqluq his eiforts Khan.' The Shay]^ then set before him the glorious doctrines of Islam with such fervour and zeal that the heart of the Khan that before had been hard as a stone was melted like wax. Timur will one day become a great monarch. " if we had not the true faith. close to the Khan's tent. Learning that they were Persians. Shay^. and repeating the prothis fession of faith. the Shaytt pleaded that they were strangers lers and were quite unaware that they were trespassing on forbidden ground. ill : when at the point of death. but said. In reply to his angry question. " Some years later. we should indeed be worse than the dogs. declared himself a Muslim. . who ordered them to be bound hand and foot and brought before him. Tiiqluq :aan was not unmindful of his promise. Rashidu-d Din made his way to the camp of the Khan to fulfil the last wishes of his father. when Tuqluq Timiir had re-won the empire of his fathers. that the prince was convinced of the blindness of his own errors.198 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM." replied the a dog was worth more than a Persian.n ordered this him on his return from hunting. how they had dared interfere with his hunting. Meanwhile Shaytt Jamalu-d Din had returned to his home. and it was many years before Tuqluq Timur succeeded in uniting under his sway the whole empire as before. At length he : way. he said to his son Rashidu-d Din. and afterwards used . come to me again. the prince ordered him to be brought into his presence. and taking him aside asked him to explain what he meant by these words and what was faith. he began to chant the call to prayers.

" Content yourself with our obedience. Nogay remained and thus became a rallying point for those who abandon the old religion of the Mongols. however. p. But many tribes of the Golden Horde appear to have resented the introduction of Islam into their midst. tome ii. on the bank of which. pp. strong was this opposition. ' ^ ii. and when the conversion of Baraka Ehan was openly proclaimed. 184. 10x5. of their tribute to the Klian. He is said to ^ Abu-1 Ghazi.^ tribes of its A further sign of his influence firm establishment in the country is found in the the tjzbegs of Central Asia. . of which Indeed they considered him now unworthy. ii. They took their name from Nogay. his 199 that time influence to spread Islam among his people.ISLAM IN THE GOLDEN HORDE. vol. whither the Russian princes sent The conversion of Baraka Sian.^ Let us now return to the history of Islam in the Golden Horde. Abu-1 Ghazw tome p. contributed considerably to the progress of Islam. became converted to Islam some time after her marriage and had to endure the illtreatment and contempt of her husband in consequence. they founded their capital city Serai. to his rival Htilagu. they sent to offer the crown. who was married to a Shamanist. which mention has been made above. and his example seems to have been gradually followed by those of the aristocracy and leaders of the Golden Horde that were of Mongol descent. who was leader of the Golden Horde from 1313 to 1340. 166-8. who was the chief commander When the other of the Mongol forces under Baraka ^an. Howorth. Uzbeg Khan succeeded in winning many converts to the faith of which he was so ardent a follower and a Shamanist refused to which owed to his efforts under his sway. and who distinguished himself by his proselytising zeal. From forth Islam became the established faith in the countries under the rule of the descendants of Jagatay. princes of the Golden Horde became Musalmans. it was said. and the close intercourse with Egypt that subsequently sprang up. what Why should we abandon the faith matters our religion to you ? of the Arabs ? " But in spite of the strong of Jingis Khan for that opposition to his efforts. His daughter.^ To Uzbeg Khan. that it seems to have largely so contributed to the formation of the Nogais as a separate tribe. who take their name from him and were-probably-converted during his reign. The chief camping ground of this section of the Mongols was the grassy plain watered by the Volga.

and least of all in the matter of religion. with a just and upright heart let him (or his deputy) decide and regulate all ecclesiastical matters. their vineyards. our children Whoever shall lay hands on anything that i& be held guilty. goods or people. or his servants or his churchmen . that others may be dismayed at his fate. such as custom duties.200 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Indeed.i but here he met with no success. since they are divine.. When the tribute or other dues. iii. vol. etc. or among our when we wish to raise troops nothing be exacted from the cathedral churches under the metropolitan Peter. p. or any of the properties and goods of the church. noticeable moreover that in spite of his zeal for the spread of his. Let the metropolitan dwell in the path of safety and rejoice. their hives. have formed the design of spreading the faith of Islam throughout the whole of Russia. with ! uprightness of heart and our nation. lands^ meadows. great mercy of the most High and small. though the Mongols were paramount in Russia for two centuries. tolls or relays are levied. It is. towns and places under their bailiffs. own faith. Let the mind of the metropolitan be always at peace and free from trouble. etc. One of the most remarkable documents of Muhammadan toleration is the charter that tJzbeg Khan granted to the " By the will and power. tjzbeg Khan was very tolerant towards his Christian left undisturbed in the exercise of their allowed to pursue their missionary labours in religion and even his territory. We solemnly declare that neither we nor our children nor the princes of our realm nor the governors of our provinces will in any way interfere with the affairs of the church and the metropolitan. villages. districts. ploughsubjects. . or from any of his clergy: ' De Guignes. Let no man insult the metropolitan church of which Peter is the head. or in their towns. let no man seize their property. forests. he shall incur the wrath of God and of death. let no maa meddle with the affairs of the metropolitan church. winter quarters for cattle. shall the penalty let him pray to God for us. they appear to have exercised very little influence on the people of that country. mills. chases and fisheries. Whoever shall meddle therein and transgress our edict. sacred.. will be guilty before God and feel His wrath and be punished by us with death. the greatMetropolitan Peter in 1313 subjects. 351. who were : — ness and tTzbeg to all our princes. let tax.

201 threefold. 391-4. he declared.. and chapels shall be respected this religion.. The brothers and and deacons. Hammer-Purgstall Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak. Petersbourg. may be judged from a letter sent to the Qan by Pope John XXII. ^ The successors of to have been animated by the same zeal for the spread of Islam as he had shown. trading in furs and other commodities of the North some time before a. the Muslim Bulgarians who were found in the tenth century on the banks of the Volga. the Russians could never give up. Fraehnio. and the Christian religion had become too closely intertwined with the life of the people to be disturbed. living at the same table and in the same privileges. ' De Baschkiris quae memoriae prodita sunt ab Ibn-Foszlano et Jakuto. not be allowed to excuse himself under any be punished with death. pp. .tJZBEG iraAN. interprete C. in 131 8." ^ That these were no empty words and that the toleration here promised became a reality. as it was Karamzin. the then sovereign of Russia. even had efforts been made to turn them from the faith of their fathers for Christianity had been the national religion of the Russian people for well nigh three centuries before the Mongols settled down on the banks of the Volga. their churches. but they failed to overcome his objections to the rite of circumcision and to the prohibition of wine. and who probably owed their conversion to the Muslim merchants. iv. (Memoires de I'Academie imperiale des Sciences de St. p. the use of had found it which. shall be returned Their laws.) J ^ : . when the Caliph Al Muqtadir sent an envoy to kind treatment tJzheg Hian do not appear . vol. — confirm them in the faith and instruct them in the tenets and ordinances of Islam. So long as the Russians paid their taxes. N. 290. in which he thanks the MusHm prince for the favour he showed to his Christian subjects and the sons of priests same house. p. they were left free to worship according to their own desires. and could not be expected to succeed where he failed..^ These Bulgarians attempted the conversion of Vladimir. . tome viii. . viz. their monasteries . but shall whoever condemns or blames . 921. 6a6) (1822. shall enjoy the they received at his hands.d. who (the Russian chronicler tells us) necessary to choose some religion better than his pagan creed. shall pretext. . Another race many years before had tried to win the Russians to Islam but had likewise failed. whatever may be exacted from the clergy.

" they replied. and that He Abu'Ubaydu-1 Bakri. send wise discover which of all men into the diiferent countries to God in the manner most worthy of Him. the reverent silence of the people. At length they reached Constantinople " Let them see the glory of our God. ' . " every man praises his own religion. where the Patriarch. and if you would make heaven. The magnificence of the building. " but in His anger has scattered us over the : ! priest who after a brief criticism of the other religions. the sweet odour of the incense.202 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM." " Then you are cursed of God. asked them for their advice. "and yet want to teach begone we have no wish. to be without a others country. Equally unsuccessful were the Jews who came from the country of the Khazars on the Caspian Sea and who had won over the king of that people to the Mosaic faith. religions. clad in his pontifical robes." said the emperor. so he called his boyards together and having told them of the accounts he had received of the various " Prince. choice of the best. and the mysterious solemnity of the ceremonial filled the savage Russians with wonder and amazement. like you. life. : the rich vestments of the priests.i After listening to their arguments." So the prince chose out for this purpose ten men who were eminent for their wisdom." they replied. These ambassadors found among the Bulgarians mean looking places of worship. 470-1. the ornaments of the altars. the nations honours . set forth the whole scheme of Christian teaching beginning with the creation of the world and the story of the fall of man and ending with the seven oecumenical councils accepted by the Greek church then he showed the prince a picture of the Last . and promised him the heritage of if he would be baptised. Judgment with the righteous entering paradise and the wicked being thrust down into hell." cried the king." The most favourable impression was made by a Greek where their country was. Vladimir asked them the very joy of their God whole world. " Jerusalem. pp. gloomy prayers and solemn faces among the German Catholics religious ceremonies that lacked both grandeur and magnificence. this It seemed to them that church must be the dwelling of the Most High. So they were taken to the church of Santa Sophia. But Vladimir was unwilling to make a rash choice of a substitute for his pagan religion. was celebrating mass.

who said unto him. masters and slaves. and won of them to this faith by promising them their liberty they would be persuaded. kept the conquered race from adopting the religion of the conqueror. On the day after his baptism he declared himself a Christian. tome v. Especially has the prohibition of spirituous liquors Islam. mother. Not that the Mongols in Russia have been wholly inoperative in promoting the spread of Islam. par Jean de Luca. p. should submit to be baptised into the Christian faith." they in their eulogies of the Greek Church." Vladimir once more consulted his boyards.d. races apart to the present day. Olga. but were enthusiastic "Every man. 259-271. tome i. said. tome i. . has put his lips to a sweet draught. the wisest of mortals. p.^ Thus Christianity became the national religion of the Russian and after the Mongol conquest.). " who would never have embraced it. Relation des Tartares. rich and poor. your grandabhors . the distinctive national characteristics of Russians and Tartars that have kept the two people. 831.CONVERSION OF RUSSIANS TO CHRISTIANITY. henceforth wherefore we having come to the anything bitter knowledge of the faith of the Greek Church desire none other. by the laws of been supposed to have stood in the way of the adoption of this religion by the Russian people. " Had not the Greek faith been best of all. manifested His glory therein to mortals. of the colonists. threw down the idols his forefathers had worshipped and issued an edict that all the Russians.^ ' ^ ' Reclus. : gave the prince an account of their mission they spoke with contempt of the religion of the Prophet and had little to say for the Roman Catholic faith. the ambassadors 203 On their return to Kief." Whereupon Vladimir hesitated no longer and in 988 a. and that we among them the Muhammadanised descendants of the inand of the Genoese tells digenous inhabitants. The distinctly Hellenic type of face that is to be found among the so-called Tartars of the Crimea has led to the conjecture that these Muhammadans have absorbed into their that find community the Greek and Italian populations they found settled on the Crimean peninsula. the bitter hatred of the Tartar yoke. pp.^ A traveller seventeenth century us that the Tartars of the Crimea tried to over if many induce their slaves to become Muhammadans. the devotion of the Russians to their own faith and the want of religious zeal on the part of the Tartars. Karamsin. 17 (Thevenot.

who preached Islam among them in the eighteenth century. insisted on treating them as such. while the further east we go. tome v. and for 120 years all diplomatic correspondence was carried on with them in the Tartar language under the delusion that they were ethnographically the same as the Tartars of the Volga.204 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and the Kirghiz owed their conversion to vague. or a single religious teacher of the faith of the Prophet. have likewise become Muhammadans. Large sums of money were given for the building of mosques. as emissaries of the Russian government. are is way into the Kirghiz Steppes from the side of it is especially those Kirghiz who Europe that have become Musalmans. whole villages of them have on the other hand embraced The Tchuvash. the weaker we find their faith to be. taking them for Muhammadans. while many of the Tcheremiss are nominally Christians and are becoming Russianised.g. 748. as probably the whole of the Finnish population of this part of the country would have done ere now if the Christian and Muslim religions were allowed equal rights by the Russian government. send their children to the schools by presents and other means of An incontrovertible proof that the Musalman proits paganda made Russia. and the fathers were to be induced to : persuasion. The Kirghiz began to become Russian subjects about 1731. Another misunderstanding on the part of the Russian government was that the Kirghiz were Musalmans. who live more to the south and belong to Islam. the same family. and mullas were sent to open schools and instruct the young in the tenets of the Muslim faith the Kirghiz scholars were to receive every day a small sum to support themselves on. pp. and even to the present day the old Shamanism lingers among the circumstance that to more contiguous ' Reclus. as a large number of them are still to the present day.^ One of the most curious incidents in the missionary history of Islam is the conversion of the Kirghiz of Central Asia by Tartar mullas. The Finns that the Tartars have of the Volga have also been among the converts won over to Islam. whereas in the last century they were nearly all Shamanists. e. Not a single mosque was Islam to the fact that the Russians. 746. At the time of the annexation of their country to the Russian empire only a few of their Khans and Sultans had any knowledge of the faith of Islam and that very confused and — to be found throughout the whole of the Kirghiz Steppes. .

By Turkistan. There must be. and is the more remarkable inasmuch as the Russian government of this period was attempting to force Christianity in on its Muslim subjects Europe. An historical sketch. in 1778 ordered that all the new converts should sign a written promise to the effect that " they would ineffectual. may. though baptised. <5th ed. The were actively seconded by the police and the civil authorities. London.CONVERSION OF THE KIRGHIZ TO ISLAM. indeed. Mackenzie Wallace: Russia. do not obey the admonitions of the Metropolitan. 40S-6-) (Eugene Schuyler : D.) '^ The Russian Policy regarding Central Asia." But in spite of all." The fact seems to be that these Tartars having all the time remained Muhammadan at heart. 1877. put in irons. completely forsake their infidel errors. all inter- would hold firmly and unwaveringly the Christian faith and its dogmas.) . and.^ The Russian government of the Professor V. but though a certain number of Tartars were baptised. published in 1872. the writer says : " It is a fact worthy of attention that a long series of evident apostacies coincides with the beginning of measures to confirm the converts in the Christian faith. imprison. 1876. have resisted the apostacy precisely at the moment when active tianity in ' measures taken to make their nominal profession of Chrisany way a reality. though these for centuries have been Muhammadan This is probably the only instance of a Christian countries. i. the Government ordered its officials to " pacify. pp." When spiritual exhortations failed. Buttiara and Khokand. those 205 who wander in the neghbourhood of Khiva. avoiding course with unbelievers.! government co-operating in the promulgation of Islam. pp. In a semi-official article." These more violent methods proving equally Catherine II. therefore. be inscribed in the official registers as Christians. vol. vol. ii. 4th ed. in continuation of the efforts made in the sixteenth century soon after the conquest of the labours of the clergy Khanate of Kazan. these socalled " baptised Tartars " are even to the present day as far from They being Christians as they were in the sixteenth century. (London. Grigorief. it had to be admitted that the new converts " shamelessly retain many horrid Tartar customs. but they resolutely stand out against any efforts that may be made to Christianise them. some collateral cause producing those cases of the contrary might be expected. and neither hold nor know the Christian faith. and thereby unteach and frighten from the Tartar faith those who. 242-244.

p. Les accusfe d^claraient avoir toujours ^te musalmans . the eldest son of Jingis Khan) became Khan of Siberia (about the year 1570). ii. we have a few particulars. either by right of conquest these martyrs to the faith : or (according to another account) at the invitation of the people Free Russia. 1870. 191. comme apostats. however. " The citizens of Kazan are hard to win.206 present day THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. . but we get some little folk from the villages on the steppe. and train them in the fear of God." Anatole Leroy Beaulieu : L'Empire des Tsars et les Russes. vol. pour avoir abandonne I'orthodoxie. but the majority of them met with a martyr's death. : . aux travaux forces. in the reign of Kuchum !^an. In spite.g. 1889-93. of the edicts of the government. vii. especially among the tribes of north-eastern Russia. In this way it hopes to win the younger generation. the graves of seven of these missionaries were discovered by an Shay^ who came from Buldiara to search them out. ' : W. p.* When Kuchum Khan (who was descended from Juji Khan. Beaucoup de ces relaps ont et6 deportes en Siberie. sept d' entre eux n'en furent pas moins condamnes. . but even before this period Muhammadan missionaries had from time to time made their way into Siberia with the hope of winning the heathen population over to the acceptance of their faith.^ Of the spread of Islam It among the Tartars of Siberia. being anxious that some memorial should be kept of the devotion of he was able to give the names of this number. Muslim propagandism succeeds in winning over whole villages to the verting a Christian to Islam to the loss of faith of Islam. as a Russian professor has said. Hepworth Dixon ^ . des paysans Tatars du village d'Apozof etaient poursuivis. p. all civil rights and to imprisonment with hard labour for a term varying from eight to ten years. " En 1883. Once they are with us they can never turn back.) ^ D. since otherwise it seems impossible to gain an entrance for Christianity among the Tartars. vol. (London. Miiller Sammlung Russischer Geschichte. i. tome iii. 245. p. 284. Mackenzie Wallace : Russia. (Paris. and up to the last century their memory was still revered by the Tartars of Siberia. * G.) E." i For the criminal code contains severe enactments against those who fall away from the Orthodox church. F. When Siberia came under Muhammadan aged rule. for. 645. was not until the latter half of the sixteenth century that it gained a footing in this country. devant le tribunal de Kazan. is still attempting the conversion of its Tartar subjects by means of the schools it has established in their midst. vol.^ and sentences any person convicted of con.

183-4. i. and though at the beginning of this century many were still heathen. vol. in which. : Russischer Geschichte. it is interesting to note the large place taken by the folk-songs of the Kirghiz. the main truths of Islam make their way into the hearts of the common Sammlung people. vol. went back again but soon afterwards returned to the scene of his labours. ^ . especially as many of the tribes under his rule offered a strong opposition to all attempts made to convert them. pp. vol. vol. Jadrinzew. One of the missionaries who was sent from Bu^ara has left us an account of how he set out with a companion to the capital of Kuchum !|San. his companion some reasons that the writer does not mention. 497. made every the for conversion of his and sent to Bu^ara asking missionaries to assist him in this pious undertaking. the progress Mullas from Bu^ara and of Islam was by no means stopped. for Here. entrance was first effected among the Baraba Tartars (between the Irtish and the Ob). after two years. they have now all become Musalmans. on the bank of the Irtish.ISLAM IN SIBERIA. F. vii. he . died. Radloff.* The conversion of the Kirghiz has already been spoken of above the history of most of the other Muslim tribes : very obscure. i. p. and. i. 472. But though interrupted by the Russian conquest. 147. but their conversion is probably of a recent date. 138. Russian conquest soon brought the proselytising efforts of Kuchum Khan to an end before much had been accomplished. Radloff. other cities of Central Asia and merchants from Kazan were In 1745 an continually active as missionaries of Islam in Siberia.' Missionaries But the advancing tide of also came to Siberia from Kazan. MuUer Radloff. ^ he subjects. pp. ^ ' ^ p. bringing with him another coadjutor.* ' G. interwoven with of Siberia is tale and legend. Among the instruments of Muhammadan propaganda at the present time. p. 241. whose 207 effort for Khan had died without issue. when Kuchum :^an had appealed for help once more to BuHjara.

THE SPREAD OF ISLAM The Muhammadan invasions of India and the foundation and growth of the Muhammadan power in that country. The foreign settlement . This class of converts forms a very distinct group by itself which can be distinguished from that of the forcibly converted and the other heterogeneous elements of which Muslim India is made up. conquering Muhammadan races. For India has often been picked out as a typical instance of a country in which Islam owes its existence and continuance in existence to the settlement in it of foreign. and those who have been converted from one of the at previous religions of the country under various inducements and many different periods of history.CHAPTER IX. But among the fifty-seven millions of Indian Musalmans there are vast numbers of converts or descendants of converts. Tipu Sultan and the like. to many. The entire community may be roughly divided into those of foreign race who brought their faith into the country along with them. such a task must appear impossible. and only succeeded in spreading of Islam it beyond their own circle by means of persecution and forced conversions. IN INDIA. But hitherto no one has attempted successes to write a history of the spread of Islam in India. have found many historians. both among contemporary and later writers. the forcible circumcisions effected by Haydar 'Ali. Indeed. in whose conversion force played no part and the only influences at work were the teaching and persuasion of peaceful missionaries. in the persecutions of Aurangzeb. who have transmitted their faith to their descendants. Thus the missionary spirit is supposed to show itself in its true light in the brutal massacres of Brahmans byMahmud of Ghazna. considered apart from the military and administrative achievements of its adherents.

^ Of the other section of the community the converted natives of the country part no doubt owed their change of religion to force and official pressure. p. campaigns and the achievements of princes. P . and numerically the most immigrants from across the north-west frontier. pp. Census of India. .. are life of the fanaticism or intolerance. i>8?3-) " Id. some founders of sent into Sind. fifteenth year after the death of the Prophet. saints. amongst those by themselves to the aristocracy of Islam whom — — history of the proselytising movements and social influences that hrought about their conversion has hitherto received very little attention. a series of ' up to the eighteenth Muhammadan invaders. all along the west coast are settlements in the Deccan of three main bodies : important. and most of the commonly accessible histories of the India. General Report by J. whose original founders came to India sea. whether written by European or by mere chronicles of wars. something may be learned of the missionary work that was carried on quite inde- pendently of the political •with life of the country. 126. Eahies. but the or descendants of greater portion of them are local converts probably of converts. who are found chiefly in Sind and the Panjab next come the descendants of the court and armies of the various Muhammadan dynasties. mainly in Upper India and to a much smaller extent lastly. Beg. More than half the Muslim population of India has indeed assumed appellations of distinctly foreign races.i But the number of families of foreign origin that by actually settled in India is nowhere great except in the Panjab and its neighbourhood. who have taken the title of the person of highest rank they were converted or have affiliated on even less plausible grounds. From the when an Arab expedition was century. are the . Arab descent. A. 207. in which little mention of the religious Muhammadans in native authors. 1 89 1. Khan.THE MUHAMMADAN POPULATION OF INDIA. such as Shayjdi. But before dealing proposed to give an account of the official propagation of Islam and of the part played by the Muhammadan these it is rulers in the spread of their faith. time finds a place. unless it has taken the form of From the biographies of the Muslim however. and from local traditions. but by far the majority of The them entered the pale of Islam of their own free-will. and even Sayyid. consists 209 first. (London. 167.

holding royal Courts and giving great feasts. their invasion of India appeared in the light of a Such was evidently the thought in the minds of Ghazna and Timur. . Most of the Muslim invaders seem to have acted in a very similar way in the name of Allah. by the Caliph 'Umar ibn 'Abdi-1'Aziz. and their temples destroyed while mosques were often erected in their place. It is true that the offer of Islam was generally made to the unbelieving Hindus before any attack was made upon them. but rather to exert myself in warring against the i Though he speaks seems however to have served no other purpose than that of sending infidels to hell. (Elliot. 175. in the' infidels of much of his " proselyting sword. a of ' of Bulandshahr. by the story of whose submission to Mahmud Ghazna thus related in the history of that conqueror's cam. p. The latter. writes as follows in his autobiography Dehli fifteen days. and Hindustan. p. others remained to found kingdoms that have had a lasting influence to the present day. 207. I then reflected that I had come to Hindustan to war against infidels.3IO THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and I had holy war. An is illustration in point is furnished Hardatta. idols were thrown down. Not that they were indifferent to their religion. Now this crowning victory had been won.) Muhammad Qasim made a similar offer when he invaded Sind (Id. Chief of Kanauj). great empires. Mahmud of : — stained my proselyting sword with the blood of the enemies of the faith. earlier days of the Muhammadan invasion at least. poured into India from While some came only to plunder and retired laden with spoils. where a letter is said to have been sent from the Caliph to the.- Elliot.^ Fear occasionally dictated a timely acceptance of such offers and led to conversions which. 44S. after his capture of " I had been at Dehli. and my enterprise had been so blessed that wherever I had gone I had been victorious. many of them. 124. vol.." . To the north-west. and the invaders who followed him were probably equally observant of the religious law. I had triumphed over my adversaries.. which time I passed in pleasure and enjoyment. The princes of India were invited to embrace Islam before the first century of the Hijrah had expired. were generally short-lived and ceased ra'is to be effective after the retreat of the invader. i. p. vol. others mere adventurers. I had put to death some lacs of infidels and idolaters." it I felt that I ought not to indulge in ease. their priests put to the sword. But of none of these do we learn that they were accompanied by any missionaries or preachers. ^ . ii.

the The Khaljis Tughlaqs (1320-1412). his steps trembled.THE he MUHAMMAD AN CONQUERORS OF INDIA.) Mahmud) arrived at the fort of Barba. most of them had indeed no time for proselytism. " The military adventurers. He came forth. Gazetteer of the N. and untouched by the true Semitic enthusiasm which inspired the first Arab standard bearers of Islam. that among the Mahomedans themselves their own faith never acquired an entire and exclusive monopoly of the high offices of adminis' ' * tration. : ' Elliot. 289. themselves illgrounded in the faith of Mahomed. who all proclaimed their anxiety for conversion language. which was forfeited under the law of God. part ii.. that is " kings." ^ new converts probably took the earliest opportunity of apostatising presented to them by the retreat of the conqueror These a kind of action which we iind the early of. then Raja. pp. Or Baran. iii. ii. but so far were they from converting India. Muhammadan historians of India attacked the For when Qutbu-d Din Baran in 1193. who was one of the ra'is.^ But these conquerors would appear to have had very little of that " love for souls " which animates the true missionary and whose very there being which has achieved such great conquests for Islam. Hardat heard of this invasion by the protected like the waves of the sea. 85. with the angels around them on all sides. and theLodis (1451-1526) were generally too busily engaged in fighting. he became greatly agitated. When who advanced and their rejection of idols. So he reflected that his safety would best be secured by conforming to the religion of Islam. (London. 2n by his secretary. the old name of Bularidshahr. he was stoutly opposed by Chandrasen. "At length (about 1019 a.P. They were usually rough Tartars or Moghals . since God's sword was drawn from the scabbard^ and the whip of punishment was uplifted.e. or else thought more of the exaction of tribute than of the work of conversion.i in the country of Hardat.* Not that they were entirely lacking in religious zeal e.W. to pay much regard to the interests of religion. being continually engaged in conquest or in civil war. Lyall : Asiatic Studies. vol. who was a lineal descendant of Hardatta and continually complaining : name betrays his Hindu faith nor do we hear of any Musalmans remaining under his rule. p. p. and he feared for his life. vol. (1290-1320). and to check the gathering of tribes into nations .. vifho founded dynasties in Northern India and carved out kingdoms in the Dekhan. warriors of God. 42-3.) P 2 . with ten thousand men. They were strong enough to prevent anything like religious amalgamation among the Hindus." Sir Alfred C. and it was kept in that state by the half success of their conquests and the comparative failure of their spiritual invasion.d. therefore. cared little for things spiritual .g. 1882. The empire which they set up was purely military." in the Hindi paigns written (i. the Ghakkars.

who gave the early invaders much trouble. the religious influences of Islam naturally became more permanent and persistent. A powerful incentive to conversion was offered. p. of a value proportionate to his rank. vol. and were favoured with presents and honours. a barbarous people in the mountainous districts of the North of the Panjab. (London. Muhammadan pnnces Yules Marco Polo.nshtah I ' Elliot.^ But the monarchs of the earlier Muhammadan and dynasties as it a rule evinced very little would be hard to find a parallel in their history to the following passage from the autobiography of Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88) "I encouraged my infidel subjects to embrace the religion of the Prophet. the state endowments of that religion *.1 According to Ibn Batutah. and respected even. sent him back to convert his followers. : 2 Ibn Batutah. which reached its culmination under the eclectic Akbar. and though the dread of unpopularity and the desire of conciliation dictated a policy of non-interference and deprecated such deeds of violence and such : proselytising zeal. was very often shown towards Hinduism. are not p. unknown. i88i. though veiy rare. Their chieftain had been taken prisoner by the Muhammadan monarch. r. when adherence to an idolatrous system stood in the way of advancement at the Muhammadan courts and though a spirit of tolerance. 310. Information of this came to the ears of the people at large and great numbers of Hindus presented themselves.212 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. vol. i. who clad him in a robe of honour and gave him a collar and bracelets of gold. 197. 386. were exonerated from the jizyah. 164. p. and then confirming him in his title of chief of this tribe. and particularly under the Mughal dynasty. and. who induced him to become a Musalman. adopting the faith. are said to have been converted through the influence of Muhammad Ghori at the end of the twelfth century.) Even grants Hindu temples. 184. the Ehaljis offered some encouragement to conversion by making it a custom to have the new convert presented to the sultan. or poll tax. p. ^ " ^'i of land from A ^'-^^^"^ Temple India in iSSo to 11. p. Thus they came forward day by day from every quarter. for the most part. and I proclaimed that every one who repeated the creed and became a Musalman should be exempt from the jizyah. vol. 111. and were admitted to the honour of Islam. 0/1 . many of whom having little religion of their own were easily prevailed upon to embrace Islam . Tome iii." ^ As the Muhammadan power became consolidated. .

78. vol.) Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh. recite the But at the prayers (namaz). No sooner. Gazetteer of the N. still such motives of self-interest gained many converts from Hinduism to the Muhammadan faith. vol. yet often betray their district Hindu as origin in a very striking manner. The most important perhaps among these is the Musalman branch of the great Bachgoti clan. the Gaharwar Rajputs. the head of which is the premier Muhammadan noble of Oudh. part ii.. p 46. p.W.W.P.* Official pressure is said never to brought to bear upon the Hindus than have been more persistently in the reign of Aurangzeb. however. According to one tradition. though they cannot. ManyRajputs became converts in this way. seeing her again. and deaths.. a large which is known the Lal^ani Pathans. vi. iii.W. part ii.) . 64.. In the of Bulandshahr. In the eastern districts of the Panjab. in domestic friendly intercourse with their old caste brethren.' In the Mirzapur district. places his conversion in the reign of Humayun. and keep up their Thakurs. outbursts invasion 213 of fanaticism as characterised the earlier period of and triumph. 1889. who are now Muslim. and. still Musalman family.P. marriages. but another legend prince wife. ' ^ N.ISLAM UNDER THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 466. their ancestor Tilok Chand was taken prisoner by the Emperor Babar and to regain his liberty adopted the faith of Islam i. the (Gazetteer of the occurrences. they perform the orthodox obeisances (sijdah). still retain in all domestic matters Hindu laws and customs and prefix a Hindu honorific title to their Muhammadan tions) retains its old Hindu titles names.P. p. i. xiv. 119. This having heard of the marvellous beauty of Tilok Chand's had her carried off while she was at a fair. as a rule. whOe Hindu branches of the same clan still exist side by side with it. faith " him than his conscience smote him Tilok Chand had despaired of ever and in gratitude he and his wife embraced the which taught such generous purity. for example. p. p. vol. and their descendants are to this day to be found among the landed aristocracy. there are the ancestor of the many cases in which community Musalman branch of the village Manual of Titles for Oudh. (Allahabad. and are generally called by common Hindu names. was she brought to and he sent for her husband. the Musalman branch of the Dikhit family observes Muhammadan customs at births. vol. (with some excep- and family customs of marriage." ^ These converted Rajputs are very zealous in the practice of their religion. ' Gazetteer of the N. * In the Cawnpore district. same time they worship Chachak Devi to avert small-pox.

are not numerous . ' Ibbetson.) ' The Bombay Gazetteer. xiv. xxiii. in the Cawnpore district. 47. p.' In an interesting collection of Aurangzeb's orders and far as I we find him laying down what the supreme law of toleration for the ruler of people of another faith." (The History of HindoStan.214 is THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. cultivators " Muhammadan ' For my knowledge of this MS. Aurangzeb shares with Haydar *Ali and Tipu Sultan (these being the best known of modem Muhammadan rulers) the reputation of having forcibly converted sundry families and sections of the population. 64.P. because one of the members of the family. vol. iii. translated from the Persian. 1812. An attempt had been made to induce despatches. xxii. 361.* out doubt that forced conversions have been made by Muhammadan rulers. vol. p. I am indebted Salam Khan §ahib. 222 vol. the most easily assignable cause. near Dehli.' may be termed ' vi. and represent it as the result sometimes of persecution and sometimes as made to enable them to retain their rights when unable to pay revenue.! Many Rajput landowners. p. he rewarded proselytes with a liberal hand.) (London. ib. though he did not choose to persecute those of different persuasions in matters of religion. Similarly in the Deccan. 282. there is a Hindu family of Banyas who still bear the title of Shaytt (which is commonly adopted by converted Hindus).' is said to have been carried as a prisoner or hostage to Dehli. " in order to save the land of the village. Most of them assign the date of their conversion to the reign of Aurangzeb. they are usually NauMuslims. vol. p. and no mention of such (as have been able to discover) is made in the It is established withhistorical accounts of Aurangzeb's reign. * Ibbetson. whose conversion undoubtedly dates from a much earlier period.. In other cases the ancestor were compelled to embrace Islam for the same reason. 163. part iii. and there forcibly circumcised and converted. Compare also id. p. as yet unpublished. in whose possession it is.3 It should be noted that the only authority for these forced conversions is family or local tradition. Gazetteer of the N. said to have changed his religion in the reign of this zealot. by Alexander Dow. from which no historical record of the circumstances of the case has come down. and it seems probable that Aurangzeb's well-known zeal on behalf of his faith has caused many families of Northern India (the history of whose conversion has been forgotten) to attribute their change of faith to this. ' Indeed Firishtah distinctly says : " Zealous for the faith of Mahommed. to the kindness of 'Abdu-s . whose line is now became a convert in order to save the family property from confiscation. vol. . p." In Gurgaon. extinct.W.

as subjects side. and there converted Salim. in the district of Gorakhpur was arrested by Akbar in default of revenue." government post sought to be bestowed according to ability and from no other considerations. carried to Dehli." He too appeals to the authority of the " To you your religion. February a5th.W. and in matters of this kind bigotry should find no place. the Muhammadans at the present day. Raja of MajhauU. instead of burn[The Times. i. and to me my sacred text. take not my foe and your foe for friends. he of Bodh Mai. the ais emperor to deprive of their posts two non-Muslims. p. such as Dehli and Agra. How Uttle was effected towards the spread of Islam by violence on the part of the Muhammadan rulers.^ survivals of Until recently there were some strange a similarly futile false conversion. noticeable in certain customs of a of Hindu is sect called the Bishnois. but the frequent accusations brought against him of forcible conversion need a more careful sifting than they have hitherto whom . and their place would be more fittingly filled moreover it was by some tried Muslim servant of the crown written in the Qur'an (Ix. 518. receiving the name of Muhammad But on on her his return his wife refused to let ancestral castle. each of held the office of a pay-master. the principal tenet all whose faith the renunciation of Hindu deities. and.P. W Hunter: The Religions of India. SirW. on the ground that they were infidel Parsis. to Islam. : : received. not form one-fourth of the population. in the former district hardly exceed one-tenth. him into the apparently she had the sympathy of his minority of his son Bhawani Mai.) " O believers. which says " (cix. 1888 ^ ^ Gazetteer of the N." The emperor replied " Religion has no concern with secular business. vi. she governed his territories during the so that the Hindu succession remained undisturbed.^ of the worthlessness of forced conversion and in the latter A is they do remarkable example exhibited in the case . except Visnu. Whether Aurangzeb himself always acted on such tolerant principles may indeed be doubted.. ' They used recently to bury their dead. vol. may be judged from the fact that even in the centres of the Muhammadan power. and points out that if the verse his petitioner religion had quoted were to be taken as an established rule of conduct. " then we ought to have destroyed all the Rajas and their subjects .AURANGZEB. 6). .

between India and Europe. Cutch and Gujarat. ivory. ing them. as in Southern India and Eastern Bengal. p. part i. which for many hundred years was conducted by the Arabs and Persians. passing to Bengal. half centres along the coast. of the increased commercial activity ^ and consequent prosperity of 2 Gazetteer of the N. v. however. gems. in view of the general dearth of such missionary annals. 236. to adopt Ghulam Muhammad and other Muhammadan names. vol. a when From this constant influx of foreigners there resulted a mixed Hindu and half Arab or Persian. 302-3 Sir Alfred C. caused a continual stream of Muhammadan influence to flow in upon the west coast of Southern India. The first advent of Islam in South India dates as far back as the eighth century. .. little is .W. pp. aries to lay Of several of the mission- be referred to.P." we undoubtedly find that Islam has gained its greatest and most lasting missionary triumphs in times and places in which its political power has been weakest.2i6 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. renounced these Hindu customs. and use the Mushm form of salutation. and whatever practices in favour of truth there may be in the assertion 2 that " it is impossible even to approach the religious side of the Mahomedan position in India without surveying first its political aspect. then after reviewing the history of Sind. any available details have been given at length. in the trading Very friendly relations appear to have existed between these Muslim traders and the Hindu rulers who extended to them their protection and patronage in consideration population. recorded beyond their names and the sphere of their labours accordingly. commencing with Southern India and the Deccan. band of refugees. came from 'Iraq and settled in the country. who had interfered with their rite of widow-burning. they had embracing Islam. They explained their adoption of these Muhammadan customs by saying that having once slain a Qadi.. and finally noticing some missionaries whose work outside the above geographical limits. compounded for the offence by They have now. Lyall : Asiatic Studies. etc. to whom the Mappila trace their descent.^ But though some Muhammadan rulers may have been more successful in forcing an acceptance of Islam on certain of their Hindu subjects than in the last-mentioned cases. The trade in spices. Of such missionary movements it is now proposed to essay some account.

for a confirmation of their truth. under the blessing of Almighty God. notwithstanding that these rulers and their troops were all pagans. and the number of buildings enlarged. notwithstanding his delinquency. they paid much regard to their prejudices and customs. in consequence of their abstaining from exercising any oppression towards the people of the countiy . 70-1. he narrated to him the miracle of the division of the moon. besides granting to them advantageous privileges. that ' ' new ." (p. except on some extraordinary provocation this amicable footing being the more remarkable from the circumstance 'of the Mahomedans not forming a tenth part of the population. nor endeavour to intimidate them by threats. having followed this relation. by the king's condescension. There a small is a traditionary account of the propagandist labours of as early as the band of missionaries second century of the Hijrah. be of the lowest grade. or any other provocation.) . them possessed of sufficient power and authority to govern them. 1833." 103. and avoided any act of aggression on the Mahomedans. these having sprung up from the residence of the faithful amongst them. J.) was.) ^ "The Nairs do not molest their countrymen who have abjured idolatry and come over to the Mahomedan religion. (upon !) whom may the divine favour and blessing for ever rest of Islam explaining also to the monarch the tenets whilst. related to prophet king of Malabar him the history of our Muhammad . by means of the trade carried on by the Mahomedans. their treatment to the faithful. Now. Merchants from various parts frequented those ports. having no emir amongst with them. 72. and " The Shay^. p. continues kind and respectful. conviction of the Prophet's divine mission. although the persons who have thus apostacised ' See Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen. accompanied by brother Malik Ibn Dinar and his nephew Malik Ibn Habib in Ceylon. as a body. who faithfully guard their interests and decide between them.^ country. are consequently under the rule of the pagan chieftains. also that resulted from their presence in No the obstacles appear to have been put the way of work of proselytism. (London. Rowlandson. the 217 in it.) " I would have it understood that the Mahomedans of Malabar formerly lived in great comfort and tranquility. his A to certain Shay^ Sharif Ibn Malik. arrived at the city of Cranganore on their way make a pilgrimage to Adam's Peak The hearing of their arrival sent for them. because to them they owe the increase of towns in their country. the heart of the king became translated by M." (pp. 73. Now in all these the population became much increased. The consequence cities sprang up. and should any Mahomedan subject himself to the punishment of fine by them. and some other companions.) (p." (id. but treat them with the same consideration and respect that they evince towards all other Mahomedans. encouraged received them with great kindness. and from the unrestricted intercourse of kindness which they preserved " The Mahomedans of Malabar.ISLAM IN SOUTH INDIA. as well as from the consideration which they invariably evinced for the ancient usages of the population of Malabar. towards whom the chieftains of those places abstained from all oppression and.3 which was carried on with great zeal and activity.

he forbade the ShayJi to divulge this his secret intention to On any of the inhabitants of Malabar. and from thence returning to his uncle Malik Ibn Dinar at Cranganore." i the return of the pilgrims from Ceylon. wife and some of his children. and was just about the to return to his own country. carrying with him thither all his worldly substance. . and. at all to Bangore. to assist them in their labours. 49-50. Armed with these. mosques after accomplishing which he returned to Hubaee Murawee. Here. he gave them letters of recommendation to his viceroys. in consequence of this his conversion. Mangalore. remaining five months at the last place. Malik Ibn Dinar resolving to fix himself there for life but his nephew. leaving his kingdom in the hands of viceroys.2i8 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. soon again setting out for the mosques that he had erected at the above. assigned to the bearers of as therein directed . to return with his companions to Cranganore. they returned to Cranganore and presented the king's letter to his viceroy at that place. after the completion of his pilgrimage to Adam's foot-step. he himself journeyed on in to Hubaee Murawee. after a time quitted this place for the purpose of building mosques throughout Malabar. but. Malik Ibn Habib. Here he remained for some time. he stayed but a short period. and also his . where he stayed for three months. and Shaleeat in all of these towns also raising mosques. !). as it was his desire hereafter to unite himself to them . which places he ' Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen. and Fundreeah. " And this chief having informed himself of the nature of the instructions conveyed in this mandate. with purpose of erecting mosques and propagating the his fell sick and died. On his death-bed companions not to abandon their pro- religion of Islam. the king secretly departed with them in a ship bound for the coast of Arabia. and from thence Kanjercote. and Durmuftun. and upon these being they erected a mosque. pp. he with much earnestness enjoined the Shayjch. in communicating. and built . warmed with peace a holy affection towards Muhammad (on whom be and. when he he solemnly enjoined posed missionary enterprise in Malabar. it certain lands settled and gardens. however. And after erecting a mosque that town and settling his wife there. And from this town he went to Zaraftan. And with this design he proceeded first to Quilon.

. and from Arabia and Persia. his heart being full of gratitude towards God. i." 1 Whether or not there be any historical foundation for the no doubt of the peaceful proselytising influences at work on the Malabar coast for centuries. them 219 mentioned towns. But no very active proselytising movement would seem to have been carried on. the Arab merchants were undisputed masters of the trade of this island (where indeed they had formed commercial establishments centuries before the birth of the Prophet). But for the arrival of the Portuguese. with certain of his companions. on their arrival there proceeded to visit the tomb of the deceased king. afterwards removed to Quilon. he returned with his wife to Cranganore. there can be of Malabar. better. 53-5. and were only distinguished irom them by their long beards and peculiar head-dress. Odoardo Barbosa. Similarly it has been conjectured that but for the arrival of the Portuguese. Ceylon might have become a Muhammadan kingdom. as the Muhammadans of Ceylon at the present day appear mostly to be of (Sir James Arab descent. At the beginning of the sixteenth century the Mappila were estimated above story. Malik Ibn Dinar and Malik Ibn Habib. and were to be found in every sea-port and city. : vol. for the purpose of consecrating and endowing and after doing this he once more bent his steps towards Cranganore. Here as elsewhere the Muslim traders intermarried vrith the natives of the country and spread their religion along the coast. with their associates and dependents. pp. For before the Portuguese armaments appeared in the Indian seas. Subsequently. while the facilities of commerce attracted large numbers of fresh arrivals from their settlements in Malabar. dawning of the light of Islamism on a land which teemed Moreover. such as Gujarat and the to have formed one-fifth of the population the Deccan. Malik.ISLAM IN SOUTH INDIA. where the latter and his people remained. 631-3. spoke same language as the Hindus. travelling on to Murasan. sailing from thence for the coast of Arabia. the whole of this coast would have became Muhammadan. or else the Singhalese showed themselves unwilling to embrace Islam. where they both exchanged this life for a of the with idolatry. But Ibn Dinar. (5th ed. i860). pp. London. means always continued it be of so does not appear that the forcible conbut versions of the Hindus and others to Islam which were per' ^ Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen.^ The history of Islam in to Southern India by no peaceful a character. after settling some of his children in Quilon. because .. 310. Emerson Tennent Ceylon. As for Ibn Habib. because of the fi-equent conversions that took place and the powerful influence exercised by the Muslim merchants from other parts of India. there resigned his breath. p.

(Madras.) (pp.* In the western coast peculiarly oppressive . in Travancore certain of the lower castes may not four paces to a Brahmin. 71.! as is the case at the present day. What wonder then that the Musalman population is fast increasing through conversion from these lower castes. Sultan. intermarrying with the natives. who thereby free themselves from such degrading oppression. The inhabitants of these islands owed estab- their conversion to the Arab and Persian merchants. However this may be. its effects (p.^ Similar instances might be abundantly multiplied.) : •* . The date of the conversion of the Muhammadan ' See the passage quoted above from the Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen (p. 1883. and thus smoothing the way work first of active proselytism. 72. 248). can be paralleled in the earlier history of this part of India. and have to come nearer than make a grunting seventy- noise as they pass along the road. as to render it possible that in a few years the whole the lower races of the west coast may become Muhammadans. there is no reason to doubt that constant conversions by peaceful methods were made to Islam from among the lower So numerous have castes. except in the case of some of the nobler now in great part present all the characteristics of little an aboriginal people. and. 30). these conversions from Hinduism been. when the Muhammadan power became paramount under Haydar 'Ali (1767-1782) and Tipu Sultan (1782-1799).* so It was most probably from Malabar that Islam crossed over to the Laccadive and Maldive Islands. and raise themselves and their descendants in the social scale. of the second Decennial Missionary Conference held at Calcutta Report 1882-3 (PP. R. with very of the original foreign blood in them. ^ Caste its supposed origin . 69) reference is made to outcasts taking refuge within the pale of Islam. they Southern India has been to reversion to the Hindu or type. 109). 1874. 73).228. in order to give warning of their approach. the population of which is now entirely Muslim. 1871.220 petrated THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Cornish (Madras. In another passage (p. who for the lished themselves in the country. (Calcutta. its history . that the tendency of aboriginal the Muhammadans of the west as well as the east coast of families. In fact the Mappila on the west coast are said to be increasing of of considerably through accessions from the lower classes Hindus. 1887). by W. 233. districts the tyranny of caste intolerance is to give but one instance. 2 Report on the Census of the Madras Presidency.

however.^ has been conjectured 1200 A.^ but it is to us. Ibn Batutah resided in the Maldive Islands during the years 1343-4 and married "the daughter of a Vizier who was grandson of the Sultan Dawud. who was a grandson of the Sultan Ahmad Shanurazah" (Tome iv. * ' Bombay. . C. and remained in the Maldives until their death.' as a One of these Arab preachers. 132 ii. Tome iv. (Colombo. tomb repair.SPREAD OF ISLAM IN THE DECCAN. having and living under dynasties of the fresh own laws and Bahmanid religion. P. who is said to is have been a successful missionary of Islam in these islands. from this statement the date a. ' H. p. is found the tomb of ShayMi Shamsu-d Din. By J. A. and the process of conversion must undoubtedly No details. xvi. Pir Mahabir Khandayat. 128. a impulse was given to Arab immigration. p. for of forcible conversions we have no record under the early Deccan dynasties.. a native of Tabriz. Yusuf At Male. in Persia. the seat of Government. have come down have been a gradual one.D. and win over the unbelieving people of the country by their preaching and example. Ahmad Shanurazah. 75. 85-6. Mas^di. Christopher. . 57-8.. pp.* Under the Muhammadan (1347-1490) and Bijapiir {1489-1686) kings. whose rule was characterised by a trader striking toleration. 221 to have occurred about very possible that the Muhammadan merchants had introduced their reHgion into the island as much as three centuries before. came missionary to the Deccan as early as 1304 a. and always kept in good and in the same part of the island are buried some of his still countrymen who came in search of him. Tome The Bombay 1844. It has already been pointed out that from very early times west coast settled in .d. vol. His held in great veneration. 154) . Bell : The Maldive Islands.* The Deccan also was the scene of the successful labours of many Muslim missionaries. and among the cultivating classes of Bijapur are to be found descendants of Ibn Batutah. (Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society from 1836 ' to 1838. Gazetteer. p. Young and W. and with the to and the soldier of fortune came the missionaries seeking make spiritual conquests in the cause of Islam. vol. 71. Arab traders had visited the towns on the in the tenth century we are told that the Arabs were large numbers in the intermarried with the their women of the country towns of the Konkan. I2CX} has been conjectured.d. 1883. p. 74.) ' Memoir on the Inhabitants of the Maldive Islands. x. p. 23-5.) pp.

' Id.222 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. son of 'Abdu-1 Malik. namely Sayyid Muhammad Ibn Sayyid 'Ali and Sayyid 'Umar Idrus . xxii. Khwajah Khunmir Husayni. — Basheban. p.^ About the close of the same century a celebrated saint of Gulbarga. by Hasham Pir Gujarat! the religious Shah II.^ At Dahanu still reside the descendants of the saint Shay^ Babu ahib.* This in the early days of the Arab conquest was one of the outposts of Islam. vol.^ converted a number of Hindus of the Poona district. been the most successful of Muhammadan missionaries having come from Medina in 1568." Two other Arab missionaries may be mentioned. teacher of the Bijapur king. xviii. ' The Bombay Gazetteer.* In the district of Dharwar. are still found in Nasik he is said to have ancestors were converted . Several Sindian princes responded to the invitation of the Caliph 'Umar ibn ' 'Abdi-1 'Aziz to embrace Islam. xxi. and after making many converts in the Konkan. ' Id. 501 . vol. p. there are large numbers of weavers whose saints of Islam. called Sayyid Mal^dtim Gaysudaraz. Shah Muhammad Sadiq Sarmast Husayni. 7S"^' ' At the time of the Arab conquest the dominions of the Hindu ruler of Sind extended as far north as this city. p. p. the scene of whose proselytising efforts was laid in the district of Belgaum. vol. about the close of the sixteenth century. ^ The Bombay Sometimes • ' ' When the Caliph Sulayman. 242. xxiii. xiii. which is now no longer included in this province. vol. he travelled over the greater part of Western India and finally settled at Nasik in which district another very successful Muslim missionary. 223. pp. when Muhammad Qasim had established Muhammadan supremacy over Sind (a. had begun to labour about fifty years before." The people of Gazetteer. died. a relative of one of the greatest . xvi. Sayyid Husayn Gaysudaraz. ' I<J.d. vol. 282. p. 714). 203.. Sayyid 'Abdu-1 Qadir Jilani of Ba|^dad he came to Western India about 400 years ago. died and was buried at Dahanu. 218. pp. xxi. the Jains who were converted by him. During the three centuries of Arab rule there were naturally many accessions to the faith of the conquerors. vol. * Id. 231. vol. he was succeeded .' The descendants of another saint. These men still regard the saint with special reverence and pay great respect to his descendants.' Another missionary movement may be said roughly to centre round the city of Multan. Ibrahim 'Adil . and twenty years later his labours were crowned with a like success in Belgaum.

vol. and laws. Sawandari 223 —who submitted to Muhammad Qasim and had peace ^ granted to them on the condition that they would entertain the Musalmans and furnish guides are spoken of by Al Baladhuri (writing about 100 years later) as professing Islam in his time and the despatches of the conqueror frequently refer to conversion of the unbelievers. to destroy an idol which was held in great veneration by the Hindus and was visited by pilgrims from the most distant parts. neglected by the central government. . p. to and took Arab names. • ' Elliot. were allowed to repair their temple. showed towards their idolatrous subjects. •Id. Al Baladhuri.' and where submission was made. judged from the toleration that the Arabs. i. 122. pp. upon which they would beThese princes had already heard of histreated like all other Musalmans.) Md. quarter was readily given. of the During the troubles that befell the Caliphate in the latter half ninth century. 833-842).d. promises. by 'Umar ibn 'Abdu-1'Aziz (a. 717). the most power- of whom were the Amirs of Multan and Mansura. i. the Indians of Sindan' declared themselves independent.ISLAM IN SIND.' But in the hour of its political decay. character. the That these conversions were in the main voluntary.* in The Muhammadans of Multan succeeded maintaining their political independence. 27-8. ' Al Baladhuri. in which the Musalmans were allowed to perform their devotions undisturbed. by if attacked. p. and creed. which was a means of livelihood to the Brahmans. — . 446. ' Probably the Sindan in Abrasa. He wrote to the princes inviting them become Musalmans and submit to his authority. of a king of 'Usayfan. 124-5. Al Baladhuri ° Islam was still achieving missionary successes. p. and nobody was to be or prevented from following his own religion. pp. and kept themselves conquered by the neighbouring Hindu princes. The people of Brahmanabad. political Such weakened the mans. 446. tells the following story of the conversion from being threatening. vol. for example. Sind. pp. came to be divided ful among several petty princes. and the people were permitted the exercise of their own creeds forbidden generally. so Jaishiya and other princes turned Musalmans." (EUiot. but they spared the mosque. (a. whose city had been taken by storm. 185-6. after the of their first may be violence onslaught. the southern district of Cutch. which had in fact begun to For in the reign of Al Mu'tasim disunion naturally power of the Musal- decline earlier in the century.d.

27. traders him the unity of God whereupon he believed in the unity and became a Muslim. Sayyid Yusufu-d * Elliot."^ it is at the same time described as being " remarkable for its justice and an increase This increase could thus only have been brought of Islam. and he desired the priests temple. destroyed and broke in pieces the idol. They brought the produce of China and Ceylon to the sea-ports of Sind and from there conveyed them by way of Multan to Turkistan and Khurasan. vol. failed to exhibit the same proselytising find in the zeal as we Muhammadan who To the influence of such trading communities was most probably due the conversion of the Sammas. pp. who made known both on the coast and inland. p. He afterwards invited a party of to Muhammadan . and were safe under the protection of the native princes. Id. who even granted them the privilege of living under their own The Arab merchants at this time formed the medium of commercial communication between Sind and the neighbouring laws. Arab geographers of the tenth and twelfth centuries mention the names of many such cities. 88. One of the most famous of these missionaries was the celebrated saint. and slew the priests. A similar missionary influence was doubtless exercised by the numerous communities of Muslim merchants who carried their religion with them into the infidel cities of Hindustan. Then the king attacked the temple. ' s i. " We have prayed and our supplications have been accepted.." about by peaceful missionary methods. where the Musalmans built their mosques.* It would be strange if these traders. vol. . that never was this prince called upon to ride forth to battle. ruled over Sind from 1351 to While the reign of Jam Nanda bin Babiniyah of this dynasty is specially mentioned as one of such " peace and security.D." But no long time passed before the youth died. 1521 A. The son of the temple to pray to the idol for the recovery of his son. i.224 a country THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and never did a foe take the field against him. cities of the unbelievers. and then returned' saying. The people :had built a of this country worshipped an idol for which they of the king fell sick. Id. scattered about in the trader elsewhere. 273. 38. vo]_ . between Kashmir and Multan and Kabul. They retired for a short time. 457.i countries of India and the outside world._ __ j.

where their numbers were increased by converts from among the Cutch Lohanas. 1876. 208. and periodically at many festivals it assumes the nine incarnations of Visnu to be true as far as they go.. 93. vol. Under the leadership of the grandson of the former. and reached Gujarat in the reign of the ' Bombay Gazetteer. : : p. pp.Sadru-d Din was not however the first of the Isma'ilian that missionaries came preacher of this sect into India. . after some miracles performed by the saint. seeing to be the tenth Avatar or incarnation of book has been from the beginning the accepted scripture of the Khojah sect and it is always read by the bedside of the dying.i Sind was also the scene of the labours of Pir Sadru-d Din. Frere The Khojas (London.ISLAM IN SIND. . . and on their conversion received the names of Adamji and Taj Muhammad respectively. 431. a of Nur Satagar. vol. Sir Bartle Q . din 225 to Sind in 1422 after labouring there for ten he succeeded in winning over to Islam 700 families of the Lohana caste. had been sent into India from Alamut. v. but to fall short of the perfect truth. the Further he made incarnation and coming manifestation of 'Ali.. and supplements this imperfect Vaisnav system by the cardinal doctrine of the Isma'ilians. a missionary of the Isma'ilian sect. xxxiv. the Disciples of the Old Man of the Mounta\n. „. who followed the example of two of their number. . out Brahma to be Muhammad. he took a Hindu name and made certain concessions to the religious beliefs of the Hindus whose conversion he sought to achieve and introduced among them a book entitled Dasavatar in which by . . 433-4^ Khoia Vfttant. The first of Pir Sadru-d Din's converts were won in the villages and towns of Upper Sind he preached also in Cutch and from these parts the doctrines of this sect spread southwards through Gujarat to Bombay and at the present day Khojah communities are to be found in almost all the large trading towns of Western 'All was . name Sundarji and Hansraj these men embraced Islam. these people afterwards migrated to Cutch. India Pir and on the seaboard of the Indian Ocean. p. . whose doctrines he introduced into India about 400 years ago. In accordance with the principles of accommodation practised by this sect. Some known by the name centuries before. Vienu to be 'Ali and Adam Siva. : . who came years. the stronghold of the Grand Master of the Isma'ilians. made out Vi?nu this .) Macmillau's Magazine.

whose real name was Malik 'Abdu-1 Latif. vol.^ the son of one of the nobles of Mahmud Bigarrah (1459-1511). expedient. Gazetteer. in whom the to they had a great confidence. v. 202. the famous monarch of the Muhammadan dynasty of Gujarat. pp. 89. who are found in considerable numbers in the chief commercial centres of the Bombay Presidency.d. id. but as various earlier dates have also been assigned. The p. p. then to under- take the conversion of others. vol.been treated with great kindness by the Hindu kings of Anhilvada in Northern Gujarat. Some of his people changed their rehgion > in concert with their old instructor. ii. such as the beginning of the fourteenth century and even the ' eleventh century. and became conversant with his books. T. p. 158. a recreant. vol. Colebrooke Miscellaneous Essays. 1873. among these people. As the inhabitants of Gujarat were pagans. and were guided by an aged priest.226 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 70.) ^ Khoja Vrttant. low castes of Gujarat. 378 . xiii. left A Shi'ah historian has named us the following account of the labours of a missionary Mulla 'Ali. ' H. vol.^ Musalmans that are of Hindu descent reverence as their spiritual leader Dawal Shah Pir. to whose reign popular tradition assigns the Many of the Cutch date of the conversion of many HindusJ' the efforts of the same monarch has been ascribed* the conversion of the Borahs. and missionary judged it whose disciples they were.)name but told the Muhammadans that his Sa'adat . a large and important trading com- To munity of Shi'ahs. adopted a Hindu name was Sayyid he is said to have converted the Kanbis. Kharwas and Koris. the early Shi'ah preachers are said to have. learnt his language. vol.) ' The Bombay Gazetteer. studied his By degrees he sciences. and after convincing him by irrefragable proofs. J Nuru-Uah of Shustar in his Majalisu-l mu'minln. (Colebrooke's Essays. 204-6. vii. He accordingly passed some years attendance on that priest. and him to become a Musalman. pp.' it is probable that their conversion when was the work of several generations. 36-7. The Bombay Id. (London. about the beginning of " the fourteenth century. p. iii. opened the persuaded articles of the faith to the enlightened priest. first to offer himself as a pupil the priest. of Hindu origin. " : ' . iii. Siddha Raj (1094-1143 a. He real Hindu king. and making him in participate in the declaration of faith. 239. p. p. vol. ' Id.

used arguments to faith (i.i for example in the the majority of them are Shi'ahs.CONVERSION OF THE BORAHS. vol. and sought to keep it concealed. 227 to the made known the king of the country. was incensed against him. he immediately pretended that his prostrations were occasioned by the sight of a serpent. The minister knew the motive of the king's visit. of the pagans. where he and his descendants were instruof the mental in the conversion of large numbers of Hindus. for reasons of state. the priest. and the king's suspicions were lulled. he visited the Muslim.e. p. and finding him in the humble posture of prayer. circumstances of the priest's conversion being principal minister of priest. the Sunnis). and it so happened that there he saw a serpent the minister's excuse appeared credible. who accompanied him. . 41. which appeared in the corner of the room. Yet. that the Muhammadan missionaries ' The Bombay Gazetteer. One day he repaired to his house. conquered the province of Gujarat. At length the intelligence of the minister's conversion reached monarch. p. and became a But for a long time. Q 2 . however. Subsequently to his decease. commonly known under the appellation of Makhdum-i-Jahaniyan. iv. Another missionary who laboured in Gujarat in the latter part fourteenth century was ShayMi Jalal. sovereign of Delhi (1531-88). spired by divine providence. the minister. make the people embrace the " according to the doctrines of such as revere the traditions But. the king himself secretly became a convert to the Muslim faith but dissembled the state of his mind. by his will. and perceived that his anger arose from the suspicion that he was reciting With presence of mind inprayers and performing adoration. 36. After a time. who came and settled in Gujarat. though some of the Borahs are Sunnis. vol. according to the customs the . that his corpse should not be burnt. through dread of the king. at the point of death he ordered. some learned men. rest of adopted habits of obedience towards him. and against which he was employing incantations. when Sultan Zafar. iii. one of the trusty nobles of Sultan Firuz Shah.^ It is in Bengal. and the the converts dissembled their faith. ' Id. district of Kaira. The king cast his eyes towards the comer of the apartment.

but see H. and according to tradition numerous conversions were made during his reign. during the five centuries and a half of Muhammadan rule in Eastern rule Hindu : The Af^an adventurers who settled in this province appear to have been active in the work of proselytising. No. and educate them of the in the tenets of Islam. they used Bengal. After his father's death in 1414 he called together all the officers of the state and announced his intention of embracing Islam. he was ready to give it up to his brother whereupon they declared that they would accept him as their king. Accordingly. for his reign is signalised as being the only one in which any wholesale persecution of the subject Hindus is recorded. Cf. as far as numbers are Muhammadan kingdom was first founded here at concerned. 176. B. whatever religion he might adopt.228 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.) Firishtah. p. who conquered Bihar and Bengal and made Gaur the capital of the latter province. renounced the Hindu religion and became a Musalman. and where low-caste Hindus and outcasts most abound. pp. Blochmann : Contributions to the Geography anJ History of Bengal. p. 1883. 220) (1873). 99. January.3 also to purchase a number of boys in times of scarcity. (London. vol. 27S. (J. the end of the twelfth century by Muhammad BaMjtiyar Khalji. xlii.. Ravenshaw : Gaur : its ruins and inscriptions. several learned men of the Muslim faith were summoned to witness the Raja renounce the Hindu religion and publicly profess his acceptance of Islam he took the name of Jalalu-d Din Muhammad Shah. No. and proclaimed that if the chiefs would not permit him to ascend the throne. xlii. Charles Stewart: The History of Bengal. ' The Indian Evangelical Review. A. i. p. also An Intro< H. H.! ijis sQu^ Jatmall.'' But it is not in the ancient centres Muhammadan government that the Musalmans of Bengal are found in large districts numbers. The long continuance of the Muhammadan would naturally assist the spread of Islam. 337. vol. whose rule is said to have been popular with his Muhammadan subjects. 29. 1813. and though the rule was restored for ten years under the tolerant Raja Kans. for besides the children that they had by Hindu women. in in places where there are no traces of settlers from the West. A. but in the country districts. p. ^ J. S. p. iv.' ' So Firishtah. (London. vol. p. (J. A in India have achieved their greatest success. i. S. ' Wise. B. 1878. 264-6) (1873). Blochmann: .^ Many of these were however due to force.) Contributions to the Geography and History of Beiij-al.

tenantry in India. "Of the 19 millions of Mahomedans in Bengal pp. eat almost the same food as Bengalis. and petty artisans. dress like Bengalis. and a nobler idea of the brotherhood of man. or zemmdars. Compulsory conversions are occasionally recorded. day labourers. much less They are conquerors of India. The initiatory rite rendered relapse and made the proselyte and his posterity true believers for ever. hunters. and neglected population. except as to matters of religion.000 belong to what is known in Bengal as the Bhadralog class. and low-caste tillers of the soil. (The Calcutta Review. and retained its hold on them in the hour of their deepest distress But in Bengal the Muslim missionaries were and degradation. Government soldiers. tailors and domestic servants. by Guru Proshad Sen. alluvial In this way Islam settled down on the richest province of India. and it derived the great mass supporting the of its of converts from the poor. Islam came as a It was the creed of the ruling race. They were never anything more than agriculturists.SPREAD OF ISLAM IN BENGAL. write the Bengali character.) not more than 25. who As a class they are the most prosperous were converted to Mahomedanism. missionaries were men of zeal who brought the Gospel of the unity of God and the equality of men in its sight to a despised . Government servants. fishermen. . bom of the country. its influence was an inspiring force in the opposition offered by the Hindus. and the caste distinctions which they still retain. or even followers of the Mahomedan conquerors. These were originally Hindus of the Jal Achal class. speak the Bengali language. and. 229 The similarity of manners between these low-caste Hindus and the followers of the Prophet. their proud Aryan rulers. resemble in all respects any other Bengali ryot. the province which was capable of most rapid and densest increase of population. pirates. as in the North- west of India. is daily improving. But it was not to force that Islam owed its permanent success in Lower Bengal. The remainder are agriculturists. impossible. as well as their physical likeness. and their condition instead of deteriorating as that of Mahomedans throughout India is ordinarily supposed to be. all bear the same testimony and identify the Bengal Musalmans with the Here Islam met with no conaboriginal tribes of the country. where the Muhammadan invaders found Brahmanism full of fresh life and vigour after its triumphant struggle with Buddhism where in spite of persecutions. with open arms by the aborigines and the low castes welcomed on the very outskirts of Hinduism. and at no period of their duction to the study of October. 231-2. 1890. despised and condemned by " To these poor people. solidated religious system to bar its progress." history either Hinduism. It appealed to the people. It brought in a higher conception It offered God. its revelation from on high.

p. — . (Calcutta. by C. a into a free entrance social organisation. vol. who had sat for ages abject to the teeming low castes of Bengal. distinguished alike for he is said to have been the his secular and religious learning Muslim missionary who preached the faith of Islam in the first Crowds city of Lahore.^ and the graves of some of these new ^ The missionaries are still honoured. the Crescent and the Cross. (London. One of the earliest of these is Shaykh Isma'il. and several sects that owe their origin to the influence of the Wahhabi reformation. J. 32." existence in Bengal of definite missionary efforts is said to be attested by certain legends of the zeal of private individuals on behalf of their religion. If it were to continue. Nineteen years ago in Bengal proper Hindus numbered nearly half a million more than Musalmans did. 1 1888. iii.) ^ Religions of India. In the present century there has been a remarkable revival of the Muhammadan religion in Bengal. . the Musalmans have not only overtaken the Hindus. is to be attributed the marvellously rapid growth in the numbers of the followers of the Prophet in recent years. 262 in Eastern IJengal. W. have sent their missionaries through the province purging out the remnants of Hindu superstitions. pp. and 1 10 in Western Bengal. See also Wise.^ Some account still remains to be given of Muslim missionaries who have laboured in parts of India other than those mentioned above.230 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. O'Donnell. pp. 168. 37. whither he came in the year 1005 a. {The Times. flocked to listen to his sermons. The Musalman increase is real and large. but have surpassed them by a million and a half. 1893. p. and in the space of less than two decades. awakening religious zeal and spreading the faith among unbelievers. February 25th.) " p." Census of India.000 persons Islam has gained 100 persons in Northern Bengal. : SirW. 48-55. It is statistically •• Id.d. one of the most famous of the Sayyids of Bukhara. on an average 157 in the whole of Bengal proper. on the outermost pale of the Hindu community. whilst Eastern Bengal would reach the same condition in about four hundred years.^ but detailed accounts of their proselytising labours appear to be wanting.) 3 ' Wise. 147. 1891. and are annually visited by hundreds of pilgrims. • . The Lower Provinces of Bengal and their Feudatories. proved that since 1872 out of every 10.* combined with certain social and physical conditions that favour a more rapid increase in the Musalman as compared with the Hindu population. and the number of his converts To their efforts. James Vaughan The Trident. the faith of Muhammad would be universal in Bengal proper in six and a half centuries. 146. Hunter: The 1876.

) ' p.i him without being converted The conversion of the inhabitants of the western plains of the is said to have been effected through the preaching of Bahau-1 Haqq of Multan ^ and Baba Faridu-d Din of Pakpattan. The Muslim Rajputs of this city. known as Shayjsi Bahau-d Din Zakatia.5 On his way to Ajmir he is said to have converted as Islam shall through thy piety spread in that land. (a. the faith and that of thy followers. ii.D. numbering about as many 300 maks. who flourished about the end of the thirteenth and beginning Panjab of the fourteenth centuries. 1033). 395. came into India and took up his residence at Paniput. 163. of thither and settle in Ajmir.h. in 1324 A.MUSLIM MISSIONARIES IN swelled rapidly INDIA. . vol. Rather later in the same century. p. are descended from a certain ' '' Amir Singh who was Ghulam Sarwar: Khazinatu-1 Otherwise Asfiya. who was the spiritual preceptor of the Raja himself gradually he gathered around him a large body of disciples whom his teachings had won from the ranks of infidelity and his fame as a religious leader became very wide-spread and attracted to Ajmir great numbers of Hindus whom he persuaded to embrace Islatn. He was a native of Sajistan to the east of Persia and is said to have received his call to preach Islam to the unbelievers in India while on a pilgrimage to Medina. and it is said that no unbeliever ever to came into personal contact with the faith of Islam. who died in Ajmir in 1234 a. Among the first of his converts here was a Yogi.d. be obeyed the call and made his way to Ajmir which was then under Hindu rule and idolatry prevailed throughout the land. Here the prophet appeared to him in a dream and thus addressed preaching. p. where he died at the ripe age of 100. ' ' Ibbetson. in Persia." He 700 persons in the city of Delhi. 1884.* One of the most famous of the Muslim saints of India and a pioneer of Islam in Rajputana was Khwajah Mu'inu-d Din Chishti. but unfortunately provides us with this him : — " The Go Almighty has entrusted the country of India to thee. 230. vol. 231 day by day. a native of 'Iraq. by name Abu 'Ali Qalandar. By God's help. Mawlawi Asghar 'AIT: Jaw5hir-i-Faiidi Elliot. p. ii.^ A biographer of the latter saint over to Islam through gives a list of sixteen tribes his who were won no details of work of conversion. (Lahore. 548.

1887. fifty. The (Calcutta. But that there are Muslim missionaries is engaged doubted. pp. a Persian who came into India about the latter half of the fourteenth century and settled down at Silhat.232 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 343. directed against the Christian and Hindu of his of ^ religions. Another such was Shaytt Jalalu-d Din.) Spectator. p. 1889-90. vol. October iSth. In one of these books he has thus spoken : own conversion — " I. declare iv. ' Garcin de Tassy : La langue et la litl^rature Hindoustanies de 1850 a 1869. 52-3. The Contemporary Review. converted by this visited His tomb is still held in honour and is by many pilgrims. He has written some controversial works. In Patiala. p. 1874. in active and successful propagandist un- In the Panjab a certain Haji Muhammad said to have converted 200. (Paris. 1889. cases from information furnished by the individuals referred 'Ubaydu-llah. is difficult to obtain information. Yule (2). Muhammad 'Ubaydu-llah. and his proselytising labours were crowned with eminent success. 1382. Tome p. in the Patiala State. which have passed through several editions. and the absence of any central organisation or of anything in the way of missionary reports render it exceedingly labours. following details of such points to the existence of very active efforts of a true missionary work have been gleaned from reliable sources — in some to. has achieved fill so great a success that his converts almost an entire ward of the city. saint. ^ xvi. p. The Indian Evangelical Review. Mawlawi Brahman of great learning.^ Similarly at the present day there are abundant witnesses for Islam seeking to spread this faith in India and with very considerable success. Ibn Batu^ah. may The appear. a converted that were at themselves. 515. February. the number of annual conversions being variously — estimated at ten.^ But the peculiarly individualistic character of Muslim missionary work. yet the very fact of their being made.^ During the last five years a mawlawi in Bangalore boasts that he has made as many as 1000 converts in this city and its suburbs. in Lower Assam. 170. 217. However suspicious these statements character. as a holy He achieved a great reputation man. resident of Payal. p. the son Munshi Kota Mai. and in spite of the obstacles first thrown in his way by his relatives. in order to convert the people of these parts to Islam. has proved himself a zealous preacher of Islam.000 Hindus.) . one hundred and six hundred thousand.

Muhammad beliefs the Prophet. and he alone who and the liturgy. I thoroughly explored the Hindu religion and conversed with learned Pandits. possesses such moral ex- cellences that knows the practice no tongue can describe them.' brethren. 1264 the sun of and I performed my devotions in public with my Muslim perfume.) . (Dehli. read the books of Islam and conversed with learned men. but the mercy of God caught me by the hand and drew me towards Islam. i. At length.MUSLIM MISSIONARIES IN that this his INDIA. whereon depend With these thoughts I began to our eternal bliss or misery.e." 1 1 Tuhfatu-I Hind. 3. is this religion that everything in it leads the soul to In short. its leader. ! So excellent God. 1309. gained a thorough knowledge of the Christian faith. the excellence of which became clearly manifest to me poor in his childhood father man was held in the . At that time intelligence which is the gift of God suggested to me that it was mere folly and laziness to blindly follow the customs of one's forefathers and be misled by them and not make researches into matters of religion and faith. yet my evil passions and Satan had bound me with the fetters of the luxury and ease of this fleeting world. p. with the exception of Islam. the grace of God thus admonished me How long wilt thou keep this priceless pearl hidden within the shell and this refreshing perfume shut up in the casket ? thou shouldest wear this pearl about thy neck and profit by this truth : ' Moreover the learned have declared that to conceal one's faith in Islam and retain the dress and habits of infidels So (God be praised !) on the 'Idu-1 Fitr brings a man to Hell. ah. darkness and light. But although my heart had long been enlightened by the brightness of Islam and my mouth made clean by the profession of faith. study the current faiths and investigated each of them impartially. my conversion emerged from its screen of clouds. and I accepted Islam heart and soul. by the grace of God. can fully realise them. and counted myself one of the servants of the Prophet of God (peace be upon him !). and the moral teachings and Praise be to God of this faith. In all of them I found errors and fallacies. the distinction between and falsehood became as clear to me as night and day. 233 and during the lifetime of bondage of idol worship. I came to know the excellence of Islam and the deformities of Hinduism. and I was in evil case because of the outward observances of idolatry.

126. twelve in Poona.' He gave several lectures on Islam at Patna. ' ^ The Bombay Gazetteer. entered churches. has lately won over to Islam a large body of artisans." On being questioned. xvi. he felt an imperceptible craving to quit his post. much to the reluctance of his friends.. cities. who was well acquainted with their habits of thought. in the Bombay Presidency. Ajmir. and a notable gentleman. but shortly after his innate anxiety to seek truth prompted him to go abroad the world and abandoning his studies he mixed with persons of different persuasions.i in a curious way about twenty-five years ago. Babu Bepin Chandra Pal. the following quaint account is given of his life: "In private and school life. itinerant preacher. when a Muhammadan faqir from Bombay. vol.234 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 100 per mensem. . 1896). Mawlawi Hasan 'Ali has in persons. p. he said he was talking to a Christian. where his preachings and lectures left his name imbedded in the hearts of the citizens. tract distribution.^ A number of persons of the same trade. .^ Many Muhammadan preachers have adopted the methods of missionaries of Nasik Christian missionaries. 'All furnished me with these figures some years before his In an obituary notice published in "The Moslem Chronicle" (April 4. when he was overheard to say. lie was marked as a very intelligent lad and made considerable progress in his scholastic cai'eer within a short time. where he delivered his lecture in English. p. He tendered his resignation. He passed Entrance at a very early age and received scholarship with which he went up to the First Art. Id. and maintained himself for some time by publishing a monthly journal. Noorul Islam. which produced such effect on the audience that several European clergymen vouchsafed the truth of Islam. ' Mawlawi Hasan death in 1896.. and then went to Calcutta. has in the Mawlawi Baqa Husayn Khan. and roamed over wilderness and forests and cities with nothing to help him on except his sincere hopes and absolute reliance on the mercy of the Great Lord for one year he wandered in various regions of religion until in 1874 he accepted the post of a headmaster in a Patna school. Pandits. . expounded to them the doctrines of Islam and succeeded in winning them over to that faith. and they were in a state of hesitation as to whether or not to embrace Christianity. were converted Hyderabad and other parts of India. who follow the trade of armourers or blacksmiths. and Christians. Some one hundred men became Musalmans on hearing his lectures and reading his books. from which he used to get Rs. " Abjure your religion and become a Musalman. an Cawnpore. His various books and pamphlets and successive lectures in Urdu and in English in the different cities and towns in India gave him a historic name in the world. residents of Bombay." His missionary zeal manifested itself up to the last hour of his life. the preaching of the Qadi of Nasirabad. and other converted twenty-five course of several years converted 228 persons. who form a small community of about 200 souls in the district of Nasik. Fakirs. was about to become Musulman. He was invited by the people at Dacca. the rest In the district of Khandesh. such as street preaching. As he was born to become a missionary of the Moslem faith. vol. The Presbyterian had for a long time been trying to convert them from Hinduism. Sayyid Safdar 'Ali. xii. 81.

485. include among their objects the sending of missionaries to preach in the bazars . In Bombay a Muhammadan market of the that missionary city.) .(Paris. and the Anjuman Hami Islam of much of the These particular Anjumans appoint paid agents. caste it rules.) langue et la litterature Hindoustanies en 1871. some Europeans. 23^ In many of the large cities of India. in idolatrous ceremonies. religionists of and endeavour efforts to rid their ignorant co- their faith. and one of these preachers.MUSLIM MISSIONARIES and other agencies. Among the converts are occasionally to be found . such are the Anjuman- i-Himayat-i Islam of Lahore. In Bangalore this practice is very general. mostly persons in indigent circumstances the Some of the numerous Anjumans mass. are Hindus. however. and the efforts made are thus defensive rather too turn than directly proselytising. preaches almost daily near the chief there and in Calcutta are several preaching-stations are kept constantly supplied. large numbers of Muhammadans may be found ' The Indian Evangelical et la langue (Paris. e. p. is so popular that he is even sometimes he preaches in the market-place.^ that Musalman have of recent years sprung up in the chief centres of life in India. has indeed The work : of conversion Muslims. 1884. Hindu such superstitions. Mewat and Gurgaon. p. Ajmir. 12. Much tion of the missionary zeal of the Indian Musalmans is directed towards counteracting the anti-Islamic tendencies of the instruc- given by Christian missionaries. and instil in them a purer form of being in many cases the con- tinuation of earlier missionary efforts. 128. 1874. invited to preach by Hindus : and during the last seven or eight years has gained forty-two converts. but work of preaching in the bazars is performed by are engaged in persons who some trade or business during the working hours of the day and devote their leisure time in the evenings to this pious work. nominally may be said that they are half Hindus they observe they join in Hindu festivals and practise nunnerous In certain districts also. MusHm may be found daily expounding the teachings of the prophet in some principal thoroughfare. been often very imperfect. Garcin de Tassy Hindoustanies de 1850 a 1869. rather to the Some preachers their attention strengthening of the foundation already laid. Of many. p.g. who is the imam of the mosque. litterature : Garcin de Tassy La La Review. : 1872. preachers IN INDIA.

This is especially the case among the Muhammadans of the villages or in parts of the country where they are isolated from the mass of believers . calling upon believers to abandon their idolatrous practices and expounding the true tenets of the Now. and have abjured the flesh of the wild boar. and are abandoning the ancient customs which hitherto they had observed in common with their idolatrous neighbours. religious life. however. ' The Rajputana Gs^zetteer. Indeed. who know nothing of their religion but its name they have no mosques. Preachers travelled far and a great religious revival took place. and makes for a purer and more intelligent form of generally. but in the towns the presence of learned religious men tends. in which Muhamfaith. there has been. p. the Eastern districts of the Panjab. however. A similar revival in Bengal Such movements and the efforts of individual missionaries are. madans own any considerable portion. a In recent years.236 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. now follow the orthodox Muhammadan form of marriage instead of the Hindu ritual they formerly observed. p. has led to a grasp of religious principles and teachers in more intelligent to an increase of religious This outlying and hitherto neglected districts. p. 47. vol. and one is naturally led to inquire what ' Ibbetson. . speaking noticeable among the Indian Muslims towards a religious life more strictly in accordance with the laws The influence of the Christian mission schools has also of Islam. the Hindu tribes who have been from time to time converted to Islam in the rural districts. 1879. The Merats. i. (Calcutta.) . wide through the country. for example. in great measure. vol. it missionary originate).^ In Rajputana also.^ has already been spoken of above. movement been very great in stimulating among some Muhammadans of the younger generation a study of their own religion and in bringing about a consequent awakening of religious zeal. to counteract the influence of former superstitions. the spread of education generally. nor do they observe the hours of prayer. 164. in consequence. have a mosque. ii. while the grosser and more open idolatries are being discontinued. movement of reform (from whatever cause may In may be observed in very different parts of India. quite inadequate to explain the rapid increase of the Muhammadans of India. after the mutiny. 90 . most villages. for example. are now becoming more orthodox and regular in their religious observances.

* tendencies which. T. must often make Among the Rajput princes of the present and Bundelkhand. and gives free scope for the indulgence of any In Bengal. p. Kocch established a dynasty under their Haju in the reign of his grandson. T. became Similar instances might be given from all Muhammadans. day in Rajputana E.CAUSES OF THE SPREAD OF ISLAM. The influence of the study of Muhammadan literature also. had the Mu^al itself insensibly felt. when the higher the state were received into the pale of Hinduism. show up in striking contrast the benefits of a religious system which has member ambition. but men also who might be profoundly indifferent to the number or names of the deities they were called upon to worship. which add so enormously to their numbers. 89. Such a change of religion might well be accompanied with sincere conviction. . * Sir Alfred Lyall (Asiatic Studies. 237 are the causes other than the normal increase of population. 102-4. would feel very keenly the social ostracism entailed by their loss of caste. 1 very remarkable A instance of a similar eastern part of the kind occurs in the history of the north- same province. and the habitual contact with Muhammadan society.^ the mass of the people finding themselves despised as outcasts. classes in . the weavers of cotton piece- who are looked upon as vile by their Hindu co-religionists. Dalton. parts in A Hindu who has in any way lost caste and been consequence repudiated by his relations.s of India. goods. 324. would naturally be attracted towards a religion that receives all without distinction. no outcasts. and become Muhammadan without any religious feelings at all. life among Hindus. p. The answer is to be found in the social conditions of and contempt heaped co-religionists. 29) speaks of the perceptible proclivity towards the faith of Islam occasionally exhibited by some of the Hindu ' ^ chiefs. Dalton. p. embrace Islam in large numbers to escape from the low position to which they are otherwise degraded. for example. 5 E. For an account of such Hinduising of the aboriginal tribes see Sir Alfred Lyall : Asiatic Studies. Here in the year 1550 the aboriginal tribe of the great leader. pp. such tendencies towards Islamism may be observed. and offers to that him a grade of society equal in the social scale to from which he has been banished. and by the society in which he has been accustomed to move. castes of The in the insults upon the lower Hindus by their and the impassable obstacles placed way of any of these castes desiring to better his condition.

is much more likely to promote conversions among the Hindus generally than was the case under the rule of the Muhammadan kingdoms. in the North-Western Provinces and Oudh alone. vol. (Allahabad. if adopted by wealthy Musalmans. it has been conjectured that the present position of affairs. with the feeling that prompts a polytheist to leave no God unaddressed. too.P. and if children are born to him. but have Muhammadan killed tutors for their sons in accordance with the regulations they also have their food laid down by the law. 2. in the district of Cawnpore.i Hindus. when Hinduism gained union and strength from the constant struggle Muhammadan faqirs. 238. one branch of a large family is Muslim in obedience to the vow of their ancestor. As the contrary process cannot . vol i. or women and who have been protected their parents have died Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh.W. under a government perfectly impartial in matters religious. of the total Hindu population of these provnices) returned themselves as worshippers of Muhammadan saints.238 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Ghatam Deo Bais. lasted. who while praying for a son at the shrine of a Muhammadan saint. will present God of the Muhammadans. the whole family would in such a case (and examples are not infrequent) embrace his petition to the Islam.78 per cent. who for some reason or other have been driven out of their caste the poor who have . the number of Muhammadans is bound to increase in proportion to that of the Hindus. half his descendants should be brought up as Muslims. 64. with an aggressive enemy. pp.) saints is so common among certain low-caste that in the Census of 1891. give one instance only : in Ghatampur. 217. and a childless father. vol. 1891. xix. apparently in answer to this prayer. part i.2 Love for a Muhammadan woman is occasionally the cause of the conversion of a Hindu. Hindus. become the children ' recipients of Muhammadan when charity. saints.643 Hindus (or 5. 1894. promised that if his prayer were granted. On the other hand. Madar Shah. often flock in large numbers to the tombs of Muslim saints on the day appointed to commemorate them. Census of India. since the marriage of a Muslim woman to an unbeliever is absolutely forbidden by the Muslim law. married to a follower of the Prophet. 244. would be likely to adopt the faith of her husband. p. vi. would be brought up in the religion of their new parents and a Hindu wife. xvi. (Gazetteer of the N. and join in Muhammadan festivals dressed as and praying like true believers. 2 To pp. would probably have led to their ultimate respect con- They not only Muhammadan .) The worship of Muhammadan Hindus . empire version.333. children. Hindu take place.

. not from any conviction of its truth. leaving behind of their creed only the Chamar ploughman in the service of the Muhammadan peasants. ' p. Although the Muhammadans of this province form only one-tenth of the whole population. xxiii. out that in the villages of the Terai. may be best understood from the following passage of Some descriptive of their social condition as Hindus. their lean. striking instances of conversions from the lower castes Hindus are also found in the agricultural districts of Oudh. 1882. or deserted of 239 in famine) them— (such cases would naturally be frequent times —form a continuous though small stream of additions There are often .) Id. p. 62. black. The Hindus gradually move away from the village. fAllahabad. any increase in the predominance of the Muhammadans is invariably followed by disputes about the killing of cows and other practices offensive to Hindu feeling. 63. the weavers and leather-cutters to the rest. from the Hindus. Always on the verge of starvation. Id. in separate quarters apart from the rest of the village. These latter eventually adopt the religion of their masters. less unclean than themselves.i able to ^ local circumstances favour- it has been pointed which the number of Hindus and Muhammadans happen to be equally balanced. pp. having hardly ever the spirit to avail themselves of the remedy offered by our courts.P. or Chhattri master.-xxiv. who stand at the lowest level of Hindu society. ' ' * Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh. by Edward White. in entails. and the deliverance which conversion to Islam brings them. whose pride of caste him to touch and live with the pigs. but from the inconvenience their isolation the growth of Islam for example. and descend with their children from generation to generation as the value of an old purchase. xix.W. vol.CAUSES OF THE SPREAD OF ISLAM.'' ^ The advantages Islam holds out to such classes as the Koris and Chamars. and Oudh. these in the Many northern districts are actually bond slaves.* " The lowest of depth of misery and degradation is reached by the Koris and Chamars. 1881. i. and ill-formed Report on the Census of the N. p. still the small groups of Muhammadan cultivators form " scattered centres of revolt against the degrading oppression to which their religion hopelessly consigns these lower castes. They hold the plough for the forbids Brahman it.

and their repulsively filthy habits reflect the wretched destiny which condemns them to be lower than the beast among their fellow-men.) in number of Muhammadans (namely 70 per proportion to the whole population. A change of religion is the only means of escape open to them. The first Muhammadan king Kashmir. a fugitive from his native city of Hamadan in Persia. But the evidence leads us to attribute on the whole to a long-continued missionary and carried out mainly by faqirs were Isma'ilian preachers sent from Alamut. and they have little reason to be faithful to their present creed. and yet that they are far from incapable of improvement is proved by the active and useful stable servants drawn from among them. He was accompanied by 700 Sayyids. their THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. among whom made of difficult to say when this Islamising influence first felt in the country. almost entirely of Hindu or Thibetan all origin. Sadru-d Din. Of all the provinces and states of India (with the exception of Sind) Kashmir contains the largest cent. Their advent appears.240 figures.i It itself is movement inaugurated and dervishes. but unfortunately that should explain the existence in this state of historical facts so many Musalmans. some account still remains to be given of the spread of this faith in Kashmir and thence beyond the borders of India into Thibet. said to have owed his conversion to a certain Darwesh Bulbul Shah in the early part of the fourteenth century. to have also faith own Hindu stirred up considerable fanaticism. however. where he had incurred the wrath of Timur. when dissatisfied with his he looked for a more acceptable form of doctrine. and enables to win so many converts from Hinduism. 141. ' as Sultan Sikandar (1393-1417) Khoja Vrtlant. . is. who receive good pay and live well under European masters. Towards the end of the same century (in 1388) the progress of Islam was most materially furthered by the advent of Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani. To complete this survey of Islam in India." It is this absence of class prejudices which constitutes the it real strength of Islam in India. This saint was the only religious teacher who could satisfy his craving for religious truth. stupid faces. it are very scanty. who established hermitages all over the country and by their influence appear to have assured the acceptance of the new religion. p.

Cunningham These facts were communicated to me by a Thibetan Lama from Lhasa. p. To the north-east. 58. p. F. and his prime minister. settlements of in Lhasa they number marry Thibetan wives who often adopt they the religion of their husbands but active efforts at conversion cannot be made from fear of the authorities. a converted Hindu. ' Drew: The Jummoo and Kashmir : Territories. set on foot a fierce persecution of the adherents of his old faith. large won over a number of converts in Kashmir. there has Muhammadanised Rajputs. pp. Kashmir became a province of the Mughal Muhammadan influence was naturally strengthened and many men of learning came into the country.ISLAM IN KASHMIR. Islam encroaching upon Buddhism. the When under Akbar. in Skardii been a Muhammadan population for over three centuries. with the aid of his disciples. a misby name Mir Shamsu-d Din. A • . 469.^ and has been carried by the Kashmiri merchants into Thibet Proper itself. Bastiaa: Die Geschichte der Indochinesen. belohging to a Shi'ah sect. In all the chief cities. (London. but on his death toleration was again niade the rule of the kingdom. which the Mughal Emperors took on their into Kashmir we still find Rajas who are the descenor Little Thibet.) History of the Sikhs. acquired the idols 241 name of Butshikan from his destruction of Hindu and temples.) ' J.' ' Firishtah. 464. (London.^ To the north of Kashmir. Persia. Empire. D. ^ A. came from 'Iraq. 159. iv. vol. and. In the reign of miracles of a certain Aurangzeb. pp. 155. are to be found . but first the traditions are regarding the introduction of this faith here is very conflicting. the Rajput Raja of Kishtwar was converted by the Sayyid Shah Faridu-d Din and his conversion seems to have been followed and along the route progresses dants of by that of the majority of his subjects. (Leipiig. about a thousand . Towards the close of the fifteenth century.* Islam moreover has made its way into Thibet from Yunnan in China and from Kashmiri merchants .^ sionary. 1853. 17. 1866.

CHAPTER X. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM It is remarkable how little attention until very recently has been all its paid to Islam in China. historique. 17. du Halde et physique de I'Empire de la Chine. 1745. i.* Even among the general mass of the Muhammadans them: selves. speaking of a city called Sinju (the modern Siningfu). vol. i. (London. Yule's Marco Polo. pp.) Description geographique. Marco Polo speaks of the Muhammadans he met with while travelling in China. p." ^ The Jesuit missionaries and others of the latter part of seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century are Mahomet. (Paris. 39.e. but also a few Nestorian Christians. 79. IN CHINA. beyond them by Ibn Batutah. p. ii. B.) ' ' A A : . for there are not only Saracens and Idolaters. he says " In the province of Carajan (i. vol. He speaks of the hearty welcome he received as being a new-comer from the 2 Id. Collection of Voyages and Travels. Yunnan). (London. the people are of sundry kinds. but there the not infrequently make mention little of the Muhammadans in China.) Collection of Voyages and Travels. ii. very little is the account given of known of their Chinese co-religionists. 1752. vol. 241. So far back as the thirteenth century. 1735. chronologique. he says " The population is composed of Idolaters and worshippers : of some Christians. but appear to have taken to obtain information care to inquire into their history or in regarding their numbers and position the country indeed at this time the Chinese Muslims seem to have attracted very little interest in Europe. politique J. p. 76. 76. pp." ^ Again. when we consider country has how been known This neglect is long the fact of to the the more striking existence in early it this West and how was noted by European travellers. 133. who visited China about the middle of the fourteenth century. Tome i. vol.

inhabited solely by them. were to be converted into a Muhammadan empire. would. which contains at least one-third of the future. TheMusalmans be turned into a yoke in Turkistan to continually threaten the where their co-religionists are found scattered all over the country and even if these provinces were to come again under Chinese rule." ^ mosques . country of Islam special ^ 243 is and tells us that " In every town there a quarter for the Muslims. will in the end attain the . by Professor Vasil'ev. and watching for a favourable opportunity for the realisation of its hopes. 270." " If the Chinese Muhammadans were descendants of strangers who came into the country some long time ago. p. raised may be postponed for some few years only but all this while Islam will or perhaps at most for a century continue to make progress. the political relations of the whole East would be considerably notice of the world." and Zungaria will certainly not Chinese Empire. ' Tome iv. the been hitherto so unsuspected. climax about twenty years ago. human race. on the Chinese Muhammadans. would Islam be the weaker for it or The question we have its spread and development be checked ? suppose. in Russian. in the hands of fanatics. he seems to think. drew an alarmist picture of the danger that threatened the civilisation of Europe from the presence of this existence of which had vast Muhammadan population. Islam might and would again threaten Christendom. is destined to be the national faith of the China of the " If China. brought the existence of a large Muslim population in China forcibly to the two very remarkable works were published The one. for ten. Pacific The world of Islam stretching from Gibraltar to the lift Ocean might once again Chinese people which is up its head. 258. and whose religion. : : goal of its aspirations.HISTORY OF ISLAM IN CHINA. R 1 . where they have their the Chinese. we should have no concern with the question as to whether the whole of China will one day be converted to only the Muhammadanism Muhammadanism ' : is but this very question pre-supposes that always gaining fresh adherents from among Tome iv. upon the necks of other nations. and the peaceful activity of the now " fail so profitable to the rest of the world. p. they are honoured and respected by When however which reached its the great Muhammadan rebellion in Yunnan. modified.

and then claims the allegiance of the mass of the population to its faith. 13th A. on private inquiries from learned men. 40. except where other authorities are expressly referred to.350.D. Le Mahometisme en Chine. pp. by sea from the South and by land from the North-west. on imperial decrees relating to them. late Consul General and of the reigning dynasty. will it meet with a refusal ? We think not.) Sha'ban— 26th Shawwal. The main features of M. •" •Kan-suh to the other Chinese. It is in the Northwest. de Thiersant's volumes have recently received a very remarkable confirmation from a Chinese Musal- man himself. nil.) .41. who in this province are. 1878. for such a change will seem infinitely easier to the Chinese than the change of costume which took place on the accession One is naturally led to inquire what such startling conclusions and the fullest account of the facts on which they are based is to be found in the work ' of M. who has written an exhaustive account of the Chinese Musalmans. whUe in Shen-si (De Thiersant. 3 (Paris. 1894. in there are 6. Chargd d'Affaires in China.500.) Thamaratu-1 Funun. us now authorities for the history of turn to the facts of this history them- Islam came into China from two directions. and in Cairo in 1894 who he was interviewed by the representative of an Arabic journal. relatively the proportion of six to five or four. if Islam some day succeeds in establishing its political supremacy over China. and we may therefore well inquire whether the progress it is making will ever stop." i authority there is for . 17. has published the conversations that ensued on these occasions.000. 3.^ From selves. pp.244 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. Dabry de Thiersant. this brief sketch of the let Islam in China. A. P. that the facts contained in the present chapter have been drawn. and it is from this work. With his brother he visited Turkey and other parts of the Muhammadan world. No book has ever been published in which the subject of Islam in China has been treated with such fulness of detail and such a wealth of information. a native of Yunnan and son of a Chinese governor. 14.H. 5." " Again.' that by far the majority—both ' numerically and proportionately — of the Mu- Vasil'ev.000 Musalmans. contains 8. Tome i. the natives of the country. named Sayyid Sulayman. in the provinces of Kan-suh and Shen-si. (Bayrut. and other sources. based on their own historical and liturgical literature.

Qutaybah ibn Muslim. the famous Arab general. Dr. A and the Archimandrite Palladius between three and four millions.M. 1867. but the first occasion mentioned of diplomatic relations being established between them is after the death of Caliphate Yazdagird. Wilfrid S. In the reign of Walid (705-715). soa. few years later. 26th Ramadan. 8) puts the number at fifteen millions. de Thiersant's estimate. which from Arabia was so rapidly extending its dominion over the neighbouring kingdoms. not including the people of Kashgar.! Muslim missionaries friendly relations that first made their way into this part of the Chinese Empire. 5) as low as four. (Z. it may be noticed that Mr. through Central Asia.G. in which he successivel}captured Bu^ara. Blunt (p.D. Then with his victorious army he marched eastward towards the frontier of China and the surrounding sent envoys to the Emperor. Keane. edited by Sir Richard Temple.) As an instance of the ignorance respecting the Muhammadans of China. but that he would speak on his behalf to the caliph 'Uthman. having been appointed governor of Khurasan.ISLAM IN THE NORTH-WEST. which he declares to amount to seventy millions. the Chinese annals make mention of more than one ambassador who came bringing dismissed them with a large who sum (according to of Arab historians) money in A ' This is M. more recent authority gives the number as "probably thirty mUlions. London. 578. who was received by the Emperor in 651 with similar courtesy. to the when his son Firuz appealed China to help him against his enemies. 3. xxi. ) Sayyid Sulayman says that these estimates are out of date owmg to the yearly increase in the numbers of the Muhammadan population. vol. These two provinces between them contain almost three-fourths of the twenty millions of Musalmans scattered throughout the Chinese Empire. The Emperor replied that Persia was too far distant for him to send an army. p. Arabia had been known to the Chinese as early as the second century of the Christian era. calculated from information furnished him hy Chinese officials. p. and converted Emperor of : country to Islam. 245 hammadan population is to be found." (Asia. H.) . Samarqand and other cities. in consequence of the were established in the early days of the between the Emperor of China and the new power in the West. the last king of Persia. token of homage to the Caliph. p. by A. Jessup (p. crossed the Oxus and began a series of most successful campaigns. The caliph gave a favourable reception to the imperial ambassador and on his return he was accompanied by one of the Arab generals. 1882. (Thamaratu-1 Funun.

d. at a the East. to force all his subjects to become Musalmans. about the middle of the eighth century. 581-600). the reign of the Sui emperor. The friendly relations thus established between the two powers and the stimulus given to trade must have largely facilitated the missionary activity of those most zealous propagandists of Islam.d. i. p. vol. . however.) says that "the barbarians of the West came in crowds. The Archimandrite Palladius speaks of an inscribed tablet that was discovered at Singan-fu (where also the famous Nestorian tablet was dug up). it is impossible This prince made war on all unbelievers and endeavoured to say. but it assigns an impossible date to this event. Kai-huang (a. How far the religion had spread among them. appears to have made its way into the province of Kan-suh. was converted to Islam.d. Hisham (724-743).. which at that time formed part of the Empire of the Hoey-hu (whose original home lay between the rivers Irtish and Orkhon). like a deluge. the Musalman traders. bearing the same date (742 a. Satoc. bringing as tribute their sacred books.i The details of the spread of the It new religion are very meagre. The evidence of this tablet is. other Bretschneider (i).. Transoxania and Arabia. Another embassy Emperor Sutsung by the Caliph Al Mansur in time when trade was being largely developed in presents from the Caliph was sent to the 7S7 A. ii. 266 . in the capital city of the province of Shen-si." The 742 first mosque in the North of China was built in the year A. His example was all followed by his successors ' who forbade the exercise of p. and a mandarin was appointed to look after the affairs of the Muslim community.246 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. their Khan. vol.D. and from this time onwards such embassies are frequently mentioned. annalist of this period (713-742 a. many of whom came The Chinese distance of into China from Bukhara. from a more than 3000 miles and from more than 100 the hall set apart for translations . in the imperial palace from this period the religious doctrines of these different countries were thus diffused and openly practised in the empire. which were received and deposited in of sacred or canonical books. namely. conclusive as to the early period at which Islam reached this country. kingdoms. 305. when about the middle of the tenth century.) and referring to the introduction of Islam into China.D.

1. however. 255-6. them for their strength of body and are generally selected by Khan.). kept up the practice of their example. who were transferred to the vicinity of the Great Wall during the rule of the a. marrying Chinese women. were the Uigurs (a Turkish tribe. We find peculiarities by their marriages with Chinese 1 Anderson p 162. in the police duties. At a later period these Tunganis received fresh accessions of their kindred provinces of Shen-si of Jingis and Kan-suh. settlers and the Chinese women.^ their kindred in China followed They still. he proclaimed religious throughout all his dominions. opened communication between the East and West of up a high-road of These people are said to have a special liking for Asia. Thang Marriages were encouraged between dynasty (618-907. speaking of Cral Asia to Persia in the years . and a "They had abjured Buddhism about two hundred years i. vol. pp. and when in later times these the Uigur tribe embraced Islam. artisans." Anderson. thirteenth century.i and one account ^ traces the origin of the Tungani (which in the Turki language means " a convert " and is the name given in Turkistan to the Chinese Muhammadans) to a large body of Uigurs. Among the subjects of liberty the Khan of the Hoey-hu. who he says. at the who flocked into the time when the conquests beginning of the thirteenth century. mercantile pursuits and are known in Central Asia for their comThey are distinguished from the Chinese by mercial integrity. coming originally from Khamil in Chinese Turkistan).d. " Chinese workmen are living everywhere.221-4 (Bretschneider Samarqand. which formed the base of the Ottoman Turks. 148. A great colonists. The conquests of the Mongols resulted in a vast immigration others into the Chinese of Musalman Syrians.ISLAM IN THE NORTH-WEST. vol. ' ^ Yule's Marco Polo. But in the beginning of the when Jingis Khan destroyed the kingdom of the Hoey-hu. religions 247 with the exception of Nestorian Christianity. 78. Arabs. p. others were brought in as developed into a of them settled in the country and number losing their racial populous and flourishing community. half before the conquest of China by the Tartars (1207-1217). p. where they would westward also of Chinese into the conquered come withm : the sphere of its religious we am . Persians and came as merchants. travelled through from the diary of a Chinese tnonk." nflu nee. gradually women. Ti?at Oierewal' somTmigr^ation countries of Islam. soldiers or Empire/ Some prisoners of war.) (l). the children of such unions being brought up as Muhammadans.

all the by a contemporary authority. of the present day all are a living testimony to the chief towns of Southern Mongolia the followers of the Prophet are to be found in considerable numbers in the midst of a population mainly Buddhist. The history. . 2?7. inhabitants of At the beginning Yunnan are of the said. J Id.) i. entrusted the management of the Imperial finances he died in 1270.^ China. p. a further proof of the increasing importance of the Musalmans in that he did not and Persians. (Yule's Cathay. they instituted the have continued to the present day). to . toI. who in 1244 was appointed head of the Imperial finances and allowed to farm the and Sayyid Ajal. whom behind him a reputation the very reverse of that of his predecessor. 161. Rashldu-d Din. » i. In the capital city of Peking itself there are ' Howorth.^ Up to this period the Muhammadans seemed to have been looked upon as a foreign community in China. vol. on his accession in 1259. p. being cut off from communication with their co-religionists in other countries. and was succeeded by another Muhammadan named Ahmad. leaving a high reputation for honesty. 269. to have been Musalmans. but the Muhammadan communities its efficacy. who on the other Bul^ara. Khubilay Khan.of this movement Throughout is buried in obscurity. of of any specially distinguishing features of religious faith and practice. and tried to merge themselves as much as possible in the common mass of the Chinese people.248 several THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and being anxious not to excite against themselves the suspicions of the practice (which they new dynasty. Muhammadans : also occupying high posts under the Mongol Khaqaans such were'Abdu-r Rahman. but after the expulsion of the Mongol dynasty in the latter part of the same century. The Chinese historians who praise the reign of Khubilay Khan make it a cause of complaint against this monarch hand left employ Chinese officials instead of these Turks This same potentate established at Peking an imperial college for the Hoey-hu that had embraced Islam. a native of taxes imposed upon China 1 . fourteenth century. By this time Islam had been firmly established in the North of China and slowly but surely now began to extend the sphere of its influence by means of cautious and unobtrusive avoiding the open exhibition missionary efforts. p.

^ from Peking in 1721 says. interior 'Clark Abel: Narrative of a Journey in the (London. lSg|-4. (London. vol.ISLAM IN THE NORTH 20. yet it is of consider- able historical interest. 529-30.^ The eighteenth century was signalised by a revival of missionon the part of the Muslims and an increase in the number of conversions. p. In the sixth there was a considerable trade between China and Arabia by way of Ceylon. in a great measure.i Muhammadan influence in the North-east Muslim community added numbers through the accession of Chinese Jews. on the Imperial canal south-east of Peking. which were followed by the establishment of commercial relations with the Muhammadan cities of the Tian Shan region and the Khanates of Western Turkistan. whose establishment in this country dates from a very they held employments under the Government early period and were in possession of large estates. Tome iv." See also I'Abbe Grosier. the mullas which come not from the West. which is one of the most important centres of ofChina. " Le secte des Mahometans s'etend de plus en plus. ' Vasil'ev. movement is numerically not so important. 140. 8-9. * Demetrius C.* But in addition to this stream of Muhammadan influence entering China from the North-west. 507. p. that Syria and the ports of Levant received the produce of the East. pp. but by the close of the seventeenth century a great part of them had been converted to It is interesting to note that the considerably to its : Islarn.) A . ii.) of China. Tome xix. 1818. but from Lin-tsin-chow. p. It was through Arabia. missionary writing ' Lettres edifiantes et curieuses. 249 Muhammadan families and thirteen mosques.000 of AND NORTH-WEST.^ One of the stimulating influences that contributed to this result may be found in the Chinese conquests in Central Asia and the extension of the empire towards the West. 361. thus bringing the North-west of China once again under the direct influence of ary activity the Muslim outer world. Boulger : History of China. Commercial relations by sea had been established between Arabia and China long before the birth of Muhammad. and at the beginning of the seventh the century. pp. we find another distinct Though this latter stream pouring in by sea from the South.

These strangers went every day to this temple to After having asked and obtained the Emperor's permission to reside in Canton. They are nowadays called Hoey-hoey. It once "return" and "submission. or Wang-ka-ze. Medina and several other countries.^ They had a temple called the temple of the Blessed Memory (i. 6." That these men were certainly Arabs and " also Muslims may be determined from (i. and had neither statue.e. who was the leader of this colony in Canton. but in each case is stated to have been a maternal uncle of Muhammad. as pointing to the fact that he was a Sahabi. the mother of the Prophet. Cairo.«ays that Aminah. at the commencement of the Thang dynasty (618-907). A. In their traditional accounts his name is variously given as Sarta. Tome i.2 50 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. i. Sa-ka-pa. . the details given of their habits and religious observances :— These strangers worshipped the heaven is God). Chinese Musulmans call themselves." i. of a different style to that of our country. but that the Banu Zuhrah called themselves theunclesof Muhammad. the mosque built by Wahab ibn Abi Kabshah referred to below). which was built at the comreligion of these strangers.H. is the name by which the signifies at was of their tribe. ^ De Thiersant.i arrival in The Chinese great chroniclers speak of the Canton of "a number of strangers from the kingdom of Annam. or companion of the Prophet). 184.e. bad neither brothers nor sisters. 160 feet high. of the Thang dynasty. they built magnificent houses. (this name he ' is important. p. They ^ were very rich and obeyed a chief chosen by themselves. that mention is first made of the Arabs in the Chinese annals. 19-20.e. Persia and Arabia was still further extended." It is impossible to tell with certainty (and the Chinese Muhammadans themselves can only offer conjectures on the matter). idol nor image in their temples. pp. called Kang-ta (the undecorated perform their ceremonies. The kingdom of Medina close to that of India : in this kingdom originated the which is different to that of Buddha. because Aminah ' This Bretschneider (2). century the commerce between China. the town of Siraf on the Persian Gulf being the chief emporium for the Chinese traders. It is at this period. " Husayn ibn Muljammad al Diyarbakri (vol. At the side of the temple is a large round tower.* M. return to God by the straight path and submission to the will of the Almighty. wine and they regard as unclean the flesh of any animal not killed by themselves. Cambodge. 1283) . They do not eat pork or drink mencement tower). p.

d. Around the mosque with their Chinese by their founder. and did not pray sovereign. and pillaged the principal comThe governor saved himself by fleeing . thus settled in Canton. which was first collected by the order of Abu Bakr in the eleventh or twelfth year of the Hijrah (a. history. and the right of freely professing their religion in the empire was After the accomplishment given to him and his co-religionists.ISLAM IN THE SOUTH. where his tomb is stUl an object of reverence for all the built Muhammadans little of China. 633-4). may be taken to represent the main historical In the year 628 a. At the end of the war when the governor of the capital these troops refused to return tried to compel them. he took with him a copy of the Qur'an. speedily multiplied. (a. the year of the missions). because when he set out again for China. He died on his arrival at Canton. living in perfectly friendly relations neighbours. ceived in Canton. exhausted by the fatigues of his journey. appear to their commercial interests being identical. the colony of Arab traders grew and flourished. they joined with the Arab and Persian mercial houses in the city. 6. and permission granted him to build a mosque. In 758. he returned to Arabia in 632. and was buried in one of the suburbs of the city. partly through new arrivals. but to his great grief found that the Prophet had died that same year. partly by marriage with the Chinese and by conversions from among them. of his mission. Wahab ibn Abi Kabshah was sent by the Prophet to China to carry presents to the Emperor He was graciously reand announce to him the new religion.d. He must have stayed in Arabia a short time. however. they received an important addition to their numbers in 4000 Arab soldiers who had been sent by the Caliph Al Mansur to help the Emperor Sah-Tsung in crushing a re. called in Arabian facts of his life. is said to have stood in that relationship to the Prophet and he considers that the following account.h. but for This Muslim community. for the Emperor of China. . their co-religionists. who 251 Dabry de Thiersant identifies him with Wahab ibn Abi Kabshah. merchants. their own bellion that had broken out against him. for an Arab merchant (about the middle of the ninth century) says that at that time the Muhammadans of the city of Canton had their own qadi. derived from native the legends Muhammadan sources and disentangled from among and other embellishments that have gathered round the story of their great founder. They have lived for some time as a foreign community.

^ Even in Chinese ' Vasil'ev. and could only return after obtaining from the Emperor permission for them to remain in China. only in the mosque. scattered It was probably at this time that those Muhammadan communities began to be formed. very often. adopted that policy of keeping strangers at arm's length. we find them still enjoying the utmost freedom and toleration at the hands of the Chinese government. which it has only abandoned within recent years. the Chinese government . and marrying women of the country they formed a nucleus of the Muhammadan population. mans assured from any harsh treatment this protection But was withdrawn. So long as the settlers of the native population. Isolated thus. and put on a turban as a rule. To avoid offendfellow-countrymen. p. of which mention Empire. where. which have grown to such large proportions in so many provinces of China. 15. The gradual and constant increase that has brought about this result does not seem in any way to have received any foreign assistance since the fall of the Mongol dynasty for. so long were the Chinese Musalor persecution. in ing against a superstitious prejudice on the part of the Chinese. The numbers that they have has already been made. and a friendly alliance with the Caliph served as a safeguard against the common enemy. even when the Thibetans. trade with Arabia caused the commercial interests of the Chinese to be bound up with a foreign Muhammadan power. consists in the immigrations that took place at the time of the Mongol conquests under Jingis Zhan and his successors. they also refrain from building tall minarets.252 to THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. the Muhammadan became gradually merged into the mass by their marriage with Chinese women and the adoption of Chinese habits and manners. spread nowadays throughout the whole only other important accession to their since received from outside. from that period. the ramparts. whole villages are to be met with. . Houses and lands were assigned to them with the Celestial in different cities. This is due in large measure to the skilful compromises and the careful concessions which the Muhammadans have always made to the prejudices of their In their ordinary life they are completely touch with the customs and habits prevalent around them they wear the pigtail and the ordinary dress of the Chinese. inhabited solely by Musalmans.

magistrates and in sciences such as mathematics and of astronomy. 404. the of and games of chance.) . Tome i. wear the dress prescribed to and the pigtail. and where possible. 253 where the special privilege is allowed to the Musalman of remaining unmixed.i the higher officials Muhammadan their rank. but they have also distinguished themselves in the mechanical arts No office of state is closed to . to a portrait of the Emperor. the prohibition of pork. by touching the ground three times with their Similarly all Muhammadan mandarins and other forehead. Tartary. Id. and washing of the hands before meals. 16. and the following ' Arminius Vamb^ry : Travels in Central Asia. in the temples of Confucius with only this difference. p. 247- De Thiersant.^ Similarly the writings the Chinese Muhammadans treat the works of Confucius and other Chinese classics point out the with great respect. and hereby they have succeeded in avoiding the odium with which the adherents of foreign religions. on holidays they perform the usual homage demanded from officials. such as Judaism and ChrisThey even represent their religion to their tianity are regarded. traditions of their ancestors position. has always given to its in revolt) the rest Muhammadan leges tion. funerals. Tome pp. p. and. harmony between the teachings contained therein in its and the doctrines of Islam. Thamaratu-1 Funun. whether military or civil. 1864. (28th Sha'ban. ^ (London. 372.* The China by the imperial favour shown to the Muhammadans than once stirred up a spirit of envy and government has more detraction in some of the Chinese mandarins. Not only do Muhammadan names appear in the Chinese annals as those of famous officers of state. on festival days in fact every precaution is taken by the Muslims to prevent their faith from appearing to be in opposition to the state religion. and of forming a separate body. subjects (except when same privi- and advantages as are enjoyed by the of the popula- them and as governors of and ministers of state they enjoy the confidence and respect both of the rulers and the people. soldiers.) ii. that they follow the with regard to marriages. 367. 3. p.^ The Chinese government. wine. " * Vasil'ev. long moustaches officials official in other provinces perform the rites prescribed to their .THE CHINESE MUSLIMS. tobacco. generals. Chinese fellow-countrymen as being in agreement with the teachings of Confucius. p. provinces. turn.

therefore. They are accused of disobedience. called forth by such an accusation against Muhammadans of the province of Shen-si. From among them have come civil officers. and rebellious feelings. pass their examinations sacrifices and perform the In a word. and there intend to rebel. I have discovered that there is no foundation for them. After examining these complaints and accusations. and wear a different other subjects. When the magistrates have a civil case . and what more can be asked for ? If then the men the observance of a moral Muhammadans subjects. they are true members of the great Chinese family and endeavour always to fulfil their religious. dress and manner of writing. but what a multi- tude of different dialects there are in China. and have learned to conform themselves to many and military This is highest ranks. decree of the year 1731. the precepts of our sacred books. make no distinction dress to the rest of the people. it is true their language is not the same as that of the rest of the Chinese. ter as my other subjects. to haughtiness. civil They else. to teach and the fulfilment of social and civil duties. that they should be is the free exercise of their religion. left in bear as good a charac- It is my nothing to show that they wish. In fact. whose object life. the religion followed by theMusalmans is that of their ancestors . They is These are mere matters of custom. I have received from certain officials secret complaints against the Muhammadans on the ground that their religion differs from that of the other Chinese. that they do not speak the same language.54 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. who have risen to the very the best proof that they have adopted our habits and customs. deserves quotation as exhibiting very clearly the spirit in which the Chinese the Emperors have regarded their Muhammadan subjects "In every province of the empire. continue to conduct themselves as good and loyal as my favour will be extended towards them just as much towards my other children. for many centuries past have been found a large number of Muhammadans who form part of : the people whom I I regard as my own children just as I do my between them and those who do not belong to their religion. This religion respects the fundamental basis of Government. in literature just like every one enjoined by law. which from those of the other Chinese —these are matters of absolutely no importance. and I have been asked employ severe measures against them. differ As to their temples. and political duties.

But these outbreaks are enough to show that the Chinese Muhammadans are not so politically unimportant or so unlikely to join in any united Muhammadan movement. and those who do evil shall be punished. as may be judged from an interesting report which was sent to the Emperor in the year 1783 by a " I governor of the province of Khwang-Se.TOLERATION OF THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT." ^ It must not be supposed however that the Muhammadans of China any the less form a very distinct and separate community. that have occasionally broken out between the Chinese Muhammadans and their heathen neighbours. A H. attended often with great loss of life. show how strong a bond of union exists between them. 1883. acted as one united body. the litigants." The Muhammadans of China have never yet. at least within the limits of each separate province. they should not concern themselves with my subjects. This adventurer has been arrested on a charge of vagrancy. however. still half or rather more than half of the (according to Sayyid Sulayman) wenty-six million inhabitants of this province are said at the present day to be Muhammadans. There is but one single law for all Those who do good shall be rewarded. hostile encounters. Not that this of public preaching. (London. and might bring upon the Muhammadans the charge of sedition. and such disturbances have been local and confined to individual provinces. two millions of Muhammadans are said to have been massacred. p. in spite of the care with which they avoid drawing upon themThe serious riots and selves the attention of the Government. Yunnan Panthay insurrection in the province of this revolt was crushed by the Chinese Government only after a long and bloody struggle extending over a number of years (1855-74). pp. 322. as some have supposed.^ They at the same time afford us evidence of the missionary activity which has been quietly engaged in producing and organising these diiferent communities. the religion of 253 brought before them.) ' De ^ But . of the province of Khwang-Se. Oriental Experience. (Thamaratu-1 Funiin. Tome i. It runs as follows have the honour respectfully to inform your Majesty that an adventurer named Han-Fo-Yun.) ' Sir Richard Temple. 154-6. propagandism has been carried out by the method Such a method would be attended with much danger. 21st Sha'ban. 1311. in which more than so-called in is The a case point . : Thiersant.

pp.2S6 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. confessed that for the when last ten years he had been travelling through the different provinces of the Empire in order to obtain information about his In one of his boxes were found thirty books. Some in a foreign language for I have not the others that are written in been able to understand them Chinese are very bad. to be burnt. conversions ' Dc Thieisant. Tome ii. at last confessed that the real object of his journey Muhammad. which I have sent to your Majesty desiring to know your pleasure in the matter. was to propagate the than anywhere else. their conversion is the result of the private individuals. when put to the torture. unobtrusive persuasions of similar reason. 361-3. when. that are in the possession of his family. an extravagant and ridiculous manner a Western king. : certainly do not deserve it because I have never even heard of them. For a on a large scale have seldom occurred in modern times. while others were in a language that no one here understands. Meanwhile. I would request your Majesty the stereotyped plates. in 1770. I may add. His conduct is certainly suspicious. Accordingly though a certain number of unbelievers from among the Chinese embrace Islam every year. called The above-mentioned Han-Fo-Yun. after the revolt was crushed in Zungaria. " Perhaps the above-mentioned Han-Fo-Yun is a rebel from Kan-Su. false religion taught in these books. even ridiculous on account of the exaggerated praise given in them to persons who I are certainly written . and the engravers to be arrested. some of which had been written by himself. These books praise in religion. for what was he going to do in the provinces through which he' has been travelling for the last ten years ? I intend to make a serious inquiry into to order the matter. . but the incident is sufficient to show this the dangers of any active and open propagandism. though an instance from the last century may be mentioned. as well as the authors of the*books." It is true that ^ missionary was released and the Governor censured by the Emperor. ten thousand military colonists with their families followed by many others were transplanted thither from other parts of quiet. and that he remained in the province of Shen-Si for a longer time have examined these books myself. interrogated as to his occupation.

1819. even the humblest being taught. though they have no organised system of religious propaganda. pp. 163-4. (26th Shawwal. Smith.) ^ *' . and they confidently look forward to day when Islam will be triumphant throughout the length Musalmans and breadth of the Chinese Empire. ou description Tome iv.* Islam has also gained with Every the effort is made to keep faith alive among the new converts. bring them up in the faith of Islam. (Paris. 507. p. 3.'' ' De Thiersant. 151. p. Thamaratu-1 Funun. and they of the all IN CHINA.) ° Thamaratu-1 Funun. Tome i. Tome : i. ^ To the influence of the books of the Chinese Muslims. 3. In the famine that devastated the province of Kwangtung in 1790. 257 embraced the religion Muhammadan population. p. (17th Shawwal. 39Thamaratu-r Funun. p. Tome iv. by means of metrical primers. ge'nevale de L'Abbe Grosier De la.^ Chinese succession of the are animated. p. p. too poor to support them. and finally do not allow any person to dwell among them who does not go to the mosque.METHODS OF SPREADING ISLAM China to repeople the country. often forming whole villages of these new converts. fundamental doctrines of Islam. W. surrounding ground in China because of the promptitude which the Muhammadans have repeopled provinces devastated by the various scourges so familiar to China. Chine. Anderson. secures for them a constant new converts. In times of famine they purchase children from poor parents. as many as ten thousand children are said to have been purchased in this way from parents who. Sayyid Sulayman attributes many of the conversions that are made at the present religious Thus. id. J.' Sayyid Sulayman says that the number of accessions to Islam gained in this way every year is beyond counting. the Muhammadans tend little by little to form separate Muhammadan quarters. and when they are full-grown provide them with wives and houses. yet the zealous spirit of proselytism with which the day. In the towns. were compelled by necessity to part with their starving little ones. 175. L'Abbe Grosier De la Chine. '^De Thiersant.) ' ' : cet empne. 508. p.

421. . THE SPREAD OF ISLAM The history of Islam in Africa. p. with centuries its and embracing two-thirds of this numerous and diverse tribes and races. among life the Berbers. i. whose national characteristics and the Arab exhibited so close an affinity to those of their conWhen in 703 the Berbers made their last stand against army. her countrymen in the great battle that crushed the political power of the Berbers. covering as it does a period of well-nigh thirteen vast continent.CHAPTER XI. IN AFRICA. Kahina.i After the loss ' A. . It seems however that Islam made rapid progress habits of querors. at the Springs of Kahina. impossible to give a simultaneous account in chronological order of the spread of this faith in continent. The information we possess of the spread of Islam among the heathen population of North Africa is hardly less meagre than the few facts recorded above regarding the disappearance of the Christian church. then throughout the Sudan and along the West coast. their great queen and prophetess. Miiller. it is proposed to trace its progress first among the heathen population of North Africa. fore- seeing that the fortune of battle was to turn against them. vol. of Nubia and Abyssinia have already been dealt with in a former chapter in the present chapter. and lastly along the East coast and in Cape Colony. Its relations to the different parts of the the Christian churches of Egypt and the rest of North Africa. sent her sons into the camp of the Muslim general with instructions that they were to embrace Islam_ and make common cause with the enemy she herself elected to fall fighting at the head of . presents especial difficulties in the as it is way all of systematic treatment.



1 Al Makkarl. and if.THE BERBERS. the great conqueror of Africa. p." 1 for the progress of Islam. would instantly grant them in his army. vol. and if. of their political its 359 by- independence. after understanding and making them fit to receive its sublime truths. and who looked." ^ In the caliphate of 'Umar to 11. i. first besides. is hardly credible. as if who were'of noble origin. * Weil. he would send them back to the common depot of captives belonging to the army. employ them. To these he cleansing their proposed the embracing of Islam. to be again disposed of according to the general custom of drawing out the spoil by arrows. and their conversion was a sincere one. and their conversion is expressly said to have been sincere learned Arabs and theologians were appointed. by way If they evinced of putting their abilities to trial. vol. he used to buy all those whom he conquest of Spain. and to which their prophetess had pointed them by what was virtually a submission on her part to the new faith. " to read and explain to them the sacred words of the Qur'an. and instruct them in all and every one of the duties enjoined by their new Musa. The army of twelve thousand Berbers that sailed from Africa simplicity in 711 under the command of Tariq (himself a Berber) to the was composed of recent converts to Islam. appoint them to high commands . good disposition and talents he liberty. they accepted a religion that would naturally have recommended itself so much to them.^ For the have won over centuries conversion of the Berbers was-undtrtrbtedly the work of several though the details of the spread of Islam among them . : : thought would willingly embrace Islam. though the statement that in his time not a single Berber remained unconverted. ' i. by devoting the large sums of money granted him by the Caliph 'Abdu-1 Malik to the purchase of such captives as gave promise of showing themselves worthy children " for whenever after a victory there was a number of the faith of slaves put up for sale. he then would. 583. they were converted to the best of religions. the then governor of Africa Isma'il ibn 'Abdu-llah is said them according showed no aptitude to their merits on the contrary. S 2 . showed his zeal religion. promote they for their appointments. 253. they were active young men. ^<^- P- '^^* p. the Berbers to Islam by his mild and just administration.

In the early part of this century. of the Berber tribes to join the Muslim community.26o are THE PREACHING OF unrecorded. bold enough to undertake so a mission. still ISLAM. law and other sciences. and learned in theology. pious and austere in his life. circumstances may be mentioned of this faith. a still more popular Sahara. on his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca. to an island in the River Senegal. llah fit person. Being persuaded however not to desert the work he had once undertaken. He ardently threw himself into the task of converting them to the right path and instructing them in the duties of religion but the sternness with which he rebuked their vices and sought to reform their conduct. but this faith there. and the Shi'ah missionaries who beginning of the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in the several them. way among the among them the religion had found very little acceptance and 'Abdu-llah ibn Yassin found even the professed Muslims to be very lax in their religious observances and given up to all kinds of vicious practices. and the ill-success of his mission almost drove him to abandon this stiff-necked people and devote his efforts to the conversion of the Sudan. where they founded a monastery and gave themselves up unceasingly : to devotional exercises. a the chieftain of the Lam^una. who should accompany him as a at first he found it to his benighted and ignorant tribesmen : and difficult to find a man willing to leave his scholarly retreat but at length he met in 'Abdubrave the dangers of the Sahara. The more devout-minded among the . and it is not tenth century found a ready welcome among which several of the Berber improbable that the enthusiasm with brought into tribes supported this movement of revolt may have before had looked upon the acceptthe pale of Islam many who ance of this faith as a sign of loss of political independence. sought in the pious religious centres of Northern Africa for a learned and missionary of Islam teacher. which had a probable influence on their acceptance their Arab conThe Berbers were in constant revolt against paved the way for the querors. alienated their sympathies from him. one of the Berber tribes of About the middle of the eleventh movement attracted a great many century. he retired with such disciples as his preaching had gathered around him. So far back as the ninth ibn Yassin the difficult century the preachers of Islam had made their Berbers of the Sahara and established of the Prophet.

leave persist in they repent. to whom he had Al Murabitin (the so-called Almoravides) name derived from the same root as the ribaf or monastery on his island in the Senegal. At length in between us. stung to repentance J 261 that by the thought of the wickedness had driven their holy teacher from their midst. by communicating the knowledge of to others your fellow-tribesmen. but the movement he had initiated lived after him and many heathen tribes of Berbers secured such brilliant successes to came to swell the numbers of their Muslim fellow-countrymeD embracing their religion at the same time as the cause they championed.THE BERBERS." began to exhort of God God decide own tribe and head of his followers. came humbly implore his forgiveness and receive his instructions to his island to iin the saving truths of religions. Miiller. Thus day by day disciples there gathered around I him an increasing band of whose numbers swelled at length to about a thousand. Berbers. invoke against them. ii. and accept the truth. A. may have and later on ' §alit ibn 'Abdi-1 Halim. The success that 1042 he put himself at the given the name of — — attended his warlike expeditions appeared to the tribes of the Sahara a more persuasive argument than all his preaching. pp.i improbable that the other great national movement It is not that originated among the Berber tribes. pp. and attacked the neighbouring tribes and forced the acceptance of Islam upon them. in " Go to God and threaten amend their ways : them evil peace : if they refuse and the aid until their errors and hves. but without success equally unsuccessful were the efforts of 'Abdu-llah ibn Yassin himself. and they very soon came_foxward veluntarily to embrace a faith that the arms of its adherents. 611 -613. had come for launching out upon and he called upon his followers to the revelation he had vouchsafed it show their gratitude to God for them. teach them the law If of them with His chastisement. and poured out of the Sahara over North Africa made themselves masters of Spain also. vol. 168-173. viz. and let us make war upon them Hereupon each man went to his them to repent and believe. . 'Abdu-llah ibn Yassin then recognised that the time a wider sphere of action. who left his monastery in the hope of finding the Berber chiefs more willing now to listen to his preaching. 'Abdu-Uah Tbn Yassin died in 1059. the rise of the Almohades at the beginning of the twelfth century.

1852. bearbeitet von Otto Blau. vol.d.) Chronik der Sultane von Bornu. of Timbuktu).^ Two Berber tribes. Leo Africanus.^ but the general tendency was naturally own towards an absorption of these smaller communities into the larger.E. was very fruitful in conversions and many Negroes under his rule came to know of the doctrines of Muhammad. p. 288. among of the Negroes. Their founder.h. Muslim community some of the still attracted into the tribes that stood aloof. 77. (Z D. From this period the states on the Upper Niger formed a bulwark of the faith and attained to what for those times was a high level of civilisation and culture. which expounded from point of view the fundamental doctrines of Islam. became especially ' Salih ibn 'Abdi-Uah Hallm. individual Berber^ preachers and Arab merchants had not been without influence settled among them.) * .262 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.the west towards the east. Oppel. From is the Negroes of the Sudan. 250.D. the founden Morocco (1062 A.^ Some of the Berber tribes however remained heathen up to the close of the fifteenth century. who was converted to Islam about 400 a. p. ^ Id. (1009-10 a. the Lamtuna and the Jodala. especially distinguished themselves by their religious zeal in the work of conversion. the fifteenth king of the dynasty of Sa in Sonrhay (S. popularised the sternly Unitarian tenets of this sect by means of a work in the Berber language had up to that time entitled his Tawhid or the Unity (of God).G. ° * (Ramusio. p. which was founded in 1077. i. Tom.) and was the first Muhammadan king of Sonrhay.' Timbuktu.^ with some admixture of Arab blood in their veins came and — — But even before then. Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad ibn Tumart. J22. vi. -One of the earliest was brought from and froni_them spread conversions of which we have any record is that of Sa-Ka-ssi. 11.M.* faith From the records it is we possess of the progress of the among the negroes clear that Islam the north first to the tribes of. 7. whose habitat bordered on and partly extended into the Sudan. the Sahara the knowledge of Islam first spread among The early history of this movement in obscurity : wrapped it was probably about the eleventh century that some Arab tribes or if not of pure Arab descent. pp. p. The reign of Yusuf Ibn Tashlin.) and the second Amir of the Almoravide dynasty.

< Waitz. praises the Negroes for their zeal in the performance of their devotions and in the study of the Qur'an unless one went very early to the mosque on Friday. the W. and modern travellers praise them for their industry. emigrating S. possessing horses and large herds of cattle. of Lake Chad. p.^ In his time. i. he tells us. influential as 263 students a seat of Muhammadan learning and piety. kind and hospitable manners. pp. who made their way thither after the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt in the twelfth century. a kingdom on the N." book. Having began to spread in all directions.^ These Mandingos have been among the most active missionaries of Islam. In the fourteenth century the Tungur Arabs. the grave and decorous aspect of their women. which shortly after the able importance. one of the finest races of Africa Leo Africanus 2 calls them the most civilised. iv. describes them as " a tall. Tom. 421-2. pp. so crowded was the attendance. 303. light-coloured race. ' Otto Blau. 18-19. and N. i. the one coming from the West and the other from the North-east. The merchants of Kordofan and in the Eastern Sudan generally. made their way through Bornu and Wadai to Darfur are of the : Ramusio.ISLAM IN THE SUDAN. which had been founded a century before by the Mandingos. iier. it was impossible to find a place. Tome ^ ^ Winwood Reade : . who travelled through this country in the middle of the fourteenth century.E. Moslems in religion. but also cultivating I was much pleased with their cotton.^ To the same period belongs the conversion of Kanem. the most powerful state of the Western Sudan was that of Melle or Malli. 32*.* : : Islam made its eleventh century. and and divines flocked there in large numbers attracted by the encouragement and patronage they received. and various kinds of com. and it is very probable that here two distinct streams of missionary enterprise met. vol. the most intellectual and most respected of all the Negroes. cleverness and trustworthiness. the religion soon fall descended from Arabs. Winwood Reade African Sketchcleanliness and silence of their villages. p. Ibn Batutah. ' Ibn Batutah. p. ground-nuts. and whose sway extended over adoption of Islam rose to be a state of considerall the tribes of to the borders of the Eastern Sudan Egypt and Nubia. coast of of way further west about the middle when the reigning Sultan of Bornu of the (on the Lake Chad) became a Muhammadan under the name Hami ibnu-1 Jalil. handsome. 7S. E. boast that they thus reached the very centre of Africa. which has been spread by them among the neighbouring peoples. from Tunis. Theil.

C. 1896. a choice that was ratified by the acclamation of the people. His experience of more civilised methods of government enabled him to introduce a number of reforms both into the economy of state. made him director of his household and consulted him on all occasions. Ahmad his daughter in marriage and appointed him his successor. one of their number named Ahmad met with a kind reception from the heathen king of Darfur. (C. The chief centre of Muham- madan influence at this time was the kingdom of Wadai.264 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. (London. In the same century Katsena and Kano ^ in the Hausa country came under Muhammadan rule. The civilising influences ' by this chief and his descendants were doubtless accompanied by some work of proselytism. 290-1.1 and it was not until the sixteenth or seventeenth century that Islam gained a footing in the other kingdoms lying between Kordofan and Lake Chad. Darfur only became Muhammadan through the efforts of one of its kings named Sulayman who began to reign in 1596. such as Wadai and Bagirmi. 40-2. pp. 178. but these Arab immigrants seem to have done very little for the spread of exercised their religion definitely among their heathen neighbours. H. who took a fancy to him. thereby introducing a feeling of security and contentThe king having no male heir gave ment before unknown.) Kano is said to have been founded in the middle of the tenth century twentywere heathen. and by portioning out the land among the poorer inhabitants to have put an end to the constant internal raidings. By management.n. which was founded by 'Abdu-1 Karim about 1612 A. and the Muhammadan dynasty thus instituted has con- the king's household and the government of the — tinued down to the present century. Slatin Pasha : Fire and Sword in the Sudan. : 1896. under his six immediate successors. and it is probable that Islam had gained adherents throughout the whole of the Sudan before the century drew to a close.) (London. but thenceforward all its kings have been Muhammadans. 38. ^ five of its kings : . he is said to have brought the unruly judicious chieftains into subjection. but the next was a Muhammadan. pp.) ' Oppel.* But the history of the Muhammadan propaganda in Africa during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is very slight and wholly insignificant when compared with the remarkable revival ' R. Robinson Hausaland. Kano was again under heathen rule. p.

. Towards the end of the eighteenth century. practice of saints. which is also their century. 292. . drunkenness and immorality. p. Up to that time the Fulahs had consisted of a number of small they had early embraced scattered clans living a pastoral life themselves with forming Islam. whose language most of them speak for it is taught in their schools. ' Francis Moore. i. They are more generally learned .i Influenced by the doctrines of the Wahhabis. and hitherto had contented colonies of shepherds and planters in different parts of the Sudan. prayers for the dead and the honour paid to departed and deprecated the excessive veneration of Muhammad at the same time he attacked the two prevailing sins of the Sudan. They live in hordes or clans.ISLAM IN THE SUDAN. 317. but present us with ample details of the rise and progress of several important missionary influence . p. called Pholeys (i. who were growing he denounced the powerful at the time of his visit to Mecca. (London. Their spiritual awakening owed itself to the influence of the Wahhabi reformation at the close of the last century whence it comes that in modern times we meet with some accounts of proselytising movements among the Negroes that are not quite so forbiddingly meagre as those just recounted. ' S. arose from among the Fulahs as a religious reformer and warrior-missionary. enterprises. law. Shay^ 'Uthman Danfodio. who resemble the Arabs.e. 75-7. in the than the people of Europe are in Latin for they can most of them speak it though they have a vulgar tongue called Pholey. build towns. pp. and industrious people on the Gambia in 1731 speaks of them thus: " In every kingdom and country on each side of the river are people of a tawny colour. Koelle : Polyglotta Africana. and are not Arabic. p. Fulahs). vol. represent them to be a peaceful who visited their settlements . Some powerful was needed to arouse the dormant energies of the African Muslims. whence he returned full of zeal and enthusiasm for the reformation and propagation of Islam. is in that language. Oppel. 1854) Winwood Reade. and the Koran. whose condition during the eighteenth century seems to have been almost one of religious indifference. a remarkable man. of 265 missionary activity during the present century. . From the Sudan he made the pilgrimage to Mecca. himself . 18. W. The accounts one 2 we have of them in the early part of the eighteenth .

They are seldom angry. At the same time he sent letters to the kings of Timbuktu." Danfodio united these scattered clans into one powerful kingdom.. their own. which are the assagay. As they have plenty all the Pholeys will unite to redeem him. and the lame. and I never heard them abuse one another yet this mildness does not proceed from want of courage. because the people are of a good and quiet disposition.266 subject to THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. which to this day places them among the most active of Muhammadan missionaries. led them against the heathen tribes of the Hausa country. . of food they never suffer any of their own people to want but support the old. equally with the others. and inspiring them with the religious zeal. or anything stronger than water. and so well instructed in what is just and right. and are so remarkable for their hospitality that the natives esteem it a blessing to have a Pholey town in their neighbourhood besides. and later (in . they are doubly kind to people of their own race and if they know of any of their body being made a slave. Though their humanity extends to all. The petty communities thus broken up and subdued were united under one political organisation in this way Sokoto was built and made the capital of a Muhammadan kingdom. and raise tion of all and cotton than they consume. . the blind. The conquering Fufehs spread southwards and westwards^ laying waste whole tracts of couiitry. who rule with such moderation. strict Mahometans . aii3"compelling all the tribes they conquered to embrace the faith of the Prophet. their behaviour has gained them such reputation that it is esteemed infamous for any one to treat them in an inhospitable manner. tho' they live in for if they are used ill in one nation they break their territories up their towns and remove to another. that a man who does ill is the abominaThey are very industrious and frugal. commanding them to reform their lives and those of their subjects. etc. for they are as brave as any people of Africa. that every act of government seems rather an act of the people than of one man. or he would chastise them in the name of God. Bornu. and are very expert in the use of their arms. They have chiefs of . . . This form of government is easily administered. short cutlasses. . which they sell at much more corn reasonable rates. any of the kings of the country. They are bows and arrows and even guns upon occasion and scarcely any of them will drink brandy.

a expedition his into Africa. . the conversion of the heathen.DANFODIO. on a proselytising Sea to Kossayr. stUl we have accounts of some of the movements initiated by them. but in his journey up the river he did not meet with much success until he reached Aswan fj-om this point up to Dongola. 1837) 267 Adamaua was founded on the ruins of several pagan In the Yoruba country. ' Rinn. . and numerous mosques. Their efforts during the present century. market squares.with twide streets. and the royal pomp with which he was surrounded produced an . kingdoms. which form such a prominent feature of the religious life But there has been part of Africa this — have achieved great results and though doubtless much of their work has never been recorded. of Northern Africa. much missionary work done for Islam in by men who have never taken up the sword to further their end. pp. Red among Muslim population. Danfodio is progress oftheir religion than has been furthered less by their conquests by the peaceful missionary activity with which they have followed them up. 403-4. his journey became quite a triumphant progress the Nubians hastened to join his order. The conquering Fulahs made their way westward nearly to the ocean. Such have been the members of some of the great Muhammadan religious orders. . called Ilorin. his efforts were mainly confined to enrolling members of the order to which he belonged. he made way inland to the Nile here. and at the present day four powerful Muhammadan kingdoms in Senegambia and the Sudan attest the missionary zeal of 'Uthman Danfodio. by name Muhammad 'Uthmanu-1 Amir Ghani. Of these one of the earliest in the present century owed its inception to Si Ahmad ibn Idris 1 who enjoyed a wide reputation as a religious teacher in Mecca from 1797 to 1833. Crossing the . f made of his people a nation of conquerors. and founded near its site a new city. and what more to the present purpose. and their superior civilisation The and education make them eminently fitted for this work. stirred up in them such zeal for the cause of their faith that they are among the most active propagandists of Islam in Africa. Danfodio destroyed the chief town Oyo. and was the before his death in 1835 he sent spiritual chief of the Khadriyah one of his disciples.

and before long. the troops of Muhammad 'Ali. . and took refuge in Timbuktu. the issue of which. and among these the preaching of Muhammad 'Uthman achieved a very remarkable success.268 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. where they laboured with so much success. and he sought to make his influence permanent by cohof his miracles attracted to tracting several marriages.' fifteenth century. further In the beginning of the present century the great to the east. that the recent insurrection in the Sudan under the Mahdi has been excited. The former. Rinn. pp. by emigrants from Tuat. pp. impressive effect on this people. the founder of the present dynasty of Egypt. stirred up the Qadriyah of the Sahara and the — . the Qadriyah and the Tijaniyah.. ' = Id. after his death 1853. one of the oases in the western half of the Sahara they made Walata the first organisation. was founded in the twelfth century by TSBdu-l Qadiri-1 Jilani. in the hope that their labours would assist in the pacification of the country. that his missionary work among unbelievers began. to carry on a propaganda in this newly-acquired territory. 231-3. p. carried on the work of the order he founded his name the Amir^^aniyah. and it was here. where he made a long stay. the most widespread of the religious orders of Islam. 89-91. 175. At 'Uthman left the valley of the Nile to go to Dongola Muhammad Kordofan. Many tribes in this country and about Sennaar were still pagan. Western Sudan to renewed life and energy. had begun to extend their conquests into the Eastern Sudan. and at the same time the fame him large numbers of followers. and the emissaries of the various religious orders in Egypt were encouraged by the Egyptian government. but later on their descendants were centre of their driven away from this town. (2). spiritual revival that was so profoundly influencing the Muhammadan world. learned theologians or small colonies of persons affiliated to the ' Le Cbatelier (i). said to be the most popular and most universally revered of all the and was introduced into Western Africa in the saints of Islam.^ attributed to the religious fervour their preaching In the West of Africa two orders have been especially instrumental in the spread of Islam.^ few years before this missionary tour of in — called after A Muhammad 'Uthman.

For the guiding principles that governed the life of 'Abdu-1 Qadir were love of his neighbour and toleration though kings and men of wealth showered their gifts upon him. any expressions of ill-will or whenever he spoke of the Book. on the it mountain chain that runs along the coast of Guinea. on the influence of the teacher worshippers and on the spread of education.'74- . which has gradually spread the faith of and steadily. the most promising of whom would often be sent to complete their here they might remain studies at the chief centres of the order for several years. way a leaven has been introduced into the midst of fetishsurely Islam and idolaters.^ In this way the Sudan have shown themselves true to the principles of their founder and the universal tradition of their order. These initiates formed centres of Islamic influence in the midst of a pagan population. and to pray that God might enlighten them. and isolated cases would soon grow into a little band of converts. and gradually they would over their new surroundings. and in none of his over his pupils. though by almost imperceptible degrees. and their organisation provided for a regular and continuous system of propaganda among the heathen tribes.2 The Tijaniyah. and would then return to their native place. The missionary work of this order has been entirely of a peaceful character. Qadriyah missionaries of the : books or precepts are to be found enmity towards the Christians . and has relied wholly on personal example and precept. people of the and it has been a striking characteristic of his followers in to all ages. 100-109. legists.INFLUENCE OF THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS. scribes. fully equipped for the In this work of spreading the faith among their fellow-countrymen. among whom they received a welcome as public schoolmasters : writers of amulets. R'""' P. his boundless charity kept him always poor. Up to the middle of the present century most of the schools in the Sudan were founded and conducted by teachers trained under the auspices of the Qadriyah. pp. This tolerant attitude he bequeathed as a legacy to his disciples. and even to the west of in the free state of Liberia. order 269 were to be found scattered throughout the Sudan. it was only to express his sorrow for their religious errors. belonging ' an order founded in Algiers ' Le Chatelier (2). until they had perfected their theological studies acquire influence of conversion .

llah ibn Yassin of The seed planted here by 'Abdufructified and his companions. the fame of their Jihads or religious wars has thrown into the shade the successes of the peaceful propagandist. that— as has often happened in the case of Christian missions also— conquest has opened out new fields for missionary activity. he armed his slaves. Some mention has already been made of the introduction' Islam into this part of Africa.270 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and commenced a series of proselytising expeditions against those tribes that still remained pagan about the Upper Niger and Senegal. with whom he spent several years in the study of Arabic. and. . contributed largely to the propagation of numerous schools have refrained from the faith but. The of first movements on its the part to the members order owes into inception 'Umaru-1 Haji. from the Holy City. and forcibly impressed large tracts on the minds of the faithful the existence of of country whose inhabitants still remained unconof these militant propagandist of the Tijaniyah verted. and of a commanding presence. unlike the former. to which he had made the pilgrimage three times. who had been initiated this order by a leader of the sect whose acquaintance he made in Mecca. have. He was educated by a missionary from Arabia. . short-Uved dynasties. ment in the Sudan about the and their pursued the same missionary methods as the Qadriyah. though the labours of the latter liave been more effectual towards the spread of Islam than the creation of petty. especially when they have interfered with the commercial projects or schemes of conquest of the white men. have naturally attracted the attention of Europeans more than the unobtrusive labours of the Muhammadan preacher and schoolmaster. and appears to have been a man of considerable endowments and personal influence. their establishtowards the end of the last century. He was a native of Futah Toro. since middle of the present century. and v^ith the the oasis of Al Hodh and others. On his return in the year 1854 or 1855. A traveller of the . was by continual contact with Arabs of Muhammadan merchants and teachers. they have not the sword to assist in the furtherance of their scheme appealing to . But the history of such movements possesses this importance. of conversion.000 men. The records of cam- missionary work paigns. unfortunately for a true estimate of the of Islam in Western Africa. gathered together an army of 20.

verted He finally established himself in Bambara and conmost part by violent means. 'Umaru-1 Haji in the nineteenth century found that large masses of his fellow-countrymen still clung to the idolatry and superstitions of their heathen forefathers. written by ' Tome ' Delle Navigationi di Messer Alvise da i. then turned towards the Upper Senegal and banished paganism from Segu. Blyden. where he subdued the them to Islam. loi. Muhammadan influence. which he had brought under his sway. 250 miles east of Sierra Leone. them.^ 'Umaru-1 Haji has had several successors in this method of Segu and Moassina.'UMARU-L fifteenth ) HAJI. who have imitated — —members of the leader of inforinsufficient. named Samudu. their order in stirring up the Tijaniyah to Jihad.^ But in spite of centuries of contact with Muhammadan influences.) Ramusio. 1454. to live without any of God's laws. (a. Ca da Mosto. 271 century chiefs it shameful a thing was for them. the capital Soohma country. f \ who had attempted by An yearly expeditions to reduce Arabic account of the career of Samudu. p. He was killed about 1865. leaving his sons to rule over the whole of the country between the Upper Senegal and the Niger. is But our mation respecting their petty wars for in very meagre and hands the empire of 'Umaru-1 Haji has been split up number of insignificant and petty states. . 10.d. for the extending the sphere of his own family or disciples. pointing out how teach the Negro ' would appear that these early missionaries took Muslim religion and constitution to impress the minds of these uncivilised savages. We have ampler details of a more recent movement of the same kind. He first attacked the_ From which it advantage of the imposing character of the Mandingos of Bambuk. 292-3. the law of tells how the Arabs strove to Muhammad. after an for fifty years the people of obstinate siege of several months powerful pagan tribes. and reformed several Muslim states that had become imbued with heathenish ideas. where the Bambara were still heathen. of the : Falaba had successfully resisted the attacks of the Fulah Muham- madans. and to do as the base folk did who lived without any law at all. Oppel. who at the head of a large body of zealous Muhammadans has succeeded in subduing several warlike and their into a In 1884 he captured Falaba. p. being chiefs. p. that has been set on foot in the south of Senegambia by a Mandingo.

as Qur'an and the educative and he is said to have the his message acceptfaith. they return to their idolatry. a rule. he trusts more to the influence of schools than to the sword. and a religion knowledge of this. . God conSamudu. of making able to the pagans whom he summons to the With regard to these militant it is movements of Muhammadan propagandism. ' BIyden. brave and valiant. for the Jihad. for now religion of " Know all — . h« establishes a mosque and schools. without bloodshed. Jihad of the Imam Ahmadu ferred upon him His help continually after he began the work of visiting the idolatrous pagans. and he pursued them with his horses until they submitted. a Mandingo.i 2 72 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. important to notice that it is not the military successes and territorial conquests that have most contributed to the progress of Islam in these parts for it has been pointed out . Praise be to God for In a similar way he has brought several pagan states under the influence of Muhammadan schools and teachers and administers them in accordance every town that falls with the law of the Qur'an. art. and he fought against the town. which is Islam. . us some interesting details of his This is an account of the achievements. . Though he is at the head of a large army. Nor will. which are served by duly qualified persons. Then he imposed a tribute upon them. who dwell between the sea and the It begins as follows: " . gives a native chronicler. the True. Following the Book and the Law and the Traditions." and civilisation. inviting him to submit to his government. Sindidu by name. In into his power. The Imam then collected a small force of about five hundred men. he sent messsengers to the king at that town. whose service is profitable to His people in this world and in the next but they refused to submit. the Exalted. pp. with a view of inviting them to follow the God. abandon the worship of idols and worship one God. 3S7-60. country of Wasulu. all their children are in schoolsi being taught the Qur'an. either by capture or by its voluntary submission. and the Lord helped him against them and gave him the victory over them. as the Qur'an commands on this subject but they persisted in their blindness and deafness. ye who read this that the first effort of the Imam Samudu was a town named Fulindiyah. .

i The real importance of these moveis ments in the missionary history of Islam in Western Africa the religious itself in enthusiasm they have stirred up. which has exhibited a widespread missionary. and where they have succeeded during the present century in winning large numbers of converts. unless followed up by distinctly missionary efforts they would have provedalmost wholly ineffectual in the creaition of a true This Muhammadan propaganda has spread Prophet in many parts of Guinea and 5enegambia. contribute a certain portion of their ?aint^ 1 Le Chatelier (2).THE SANUSIYAH. by the sheer force of his genius and without the shedding of blood. which the Fulahs and merchants from the Hausa country in their frequent trading expeditions have brought the knowledge of their religion.. ibn 'Ali as with the object of reforming Islam and spreading the faith. But the proselytising work of the order that is jpow to bfi desqribed has never in any way been connected with. that. 112. before his death in 1859. are but incidents in the are These Jihads. . named Sidi Muhammad . and prayers to allegiance by his successors. looked upon. They must abstain from coffee and tobacco. violence or war and has employed in the service of religion only the arts of peace and persuasion. a theocratic state. activity of a purely peaceful character among the heathen populations. the faith of the by an Algerian jurisconsult.whereby worship is to be given to God alone. to which his followers render devoted and the limits of which are every day being extended The members of this sect are bound by rigid rules to carry out to the full the precepts of the Qur'an in afcordance with the most strictly monotheistic principles. . 273 outside the limits of those fragments of the empire of 'Umaru-l Haji that have definitively remained in the hands of his successors. avoid all intercourse with Jews or Christians. In 1837 a religious society was founded Muslim community. and in spite of the successes of this momentary grandeur and the enthusiasm of his armies. he had succeeded in establishing. and pilgrimages to their tombs are absolutely interdicted. rightly modern Islamic revival and by no means characteristic of the forces and activities that have been really operative in the promulgation of Islam in Africa indeed. to. very few traces remain armed propaganda. p. the forced conversions that he made have quickly of his been forgotten. Sanusi.


to the funds of the society,


they do not give themselves

up entirely to its service, and devote all their energies to the advancement of Islam, resisting at the same time any concessions to European influences. This sect is spread over the whole of North Africa, having religious houses scattered about the country from Egypt to Morocco, and far into the interior, in the oases of the Sahara and the Sudan. The centre of its organisation is in the oasis of Jaghbub in the Libyan desert between Egypt and Tripoli, where every year hundreds of missionaries are
trained and sent out as preachers of Islam to
It is

parts of northern

to the religious house in this village that


branch establishments (which are said to be 121 in number) look for counsel and instruction in all matters that concern the

management and extension of
in a marvellous organisation

this vast theocracy,

which embraces

thousands of persons of numerous races and nations, otherwise separated from one another by vast

and worldly interests. For the success that has been achieved by the zealous and energetic
differences of geographical situation

emissaries of this association
are to be found not only

is enormous convents of the order over the north of Africa from Egypt

to Morocco, throughout the

land, but


of the order are to be
islands of the

Sudan, in Senegambia and Somalifound also in Arabia,

Mesopotamia and the
primarily a
tribes that

Malay Archipelago.i



of reform in the

midst of Islam

the Sanusiyah sect

also actively proselytising,

and several African

were previously pagan or merely nominally Muslim, have since the advent of the emissaries of this sect in their midst, become zealous adherents of the faith of the Prophet. Thus, for example, the Sanusi missionaries are labouring to convert
that portion of the Baele (a tribe inhabiting the hill country of Ennedi, E. of Borku) which is still heathen, and are communicating their own religious zeal to such other sections of the tribe

had only a very


knowledge of Islam, and were


name ^ the Tedas of Tu or Tibesti, in the Sahara, S. of Fezzan, who were likewise Muhammadans only in name when the Sanusiyah came among them, also bear witness to the success of their efforts.^ The missionaries of this
only in


Riedel (i), pp. 7, 59, 162. G. Nachtigal Sahara und Sudan, vol. Duveyrier, p. 45.


p. 175.

(Berlin, 1870-81


sect also



carry on an active propaganda in the Galla country and workers are sent thither every year from Harar, where the Sanusiyah are very strong and include among their numbers all

the chiefs in
In the

the court of the

Amir almost without


furtherance of their proselytising efforts these missionaries

and have gained large accessions to their numbers' by the purchase of slaves, who have been educated at Ja^bub and when deemed sufficiently well instructed in the tenets of the sect, enfranchised and then sent back to their native country to convert their brethren.
noticeably in

open schools, form settlements in the oases of the desert,

the case of the



Slight as these records are of the missionary labours of the

the pagan tribes of the Sudan, they are of imview of the general dearth of information regarding the spread of Islam in this part of Africa. But while documentary evidence is wanting, the Muhammadan communities dwelling in the midst of fetish-worshippers and idolaters, as representatives of a higher feith and civilisation, are a living testimony to the
portance in


labours of the Muhammadan missionaries, and on the south-western borderland of Islamic influence) present a striking contrast to the pagan tribes demoralised by the European gin traffic. This contrast has been well indicated by a modern traveller,^ in speaking of the degraded condition of " In steaming up the river (i.e. the tribes of the Lower Niger the Niger), I saw little in the first 200 miles to alter my views, for there luxuriated in congenial union fetishism, cannibalism and the gin trade. But as I left behind me the low-lying coast region, and found myself near the southern boundary of what is called the Central Sudan, I observed an ever-increasing improveproselytising

ism disappeared, fetishism followed in

ment in the appearance of the character of the native cannibalits wake, the gin trade

disappeared, while on the other hand, clothes became more voluminous and decent, cleanliness the rule, while their outward more dignified bearing still further betokened a moral
regeneration. element, an

Everything indicated a leavening of some higher element that was clearly taking a deep hold on the

Paulitschke, p. 214.


H. Duveyrier


musulmane de


Mohammed Ben

'All Es-


(Paris, 1886.) Louis Rinn : Marabouts et Khouans, pp. 481-513. ' Jo.seph Thomson (2), p. 185. ,





negro nature and making him a new man. That element you will perhaps be surprised to learn is Mahommedanism. " On passing Lokoja at the confluence of the Benue with the Niger, I left behind me the missionary outposts of Islam, and entering the Central Sudan, I found myself in a comparatively well-governed empire, teeming with a busy populace of keen traders, expert manufacturers of cloth, brass work and leather; a people, in fact, who have made enormous advances towards

In order to form a just estimate of the missionary activity
it must be borne in mind that, while on the coast and along the southern boundary of the sphere of Islamic influence, the Muhammadan missionary is the pioneer of his religion, there is still left behind him a vast field for Muslim

of Islam in Nigritia,

propaganda in the inland countries that stretch away to the north and the east, though it is long since Islam took firm root in this soil. Some sections of the Funj, the predominant Negro race of Sennaar, are partly Muhammadan and partly heathen, and Muhammadan merchants from Nubia are attempting the conversion of the latter.i It would be easy also to enumerate many
sections of the population of the

Sudan and Senegambia,


retain their heathen habits


or cover these only

with a slight veneer of Muhammadan observances even though they have been (in most cases) surrounded for centuries by the
Consequently, the remarkable zeal for missionary work that has displayed itself among the Muhamniadans of these parts during the present century, has not far to
followers of the Prophet.


in order to find abundant scope for its activity. Hence the importance, in the missionary history of Islam in this continent, of the movements of reform in the Muslim religion itself and the

revivals of religious

to which attention has been drawn above. another field for Muhammadan missionary enterprise wherein Islam finds itself confronted with a vast populife,

The West



lation stiU unconverted, in spite of the progress the Guinea Coast, in Sierra Leone and Liberia,


has made on

which last In Ashanti there was a nucleus of a Muhammadan population to be found as early as 1750 and the missionaries of Islam have laboured there ever

there are

more Muhammadans than heathen.



p. 30.3.




with slow but sure success,^ as they find a ready welcome in


country and have gained for themselves considerable influence

the court

by means of

their schools they get a hold

on the

minds of the younger generation, and there are said to be significant signs

that Islam will

become the predominant

religion in

Ashanti, as already


of the chiefs

have adopted


Dahomey and the Gold Coast, Islam is daily making fresh progress, and even when the heathen chieftains do not themselves

the influence of its missionaries,

they very frequently allow themselves to come under who know how to take advan-

tage of this
in this

Dahomey and Ashanti

ascendancy in their labours among the common are the most important kingdoms

part of the continent that are

subject to pagan rulers

and their conversion

said to be a question of a short

time only.*

Lagos there are well nigh 10,000 Muslims, and all the trading stations of the West Coast include in their populations numbers

Musalmans belonging to the superior Negro tribes, suth as the Mandingos and the Hausa. When these men come down to the cities of the coast, as they do in considerable

Fulahs, the

numbers, either as traders or to serve as troops in the armies of

European powers, they cannot


to impress


their bold

and independent bearing the
that the believers in


of the coast-land

he sees

the Qur'an are everywhere respected by European governors, officials and merchants they are not so far removed from him in race, appearance, dress or manners as to make admission into their brotherhood impossible to him, and to

him too


offered a share in their privileges

version to their faith. ^

As soon

as the

on condition of conpagan Negro, however

shows himself willing to accept the teachings at once admitted as an equal into their society, and admission into the brotherhood of Islam is not a privilege grudgingly granted, but one freely off'ered by zealous
obscure or degraded,
of the

Prophet, he


and eager proselytisers.
Lagos, over

town of

For, from the mouth of the Senegal to two thousand miles, there is said to be hardly any importance on the seaboard in which there is not at

least one mosque, with active propagandists of Islam, often working side by side with the teachers of Christianity.'




: iier Theil, p. 250. Pierre Bouche, p. 256. C. S. Salmon, p. 887.


• '

C. S. Salmon, p. 891. Blyden, p. 357Blyden, p. 202.




Authorities are not agreed as to what are the exact geographical ;i speaking Hmits to be assigned to the sphere of Islam in Africa

N. may be taken as the southern boundary of Muslim Africa, although some tribes to the north of this line still remain heathen.^ As already pointed out this southern limit has been long overpassed on the West Coast, as also on the Lower Niger, but, with the exceptions to be afterwards noted, Central Africa has been very little touched by Muslim influences. Not


but what there are

many Muhammadans

to be found in Central

Africa, particularly the settlements of the


traders that have




inland from Zanzibar

animated by


but these appear to be or no missionary zeal, and have not founded

states similar to those in the

accordance with the law of the Qur'an.
coast-land has

Sudan, organised and governed in Further east, indeed, the
since the

been under


second century of the Hijrah, but
little to

Eastern Africa (with


exception of the country of the Galla and Somali) has contributed

the missionary history of Islam.



recorded respecting the

early settlements of the

Arabs on the East Coast are very meagre according to an Arabic chronicle which the Portuguese found in Kiloa * when that town was sacked by Don Francisco d'Almeida in 1505, the first settlers were a body of Arabs who were driven into exile because they
followed the heretical teachings of a certain Zayd,* a descendant
of the Prophet, after
hSij iil


they were called Emozaydij (probably

or people

of Zayd).
'Ali, a

The Zayd here




probably Zayd ibn

grandson of Husayn and so great-grand-

son of 'Ah, ithe nephew of
a revolt

Caliph Hisham he claimed to be the

Muhammad in the reign of the Imam Mahdi and stirred up


the Shi'ah faction, but was defeated and put
(a.d. 740).


death in a.h. 122

They seem to have lived in considerable dread of the original pagan inhabitants of the country, but succeeded gradually in
For the


line in the

map, indicating the Southern

limit of


indebted to Dr. Oscar Baumann, who is well known for his explorations in German East Africa. " Situated on an island about 2° Oppel, pp. 294-7. S. of Zanzibar. * " Hum Mouro chamado Zaide, que foi neto de Hocem filho de Ale o sobrinho de Mahamed." Da Barros, Dec. i. Liv. viii. cap. iv. p. 211. • Ibn Eialdun, vol. iii. pp. 98-100.




extending their settlements along the coast, until the arrival of

band of


Persian Gulf,
three ships


who came from the Arabian side of the from the island of Bahrayn. These came in


under the leadership of seven brothers, in order to from the persecution of the king of Lasah,i a city hard by dweUing-place of their tribe. The first town they built was

Magadaxo,^ which afterwards rose to such

the Arabs of the coast.

power as to assume But the original settlers,


Emozaydij, belonging as they did to a different



being Shi'ahs, while the new-comers were Sunnis, were un-

willing to

submit to the authority of the rulers of Magadaxo, and
the interior, where they became merged into the

retired into

native population,

intermarrying with them and adopting their

manners and customs.^
and remained the most powerful city on this coast for

Magadaxo was founded about the middle of the tenth century more than seventy years, when the arrival of another expedition from the
Persian Gulf led to the establishment of a rival settlement further

seven sons of a certain Sultan

was named 'Ali, one of the Hasan of Shiraz because his mother was an Abyssinian, he was looked down upon with contempt by his brothers, whose cruel treatment of him after the death of their father, determined him to leave his native land and seek a home elsewhere. Accordingly with his wife and children and a small body of followers, he set sail from the island of Ormuz, and avoiding Magadaxo, whose inhabitants belonged to a different sectj and having heard that gold was to be found on the Zanzibar coast, he pushed on to the south and founded the city of Kiloa, where he could maintain a position of independence and be free


leader of this expedition


from the interference of his predecessors further north.*

number of Arab towns sprang up along the east Aden to the Tropic of Capricorn, on the fringe of what was called by the mediaeval Arab geographers the Whatever efforts may have been made by country of the Zanj. the Muhammadan settlers to convert the Zanj, no record of them
In this




from the Gulf of

seems to have survived.



a curious story preserved in an
pp. 247-8-


^ ' *

See Ibn BatStah. Tome Possibly a mistake for Al Has5. (to give it its Arabic name) Maqdishu. Dec. i. Liv. viii. cap. iv. pp. 2II-'.I2. J. de Barros.






pp. 224-5.



old collection of travels written probably in the early part of the tenth century, which represents Islam as having been introduced

among one

of these tribes by the king of





trading vessel was driven out of

course by a tempest in the year

922 A.D. and carried to the country of the man-eating Zanj, where the crew expected certain death. On the contrary, the king of the place received them kindly and entertained them hospitably

months, while they disposed of their merchandise onadvantageous terms but the merchants repaid his kindness with foul treachery, by seizing him and his attendants when they came on board to bid them farewell, and then carrying them off as
for several

Oman. Some years later the same merchants were driven by a storm to the same port, where they were recognised by the natives who surrounded them in their canoes giving themselves up for lost this time, they repeated for one another
slaves to

the dead. They were taken before the king, they discovered to their surprise and confusion to be the same they had so shamefully treated some years before. Instead,

the prayers for


however, of taking vengeance upon them for their treacherous conduct, he spared their lives and allowed them to sell their goods, but rejected with scorn the rich presents they offered. Before they left, one of the party ventured to ask the king to tell the story of his escape. He described how he had been taken as

a slave to Basrah to Islam

and thence to Baghdad, where he was converted' and instructed in the faith escaping from his master,

he joined a caravan of pilgrims going to Mecca, and after performing the prescribed rites, reached Cairo and made his way up the Nile in the direction of his own country, which he reached at length after encountering many dangers and having been more than once enslaved. Restored once again to his kingdom, he taught his people the faith of Islam " and now I rejoice in that God hath given to me and to my people the knowledge of Islam and the true faith to no other in the land of the Zanj hath this grace been vouchsafed and it is because you have been the



cause of my conversion, that I pardon you. Tell the Muslims that they may come to our country, and that Muslims like themselves—V(fill treat them as brothers." 1


d,.r nih^'^l'^f,' a'"' cler l^ith. pp. 51-60.

^t"^/" ^^l^ f ^' (Leiden, 1883.)

Merveilles de I'Inde, public par P.A. van ^



From the same source we


learn that even at this early period, was frequented by large numbers of Arab traders,

yet in spite of centuries of intercourse

with the followers of Islam,
the exception of the

the original inhabitants of this coast (with

have been remarkably little influenced by this religion. Even before the Portuguese conquests of the sixteenth century, what few conversions had been made, seem to have been wholly confined to the sea-border, and even after the decline of Portuguese influence in this part of the wor]d, and the restoration of Arab rule under the Sayyids of Oman, hardly any efforts have been made to spread the knowledge of Islam among the tribes of As a the interior, with the exception of the Galla and Somali. modern traveller has said " During the three expeditions which r cotiducted in East Central Africa I saw nothing to suggest


as a civilising



living force

might be in the religion remained latent.
descendants, in these parts


Arabs, or their

were not propagandists.

There were

no missionaries to preach Islam, and the natives of Muscat were
content that their slaves should conform, to a certain extent, to
the forms of the religion.



the East African tribes,


remain Their inaptitude for civilisation was ignorance. in happy strikmgly shown in the strange fact that five hundred years of contact with semi-civilised people had left them without the faintest reflection of the higher traits which characterised their neighbours not a single good seed during all these years had Given up wholly to the pursuits of struck root and flourished." 1 commerce or to slave-hunting, the Arabs in Eastern Africa have
indeed, in their gross darkness,

were evidently content

exhibited a



promoting the

interests of their


in striking contrast to the missionary zeal displayed

by their co-religionists in other parts of Africa.^ One powerful obstacle, however, in the way of the progress of Islam among most of the tribes of East Equatorial Africa, is doubtless the

remarkable lack of religious sentiment which characterises them. For further north, in Uganda, the inhabitants of which are not
in Central Africa, by Joseph Thomson, p. 877. Islam is still however gaining ground in German East Africa among the people whom Swahih of Bondei and the Wadigo (a little inland from the coast), among (Oscar Baumann schoolmasters carry on a lively and successful mission work. Usambara und seine Nachbargebiete, pp. 141, IS3-) (Berlin, 1891.)




After settling ip' Abyssinia they soon became naturalised there. 2nd ed. 330) however supposes them to is given of their religion. ausgefiihrt in den Jahren 1837. with the exception of those tribes immediately bordering on Abyssinia. 106. In the century. 1858. are said to have been forcibly baptised into the Christian the absence of any political power in the hands of the Muham- madans precludes the been made possibility of any converts to Islam having last in a similar fashion.i at the time of their incursion into the country and the majority of them remain so to the present day. with the generic .) p. but on the missionaries of Islam have met with striking success. manners and customs of the cipal clans. Tome x.) p. Islam has been more successful among the Galla and the Somali. L. Geschichte der Galla. A — — A . Krapf : Reisen in Ost-Africa. (London. Text und Ubersetzung hrsg. 1893) seems certainly to represent them as heathen. the influences. have been Muhammadan at the time of their invasion. those to the east and west chiefly pagans. von. p. Schleichler — (Berlin. Bericht eines abessinischen Mbnches iiber die Invasion der Galla in sechzehnten Jahrhundert. the who have been recently forced late king of that country to accept Christianity. A. those in the Muhammadans. plains the Muhammadans are in a minority. vol. 1805. 243. and their teaching has found a rapidly increasing acceptance during the present century. Among is the Galla tribes of the true Galla the population partly Muhammadan and by the partly heathen. * I.^ More recent information points to a further increase in the number of the followers of the Prophet. 309. (Edinburgh. ' Reclus. 1S14. W. 299. who visited the petty kingdom ' contemporary Ethiopic account of these tribes. vol. and in many instances adopted the language. Antonio Cecchi. ^ Henry Salt : Voyage to Abyssinia. (Kornthal. though no detailed account Reclus (Tome x.) ^ James Bruce : Travels to discover the source of the Nile. p. were probably heathen original inhabitants of the country.55.^ The story of their conversion is obscure : while some of them faith.^ Among the mountains.* country. i. and as they are said to be " very fanatical. p. Mention has already been made of the Galla settlements Abyssinia : in these immigrants. iii. Arabs from Zanzibar have succeeded in gaining some converts to Islam." we may presume that south were said to be mostly they are by no means half-hearted or lukewarm in their adherence to this religion. all who are divided into seven prinname of Wollo-Galla.282 similarly THE PREACHING OF insensible to religious ISLAM.

) ^ Da Zeila alle frontiere del Caffa. 103. I'astuzia e la plena conoscenra della lingua. cui non facevano difetto i (Op. which they knew well how to avail themselves of. kingdoms and by the people have also is still part of the common it been. or even once in two years. iv. ^ — have achieved a continuous success. vi. won over new faith. iv. 160. the Lega. 1886-7.THE GALLA. 9° to 9° 30' and lat. 102. have been crowned with very little success. 103 . 342. viz. vol. p. ofLimmu who for 283 in 1878. 34° 35' to 35°. though winning for Christianity a few converts. not only I. * . p. portato da centinaja di preti e mercanti musulmani. vol. ii. iv. Cecchi says : "di ci6 si deve ricercare la causa nello espandersi che face quaggiii in questi ultimi anni I'islamismo. and lived all the rest of the time in the Galla country. ii. p. and have now pushed their way far to the south. and have lately crossed the Wabi river. and making progress among them.^ missionaries from Europe. but all my countrymen might have embraced your religion .) mezzi. ^ Reclus. 343. whose efforts. for the work of propagating Islam. p. E.) Massaja. Speaking of the failure of Christian missions.! thg father of the reigning chieftain. ' The Lega are found in long. of their courts to the His example was followed by the chiefs of the neighbouring Galla ofiicers . cit. vol. p. p. p. inasmuch as they found them a market for the commercial products of the country and imported objects of As they made their journeys foreign manufacture in exchange. Abba B^hibi) said to them "Had you come thirty years ago. but among the most westerly of them. vol. and wherever they set their foot they were sure in a short space of time to gain a large number Islam has here come in conflict with Christian of proselytes. they had plenty of opportunities. ' Tome xiii. Massaja.^ The majority of the Galla tribes dwelling in the west of the Galla country are still heathen. but now it is impossible.'' the old nature worship appears to be on the decHne and the growing influence of the Muslim missionaries missionaries makes it probable that within a few years the Lega ' When the Roman Catholics opened a mission among the Gallas in 1846. but the greater part cling firmly to their ancient These traders received a ready welcome at the courts of cult. Id. ^ (Rome. vol. 834.'' : (Massaja. p.* —even the converts of Cardinal Massaja (after he was expelled from these parts) either embraced Islam or ended bjwhereas the Muslim believing neither in Christ nor in Allah. 10. vol.^ the Galla chiefs. to the coast once a year only. by Muhammadans some years had been pushing their proselytising efforts in this country in the guise of traders. gives an account of the conversion of Abba Baghibo.

A curious little book published and written in Arabic characters was published in Constantinople in 1877 by the Turkish minister of educatiorij to serve as a handbook of the principles of the Muslim faith. i. Documents sur I'histoire. from Arabia every year. No. de Nederlandsche Spectator.* In order to complete this survey of Islam in Africa. viz. 51. (Overgedrukt . : (London. 330-1.d.^ The close proximity of the Somali country to Arabia must have caused it very early to have been the scene of Muhammadan missionary labours. 1856.i The North-East Africa of the present day presents indeed the spectacle of a remarkably energetic and zealous missionary activity on the part Several hundreds of missionaries come of the Muhammadans. and thence dispersed over the Somali country to preach Islam. The Somalis of the north have a tradition of a certain Arab of noble birth who. pp. who were brought here by the Dutch ^ either in the Coast Colony. in Cape These Muhammadans of the Cape are descendants of Malays. but of these unfortunately little record seems to have survived. 399. Burton The Cape ^ uit M. p. crossed the sea to Adel. made his way to the city of Harar about 1430 a. it remains only to draw attention to the fact that this religion has also made its entrance into the extreme south of this continent. 1856. (Paris. Tome p.) of Good Hope was in the possession of the Dutch from 1652 to restored to them after the Peace of Amiens in 1802. with a considerable admixture of Arabic. who are said to have sat there in solemn conclave before scattering far and wide to the work of conversion. and gained many converts there.* The in this dialect ' ' Reclus. ^ Paulitschke. have entered into the pale of Islam. pp. la g^ographie et le commerce de I'Affique Orientale. Guillain. and his tomb is still honoured in . and some English and Malay words. Deuxi^me Partie. Shay^i Ibrahim Abu Zarbay. i88i. de Goeje Mohammedaansche Propaganda.) ^ First Footprints in East Africa. A hill near Berberah is still called the Mount of their forefathers. F.^ Saint's in among memory of these missionaries.that' city. 76. where he preached the faith of Islam forty-four In the fifteenth century a band of Arabs came as missionaries from Hadramawt. compelled to flee his own country.) : 2. and they have been even more successful in their labours among the Somali than among the Galla. J. Tome x. 6. recueillis par M.. One of them. pp. it was re-occupied by '795 . 4104. they speak a corrupt form of the Boer dialect. the British as soon as war broke out again * * R. seventeenth or eighteenth century . landing at Berberah on the Red Sea. 350.284 will all THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.

5 Travels in the Interior of Africa. p. and though Islam has :Often taken the sword as an instrument to further its spiritual conquests. ad/n. vol. (Revue Chretienne. and more attention life is now paid by them to education. thoroughly 285 Dutch names that some of them bear. Snouck Hurgronje (3). 1834. are also said to be propagandists of Islam. ^ Jacques Bonzon Les Missionaires de I'lslam en Afrique. countries.! or even by their have co-religionists until recently ithey but during the last thirty years have been visited by some zealous Musalmans from other . pp 296-7. i. or at least that they have in their veins They have also gained a considerable admixture of Dutch blood. proThe words of the jected for the extermination of the infidel. chap. ii. special Every year some of them make the pilgrimage to Mecca.The Indian coolies that come to work in the diamond it fields of South j^frica . (London. and a deeper religious has been stirred up among them. point to the probability that they persons of at some time received into their community some Dutch birth. : : Tomexiii. some converts from among the Hottentots.) < Richard F. and the erection fire Muhammadan states on the ruins of pagan kingdoms. Campell.THE SOMALI. . See William Adams The Modern Voyager and Traveller. Very little notice has been taken of them by European travellers.. and the type efface observable in many of them. and peaceful the preacher has followed the perfect work of conversion. xxv. such an appeal to violence and bloodshed has in most cases been preceded by the peaceful efforts of the missionary. where a Shay^ has been appointed to look after them. vol. Burton (i). i. 295.) ^ C. 256. vol. p. and we message that Mungo Park ^ gives us as having find an echo in the been sent by the Muslim King of Futah Toro to his pagan >palace of : : ' Attention was drawn to tliem ini8i4 by a Mr. It is conqueror to complete the imtrue that the success of Islam has been very largely facilitated in many parts of Africa by the worldly successes of of Muhammadan adventurers.^ historical sketch given From the above may be seen that methods have characterised on the whole the Muhammadan missionary movement in Africa. p. 1893.) (Paris. young Arab from Bornu whom Captain Burton* met in the the king of Abeokuta doubtless express the aspirations " Give those guns and of many an African Muhammadan and they will soon Islamise these dogs " -powder to us. 93. and and bloodshed have often marked the course of a Jihad. CAPE COAST COLONY.

202. and whose very profession brings him into close and immediate contact with those he would convert. ." of Damel. wandering about from place to place. Blyder. but by the former chiefly. receives honour as a man of learning sometimes. . there is the overwhelming testimony of travellers and others to the peaceful missionary preaching. too.! Wherever Islam has made it way. 1 18-120. commands the respect and confidence of the heathen people. which are sewn up in pieces of leather or cloth and tied on the arms. pp. if Damel refuses to embrace it neighbour " With this knife . vol. or at least he is in great requisition as a writer of charms. 13. and the work of conversion may still be observed in progress in many regions of the coast and the interior. have its converts been made. J. supported by the alms of the faithful that bear witness : — . or round the : ' D. the trader. Fulah or Mandingo. and in consequence of his knowledge of Islamic theology and law. which have done more for the rapid spread of Islam in modern Africa than any violent measures by the latter its opponents may indeed have been exterminated. if Damel will embrace the Mahommedan faith and with this other knife Abdulkader will cut the throat take your choice. 312. there is the Muhammadan missionary to be found bearing witness to its doctrines. to which he devotes his whole energies. who combines proselytism with the sale of his merchandise. be he Arab. lie practises medicine. . W. : Abdulkader will condescend to shave the head of Damel. p. Winwood Reade. in which he appears to be conversing with some invisible being. to whom at the same time he shows himself ready and willing to communicate his high privileges and knowledge the haji or pilgrim who has returned from Mecca full of enthusiasm for the spread of the faith. But much as Islam may have owed to the martial prowess of such fanatics as these. and quiet and persistent labours of the Muslim propagandist. — to the truth student who in the midst of their pagan neighbours the has pursued his studies at the mosque of Al Azhar . i. and disarms any possible suspicion of sinister motives such a man when he enters a pagan village soon attracts attention by his frequent ablutions and regularly recurring times of prayer and prostration. — m Cairo. texts from the Qur'an. East. and by his very assumption of intellectual and moral superiority. pp.286 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.

MUSLIM MISSIONARIES neck. and some who even make their way on foot from the far distant West Coast when they have jurisfinished their courses of study in Muslim theology and flock to it — . p. as a condition of success the obligation always imposed them of bringing up their future children as Muhammadans.J. where the people respect as them the a medium between themselves and Heaven. their services are in great demand. 254. April. but also in the pagan villages which they establish their schools. from Darfur. but if Islam may be said to possess a missionary college. It ^ L Sid to work in the Tripolis every year Aft°oVer a thousand missionaries of Islam leave (Paulitschke. not only hostile to each other.^ Many . Students from all parts of the Muslim world. pp. the subordinate chiefs being regarded as their inferiors in point of dignity: in those states in which the Qur'an is made the rule of governand respect fill in Darfur the offices of government ment in order to all civil matters. prudence. is apply for these charms. necessities. there are many of them who become missionaries ' Bishop Crowther on Islam in Western Africa. in its interpret meaning. p. the : IN AFRICA. and look upon them as either for securing or for warding off or removing supply of their of these teachers have studied in the mosques of Qayrwan. Wadai and Bornu. that they pass without molestation through the countries of chiefs. when childless women or those who have lost their children in infancy. and receive honour next to the king. In some tribes of Western Africa every village contains a lodge for their reception. Fas. : and they are treated with the utmost deference : they hold the highest rank after those among the Mandingos they who rank still higher. to in them in Muhammadan countries. it is the mosque of Al Azhar that best deserves this name. and among them students is always to be found a contingent from Negro Africa. Such deference is not only paid but engaged in actual warfare. So sacred are the persons of these teachers esteemed.^ These religious teachers. or alufas as they upon are variously termed. or marabuts. 112-13. (Church Missionary Intdli- gencer. the instructors of their children. . Tripolis ^ and other centres of Muslim learning calamities. 287 and which he can turn to account as a means of adding to number of his converts for instance. 1888. East.) ' D. are held in the highest estimation. 331Sudan.

footing. (Jlai. which are frequented by the pagan as well as the Muslim They are taught to read the Qur'an. THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. his influence becomes firmly rooted and permanent.025 students on the rolls. if not of a dominant This seems the real secret of the success of the Moslem caste. 341. from 'Mohammed's - Religion. and so in the most natural manner he gradually causes . visited Cairo the doctrines and ceremonies of Islam. It is great and rapid as regards numbers. is sure of shelter. In this he is aided by of life are similar in many respects to their own. in. for the simple reason that the Moslem missionary. pf students at this college shows a constant increase. people the among whom he has come to fact that his habits and manner is not slow to obtain great influence over the live. 144.288 . Wherever a Moslem house can be found there the negro convert who can repeat the dozen syllables of his creed. et Annalei de I'Extreme Orient de I'. being thus received into their social system. p. and in his own country he finds himself at once a member of an influential. about 1838 their number was so low as 500. together with the religion of the Prophet. Thus " among ^he uncivilised negro tribes the missionary may be always sure of a ready audience he can not only give them many truths regarding God and man which make their way to the heart and eley^te the intellect. sustenance and advice. and instructed in children. but since then there has been a gradual rise. which is a passport for protection and assistance from the Atlantic to the WaJL of China. and a share in the advantages of this material civilisation is ofiered. Dollinger 1 Whep Dr. 1884. of admission to a social and political communion.) . but he can at once communicate the Shibboleth. The number among the heathen pqpulation of their native land. and of communication with great Muhammadan trading centres such as Segu and Kano. the Having thus gained a Muhammadan is missionary. nor he looked upon with suspicion.884 there were as many as 12. by his superior knowledge and attainments.^ Schools are estabhshed by these missionaries in the towns -they visit.Vfrique. asmuch as the trader has already prepared the way [for him and by intermarriage with the natives. : Muhammadan missionaries in West Africa. p.the knowledge of Islam to spread among them. and in . The arrival of the in a pagan country is also the beginning of the opening up of a more extensive trade.

London.SUCCESS OF MUSLIM MISSIONS. De des noirs. le n&gre enthousiasm6 se livre apr^s un Africam. a case was menSociety of London. as has been unhappily too often the the Negro According to Muhammadan tradition case in Christendom. and the Christian missionary. before the Anthropological In a very interesting. L'islam et le christianisme en Afrique d (I'ans. 105. too.sement du pastorat indigene. 1865.. 18-24. ' Sir Bartle ' • .. pp. I»S». p. The progress of Islam in Negritia has no doubt been materially f ' advanced by this absence of any feeling of repulsion indeed Islam seems never to have treated towards the Negro as an inferior.i.:_ 1. trouvent un acc^s facile pological Society of k I'islam. . it shall come forth white.. handed expert enchanter. The nobles of Pharaoh's " (vii. pp..„. . is interesting as evidence of Muhammadan feeling with regard to H Frere (i). . .1. Blyden. debate Savages. 207. . E..: .289 very first profession of the convert's belief.' — : ! ! : ' down to us from the golden period of the 'Abbasid dynasty. ) possible. The foUowing story also. . to note that neither his colour nor his race in any way prejudice the Negro in the eyes of his new co- religionists. W.. * . as r God. 18-19. 63= annee.» haw que decetie religion." corps et ame au service Alors. tellement basse „ „„„ „io. 23). " (xx. Journal des Missions Evangiiiques. .' • U . on the Efforts of Missionaries among married a negress : the feeling tioned of a Christian mis. but unhurt :— another sign " Then drew he forth his hand. the . iii. 6). les pr^tres chez les paiens et les convertissent I'interieur de I'Afrique. which Islam shares with Christianity and a general rule more speedily and decidedly than good evidence of a converted heart before bound to require he gives the right hand of Christian fellowship. but nowf orgotten.." ^ important.ionary in Africa who The had to leave the colony against him in consequence was so strong that he (Journal of the AnthroMuslim missionary labours under no such disadvantage. vol. and lo it was white to the beVerily this is an people said holders.) Islam present themThe contrast between the way in which ChnsUanity and who is himself a Negro. et le christianisme " "•> ^ regardent 1 islam sorte qu'aujourdhui les n^gres comme la religion des blancs. he does this. who generally feels the black It is heathen as slave. and who has always to contend with race prejudices not likely to die out in a single generation where the white Christian has for generations been known as master.^ Moses was a black man. acts practically on all those principles believers before regarding the equality and brotherhood of . — comme la religion Le christianisme. as may be seen from the following " Now draw thy hand close to thy side passages in the Qur'an. in the selves to the African is well brought out by one i une epoque mdefinie foUowing passage :— " Tandis que les missions renvoient musulmans pen^trent dans l'^tabU.

moral and material progress of a Negro tribe. helps very largely to explain the success of this faith.' nature. my mind is fair. i. acceptance of Islam does imply an advance in civilisation and is a very distinct step in the intellectual. Natives who have hitheirto lived in a state — — ' Ibn Khallikan. too. doubtless the ready admission they receive. . the slave of of Banu-1 Hashas the family of Hashas can supply. p. by his verses." in a serious : : you mood. pre- vailed at one time over the whole of Africa. : ! then spoke these verses " Blackness of skin cannot degrade an ingenious mind.). but was defeated and forgiven by Al Ma'mun. or lessen the worth of the scholar and the wit. my soul. He thus describes his interview with the Caliph :— said to me on my going to see him after having Is it thou who art the Negro Khalifah ? to pardon obtained I am he whom Commander of the faithful which I replied thou hast deigned to pardon and it has been said by the slave " When men extol their worth. is free To this Al Ma'mun replied " Uncle a jest of mine has put " Al Ma'mun : — — : ' : ' ' ! . the defect of birth and fortune. not far from the Gold Coast and from our own settlements cannibalism and human sacrifice and the burial of living infants disappear at once and for ever. Let darkness claim the colour of your body I claim as mine your fair and candid soul." He So that the converted Negro any at once takes an equal place It is in the brotherhood of believers." Though I be a slave. there is reason to believe. had proclaimed himself Caliph at Bagdad. The forces arrayed on its side are so powerful and ascendant. neither his colour nor his race nor associations of the past standing in the way. that makes the pagan Negroes willing to enter into a religious society whose higher civilisation demands that they should give up many of their old barbarous at the same time the very fact that the. Ibrahim.290 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. ignorance and superstition which it seeks to sweep resistance. through its noble though my body be dark.D. . 18. habits and customs . and which are still to be found in many parts of it. who was then reigning (819 A. vol. is admirably expressed in the foUbwihg away have words: worst evils which. son of a negress. that the barbarism. What The the Negro " little chance of making a lengthened the civilisation of Muslim Africa implies to convert. a brother of Harunu-r Rashid and the the Negro. and those.

omnipresent." " Extracts from the Koran form the earliest reading lessons of children. portions of Aristotle and Plato translated into Arabic. books have been translated Schools also Irom the Arabic. the Psalms of David. omniscient. . . which they call Torat Mousa They also preserve Zabour Dawidi . with the increase of energy and nations into empires. and even if they only teach their scholars to recite the Koran. 580. some of them They have also very frequently the Arabic beautiful' specimens of caligraphy. and. If the warlike spirit from which war springs are fewer War is better organised. January. Dr. : : A U 2 . W. By Theodore Dwight.. and Compassionate. ' "In every Mohammedan town there is a public school and a public Ubrary. place to tribes The tribal organisation tends to give something which has a wider basis.. in which even the poor are educated at the public expense. spring up. its and of its Mecca-pointing niche. 206-7) mentions the following books as read by Muslims in Western Africa : Maqamat of Hariri. and even the Gospel of Jesus. or nearly so. and it is an ordinance which does not involve too severe a strain on their natural instincts. be Many such instances could adduced from the history of the Soudan and the adjoining hundred years. becomes the centre of the village. Condition and Character have been kept in which native languages are taught. and that frequently for ablutions are commanded in the Sacred Law. and that neatly. and the Arabic New Testament md Psalms issued by the American Bible Society. coalesce into nations. 1869. is an immeasurable advance upon anything which the native has been the ghastly fetish or Juju house. Schools of different grades have existed for centuries in various interior negro countries. 1 like those security for property and life.ISLAM AND THE NEGROES. vs^ashed before begin to wash. In other words. Blyden (p. el Indjil Isa. el version of the Pentateuch. and the commentaries and other works founded upon it furnish the principal subjects of the advanced studies. they are worth something in themselves.nakedness. of 291 . and under the provision of law. natives who have never . begin to dress.• j . public rasters and records. its Imam weekly service. instead of one God." of Negroes in Africa. intelligence. or to the works of Arabic writers. quarrels are not picked for under some form of restraint nothing there is less indiscriminate plundering and greater Elementary schools. of native languages have been reduced to writing. The worship omnipotent. Nor is the system always number conhned to the Arabic language. p. and is in number and further apart. the centres . and original works have been written in them. repeated five times a day. and in which the deserving are carried on many years through long courses of regular instruction. an Arabic version 'of Hippocrates.) •. The public library consists chiefly of different copies of the Koran. (Methodist Quarterly Review. and may be a step to much moreThe well-built and neatly-kept mosque. described by Mungo Park a century ago. with its call to prayer countries is during the last thus stimulated. Winwood Reade Savage Africa.

and serves as an introduction to literature. but manufactures involving considerable skill. a written code of law for the arbitrary a change which is. a self-respect too rarely found in their Pagan or their Christian fellow-countrymen. by R. or rather. when first they were described by European travellers. its it is admitted on is all hands that dignity. and a is elaborately organised and under their inand that of the more settled government which Islam brings in its train. 798-800. but what has Pagan even where' the conditions are very similar. a . Bosworth Smith. new Negro converts an energy. or rum. which still serve as a chief medium . with " it ? As regards the individual. (The Nineteenth Century. not the dumb trading or the elementary bartering of raw products which we know from Herodotus to have existed from the earliest times in Africa. It substitutes moreover." ^ all 1 and a which Mohammedanism in Africa. « " I am far from saying that the religion is the sole cause of all:^ commerce which fluence. an immense caprice of a chieftain — advance in civilisation. taught to worship before.\ land whose very existence.) . I only say it is consistent with it. of exchange all along 'J ' the coast. a language of extra- once learned it becomes a ordinary copiousness and beauty lingua franca to the tribes of half the continent. December 1887. Climatic conditions and various other T influences co-operate towards the result Africa. nor the cowrie shells. there have arisen those great cities of Negro. in which the is Mussulman scriptures are always written. Islam gives to self-reliance. it is a literature in itself. to compare . it encourages it. The Arabic . or tobacco. this and compatative prosperity. Manufactures and commerce spring up. or gunpowder. could not but be half discredited. language. in itself. pp.J92 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.



tenth to the fifteenth century. In every instance. culties. But in spite of all diffiespecially on the part of the Spaniards. received a great impulse.C. and with varying success. so that in the middle of the eighth century Arab traders were to be found in great numbers in Canton while from the . whole of this period we find evidences of a continuous activity on the part of the Muhammadan missionaries. but solely by the force and in many cases in the face of severe opposition. from the rulers of the country. was doubtless carried thither long before by the Arab traders we have any in the early centuries of the Hijrah. At the beginning of the seventh century of the Christian the trade with China. p. hands. perfecting itheir work (more especially in the present day) wherever it has been partial or insufficient. their work had to be carried on without any patronage or furnishes us assistance of persuasion. the trade with Ceylon was wholly in their being at work. era. through Ceylon. until the arrival of the Portuguese. . It is impossible to fix the precise date of the It first introduction of Islam into the Malay Archipelago. they have prosecuted their efforts with untiring energy. in the beginning. they were undisputed masters of the trade with the East. historical notices of such influences This supposition is rendered the more probable by the knowledge we have of the extensive commerce with the In the East carried on by the Arabs from very early times. in one or other at least of the East India islands. Malay Archipelago during the last 600 years with one of the most interesting chapters in the During the story of the spread of Islam by missionary efforts. second century B.CHAPTER THE SPREAD OF ISLAM The history of the IN XII. THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. 337.i ' We Niemann.

at a very early period though no mention is made of these islands in the works of the Arab geographers earlier than the ninth century. " vXcstte p^8^: Ibn (l). . Ibn Batutah. of which traces are still Java and Sumatra. had estabhshed themselves in large numbers in the trading ports of these islands. judging from certain pecu- theology adopted by the islanders. From Ibn Batutah we learn that the Muhammadan Sultan of Samudra had entered into friendly relations with the court of Dehli.^ of these Arab and Indian ^ ^ Reinaud : Geographic d'Aboulf^da.- pp- ^' 8°- Tome iv. It is where they sowed the seed of the new to the proselytising eflForts religion. the one coming from Shiraz and the other from Ispahan. Batutah. and among the learned doctors Persia.^ Missionaries must also. too. the ports of which were frequented by merchants from Java. p. Yaman and Persia. p. Musalmans of the Archipelago belong to the Shafi'iyah sect. pp. an account is given of an Arab chief. Tome ' i. which is at the present day predominant on the Coromandel and Malabar coasts.* From India. as they did elsewhere.d. 234. '''" ^''^''''- ^°. Snouck Hurgronje 230. under the date 674 a. 8-9. or from must have come the Shi'ism. through whose hands passed the trade between the Mussalman states of India and the Malay Archipelago.3 when Ibn Batufah visited these So when we consider that the Muhammadans of the neighbouring countries belong to the Hanafiyah sect. have come to the Malay Archipelago from the south of India. there were two of Persian origin. found in whom this devout prince especially favoured. as was the case also about the liarities of Muhammadan Most of the middle of the fourteenth century parts. who from later notices is conjectured to have been the head of an Arab settlement on the west coast of : Sumatra. cccxxxix. pp.' yet in the Chinese annals. 89.^ But long before this time merchants from of the law the Deccan. therefore conjecture with tolerable certainty that they must may have established their commercial settlements on some of the islands of the Malay Archipelago. as well as from China. we can only explain the prevalence of Shafi'iyah teachings by assuming them to have been brought thither from the Malabar coast.294 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. however. Tome iv.

quoted by C. rather than as a means guise of traders towards their personal aggrandisement and the amassing of wealth. purchased slaves in order to increase their personal finally in incorporating importance. but coming simply in the they employed all their superior intelligence and civilisation in the service of their religion. p. merchants that the native find 295 Muhammadan population. ii.^ this general statement of the subsidiary means adopted by them. they gradually increased their power more and more. p. Semper. owes its existence. what was no doubt the practice of many preceding generations of to Muhammadan. They come as conquerors. traders : — " The better introduce their religion into the country. Settling in the centres of commerce. and these heathen and the slaves of their households thus formed the nucleus of a Muslim community which its members made every effort in their power to increase. married their women." 1 such the way as this that the different Muhammadan and did not settlements in social basis for Malay Archipelago laid a firm political their proselytising like efforts. and succeeded themselves among the chiefs who held the foremost rank in the state.MUSLIM MISSIONARIES IN THE ARCHIPELAGO. the Muhammadans adopted the language and many of the customs of the natives. 265. ' ' Padre Gainza. Though such a confederacy gave them great power. instrument of conversion the privileges of a superior nor did they arrogate to themselves and dominant race so as to degrade and oppress the original inhabitants. wives gives a picture of they intermarried with the people of the land. or use the sword as an . and of ensuring their freedom to those classes whose support they It must have been in some could not afford to dispense with. Crawfurd (2). which we already in the earliest historical notices of Islam in these parts. they formed a kind of confederacy among themselves and established a sort of monarchy. yet they felt the necessity of keeping on friendly terms with the old aristocracy. which they made hereditary in one family. as having numbers of slaves in their possession. let us follow in detail their proselytising efforts through With the various islands in turn. the Spanish in the sixteenth century. Since they worked together with greater ability and harmony than the natives. vol. . 67. The following description of the methods adopted by these merchant missionaries in the Philippine Islands.

who came to these shores to preach the faith of the Prophet here he made many proselytes. too. p. and that he rather effected a revival of. you must know. of whom no record has come down to us but the name of one Johan (? Jahan) Shah. in which he was subjects.Arabic title of Sri Paduka Sultan." but the hill-people were all idolaters and cannibals. Islam was the north coast of Sumatra. 60. about the middle of the twelfth century. except in the kingdom of Parlak on the north-east corner of the island. half. Veth (i). down Atjih as the traditionary founder of the : Muhammadan dynasty of have been a stranger from the West. p. is The madan consequently the Malay chronicles.i It seems very possible that the success of this mission was short-lived and that the work was not continued. has been here attributed as an added glory to the monarch who founded the greatness of Atjih and began to extend its sway over the honour of being the neighbouring country. 227. on the extreme north-west promontory of the island. by an Arab missionary named ShayMi 'Abdu-llah 'Arif so successful was the propaganda he instituted . or imparted a fresh impulse to.^ But it is not improbable that the first Muslim ruler of the state. has been handed . married a wife from among the inhabitants of the country and was hailed by them as their king. the religious life of his subjects than gave to them their first knowledge of the faith of the ' * De Hollander. vol. that by 11 77 the preaching of one of his disciples. had carried the knowledge of the faith down the west coast as There were doubtless many other far south as Priaman. one of the Malay chronicles says that it was Sultan 'All Mughayyat Shah who reigned over Atjih from 1507 first to 1522. who set the followed by his example of embracing Islam." Further. p. According to first introduced into Atjih. THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.296 Sumatra. where we should expect to find the first signs of Muhaminfluence. 8 Veth d") n 61 . who 1292. vol. where. labourers in the same field. for " this petty kingdom. since Marco is he said to : Polo. ii. under the half-Sanskrit. speaks of spent five months on the north coast of Sumatra in all the inhabitants being idolaters. nearest point of the Malay Archipelago to Arabia. Burhanu-d Din. i. is so much frequented by the Saracen merchants that they have converted the natives to the Law of Mahomet. 581. only the townspeople were Muhammadans. Yule's Marcc Polo.

and his court was frequented by poets and men of learning. ^ When Ibn Batutah visited the island in 134S. 237. — ' " Yule's Marco Polo. : was Pasuri (probably situated a little the way down the west coast). . This prince displayed all the state of Muhammadan royalty. 297 For Islam had certainly set firm foot in Sumatra long before his time. and found that they had passed it. Tome iv. vol. which were persuaded by their preaching to embrace Islam.SUMATRA. who was persuaded by Shaykh Isma'il to embrace Islam. They then proceeded northward to Lambri and then coasted round to the other side of the island and sailed as for in down the east coast as both of these places their Aru. and took the name of Maliku-s Salih. At Aru they made inquiries for Samudra. Ibn Batutah. a on the north coast of the island which seems to have been the special object of their mission. Maliku-z Zahir. Accordingly they retraced their course to Parlak. In the beginning of the fourteenth century. and in order to have a princilike city Muhammadan city and on the north coast. after leaving Malabar. ii. he found the elder of these sons. and made war on the heathen of the surrounding country until they submitted to his rule and paid tribute. and having gained fresh converts here also. Prophet. they went on to Samudra. nearly opposite Malacca. reigning at Samudra. The leader of place the party was a certain at on the island people of Shaykh Isma'il the first which they touched. fond of holding discussions with jurisconsults and theologians. Ibn Batutah gives us the names of two jurisconsults who had come thither from Persia and also of a noble who had gone on an embassy to Delhi on behalf of the king which shows that Sumatra was already in touch with several parts of the Muhammadan world.^ pality to leave to each. He married the daughter of the king of Parlak. where Marco Polo had found a Muhammadan community a few years before. by whom he had two sons. This city and the kingdom of the same name had lately been founded by a certain Mara Silu. Maliku-? Zahir was also a great general. the Sharif of Mecca sent a mission to convert the people of Sumatra. pp. he founded the also kingdom of Pasei. 245. pp. and his dominions extended for many days' journey along the coast he was a zealous and orthodox Muslim. 230-6. . and efforts were crowned with a success.

" J. xxxii.g. " Godsdienstige verschijnselen en toestanden in Oost-Indie. to 2° S. began The mission of Shaykh Isma'il and his to make its way inland. I. for a Chinese traveller who party had borne fruit visited the island in 141 3. 94. all of whom were Muslims " and very good people. 175. H.298 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. N. Islam had undoubtedly by this time made great progress in Sumatra and after having established itself along the coast. 355.) p. (Uit de koloniale verslagen van 1886 en 1887. though the majority of the inhabitants are Muslims but even these latter are very ignorant of their religion. rnd from 1° N. 343.) . of the power had by this time much declined. there are certain sections of the popula- Groeneveldt. of with some few exceptions. on the east coast. 3. vol. (De Hollander. Moor. speaks of Lambri as having a population of 1000 families. abundantly. obstacles in way Despite this of the progress of the new religion. to 2° S. still To the present day. p.^ In Central Sumatra there a large heathen population. vol.) Med." while the king and people of the kingdom of Aru were all of the same faith. others dwelling in the some living on the borders Atjih have been converted. influences. p. (Appendix. it stretched from 2° N. Ned. an ancient stronghold of Hinduism. p. but in the sixteenth century it had lost its control over the east coast.' were more accessible to foreign e.^ of the island. and still over as equator. pp. p. by their Muhammadan neighbours.* mountains of the Rau country on the ^ .i It was either about the close of the same century or in the fifteenth century. the height of its power. with the exception of a few hajis and religious teachers even among the people of Korintji who are for the most part zealous .) ^ At » ^ Marsden. i. adherents of the * faith. Zendelinggen..6. whose territory at one time extended from one shore to another. equator have likewise become Musalmans conversions of Battas are not on the east coast also who come much in contact is with Malays. the inhabitants of the Batta country are heathen. and S. that the religion of the Prophet found adherents in the great kingdom of Menangkabau. still uncommon. Islam eventually took firmer root among the of the inha- subjects of this kingdom than among the majority It is very remarkable that this the most central people of the island should have been more thoroughly converted than the inhabitants of so many other districts that bitants of the interior of the island. (18SS. on the west coast. it presented great a great part its Though the fact. Marsden.

ye. and after making tht pllg'l'Ma'ge'°to' Mecca^^ spread ^^the kaowledge of his -newly tmrfflreentn century. I whole population of this district to Islam. by a chieftain named Minak Kamala Bumi.T. I68. Ned.' In tHFe'af ly part of this century a religious revival was set on foot in Sumatra.'' however. mosques in them. • ^i!^PV^^S^. (1890. Zendelinggen. p.Simda. p. forbade prayers to saints. in a quarter of a century. whichbad accepted thSf^cmngs of the Muslim missionaries a few years befgre the dulwiof his 'Vi!lit"7"fi^e 'Re "too embraced Islam.* This religion has made considerableprogress among the Lampongs. p. id. 68. 510.) * Marsden. (Med. Uit het Koloniaal verslag van 1889.was. converted the still who Eiforts are. 55. Zendelinggen.^ The introduction speak of it of Islam into Palembang it is so closely con- nected with the history of Java. L. In 1 803 three Sumatran returned from Mecca to their native country during their : stay in the holy city they had been profoundly influenced by the for the reformation of Islam.^ In the district of Sipirok a religious teacher attached to the mosque in the town of the same name has. Med. 301.'bJsSdlaw. especially along the west coast. ' vol. tjon 299 worship the gods of their pagan ancestors. drinking and Wahhabi movement eager to introduce the gambling and all other practices contrary to the law of the ' ' ' A.Jijro«ght''^Ht<»^th«"L^ that these districts. and were now same reforms among their fellow-countrymen and to stir up in them a purer and more zealous religious life. which was not without its influence in promoting the further hajis propagation of Islam. 173. and most of their vuiages Tia. fcrmthe southern extremity of Suro^tra. mostly descendants of former slaves. that will be more proper to It when we give an account of that island.£rst. was from of of JavathatJslam^. with the exception of the Christians who are to be found there. being made towards a religious revival and the Muslim missionaries are making fresh conquests from among the heathen. Accordingly they began to preach the strict monotheism of the 'Wahhabi sect. van Hassalt.) Canne. pp. About the end I he crossed over the Strait of . xxxir. p.SUMATRA.. .^mioxig.cQURtJLymsn. but the old superstitions stui linger on in parts of the interior. to the kingflOiflWBariteh on the west coast of Java. Ned.

THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. a Qadi came from Arabia and having converted the king.nft. Liv. Da qual conversao por alii concorrerem varias na(joes. but Singapore and the southern extremity of the Peninsula seem to have received a colony in the middle of the twelfth century. comeyou lavrar esta infernl peste pela virzinhanQa de Malaca. Qa ths. Dec. They made a number of proselytes both from among and the heathen population. p. De Barros. who settled here.'' In the annals of Queda. and in the hands of unscrupulous and ambitious men the movement came lost its original character and degenerated into a savage and bloody war of conquest." (De Barros. these colonies from the heart of Sumatra settled in the interior is matter of conjecture. Moor.^Ialay. esp&ciaUyjfeiatagMigfta ngkahau.3O0 Qur'an.. pp. by the descendants of which Malacca was founded about a century later .* in spite of the likelihood that the date of so important an event would have been exactly noted (as was done in many parts of the Archipelago) by a people who.ctti0W!d. Dec.^ P "nfnsula AJ^JiiS-SiaUssliMi^ pf Ja^e«.#. i. 255. H. A Portuguese historian gives a much later date. and there is little doubt but that Islam was introduced by the Muhammadan merchants \ 't.in(. he says. 1 In 82 1 these so-called Padris into conflict with the Dutch their last stronghold Government and it was not until 1838 that was taken and their power broken. p.^4s. 241-2..) * Crawfurd (l). \ \ advantageous situation in the highway of eastern commerce it soon became a large and flourishing city. Cap. in which year.' The Malay Chronicle of Malacca assigns the conversion of this kingdom to the reign of a certain Sultan Muhammad Shah who came to the throne in 1276.ftffl^Wi»t«a. 1.) de Gentios os converteram a secta de Mahamed. namely 1388. proud of the event. its But the general character of this document makes trustworthiness ex- ceedingly doubtful. which ttrtrave'teen the most powerful is. gave him the name of Muhammad after the Prophet.J^e^i]B§ulaJJas^^ said TafcgS&iime originjto jnjgr2itio. 15. would look upon it as opening a new epoch in their history.§/B«?^iiUJlgjto'^ Malay Peninsula At what period of tile interior states of the southern part of the still receive their investiture from this place... e Guzarates. iv. pp. ii.idaB. vi. . They later their co-religionists declared a Jihad against the Battas.* From its of the Peninsula. Cap. adding Shah to it. tKe famous kingdom . I i '. 356-9. ^ '' J. (que alii vieram residir por causa do commercio. one of the northernmost of the • states Niemann.abQVe. Liv. ii. " " Estes de induzidos por os Mouros Parseos.

the Raja sent for all his jars creed. they were initiated into the doctrines of Islam. and has superseded all other religions. and silver. " My religion. and with his own hands emptied them on the ground. having come to Queda. " and that of all my subjects is that which has been handed down to us by the people of old. The Shaykh asked the Raja to assemble all his women of the fort and palace. leaving them "I pray you then. faith." " Then has your highness never heard of Islam. of the inmates of the palace. and were all broken and cut to pieces by Shay^ 'Abdu-llah with his sword and with an axe. we have a curious account of the introkingdom. p. The ShayHi was mild and courteous in his demeanour. on entering the hall. Shay^ embraced the Raja and then instructed him in the Persuaded by his teaching.1 which miraculous incidents) is as follows : A learned by name Shay^ 'Abdu-llah. When they all had come into the presence of the Raja and the Shay^." said the Raja. who. and of the Qur'an which descended from God to Muhammad. were surprised at seeing a Shay^ seated near the Raja. and idols of the palace brought out clay. The Raja explained to them the object of the ShayJ^'s coming . and wood were all heaped up in his presence. Tom. to prove their sincerity. speaks of the Queda." In a transport of holy fervour at this request. writing in 1516. after sent for his four The Raja soon aged ministers. embraced the four ministers and said that he hoped that. We all worship idols. of the 301 duction of Islam into this (divested of certain Malay Peninsula. of spirits (to which he was much addicted)." latter The that frequented the port of numerous Muhammadan merchants Barbosa. bringing with them all the idols that they were wont to worship and the idols that had been handed down by the 'Abdu-llah will instruct us also. visited the Raja and inquired what was the religion of the country. i. whereupon the four example of chiefs expressed their readiness to follow the his highness.d. if this be in the possession of the devil ? " true. about a. 1501.MALAY PENINSULA. (Ramusio." replied the Raja. " to instruct and enlighten us in this new Arab. " We hope that Shayli hearing these words. they would send for all the people to come to the audience hall. After this he had all the the idols of gold. so that he gained the hearts 'Abdu-llah . saying. and the fragments consumed in the fire. 317-) . persuasive and soft in his language.

Shayjkii 'Abdu-llah after this said to the four ministers." said the Shay^. and instructed the all the rules and observances of the faith. the name of the Raja was changed at his request to Sultan Pra Ong Mahawangsa. So mosques were erected and great drums were attached to them to be beaten to call the people to prayer on Fridays. After some consultation. all were glad to enter the pale of Islam. " What the name of your prince ? " They repUed. and erected additional small mosques in all letter A 'Abdu-llah. an Arab missionary. a less number would have been few for the duties of religion. and were initiated by him into its forms and ceremonies. name and is found in the Qur'an." I Muzlafu-1 Shah. . does not actually occur in the Qur'an as xxvi. The form to J. sent some books and a letter.. becausCj the Shay^i averred. people in ' the different villages for general convenience. now in Queda. no one was sorry at this demolition of their false gods.i it is a celebrated The Raja now considerable. and the Sultan of that countrj' and a certain Shay]^ Nuru-d Din. reference is probably paradise made shall some such passage 90 : (jj-S^ i-. The news of the conversion of the inhabitants of Queda by ShayMi 'Abdu-llah reached Atjih. So ShayH^ 'Abdu-llah redoubled his efforts. . of former days. in order that the faith of Islam may be firmly established and the people fully instructed in their duties and in the rites of the faith. who had come from Mecca. men The request was complied with and all the idols kept by the people were at that very time brought down and there destroyed and burnt to dust .V I c^ijjlj "And be brought near the pions.302 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. We have sent two religious books.. built mosques wherever the population was and directed that to each there should be attached for forty-four of the inhabitants at least as a settled congregation." ." was sent in reply by the Raja and ShayJi thanking the donors. ShayVT^ 'Abdullah continued for some time to instruct the people in the religion of Islam they flocked to him from all the coasts and districts of Queda and its vicinity. which ran as follows : —" This letter is from the Sultan of Atjih and Nuru-d Din to our brother the Sultan of Queda and ShayHi 'Abdu-llah of Yaman. " His name is " is Let us change it for one in the language of Islam.

Raja Mu'azzim These Shah. learning royal pair searched also for some maiden of the lineage of the Raja's of the country.^ Thus a Queda in 1649. daughter thus in marriage because the holy man was about to return to Baghdad. 252. whom he exhorted to be patient and slow to anger in their intercourse with their slaves and the lower orders. names had been borrowed from the Qur'an by ShayJ^ 'Abdu-llah and bestowed upon the princes. and to regard with pity all the slaves of God. are honoured by these people. James Low.77. p. a public by Lieut. century and a half elapsed before idolatry out. the keeping of the fast of Ramadan and in performing the reputation of being the . A translation of the p. Raja Muhammad Shah. vol.^ Their long intercourse with the Arabs and the Muslims of the East coast of India has made them very rigid observers of their religious duties.MALAY PENINSULA. ' pp. The religious interests of the people are pilgrimage to Mecca. vol. to be the Shay^'s But no one could be found who was willing to give his wife.-Col. 4. 'Id Newbold. The Raja and his wife to 303 were constantly with the Shay^. was completely rooted We possess the no other details of the history of the conversion of Malays of the Peninsula. and they have the most exemplary Muhammadans of the same time their constant contact with the Archipelago at the Hindus. and the read the Qur'an. Keddah annals. but in many places the graves of the Arab missionaries who first preached the faith to them. iii.-4. . 480. 'Abdu-llah were crowned with complete success. and the appointment ' of the regular village officers. The poor and It needy must not be supposed that the labours of ShaylA. Now at this time the Sultan had three sons. for we learn from the annals of Atjih that a Sultan of this country who conquered . Christians and pagans of their own country They are very strict in has made them liberal and tolerant. always considered at the same time as their temporal welfare and when a village is found to contain more than forty houses and is considered to be of a size that necessitates its organisation .74. and Raja Sulayman Shah. i. Buddhists. and only waited until he had sufficiently instructed some person to supply his place.^^ set himself to " more firmly establish the faith and destroy the houses of the Liar " or temples of idols.

* Further. pp. The preaching and promulgation of the doctrines of Islam in this island were undoubtedly for a long time entirely the result of the labours of individual mercharits or of the leaders of small colonies.304 preacher is THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 396. and we can say with tolerable certainty that while part of the history of this proselytising movement may be disentangled from legends and traditions. much of it must remain wholly unknown to us. always included among the number and a mosque is formally built and instituted. that had thrust its roots deep into the life of the country and had raised the Javanese to a high level of culture and progress expressing itself moreover in institutions and laws radically different to those Even up to the present day. H. unobtrusive labours of many in its influence acceptance of — . pp. ' J. vol. 9. Snouck Hurgronje (l). a few well-known names gain the fame and credit that belongs of right to the patient labours of their unknown predecessors. 226-9.^ j. here been converted are called Samsams and speak a language that is a mixed jargon of the languages of the two Converts are also made from among the wild tribes of people. On the contrary.2 who have the Peninsula. the quiet.i\a. Islam has on the Siamese Buddhists those . exercised considerable influence In the North where the Malay states border on Siam. Consequently the work of conversion must have proceeded very slowly. . ii. the Muslim missionaries came in contact with a Hindu civilisation. Newbold. has failed to establish itself absolutely. In the Malay Chronicle which purports to give us an account of the first preachers of the faith. We must now go back several centuries in order to follow out the history of the conversion of Java. ' ^ McNair. who having made the pilgrimage to Mecca. 106. what was undoubtedly the work of many generations and must have been carried on through many centuries. as frequently happens in popular histories. return enthusiastic for a strict observance of Muslim Law. in for Java there was no central it Muhammadan power to throw on the side of the new religion or enforce the by warlike means. p. Moor. the Muhammadan law of Arabia. even where the authority of Islam is generally predominant. is compressed within the compass of a few years and. 242. and there is still a constant struggle between the adherents of the old Malayan usages and the Hajis. p.

The first attempt to introduce Islam into Java was made by a about the close of the twelfth century. pp. vol. he fled into the jungle for fear of the king and his unbelieving subjects. of these. etc. sketch of the establishment of the island. 103. as it is proposed to give a brief. has undoubtedly a historical foundation. as is attested by the inscriptions on the tombs of the chief personages mentioned and the remains of ancient cities. and was by them converted to Islam. 143Raffles (ed. a state in the western part of the island. though of i contradictions and fables. and we On his . with the caution ascribing above mentioned against too much efficacy to the proselytising efforts of individuals. and of those who came in But failing such larger knowledge. the elder brother fell in with some merchants. 183. the elder chose to follow the profession of left two sons native of the island . these missionaries in the following pages. which was attended with greater success. and established himself near Java with some He is said to the town of Gresik. p. Muhammadan religion in this full presented in the native chronicle. we must fain be content with the facts that have been handed down to us. In the course of his wanderings. therefore. \^ be accepted as substantially correct. return to his native country. who succeeded to the throne a in the year 1190 with the title of Prabu Munding Sari. his efforts proving unsuccessful. ii. which. he tried with the help of an Arab missionary to convert his brother and the royal family to his new faith but. have traced his descent to Zaynu-1 Abidin. vol.i In the latter half of the fourteenth century. a great-grandson of hear ' Veth (3). taking the of Haji Arab name Purwa. of 1830). The following account therefore may. was instituted by the east coast of a certain Mawlana Malik Ibrahim.JAVA. 104. no more of him. . close relationship to them. would not be likely to attract the notice whose attention would naturally be fixed rather on the doings of kings and princes. opposite the island of Madura. a missionary movement. n. who landed on of his co-religionists. in the want of any other authorities. leaving the kingdom to his younger brother. merchant and undertook a trading expedition to India. The first king of Pajajaran. of 305 of the chronicler.

and to have been cousin of the Raja of Chermen. the who have run away and settled here what they eat and use is also very fine. in 141 3. while he busied himself in the building of A meeting of a mosque and the conversion of the inhabitants. Later on. six years before the death of Mawlana Ibrahim. F. and have established themselves here . ii. they go about with unChinese combed heads and naked feet. G. in 141 9.3o6 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. second. Brumund. the envoy of the Emperor of China to Java in the capacity of interpreter. the Raja of Majapahit against the new faith. and himself died twenty-one years later. their dress and food is clean and proper . and many of them have adopted the Muhammadan religion and observe its precepts. situation of Chermen is not known. p. the Prophet. A Chinese Musalman. but before the favourable impression then produced could be followed up. on one of which traces of an inscription in Arabic characters are still visible. and was buried at Gresik. 184. : his tomb is still venerated as that of the first apostle of Islam to Java. is given by ]. and of forming an alliance with him by offering his daughter in marriage. who are very ugly and uncouth. and believe devoutly in devils. and speedily gathered a small band of believers around him. The third kind are the natives. ^ description of the present condition of these tombs. . mentions the presence of his co-religionists in this island in his " General Account of the Shores of the Ocean. the Raja of Chermen. Mawlana Ibrahim however remained behind. On his arrival he sent his son to Majapahit to arrange an interview. who have come from the west. a sickness broke out among the people of the Raja of Chermen. p. " In this country there are three kinds of people. three of his nephews who had accompanied him. where . in charge of the tombs 3 of his kinsfolk and co-religionists. and a great part of his retinue whereupon he himself returned These misfortunes prejudiced the mind of to his own kingdom. which carried off his daughter." where he says. who came in the hope of converting the Raja of the Hindu Kingdom of Majapahit. First the Muhammadans. ' The it that A . Veth (3). conjectures raay have been in India. which he said should have better protected its votaries and the mission accordingly failed. who accompanied i. he was joined by his cousin.i Here he occupied himself successfully in the work of conversion. 185. the two princes took place accordingly. vol.e.

east of the Gulf of Siam.^ who (though they naturally gained strength from the bond of a common faith) were stirred up to unite in order to wrest the supreme power from the hands of their heathen fellow-countrymen. including western extremity. governor of Palembang in Sumatra. pp. p. 21. which were the most wealthy and populous and the furthest advanced in civilisation. 49-50. of Majapahit had married a daughter of the prince Champa. pp. Kern. This child (as we shall see) was destined in after years to work a the cruel treatment of his mother. theirs 307 called being one 1 of the countries devil-countries in Buddhist books. Raden Fatah. was subject to the King . pp. 1 13-133Remains of minarets and Muhammadan tombs are still to be found i. in Cliampa. were under the sway of the Hindu kingdom of Majapahit. where she gave birth to a son. 498-9-) X 2 . after their religion had been introduced into it for nearly a century and here it will . not by the preaching of a religious war. 186-198.* The follows political : condition of the island —The central and eastern may be described as provinces of the island. who was brought up as one of the governor's own children. be necessary to enter a history in order to fanatical little more closely into the details of the show that this was not the result of any up by the Arabs. 11. but through the exhortations of an ambitious aspirant to the throne who had a movement stirred wrong to avenge. vol. She being jealous of a favourite concubine of the King. Further west were Cheribon and several other petty its independent princedoms all the districts at while the rest of the island. vol. ii. pp. who was carefully brought up by his father in the Muhammadan religion and is still vener- ^ » * Groeneveldt. Raffles. (Bastian.* From union was born Raden Rahmat. vol. of Pajajaran." We now approach the period in which the rule of the Muhammadans became predominant in the island.JAVA. terrible vengeance for Another daughter of the prince of Champa had married an Arab of The King who had come this to Champa to preach the faith of Islam. vii. but rather of a revolution carried out by the natives of the country themselves. Veth (3). he sent this concubine away to his son Aria Damar. a small state in Cambodia.

on the east coast. and the fame for the propagation of his religion. and that his labours would be crowned by the conversion of many to the faith. Here after some time he gained over most of those placed under him. I a daughter a daughter=an Arab missionary. faith in the and was assigned the task of spreading the ' This genealogical table will referred to later in the text : kingdom make clear these relationships. ShayWi Mawlana Jamada-1 Kubra. and foretold that the fall of paganism was at hand. Although the King was unwilling himself to become a convert to Islam. that he made him governor over 3000 families at Ampel. only When he dared not openly profess it for fear of the people who were Continuing so strongly attached to their ancient superstitions. as well as others King of Champa. =Darawati King of Majapahit. I Raden Rahmat. the King two months at Palembang. A named concubine = Angka Wijaya. .3o8 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. he stayed for Damar whom he almost persuaded to become a Musalman. allowed him the free exercise of his religion and gave him permission to make converts. of the ruler Ampel was now the chief seat of Islam who was so zealously working and wide. to Islam. hailed him as the promised Apostle of Islam to East Java. where an Arab missionary. yet he conceived such an attachment and respect for Raden Rahmat. a daughters Raden Raden Patah =a Paku. to assist in Java. I Raden Husayn. his parents sent him with of Majapahit. of Islam to their ated by the Javanese as the chief apostle country. At Majapahit he was very kindly received by the King and the princess of Champa. dautrhter. as the guest of way. a little south of Gresik. spread far Ishaq came to Ampel Hereupon a certain Mawlana him in the work of conversion.! he reached the age of twenty. Aria Damar. his journey Raden Rahmat came to Gresik. On his letters and presents to his uncle.

vol. We must ^ return now to Aria is Damar. they suffered of them themselves to be carried along with the tide and many instructed in the became converts to the faith. the King of Majapahit made him governor of Ampel Meanwhile several missions were instituted from Gresik. and in course of time gave him also his daughter in to openly profess it. when she entrusted him to Raden Rahmat. In the carried Western provinces. where he converted thousands to the faith his influence became so great. him as daughter were cured. across to the neighbouring island of Madura. Raden Paku afterwards built a mosque at Giri. gave him the name of Raden Paku. who after many the Archipelago. where he built a mosque and won over many to the faith. and p. after years old. woman afflicted with leprosy.^ Rahmat. pp. in the extreme eastern extremity of the island. the governor of Palem- ' The memory of this woman many come to pray by her grave. Veth (3). but finding that their opposition was of no avail. But the mother secretly sent the infant away to Gresik to a rich Muhammadan widow ^ who brought him up with all a mother's care and educated him until he was twelve He. but when the Mawlana. if his his kingdom. See Brumund. that after the death of Raden and Gresik. of 309 Balambangan. Here he cured the daughter of the King. urged he had promised to do. Two sons of Raden Rahmat established themselves at different parts of the north-east coast and made themselves famous by their religious zeal and the conversion of inhabitants of those parts. 186. and gave orders that the child that was soon to be born of his daughter. to the . At first the neighbouring chiefs tried to set themselves against the movement. She ardently embraced the faith of Islam and her father allowed himself to receive instruction in the same. he drove him from marriage. should be killed. by name Shaykh Khalifah Husayn.JAVA. at length in 141 2 settled in Here he gained a great reputation by the cure of a wanderings in Cheribon. south-west of Gresik. ii. the work of conversion was being on by Shay^ Nuru-d Din Ibrahim. many of the Raden Rahmat also sent a missionary. held in great honour by the Javanese. who was grievously sick. and the grateful father gave her to him in marriage. learning the history of the child. 188-190. and thousands came to him to be tenets of the new religion. .

aware of his extraction and enraged at the cruel treatment his mother had received.310 bang. Raden Patah. he returned to Ampel where he revealed his plans to Raden Rahmat. As soon as the King of Majapahit heard of this new settlement. Meanwhile Raden Patah married a granddaughter of Raden Rahmat. and placed in charge of a district and afterwards made general of the army. where he found the chief missionaries of Islam. his father. his religion forbade him to make war upon or in any way to injure him. Raden Paku of Giri. Raden Patah returned to Bintara. and the only remaining obstacle to Raden Patah's revengeful . but shortly after the work had been commenced. and where he was kindly received and formally appointed governor of Bintara. A few days afterwards Raden Rahmat breathed his last.) appears to have brought up his children in the rehgion which he himself feared openly to profess. Among them were the two sons of Raden Rahmat mentioned above (p. which was now daily increasing in importance and population. Still burning for revenge and bent on the destruction of his father's kingdom. 309). and he went to the court. THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and he now sent Raden Patah. He had formed a plan of building a great mosque. where his likeness to the king was at once recognised. However. gathered round the bed of him they looked upon as their leader. 307. while great numbers of people in the surrounding country were being converted to Islam. Raden Husayn. and formed an establishment in a place of great natural strength called Bintara. to Java. where they landed at Gresik. (See p. he sent Raden Husayn to his brother with orders to destroy it unless its founder would come to the capital and pay homage. unpersuaded by these exhortations (as the sequel shows). when he had reached the age of twenty. and that while the prince was so just and so beloved. He hastened to Ampel. and five others. news arrived of the severe illness of Raden Rahmat. He together with his foster brother. in the centre of a marshy country. to the west of Gresik. but stayed with accompany his foster brother Raden Rahmat at Ampel while where he was well received Raden Husayn went on to the capital. The latter endeavoured to moderate his anger. refused to to Majapahit. reminding him that he had never received anything but kindness at the hands of the king of Majapahit. This Raden Husayn prevailed upon him to do. who was two years younger.

(Liefrinck. who have in many cases taken up a permanent residence in the island. to preach the faith of Islam in Banten. Mawlana Hasanu-d Din. where the worship of Siva is still the prevailing religion. that Islam has made this very slow but sure progress. who with all his followers remained true to his master. Raden Husayn was besieged with his followers in a fortified place and compelled to surrender and brought to Ampel. It is owing to the efforts of the latter. where he was kindly received by his brother. pagan neighbours. The eight chiefs accompanied him back to Bintara. It is especially mentioned in the annals of this part of the country that the young prince won attended with considerable Success. but in 1478 after a desperate battle which lasted seven days. body of ascetics. All the Muhammadan princes joined this confederacy. numbering about 3000 souls out of a population of over 862 thousand. pp. which remained heathen for some time after the fall of the great Hindu capital. 241-3. though from time to time conversions have been made and a small native Muhammadan community has been formed. 3„ schemes was thus removed. While some of these settlers have always held themselves aloof from the natives of the country. though not successful in persuaddeny their favourue food of swine's flesh for the sake of the worship flourishing . full of zeal for the promotion of their faith. events were transpiring in the Eastern parts of the island. ' The people of Bali to the present day have resisted the most zealous efforts of the Muharamadans to induce them to accept the faith of Islam. and refused to throw in his lot with his rebellious co-religionists. with the exception of Raden Husayn. A large number of those who remained faithful to the old Hindu religion fled in 1481 to the island of Bali. Majapahit fell A and the Hindu supremacy in Eastern Java was replaced by a Muhammadan power. into the details of which we need not enter. others have formed matrimonial alliances with them and have consequently become merged into the mass of the population.) community. A short time after. where they assisted in the completion of the mosque.JAVA.2 Others seem to have formed small kingdoms. and the Muhammadans of Bali are said to form an energetic and which at least impresses their ihg them to of Allah. lengthy campaign followed. the missionaries of Islam were not idle in the While these West. and a dependency of Here his efforts were the heathen kingdom of Pajajaran. ' This mosque is still standing and is looked upon by the Javanese as one of the most sacred objects in their island.! and bound themselves by a solemn oath to assist him in his attempt against Majapahit. among the converts being a 800 in number. under the leadership of princes of the house of Majapahit. ShaylA Nuru-d Din Ibrahim of Cheribon sent his son. The favourable situaiion ol the island for purposes of trade has always attracted a number of foreigners to its shores. the most westerly province of the island.

yet. and not by the sword. solely by the gentle means of persuasion. p. ii. The owing largely to the root among ^ Veth p.i He afterwards went with his father on a pilgrimage to Mecca. and when the community increases beyond this limit. and sets them free from the necessity of obedience to this ancient agreement. though the work of conversion in the West of Java proceeded more slowly than in the other parts of the island. ' Metzger. the victory of Islam over the heathen worship which it supplanted was more complete than in the districts which came more immediately under the rule of the Rajas of Majapahit. ii. which in one period of the history of Java seems to have exercised suzerainty over the princedoms in the western part of the island. vol. 270. where they might uninterruptedly carry out the observances of their ancestral faith. (3).312 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 316. one family or more has to leave this inner circle and settle among the Muhammadan population in one of the surrounding villages. 279. on those condition that no increase should be allowed in the numbers of who professed this idolatrous faith*. p. . to have been much slower than in the East a long struggle ensued between the worshippers of Siva and the followers of the Prophet.' while other smaller heathen communities survived to a much later period. But the progress of Islam in the West of Java seems . ii. 342. Java in 1596 mentions two or three heathen kingdoms with a large heathen population. fact that Hinduism had not taken such deep the people here. and it was not probably until the middle of the next century that the Hindu kingdom of Pajajaran. 132-3. after the fall of Pajajaran fled into the who woods and the recesses of the mountains. and on his return assisted Raden Patah in his attack on Majapahit. Niemann. they were allowed to continue in the exercise of their religion.^ some even to the present day. pp. A traveller in * Raffles. came to an end. are the descendants of the adherents of the old religion. ' Raffles. vol. The history of one of these the so-called Baduwis is of especial interest they — — — . and strange to say. vol. They strictly limit their number to forty households. as in the centre of the island. whom over those he converted to Islam. 257.^ But. In later times when they submitted to the rule of the Musalman Sultan of Banten. p. they still observe this custom although the Dutch rule has been so long established in Java.

JAVA. van den Berg (i). p. ' At this period. 2 De . Muhammpdan law the is 313 here a living force and the and it civilisation brought into the country from Arabia has interwoven itself with government and the life of the people . Bartos. While the Musalmans of Java were plotting against the Hindu Government and taking the rule of the country into their own hands by force. W. The first was by far princes. spread their faith among the inhabitants of the coast. Tidor. still the tendency is continually in the direction of the guidance of thought and conduct in accordance with the teaching of Islam. Gilolo ' L. 11 B. the Moluccas were for the most part under the rule of four and Batjan. C. the Java. We have already seen that large sections of the Javanese mained heathen for centuries after the establishment of . than of princes. v. "The kings of these islands ^ a few years before the arrival of the C. is wholly Muhammadan. work of conversion has proceeded peacefully and graduand the growth of Muslim states in this island belongs rather to its political than to its religious history. Poensen. Cap. and Malays who came into these islands to trade. since the progress of the religion has been achieved by the work rather of missionaries This long ally. 35-6Argensola. 579-580. pp. and though many superstitions and customs have survived among them from the days of their pagan ancestors. our attention to the history of this propagandist movement in the Molucca islands. 3-8. viz. form as a rule the most prosperous part of the population. a revolution of a wholly peaceful character was being carried on in other parts of the Archipelago through the preaching of the Muslim missionaries who were slowly but surely Let us first turn achieving success in their proselytising efforts. Dec. iii. Liv. Muhammadans West and re- who study their religion at all or have performed the intelligent pilgrimage to Mecca. pp. pp.^ The companions of Magellan brought back a curious story of the way in which these men introduced their religious doctrines among the Muluccans. The trade tact in cloves must have brought the Moluccas into conArchipelago the converted Javanese and other Molucc! with the islanders of the western half of the from very early times. has been of remarked that at the present day. Muham- population madan kingdoms in the island at the present day the whole of Java. those of Ternate. v. with some trifling exceptions.

) .* It was the latter prince who entertained the Spanish expedition that reached Tidor in 1521. 580. who traded as merchants in those islands. Amboyna and the Banda islands.* According to the Portuguese account ^ also the Sultan of Ternate was the first of the Muluccan chieftains who became a his territory extended over Ternale and the neighbouring the most powerful small islands. and embraced Islam together with many of his subjects. ao tempo que os nossos descnbriram aquellas llhas. Tom. the historian of this expedition." fifteenth century. haveria pouco mais de oitenta annos. The Sultan of Tidor ruled over Tidor and some small neiglibouring islands. The territory of the Sultan of Gilolo seems to have been confined to the central part of Halemahera and to a part of the north coast of Ceram . told them that this little bird was born in paradise. because first promises many marvellous things of this place of the souls. : (Ramusio. P. Tjireli Lijatu. (De Hollander.314 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and that not fifty years had passed since the Muhammadans came to live in these islands. p. J. a portion of Halemahera. C. id.) 2 3 * Tome i. pp.^ Islam seems to have gained a footing on the neighbouring island of Ternate a little earlier. 351 D. while the Sultan of Batjan ruled chiefly over the Batjan and Obi groups. Liv. de Barros * De Barros. that never settled on the earth that was of the earth. ' i. together with the west coast of the latter and a part of Ceram. induced by no other argument but that they had seen a very beaunor on anything tiful little bird. Pigafetta. were to in- this island the same year as the formed by the inhabitants that it had been introduced a little more than eighty years. Pigafetta. and the Mahometans. The heathen name of the king. que nellas tinha entrada esta Da Asia. " Segundo a conta que elles dam. was changed to that of Jamalu-d Din. a portion of Halemahera. 368. i. Decada iii. have begun to make progress here in the king of Tidor yielded to the persuasions of an Arab. p. and says that he was more than fifty-five years old. And ^ for this reason these seignors joined it the sect of Mahomet. : vol. the islands lying between it and New Guinea. 18. Spaniards began to believe in the immortality of the soul. while Islam seems to A heathen his eldest son was called Mansur after their Arab teacher. ib. p. v. calls him Raia Sultan Mauzor. B. p. a considerable part of Celebes. The Portuguese who came Spaniards reached Tidor. Robide van der Aa. named Shayldi Mansur. 5. shortly after the ill-fated death of Magellan." J. peste. v. 365. and that paradise is the place where rest the souls of those that are dead. Cap. Massimiliano Transilvano.

whom they found instructing the people in the doctrines of Muhammad. They drove out the Qadi. y particularmente los torpes sequazes de Mahoma. crudely mixed up with the teachings of the Qur'an. to try to shake oif their power. is said to have made a journey to Gresik. * Id. y capitanes pyratas. where he calls Teruate "este receptaculo de setas. * Id. I' ^ Argensola. pp.' Most of the converts came from among in increasing numbers from the west. in the latter half of the sixteenth century. whereupon the Jesuit fathers carried oif the few remaining Christians of Ternate with them to the Philippines. in order to embrace the first Muhammadan faith there. 39. con que hazen infrutuosa la conversion de tantas ' almas.* From these islands Islam spread into the rest of the Moluccas though for some time the conversions were confined to the inhabitants of the coast. . Andriessen.^ progress. Islam. and others recanted. So that the old idolatry lasted on for some time. p. Estos Uevan las riquezas de Assia. F. and keeping the minds of the people in a perpetual old superstitions state of incertitude. (Crawfurd (i). 97. pp. Boltemeyer. in Java. en que los Holandeses tentaron aquellos mares. p. 15 B. however. p.) ' W. donde tienen escuela tudas las apostasias . who occupied the foremost place among the independent rulers in these islands.* and from this time onwards.^ destruction of Christianity in the . Id. so that Christianity lost all the ground it had gained. many of whom suffered martyrdom. they instituted a fierce persecution against the Christians. Y desde el anno de mil y quinientos y ochenta y cinco. hasta este tiempo no han cessado de traer sectaries. 15s and 158. seems at and to have met with con- opposition from those islanders who clung zealously to and mythology. y en su Ingar dexan aquella falsa dotrina. Muhammadan. p. 3-4. the opposition to the political domination of the Christians secured a readier welcome for the Muslim teachers who came The Dutch completed the Moluccas by driving out the Spanish and Portuguese from these islands in the seventeenth century. and spread Christianity among the heathen population with some considerable.THE MOLUCCAS. 85. 98. 222. to have made but slow siderable their in 1495.v\ti in the island ofLuzon. though short-lived success. p.^ For when the Muluccans took advantage of the attention of the Portuguese being occupied with their own domestic troubles.^ The Portuguese conquest also made the progress of Islam slower than it would otherwise have been." ! ' Their descendants are still to be found in the province of Ca. 315 This prince.

when they reached this place in 152 1. ii.) ' ' * ' Campen. Damak. the Spaniards found a into the Muhammadan at Brunai. . 386. p.-W.* On king N. p. i. pp. which had been tributary to the Hindu kingdom of Majapahit. Tom. if any one of them is discovered to have had illicit he must marry her and become a Muslim any of the Alfur women who marry Muhammadans must embrace the faith of their husbands offences against the law may be atoned for by conversion to Islam and in filling up any vacancy that may happen to occur among the chiefs. pp. less intercourse with a .® ' The vol. 366. . * ' Dozy (1). About this time. (Ramusio. they owed their conversion to one of the Muhammadan states that rose on the ruins of the latter. 67). has facilitated to some extent the progress of the Muhammadan religion among the Alfurs of the mainland. reigning T. and would naturally have come under Muslim influence after the conversion of the Javanese. coast. p.i Even so early as 1521. . devised for the benefit of the state-religion. the But converts in later times interior being inhabited by Alfurs. and that dition that they adopted the of new religion . p. Pigafetta. Muhammadan girl.^ Similarly. although it had gained a footing in the island as early as the beginning of the sixteenth century. 363-4. were drawn from among the latter also.2 In modern times the existence of certain regulations. it was adopted by the people of Banjarmasin. vol. p. a kingdom on the southern side. ' *' Pigafetta.g. Dulaurier. 236-9. there was a Muhammadan king of Gilolo. a kingdom on the western side of the northern limb of the island of Halemahera. regard is paid to the lawful claims of a candidate than to his become a Musalman. coast of Java. 528. i. whereupon the was given on cona number Muhammadans came over from Java. until its overthrow in 1478 *.3i6 the Malays.^ readiness to The story is that the people of Banjarmasin asked for assistance it towards the suppression of a revolt. p. 346.'' little later. THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.) This kingdom had been founded by a colony from the Hindu kingdom of Majapahit (De Hollander. who compose the whole population of the smaller but inhabit the coast-lands only of the larger ones. (Ramusio. A by Arabs coming from Palembang in Sumatra. Islam in Borneo is mostly confined to the coast. it was introduced kingdom of Sukkadana. islands. 68. opposite the south of Borneo.^in the'western part of the island. on the north Hageman. e. 1550. suppressed the revolt and effected the work of conversion. Forrest.

and a mean come into on that account for. Borneo. . as superior intelligences. idolaters he tells us. (The . dwelling in the interior of N.„. were all — as indeed they remain for the most part to the present day. Hj^e. xiv. king refused to forty 317 abandon the faith of his fathers. 193. of the Mahometans.BORNEO. a traveller . however.) ' he died about 1677 j his father does not seem to have heathen name of taken a Muhammadan name. the veneration ^ the respect they pay to those who have a knowledge of Him. p. or . at least he is only known by his (Netscher. i.* the Idaans of Borneo during his visit to Sulu from 1761 to 1764^ said to tells us that they " entertain a just regret of their own ignorance. as being a during his reign." These people appear since that time to have embraced the betel box. Purity of Religion . called the Idaans. . to together the with a letter in which this defender of the faith received title of Sultan Muhammad Safiyu-d Din. pp. 14-15Panembahan Giri-Kusuma. who obtained his information on had not yet got.7' Essiy towards an account of Sulu. de Noort (Histoire g^nerale des voyages. ' Thomas Forrest. p. in gesture. The progress of Islam in the kingdom of Sukkadana seems now have drawn the attention of the centre of the Muhammadan world to this distant spot.. as have looked upon the Muhammadans of the coast with having a religion which they themselves Dalrymple. speaks religion along the coast. ' Olivier i. a certain Shay]^ Shamsu-d Din came from Mecca bringing with him a present of a copy of the Qur'an and a large hyacinth ring. Musalman and married the daughter of a prince of a neighbourin which apparently Islam had been long established ^.3 of Muhammadanism who visited common the island in 1600. His successor became a ing island. every instance denote. and in the reign of the next prince. Veth (2). . 5. them the utmost veneration.re. . or vessels. when they the houses. 371. who know their Creator they will not sit down where the Mahometans sleep. honourable 'is 'very great respect. vol. . but receive a portion with the utmost humility. but during the years that elapsed before his death (in 1590). and and in they entertain for a God unknown. p.e.^ In the latter part of the eighteenth century one of the inland tribes. the new religion appears to have made considerable progress. 225). vol. nor will they put their fingers into the same chunam. p. they pay idea of themselves . 17^6. The inhabitants of the interior. with the most abject attitudes ' .

But Islam slowly making its way among both in the districts directly administered by the Dutch Government and those under the rule of native chiefs. i. they have in large numbers been converted to Christianity. who however also on the other peninsulas.^ ' tribes of Alfurs in different parts of the island. vol. p. Ned. low down in the scale of civilisation. of th(. p.* Celebes. 179. who also form the majority of the inhabitants of the N. the Muhammadans did not make their way hither until after the Portuguese had gained a firm footing in this part of the island. . De Hollander. In the island of Celebes we its find a similar slow growth of the Muhammadan more Islam religion. as well as Chinese (who have. 177 . Muhammadan one of the numerous instances powerful impression that Islam produces upon tribes that ari.^ and of the slaves^ introduced into the island from different countries so that at accessions colonists. xxxiv. at the extremity of the first of these peninsulas. where they mostly still remain heathen. the latter forming a large proportion of the coast population The interior of the island. and S. and the Alfurs that they converted to Roman Catholicism were turned into Protestants is by the Dutch.E. p. Islam. 170. . in Minahassa. Veth (2). vol. 2 • Med..3i8 THE PREACHING OF faith i ISLAM. Zendelinggen. 61. peninsulas. Only the civilised portion of the inhabitants . vol. Panciera. From time to time othei' have been gained in the persons of the numerous. E. had settlements here since the seventh century). mainly divided into two tribes. 224. j Hageman. i6i. Bugis and Malays. ' '> B. Alfurs. taking its rise among the people of the coast and slowly making way into the interior. the present day the race. p. in which from time to time small tribes of Dyaks embrace of these foreigners first Many came to Borneo. p. p. whose the heathen missionaries have laboured in Minahassa with very considerable success. a race is still heathen and is populated chiefly by the low in the scale of civilisation. except in all the south-western peninsula where nearly the inhabitants are Muhammadan.^ Muhammadans of Borneo are a very mixed were still heathen when they and of a higher civilisation than the Dyaks whom they conquered or drove into the interior. Arabs. has however adopted this is the Bugis. vol ii. xxxii. except in the western part of the island. the Macassars and inhabit the south-western peninsula.

"On the other hand. The Portugeze have hitherto been esteemed zealous enough for their Religion but it seems that Don Ruis Perera. after a little Conver. and from the other. People. Don Antonio Galvano (Governor of the Moluccas). Malacca and to Achin. who in a short Priests resolving to . in general. . however. or rendered useful. since he made a great and very unnecessary delay in sending the Priests that were desired. and Measures were taken to secure the Affections of those whom it was not found easy to conquer but. who was then Governor of Malacca. as we have here one of few cases in which Christianity and Islam have been competing for the allegiance of heathen people. Some time came the Christian Priests. capable of being obliged. satisfied to with this.i to desire from the one. The history the of movement is especially interesting. on the other hand. and withal had much better Sense than most of the Indians and therefore. to discern that there was no Sense or Meaning in their own Religion and the few of them who had been made Christians by the care of .CELEBES. One of the incidents " The in this contest is thus admirably told by an old compiler the : discovery of so considerable upon by the Portuguese as a Matter of Great Consequence. Christian . disclaimed and became Deists at once but. was a little deficient in his Concern for the Faith. not .e. they determined to send. The People were much braver. they began. at the same time. . established their Religion effectually after among the Inhabitants. a country was looked sation with the Europeans. their The whole old Superstitions. When the it 319 1 the Portuguese first visited the island about 540. as their allies. the capital of still Macassar kingdom. in general. they found only a few Muhammadan strangers in Goa. the Queen of Achin being a furious Mohammedan no sooner received an Account of this Disposition in the people of the Island of Celebes than she immediately dispatched a vessel fuU of Doctors of the Law. Atjih. and was not until the beginning of the seventeenth century that Islam began to be generally adopted among them. Doctors of the Mohammedan Law embrace the Religion of those Teachers who came first among them. were not so thoroughly instructed themselves as to be able to teach them a new Faith. . by good usage. and inveighed bitterly p ' i. time. the natives being unconverted.

with which it has always been confederated.) (London. 193. a Spanish priest. p. but still. after his conversion proved himself a most zealous champion of the new faith. Mohammed it. 682. his neighbours. p. (Travels in India. in 1646. 236. The sequel of the moveThis event said to frequent references to it ment is not of so peaceful a character. Faith. who visited Macassar in 1648. 267. by name Khafib Tungal.320 against the of Celebes THE PREACHING OF Law of ISLAM. " We have not yet fought. who had before embraced Christianity.) Carmelilae . we have not yet been conquered. 91.^ In the little principality of Tallo." is ^ have occurred in the year 1603. who went to the Philippine Islands (Collection of Voyages and Travels. (Lugduni.) Itinerarium Orientale R. but to no Purpose the People and there was no Possibility of the of bringing them to alter One Kings of the it Island. to make of an attempt to force it on their neighbours the Bugis.2 The in contemporary literature make it impossible to doubt the genuineness of the story. The king Goa made an offer to the king of Boni to consider him in all respects as an equal if he would worship the one true God. Fernandez Navarette. and the greatest Zealots for their Religion of any in the Indies. i. and it was through his influence that it was generally adopted by all the tribes speaking the Macassar language. P. persisted in the his Subjects and most of were converted to . who said. The latter consulted his people on the matter. and are so to this Day.) Tavernier. was instigated by a par- ^ A Compleat History of the Rise and Progress of the Portugeze Empire in the East Indies. Philippi a SSma." They tried the issue of a battle and were defeated. the people applied for help to the king of Macassar. 1649. Strange to say. F. The prince of this state. j : ^ Crawfurd (l). is still to be seen the tomb of one of the most famous missionaries to the Macassars. The Macassars were carried away by their zeal for their newly-adopted faith. had made their Choice. p. Collected chiefly from their own Writers. who sent ambassadors to demand from the king of Boni an answer to the following questions. (London. . The king accordingly became a Muhammadan and began on his own account to attempt by force to impose his own belief on his subjects and on the smaller states. to the north of Goa. the Bulk of the People of Celebes continued Mohammedans. 1764. indeed. p. in his persecution. London.— Whether the king.) Vol. 2 '' 1 ' 1 1678. John Harris Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca. Trinitate Discalceati abip^in conscriptum. p. 1752.

one of have introduced Islam into many a heathen island : be found in a state that extends over a considerable part of the south coast of Flores. 38S-9" No extraordinary exertion seems for a long time to have been made on An abhorrence of innovation and a most pertinacious behalf of the new religion. pp. at once the bravest men and the most enterprising merchants and navigators In their trading vessels they make their way of the Archipelago.* In their native island of Celebes also the Bugis have combined proselytising efforts with their commercial enterprises.^ but when they had once adopted the new religion. Hollander. 75. the most serious obstacles to the dissemination of Mahometanism. the for the second. where. p. distinguish the people of Celebes beyond all the other tribes of the Eastern isles . Riedel (2).) and to have made them what they are now. The king of Boni made no reply and the Macassars having marched a great army into the country defeated him in three successive battles. Crawford De De Hollander. he presumed to oppress were the friends of Goa. intermingling with the native population. of Boni.g. from the coast of New Guinea to the place of their certainly — Singapore. the king of Boni must desist. p. p. (i). vol. they have succeeded in converting all the their colonies is to inhabitants of this state to Islam. probably. u. as it did the Arabs. 666. 11. e. ticular -2 21 revelation from the the Prophet ? obedience to pleasure? some ancient custom first if — or whether he paid — or followed his own personal ? If for . which deferred the adoption of the new religion for so long a period. ' * ii. 67. vol. information operation those . and assumed the headship of the tribes of Celebes. vol.^ to all parts of the Archipelago. it seems to have stirred them up to action. and these would." ' ' (2). vol. Crawfurd and till it had recommended itself by wearing the garb of antiquity. ii. whom After thirty years of subjection. and in the Crawford. that formerly consisted partly of Roman Catholics. if king of Goa requested he would lend his cordial cofor the third. p. .i The propagation of Islam seems to have been gradual and slow among the Bugis.Cxi^l-iEBES. at first. prove It was this. and reduced Boni into a province. p. the people with the assistance of the Dutch. forced him to fly the country. 212. and religious adherence to ancient custom. in the establishment which the Bugis have particularly distinguished themselves. 387. (though this newly-awakened energy in either case turned in rather different directions. for reason. revolted against the Macassars. in former masters. of and their numerous settlements.

so much so that about 1832 an Arab married a daughter of the — — king. Wilken . them. assisted the Bugis. some of whom married and settled among . Cornells Manopo.000. and their influence in the country very greatly increased. whose reign Christianity spread rapidly.322 little THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. the visits of these Bugis and Arabs. vol. soon achieved a wide-spread success. they began to look on these foreigners.^ reigning Raja. pp. in the course of the present century. kingdom of Bolaang-Mongondou in the northern peninsula i they have succeeded. king of Bolaang-Mongondou was Jacobus in The first Christian Manopo (1689. Jacobus Manuel Manopo. three Muhammadan settlers . through the influence Dutch East India Company and the preaching of the Dutch His successors were all Christian until 1844. embraced Islam. Hakim Bagus and Imam Tuweko by name.) (l). were ill prepared with the weapons of controversy to meet the attacks of the rival creed despised by the Dutch Government. whose knowledge of the doctrines of their religion was very slight and whose faith was weak. with the exception of two or of the — — . 247. p. From Mongondou Islam spread into the northern kingdom Bolaang here. when the clergy. . Mongondou from this same town two trader missionaries. (De Hollander. at first rare. and the Arabs who them in their missionary labours. became more frequent.1709). but the zealous preachers of Islam. 124° 45' and 123° 20'. for it was about this time that the zealous efforts of some Muhammadan Bugis and others won over some converts to Islam in traders one of the coast towns of the southern kingdom. ? ii. As the work of conversion progressed. between long. set out to spread their faith throughout They made a beginning with the the rest of this kingdom. the whole population was either Christian or heathen. as their friends. who was himself a Christian : many of ' To the east of Minahassa. in 1830. His conversion was the crown of a series of proselytising efforts that had been in progress since the beginning of the century. The Christians. conversion of some slaves and native women whom they married. with a population that has been variously estimated at 35. 42-4. neglected and well nigh abandoned by the authorities of the church.000 and 50. and these little by little persuaded their friends and relatives to embrace the new faith. in winning over to Islam a Christian population whose conversion dates from the end of the seventeenth century.

who form a Lombc ' Wilken ' (2). Many in their terror hastened to follow this advice. to the prophesy people the destruction of Bolaang-Mongondou. pp. 323 and some of the most powerful among them. through the preaching of missionaries from Macassar between 1540 and 1550. xxxiv. xxxii. Christian community but to no purpose.BOLAANG-MONGONDOU.3 still continues to win over fresh converts in this of the neighbouring island of I The inhabitants owed their conversion to the preaching of the Lombok also Bugis. whose death had been a great loss to the Jacobus Bastiaan. Zendelinggen. 376-9. unless became converted to Islam. p. the chiefs. Med. to a revivalist movement set on foot by a certain Haji 'Ali after speedily the disastrous suffering that Sambi eruption of Mount Tambora in 181 5. but the progress of Islam among them. openly declared himself a Musalman and tried every means to bring his subjects over An Arab missionary took advantage of the to the same faith. so long as they were loyal. pp. 169. whose methods of dealing with the dilatory were not always of the gentlest.^ time Islam island. — — occurrence of a terrible earthquake in the following year. Manado to appoint a successor to the Christian schoolmaster. . though slowi is continuous and sure. " Zollinger (2). All the more civilised inhabitants are true believers and are said to be stricter in the performance of their religious duties than any This is largely due of the neighbouring Muhammadan peoples. and learning from the resident at Manado that the Dutch Government was quite indifferent as to whether the people of his state were Christians or Muhammadans. 170. and the Raja and his nobles lent thear support to the missionaries and Arab merchants. about the same time. 126. 177.^ The neighbouring island of Sambawa likewise probably received its knowledge of this faith from Celebes. the fearful ' ensued thereon being made use of to stir up the people to a more strict observance of the precepts of their At the present religion and the leading of a more devout life. Ned. Jacobus In this way Islam had gained a firm footing in his kingdom before Raja had Manuel Manopo became a Muslim in 1844 this prince made repeated applications to the Dutch authorities at . p. Y 2 . abandoned Christianity and embraced Islam. Nearly half the population however still remains heathen.

found the population of rude and simple pagans. 201. having crossed over the strait from from Celebes at any rate the conSambawa or come appears to have taken place in a peaceable manner. a Sharif from -"a rude heap of coral rock stones. entangling the Spaniards and the Muslims in a fierce It is uncertain conflict. on hand. were ignorant of the language." pp. Tom. says that Arabs came to the island l)efore and that the tomb of the first Arab. political The adoption of the latter implied the freedom and national independence. The Spaniards. was still shown . . 375 E. i. p. who learned the language of the people. ^ of Mindanao 300 yea'S Mecca. 527. 1879. que es casi moralmente imposible su conversion al cristianismo.324 THE PREACHING OF either directly : ISLAM.) * " Se muestran tan obsinados a la gracia de Dies y tan aferrados i sus creencias. p. ' Zollinger (i). 313. while Mindanao and the Sulu Islands were occupied by more civilised Muhammadan tribes. melting into the mass of the people. habits and manners of the natives their intemperance and above all their avarice and rapacity brought their religion into odium while its the other . writing in 1775. the Muhammadan missionaries. p.i version In the Philippine Islands we find a struggle between Christianity similar and Islam in for the allegiance of the inhabitants. ^ Relatione di Ivan Gaetan del discoprimento dell' Isole Molucche. (Ramusio. quoted by Montero y Vidal. even up to the present day. 21. when Islam was first introduced into these islands. large colony here.^ The latter have to this day successfully who discovered islands them be in the northern to resisted for the most part all the efforts of the Christians towards conquest and conversion. neither arrogated to themselves the exclusive rights of a privileged race nor condemned the natives to the level of a degraded caste. and. but more stern and and bloody Spaniards enduring. so that the Spanish missionaries despair of ever effecting their conversion. i. The methods adopted by the Spaniards for the propagation of their religion were calculated to make it unpopular from the beginning their violence and intolerance were in strong contrast to the conciliatory behaviour of . and hence came to be regarded as a badge of slavery. somewhat character to that in Celebes." Cartas de los PP. Captain Thomas Forrest. Tom.* The success faiths of Islam as comthe pared with Christianity has been due in a great measure to different form under which these two were presented loss to the of all natives. de la Compafiia de Jesus de la Missi6n de Filipinas. adopted their customs. intermarried with them." but the 1 52 1.

) Mindanao.! oflfered It is not difficult therefore to understand by the natives to the introduction of Christianity. Plus de 360. the excursions is so great. Faite parun Religieux. ii. le Chatelier Montero y Vidal. ' Crawfurd " lis ' (Thevenot. the native Christians after their conversion had to perform their religious duties through fear of punishment. the influence of the numerous Christian slaves that they carry off from the Philippines in their predatory long converted. Spanish-knowing renegades even being Sulu found here. p. les Tagal de I'Est. pp. sont peu soigneux de satisfaire au devoir du Christianisme qu'ils ont receu. p. and were treated exactly like school-children.37- . converted one half of the islanders. (Appendix. H. vol. et gouvernercomme desenians a I'escole." Relation des Isles Philippines. Moor. aux reprJsentants duculte officiel. p. 45. who wish since to escape from the hated Christian govern- ment ^ the island of Sulu.000 sectateurs du coran y reconnaissent un sultan independant. pp. (2). vol. and succeeded in converting almost the whole of such part of the population as still remained heathen. 7. se groupent chaque jour davantage autour des chefs de. 86. which indeed only became the religion of the people in those parts in which the inhabitants were weak enough. inhabitants of the Sulu Islands : We wide-spread that his tomb became a place of pilgrimage. forms possession another centre of Muhammadan opposition to Christianity. who came from Mecca. to enable the Spaniards to effect a total . commencee "A par les invasions * » Arabes. or the the opposition island small enough. though nominally a Spanish 1878. before the arrival of the Spaniards. 274-280. i.^ To this day." A. vol. les missionnaires musulmans de la Chine et de I'lnde.s dynasties nationales. se substiiueiit comme malties religieux et educateurs de la population. They have a tradition that a merchant named Sayyid 'Ali. et il les y faut contraindre par la crainte du chastimeiit. qui renovent ainsi la propagande. ^ i.^ Though so people of Sulu are far from being rigid Muhammadans. During the reign of his great-grandson. the independent Muhammadan kingdom of Mindanao is a refuge subjugation be forced to for those . 325 propagation was intended to serve as an instrument of their political advancement. indeed. the other half still remaining heathen His fame was so he was elected sultan and reigned seven years. " P. that it has even been asserted ^ that " they (2).PHILIPPINE AND SULU ISLANDS. fuyant le joug abhorre de leurs maitres catholiques. 32-3-) J.* have no certain historical evidence as to how long the had been Muhammadan. Aux jesuites chasses de lile. also. another missionary arrived from Mecca.

Such are the Papuans of New Guinea. 549^ The first prince of Batjan who became a Muhammadan was a certain ZaynuI'Abidm.i As has been already mentioned. and the islands to the N. and pave the way to the transfer of their dominions to the Spanish yoke. would inevitably undermine their own authority. Waigama and Salawatti. with the peninsula of Onin. 350. 290 (Waigeoe). this would long ere have become professed Christians but from the prescience. althans den schijn daarvan aannemen.' and though the mass of the people in the interior have remained heathen up to the present day. Some of the Papuans of the island of Gebi. as early as itself. Islam has been most favourably more civilised races of the Malay Archipelago. Waigyu. very few of the Papuans seem to have become Islam was introduced into the West coast (probably in the peninsula of Onin) by Muhammadan merchants. by investing a predominating influence in the priesthood. Guinea 1606. who was reigning in 1521 when the Portuguese first came to the Moluccas. the inhabitants of the coast are Muhammadans largely no doubt owing to the influence of settlers from the Moluccas. p. 352-3. p. Crawfurd . P. 352. that such a change. the Papuan chiefs of these adopted Islam. p. of it. have been converted by the Muhammadan settlers from the Moluccas. Het grootste deel bestaat echter uit Papoesche heidenen einige tot het Mahomedaansche geloof zijn overgegangen. p. 53 (Salawatti). . who propagated their religion among the inhabitants. p. viz.W. were in the sixteenth century subject to the Sultan of Batjan. and has taken but little root among the lower races. (1).143' Robide van der Aa. an occurrence which fatal experience has too forcibly instructed all the surrounding nations that unwarily Further. . between Waigyu and Halemahera. 147 (Misool). Through the influence received by the of the islands Muhammadan rulers of Batjan. the aggressive embrace the Christian persuasion. . " Id." behaviour of the Spanish priests who established a mission in Sulu has created in the mind of the people a violent antipathy to the foreign religion. " De strandbewoners zijn alien Mahomedanen. De bergbewoners zijn heidenen. on the N. of New together Guinea. ^ Robid^ van der Aa.326 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM.'* In New Muhammadans." Id." Id.5 But it appears to have made very little progress during ' Dalrymple. " Een klein deel der bevolking van het eiland belijdt de leer van Mahamed.W.2 one of the kings of the Moluccas. Misool. pp. These islands.

64. hebben noch Tidoreezen. resisting the importunities of the inhabitants to settle among them. 71. and Bali have proved themselves zealous propagandists of Islam and have left no means before. p. bij hem heeft kunnen vinden.^ The name Dikir of one missionary. their wives not allowing it to be brought into the house. 71. " De Papoe is te woest van aard. pp.^ Similar efforts are being made to convert the Papuans of the mission he returned to his neighbouring Kei Islands. missionaries ' Captain Forrest however in 1775. v?ho have laboured among them without in success since 1855. a certain Imam island S. Misool en Waigama. vol. zooals de Radja Ampat van voeren. om behoefte ' Robide van der Aa. south of the peninsula of Onin after fulfilling his . so that when their husbands wished to indulge in swine's flesh. '^"^ 11s that " Many of the Papuas turn Musselmen. The Muhammadans spread Islam is of the neighbouring islands have been accused of holding the Papuans too great contempt to make efforts to among them.E. die te verheven is voor de Papoes." Voyage to New Guinea. Java.i 327 shown as much reluctance to and the Papuans have become Muhammadans as to accept the teachings of the Christian missionaries. wanneer Voorzoover mij is gebleken daartoe bij deze volkstammen poging gedaan ward. Waigeoe. own home. 319* The Journal of the Indian Archipelago. but the precepts of the Qur'an were very little observed. they had to do so in secret. who came from one of the islands on the Ceram about 1856 and introduced Islam into the little of Adi. were said to be stricter in their adherence to their faith than the men.THE PAPUANS. both forbidden meats and intoxicating liquors being indulged in. gepoogd. there were hardly Muhammadans on these islands. misschien wel uit eerbied voor dien godsdienst. Evenmin als de Christelijke leer tot nog toe ingang aan godsdienst te gevoelen. . with the exception of the : Banda Islands some time from Ceram had succeeded in making some converts. (Singapore . noch Cerammers of anderen ooit emstige pogingen gedaan. Salawatti. p.* But more recently there has been a revival of religious life among the Kei islanders. The women. . any Thirty years ago. zij en eenige hunner bloedverwanten vervuUen sommige geloofsvormen. found. however. 68. the centuries that have elapsed since then. doordien zij meermalen te Tidor geweest zijn en daar niet gaarne Onder de eigenlijke bevolking is nooit als gewone Papoes beschouwd worden. zou de Mahomedaansche godsdienst slagen. descendants of immigrants from the 1853-) ." ' Robid^ van der Aa. vii. however. and the number of Muhammadans is daily increasing. Arab merchants from Madura. om de leer van IVIahomed hier in te Slechts zeer weinige hoofden. den Islam intevoeren. mogen als belijders van die leer aangemerkt worden . of (? Dhikr). op vijf reizen naar dit land. p.

Baron von Hoevell. preachers.32« THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. been in stirring especially active in the work of proselytising. 307.) > G. while chiefs converts are said to get receive as much as a thousand florins. p. employing and civilisation for the work of conversion and making such skilful compromises in the doctrines and practices of their faith as were needed to recommend it to the people they wished to attract. 594. and success that has began quietly and gradually to spread the knowledge of their religion by first converting the native women they married and the persons associated with them in their business relations. The latter have. and in purging away the lingering remains of heathen The number of Malays who make the pil- W. and 200 florins' worth of presents. 1872. there have been numbers of what called professional missionaries sults may be — theologians. i. during the evidence enough show the existence of peaceful missionary efforts to spread the faith of Islam sometimes indeed the sword last six hundred years has been drawn in support of the cause of religion. p."* Beside the traders. C. pp. . sometimes enforcing their as a rule new at other times by bribes threats and violence. Buckle's Miscellaneous and Posthumous vol.^ The above sketch of the spread of Islam from west to east through the Malay Archipelago comprises but a small part of the history of the missionary work of Islam in these islands. (London. Instead of holding themselves apart in proud isolation. juriscon- and pilgrims. their superiority of intelligence " The Mahometan missionaries are very judicious. : arguments by untried to win converts. by learning their language. Many of the facts of this history are wholly unrecorded. they gradually melted into the all mass of the population. officials and missionaries Btrt there is is necessarily fragmentary to and incomplete.^ In fact. edited by Helen Taylor. in recent years. 120. : been achieved has been largely the work of traders. adopting their manners and customs. life up a more vigorous and habits and beliefs. and what can be gleaned from native chronicles and the works of European travellers. as Buckle said of them. 275. but preaching and persuasion rather than force and violence have been the main The marvellous characteristics of this missionary movement. who won their way to the hearts of the natives. W. ^ ' Works. consistent religious among their fellow- countrymen. Crav\furd (2).

802 from Java alone all in 1874 as opposed to 12. on the contrary.THE MUSLIM PROPAGANDISTS. From other islands the ratio of increase has been even higher.. Conference on Protestant Missions. e. had only recently been abolished. in 1886 it had risen to 48. within twelve years. Namely 33. but. in the same number of years. in the single year 1874. as a Christian missionary has observed.i Accordingly it is not surprising that city .802. the number of pilgrims that went from Java alone. and wholly imbued with Moslem fanaticism s and hatred against the unbelievers. especially as the Hadjis. and since then. of 66 per cent. pp. have by no means lost in quality what they gained in quantity .985 during 1854-9 i. show no tendency to decrease. was larger than the whole sum of the pilgrims from all the Dutch to find that in 1852 the but in the — possessions in the Archipelago during the referred to six years ending 1859. in the case of Borneo and Celebes. of all is 329 is parts of the Archipelago yearly on and there in consequence a proportionate growth Muhammadan influence and Muhammadan thought. Such an increase is no doubt largely due to the increased facilities of communication between Mecca and the Malay Archipelago. 21. grimage to Mecca from the increase. 407.. Up to the to middle of the present century the Dutch Government tried put obstacles in the way of the pilgrims and passed an order no one should be allowed to make the pilgrimage to the holy without a passport. ^ Report of Centenary Niemann. when above. showing an increase of 40 per cent. 406-7.g. For example. p. as may be seen from the following figures in 1874 the number of pilgrims from Java was 33. : " diminishes the importance of the fact. there has been a steady increase at a rate moreover that could not possibly have been anticipated. and from Sumatra of 83 per cent. p. this by no means the order. vol.237. moreover. for which he had to pay no florins and any one who evaded this order was on his return compelled to pay a fine of double that amount. there are the now amongst them many more thoroughly acquainted with doctrines of Islam." aries The reports of the Dutch Government and of Christian missionbear unanimous testimony to the influence and the ' " Niemann. number of pilgrims was so low as seventy.^ These numbers. from the Dutch islands. than there formerly were. same year this order was rescinded. whose numbers have grown so rapidly. .

22. L. and the returned pilgrims. (3) vol. ii. pp. Snouck Hurgronje (3).330 THE PREACHING OF who ISLAM. Zendelinggen. vol. whether as merchants or religious teachers. (C. pp. who have taken up their residence permanently in the sacred city. i. which adjuncts to the proselytising eiforts of the Muhammadan missionaries^ of such schools. p.^ This recent growth of religious zeal has further resulted in a rapid increase in the constitute powerful number of Muhammadan schools. become preachers of Islam wherever they come in contact with a heathen population. Snouck Hur- . there has been of recent years a very great awakening of missionarj' activity in the Malay Archipelago. passim. there is a large colony of Malays in Mecca at the present time. in In 1882 there were in Java 10. 186. 372.. vol. xxxii. xxxiv. and those who make a longer proselytising zeal of these pilgrims stay in order to complete their theological studies.'' even the youngest of them— the ' ^ ' '' Med. Ned. gronje (2). for in 1885 there were 16. The religious orders moreover have extended their organisation to the Malay Archipelago.667 students received instruction in . Id.! visiting the sacred places and content themselves with merely performing the due ceremonies. * e. van den Berg. xv. Indeed Mecca has been well said to have more influence on the religious printed in life of these islands than on Turkey.) W. These are in constant communication with their fellow-countrymen in their native land. and their efforts have been largely effectual in purging Muhammadanism from an in the tion of heathen customs earlier period.' In certain cases the fame of some particular teacher attracts to one place an unusually large number of students. Naqshibandlyah and Sammanlyah.g.760 schools with as many as 255. p. one school being mentioned where the lectures of a learned Arab were attended at one time by as many as 1 50 students. Report of Centenary Conference on Protestant Missions. return to their homes as Beside the pilgrims who at once reformers and missionaries. the Qadarlyah. etc. the faith and practice of Islam but the three following years brought about an increase of not less than 33 per cent.913 which 164. 27. India or Buldiara. p. 21. 339-393. vols.. C.* As might be anticipated from a consideration of these facts..148 students. ii. Malay Archipelago from the contaminaand modes of thought that have survived A large number of religious books is also Mecca in the various languages spoken by the Malay Muhammadans and carried to all parts of the Archipelago.

59. F. except in Java and as the Dutch civil servants are everywhere attended by a crowd of Muhammadan certain that the work of the . interpreters and visit.THE MUSLIM PROPAGANDISTS. ' J. has been adopted as the official language of the Dutch Government. Muslim missionaries is facilitated by the fact that Malay. p. p.^ Thus Islam is at the present time rapidly driving out heathenism from the Malay Archipelago. 162. Riedel (i).^ The Dutch Government has been accused by sionaries of it is Christian misthis favouring the spread of Islam . 7. vol. are Malay language.i one the signs of influence being the adoption of the in name Sanusi by many Malays when Mecca they change their native for Arabic names. which is spoken by hardly any but Muhammadans. Sanusiyah of 331 —finding its adherents in the most distant islands. officials. they carry Islam with them into every place they have to do business with the Government. 313. 323. subordinate traders. political agents. . most influential people embrace Islam. Snouck Hurgionje (3). clerks. pp. ' G. ii. however may be. Hauri. and the rest soon follow All persons that obliged to learn the their example. and they seldom learn it In this way the without at the same time becoming Musalmans.

CONCLUSION. But even here the absence of the priestly ideal. stitution of the Christian The ecclesiastical con- church has. paid agents. missionary work implies mission. The only exception little appears to be found in the religious orders of Islam.CHAPTER XIII. But in Islam the absence of any kind of priesthood or any ecclesiastical organisation whatever has caused the missionary energy of the Muslims to exhibit itself in forms very different to those that appear in the history of Christian missions there are no missionary societies. has been recognised to be one of the prime duties of the church. makes the fundamental difference in the two systems stand out as clearly as elsewhere. Whatever disadvantages may be faith. whose organisation resembles to some extent that of the monastic orders of agents. are entailed by this want of a priestly class. To the modern Christian world. specially set apart for the work of propagating the feeling of responsi- compensated for by the consequent . from the very beginning of its history. ary societies. no specially trained . subscriptions. made provision for the propagation of Christian teaching among unbelievers its missionaries have been in most cases. regularly-ordained priests or monks the monastic orders (from the Benedictines downwards) and the missionary societies of more modern times have devoted themselves with special and concentrated attention to the furthering of a department of Christian work that. very Christendom. reports and journals and missionary enterprise without a regularly constituted and continuous organisation seems a misnomer. of any theory of the separateness of the religious teacher from the common body of believers or of the necessity of a special consecration and authorisation for the performance of religious functions. from the first. : continuity of effort. .

These men devote the hours of leisure left them after the completion of the day's labour.MUSLIM MISSIONARIES. p. however great an exaggeration it may be to say.1 that every Muhammadan is a missionary. seeking to win converts Christians and Hindus. still it is true that every Muhammadan may be in daily one. he takes more trouble to learn the doctrines and observances of his faith. voted all — their time — — list of Indian missionaries published in the journal of a religious * and philanthropic society of Lahore masters. way of thy Lord with wisdom Thus it is that. is more likely personal salvation rests much more to in become an exponent of the missionary character of his creed The would-be proselytiser has the presence of the unbeliever. not to refer his convert to his some authorised religious teacher of creed who may the formally receive the neophyte into the body of the church. p. bility 333 inter- resting on the individual believer. Liittke (2). an editor of a ments. as has been said so often . side by side with the the religious teachers who have deand energies to missionary work. xvi. (i). risalah (Lahore. PP. whose religious beliefs they controvert and attack. unlike his Christian In a brother. the annals of the propagation of the Muslim faith contain the record of men and women of all ranks of society from the sovereign to the peasant. showing himself especially active in such work. and of all trades and professions. 1889). 8. 126. neglect the precept of their : Prophet " Summon them and with kindly warning. we find the names of school- Opium Departa dealer in camel-carts. in the streets among ' Snouck Hurgronje Qur'an. There being no : mediary between the Muslim and his God. traders including newspaper. Accordingly. who have laboured for the spread of their faith.) ' ' Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam ka mahwari (October. and few truly devout Muslims. and thus becoming deeply impressed with the importance of them to himself. mitting nor need he dread ecclesiastical censure for comsin of Korah. to the preaching of their religion Government clerks in the Canal and both from and bazaars of Indian cities. a bookbinder and a workman in a printing establishment. the responsibility of his becomes as a rule upon himself alone consequently he strict and careful in the performance of his religious duties. the Muslim trader.5-13- ." professional propagandists. 30. living to the ^ contact with unbelievers.

a woman of Kashgar who had been taken prisoner and brought into the harem of the emperor. especially who had to pretend a conversion of their marriage. 407-8. interesting to note that the propagation of Islam has but that Muslim women have not been the work of men only. Sayyid Sulayman calls him Jifan and says that he was the grandfather of present emperor Hienfung (1850-61) is probably the emperor referred to. The legend of the holy women. ^ '' pp.* could hardly have originated if the influence of such holy women were a One of the most venerated tombs in Cairo is that of Nafisah. Thamaratu-1 Funun.^ The professed happens to be a woman. 1894. to the north of Lake Chad. 1311. the : . the Tubu. is said to have almost induced him to embrace Islam. 124-5. have opened schools for girls. who are said to have flown through theiair from Karbala' to Lahore and to have there by the influence of their devout lives of prayer and fasting won the first converts from Hinduism to Islam. xi. but brought the wives of Christian princes. vol.334 It is THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. p. 17. and have taken advantage of the powerful influence exercised by the women among these tribes (as among their neighbours. to Christianity on the occasion up their children in the tenets of way for the advancement of In modern China.2 dissuaded him from openly adopting of this faith and he contented subjects. but the weighty considerations of state set forth by his ministers Islam and worked in every possible that faith. vol. the Berbers). in their efforts to win them over to Islam.) Ghwlam Sarwar IChazTnatu-1 Ajflya. martyred son of 'Ali). (Bayrut. because she them his palace. Several of the Mongol also taken their part in this pious task. descended from 'Ali. : 2 Massaja. 17th.i The progress of Islam in Abyssinia during the first half of this century has been said to be in large measure due to the efforts of Muhammadan women. princes owed their conversion to the influence of a Muslim wife. and the same was probably the case with many of the pagan Turks when they had carried their raids into Muhammadan The Sanusiyah missionaries that came to work among countries. p. whose theological learning excited the ' Duveyrier. the great-granddaughter of Hasan (the thing quite unknown. Shawwal. himself with showing great favour to his Muhammadan keeping for many in them about his person and building a mosque devotee. is not thereby debarred from taking her place with the male saint in the company of the preachers of the faith. ii.

during their undertook this work mercy and when the parents of the sick girl were gone. and was brought to the country of in the beginning of the eleventh century.) ' Abu 'Ubaydu-1 Bakri (died 1094). Nafisah. The first was the work of a MusHm introduction of Islam into Eastern Europe jurisconsult who was taken prisoner. ii. whose piety and : austerities raised her to the dignity of a it is related of her that when she settled in Egypt. It may not be out of place here to make mention of the establishment of another Muslim community in mediaeval Europe as the result of missionary efforts. The faith of Islam was introduced among these people by seven Musulmans who came from Bulgaria (probably about the year 957 a. vol. The Muslims who numbered about twelve thousand successfully withstood the attack of the unbelievers who were more than double their number. Before the close of the eleventh century whole nation had become Muhammadan and had among them. vol. The parents of the saint poor girl had to go one day to the market and asked their pious look after their daughter Muslim neighbour to absence.WOMEN and MISSIONARIES. she up her soul in prayer to God on behalf of the helpless Scarcely was her prayer ended than the sick girl reinvalid. filled with love and • pity. the whole family parents on their return. pp.^ In religion of the Goldziher. He many of them the teachings of Islam and they embraced it began to be spread among this But the other Pechenegs who had not accepted the Muslim religion. Even the Muslim prisoner will on occasion embrace the opportunity of preaching his faith to his captors or to his fellowlifted prisoners. (Karamsin. she happened to have as her neighbours a family of dhimmis whose daughter was so grievously afflicted that she could not move her limbs. 467-8. the victors. gained the use of her limbs and was able to go to meet her Filled with gratitude. so that people. 180-1. probably in one of the wars its Muhammadan Pechenegs before ^ the set between the Byzantine Empire and neighbours. to which they had migrated from the banks of the Ural at the end of the ninth century. ' ' . Imam Ash 335 Shafi'i. men learned in Muslim theology and jurisprudence. The Pechenegs at this time occupied the country between the lower Danube and the Don. the Bashkirs of Hungary. and the remnant of the defeated party embraced the the faith with sincerity. i.). 303-4. became converts to the religion of their benefactor. admiration even of her great contemporary. but had to lie on her back all day. of . p. pp. took umbrage at the conduct of their fellowcountrymen and finally came to blows with them.d. viz.

^ In more recent Indian mawlawi. There is no God but God.336 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. the reign of the Emperor Jahangir (1605-1628) there was a certain Sunni theologian. Tome ' fibulam Sarwar: KhazInatu-1 Astiya. even the most unversed half of it in theological expression. it may be expounded by any.). is The almost universally accepted by men as a necessary postulate.d. p. who were times. arouses as a rule no particular intellectual difficulties and is within the compass of the meanest intelligence. This simple creed demands no great trial of faith. let us now consider some of the causes that have contributed to his success. and Muhammad is the Prophet of God. Assent to these two simple doctrines is all that is demanded of the convert. learned from their lips this tradition of their conversion. an his companions life in the same prison. made converts of them all. that at intervals in the world's history God grants some revelation of Himself to men through the mouth- and instructing tliem in the tenets of this religion. i. for portation to the who had been sentenced to transAndaman Islands by the British active part in the Government because he had taken an conspiracy of 1864. pp. converted death. Gecigraphie d'Aboulfeda. An Arab geographer who happened to meet a party of these Bashkirs that had'come to study the Muhammadan law in Aleppo (about 1220 a. 294-? . Islam kept its ground among the Bashkirs of Hungary until 1340. and has recorded several interesting details regarding this little com pany of the faithful isolated in the midst of the countries of the unbelievers. to speak in season Wahhabi many of the convicts before his Such being the missionary zeal of the Muslim that he is ready and out of season. Reinaud. 613. who especially controverted the doctrines of the Shi'ahs this distinguished himself by the energy with which he the latter. when King Charles Robert compelled all his subjects that were not yet Chri-tians to embrace the Christian faith or quit the country. succeeded in having him imprisoned during the two years that he was on some frivolous charge kept in prison he converted to Islam several hundred idolaters . traduite par M. being at : time in favour at court. Unencumbered with first theological subtleties. enunciates a doctrine that equally wide-spread. while the second half is based on a theory of man's relationship to God that is almost viz. Foremost among these is the simplicity of the Muslim creed. and the whole history of Muslim dogmatics fails to present any attempt on the part of ecclesiastical assemblies to force on the mass of believers any symbol couched in more elaborate and complex terms. ii. vol. named Shay^ Ahmad Mujaddid.

To believers. statements that to the religious man rest on the firrri basis of reason. so stripped of theo- complexities and consequently so accessible to the ordinary understanding. the rationaHstic character of the its MusHm out : creed. It cannot be denied that many doctrines and systems of theology and also many superstitions. piece of inspired prophets. have become grafted on to the main trunk of the Muslim creed. the fidelity to fundamental dogma of the religion. which This it hard to find surpassed outside the pale of Islam. from the worship of saints to the use of rosaries and amulets. have nowhere been more admirably in brought than the following sentences of I^ofessor Montet sense " Islam is a religion that is essentially rationalistic in the widest historically. in every sense of the term. to belief in God and a future two dogmas. the proof that it gains from the fervid conviction of the missionaries who propagate it.RATIONALISM OF ISLAM. But in spite of the rich teaching are certainly obvious forces at work in the religion development. who was an enthusiast and possessed too the ardour of faith and the fire of conviction. logical A creed so precise. that precious quality he transmitted to so many of his disciples. of the are so many causes to explain the success of Muhammadan all missionary efforts. of this term considered etymologically and The It is definition of rationalism as a system that bases religious on principles furnished by the reason. applies to it exactly. and the dogma of the unity of God has always been proclaimed therein with a grandeur. brought beliefs true that — forward his reform as a revelation only one : but this kind of revelation is form of exposition and his religion has all the marks of a bundle of doctrines founded on the data of reason. the minimum of religious belief. a majesty. missionary and the advantage it reaps therefrom in efforts. the elemental simplicity formula in which it is enunciated. of the teachings of the Prophet. Muhammad. invariable purity an is and with a note of sure conviction. 337 This. The simplicity and the clearness of this among the most and the missionary activity of Islam. sum up the whole doctrinal teaching of the Qur'an. the Muhammadan creed is summed up in belief in the unity of God and these in the mission of His Prophet. coldly analyse his doctrines. and to ourselves who life . might be expected to possess and does indeed . the Qur'an has invariably kept its place as the funda- mental starting-point.

the payment of the is another duty that continually reminds the Muslim that " the faithful are brothers " ' a religious theory that is very legal alms — ' Edouard Montet ii. No fetch of religious genius could have conceived a better expedient for impressing on the minds of the faithful a sense of their common life and of their brotherhood in the bonds of faith.338 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. : La propaganJe chr^tienne et ses adversaires musulmans. power of winning its possess a marvellous way into the consciences of men. At the same time throughout their the whole up world the hearts of believers are lifted more fortunate brethren gathered together in the sacred city. whose religion it was his mission But above all all in the missionary history of Islam supreme importance — and herein — ordains a yearly gathering is its it of believers. (3) payment Ramadan. and (5) the pilgrimage Mecca. 2 Qitr'an. fasting during the month of the legal alms. 17-18. Qui'an. The observance of this last duty has often been objected to as a strange survival of idolatry in the midst of the monotheism of the Prophet's teaching. Their visit to the sacred city has been to many Muslims the experience that has stirred them up to strive in the path of God. as in their own homes they celebrate the festival of Idu-1 Adha or (as it is called in Turkey and Egypt) the feast of Bayram.' and in the preceding pages constant reference has been made to the active part taken by the hajis in missionary work. the Chinaman from the distant East recognises his brother the courtly and polished the farthest end of Muslim in the wild islander from the Malayan Sea. . 10. xUx. of all nations and languages. are to set parts of the their which faces in pray in that sacred place towards every hour of private worship in their distant homes. Here. he has then to be instructed in the five practical duties of his religion : (i) recital of the creed. in Muhammadan sympathy with ' Besides the institution of the pilgrimage.) 118-126." ' When the convert has accepted and learned this simple creed. 1890.^ itself it must be borne in mind that to him it with Abraham. (Palis. 3 pp. brought together from world. of (2) observance of the five (4) to- appointed times of prayer. but connected to restore. in a supreme act of common Ottoman worship the Negro of the West coast of Africa meets .

(Madras. chap. and seldom the 339 fails Muhammadan society to express itself in acts of kindness towards new convert. stage of civilisation. attracts it need only be is evidence against the theory that Islam during the month of a piece of standing a religious system that by pandering to the self-indulgence of is men." Bound up with these and other ritual observances.) precedents of Moohummudan Law. p. Z 2 . his frequent prostrations.. Of the said that fast it is Ramadan. p. " His religion lavations. which cannot leave either the worshipper or the spectator unIf Renan could say.) = De I'Esprit des Lois. 2. mosquee sans une vive emotion. prayers five times a day. 1S82. his absorbed and silent worship of the Unseen. " both in winning and retaining. would impress the heathen African. 3 L'Islamisme et la Science. As Carlyle fasts." ^ it can be readily understood regret de n'etre pas how the sight of the Muslim trader at prayer." religion of the Muslim is continually present with him and in the religion chargee de attache plus a elle qu'une autre qui I'est . the Principles and (See W. Une daily prayers manifests itself in a solemn and impressive ritual.^ Whatever be equals. (Pans. i»83. has said. and abstinence from wine. ordinance of the daily prayers five times a day. as a free gift. strict not an easy one : with rigorous complex formulas. colour or antecedents he is received in the brotherhood of believers and takes his place as an equal among Very effective also. is the Montesquieu ^ beaucoup de pratiques moins on tient beauThe coup aux choses dont on est continueUement occupe. it did not succeed by being an easy religion. his race. ' But if not procure for : Ernest Renan. has well said. " Je ne suis jamais entre dans une affected.THE RITUALISM OF strikingly realised in ISLAM. and the knowledge of Islam thus imparted might sometimes win over a convert who might have turned aside had it been offered — unsought. le dirai-je ? sans un certain musulman. 19. the articles of the Muslim creed are incessantly finding outward manifestation in the life of conversion does the unbeliever is the slave of a Muslim the fact of his him his manumission. Macnaghten not affect the prior state of bondage. 312. as has been stated by some European conversion of a slave does writers for according to the Muhammadan law. livre xxv. endued with that strong sense of the mysterious such as generally accompanies a low Curiosity would naturally prompt inquiry. but not encumbered or obscured by them. H.

The circumstances are very different when Islam has not to appear as a suppliant in a foreign country." 1 power that Islam has exercised over the minds " If you would win the great masses give them the rounded form. and thus becoming inextricably interwoven with the routine of his daily life. while his manners. ' t. but stands forth proudly as the religion of the ruling race. In the preceding ' A.340 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. jc. truth in guise. Kuenen : 1882. his well-known and harmless avocation secures to him an immunity from any such knowledge of feelings of suspicion. . to a great extent. p. secret of the we may find. is but also by more civilised men of the world who are very prone to doubt the sincerity of the paid missionary agent. and minuteness of the ritual leave the believer in no doubt as to what he has to do. neat and clear. in visible and tangible Many other circumstances might be adduced that have con- tributed towards the missionary success of Islam peculiar to particular times and countries. whose range of experience and mental horizon are limited and to whom the idea of any man enduring the perils of a long journey and laying aside every mundane missionary. and these duties performed. for the sole purpose of gaining proselytes. make the individual Musalman an expo- nent and teacher of his creed far more than is the case with the adherents of most other religions. and remove that feeling of constraint which might naturally arise in the presence of the stranger. his creed makes but little demand upon the intellect. especially in Africa and other uncivilised countries where the Among these may be Muhammadan missionary work people are naturally suspicious of the foreigner. — circumstances •derives mentioned the advantage that from the fact of its being so largely in the hands of traders. is men and who liable to not only by people occupation inexplicable.« f I London.) National Religions and Universal Religions. his commercial savoir-faire. For. and the definiteness. he has the satisfaction of feeling that he In this union of has fulfilled all the precepts of the Law. positiveness. the believer. He labours under no such disadvantages as hamper the professed be suspected of some sinister motive. gain for him a ready reception. rationalism and ritualism. the of men. Couched in such short and simple language. in the case of the trader.

The persecution. The many Christian sects and communities in have been for centuries under Muhammadan rule is an abiding testimony to the toleration they have enjoyed. on pourrait presque dire plus indifferente sur la foi des hommes que I'lslam. still. 24-5. Qu'on ne s'arrete pas aux violences.TOLERATIOxN OF ISLAM. under Al llutawakkil. says " Non raro persecutionis procellam excitarunt mutuae Christianorum ipsorum simultates. praesulum fastus. p. had they not been suspected of disloyalty and disaffection towards their Muhammadan ruler. Si on y regarde de pres. .g. gS. on the whole. by the orthodox reaction against all forms of deviation from the popular creed in Persia and other parts of Asia about the end of the thirteenth century in revenge lor the domineering and insulting behaviour of the Christians in the hour of their advancement and power under the : Tome i. in accordance with the pre cepts of the Qur'an :— " Let there be no compulsion in religion " (ii. . (MagrlzT (2). ? No soul 100). and shows that the persecutions they have from time to time been called upon to endure at the hands of bigots and fanatics. en realite. sacerdotum licentia. pp. Le fait religieux n'y est invoque que comme pretexte et. iii.! very existence of so countries that ' e. Cette disposition organique est si forte qu'en dehors des cas ou la raison d'Etat mise en jeu a porte les gouvemements musulmans a se faire arme de tout pour tendre a I'unite de foi. aux cruautes commises dans une occasion ou dans une autre." During the crusades the Christians of the East frequently fell under the suspicion of favouring the invasions of their co-religionists from the West. et medicorum praesertim scribarumque de supremo in gentem suam imperio altercationes. : . 106. unhave enjoyed under Muhammadan rule a measure of toleration. and in modern Turkey the movement for Greek Independence and the religious sympathies it early Mongols. la tolerance la plus complete a ete la r^gle fournie par le dogme. il reste en dehors. persecution of the Christians : — excited in Christian Europe contributed to make the lot of the subject Christian races harder than it would have been. on ne tardera pas a y decouvrir des causes toutes politiques ou toutes de passion humaine et de temperament chez le souverain ou dans les populations. pp. De Gobineau has expressed himself very strongly on this question of the toleration of Islam "Si Ton separe la doctrine religieuse de la necessite politique qui souvent a parle et agi en son nom. and though the pages of Muhammadan history are stained with enjoins toleration many cruel persecutions. 99. have been excited by some special and local circumstances rather than inspired by a settled principle of intolerance. de Gobineau (i). 257). " can believe but Wilt thou compel men to become believers by the permission of God " (x. Pars. pages it 341 has been shown that the theory of the MusHm faith and freedom of rehgious hfe for all those followers of other faiths that pay tribute in return for protection. .) Asspeaking of the causes that have excited the under Muhammadan rule." A.c). tyrannica magnatum potestas. the like of which is not to be found in Europe until the blood of believers quite modern times. Forcible conversion was forbidden. semani (Tom. il n'est pas de religion plus tolerante. Premiere Partie.

either religious or civil. Viaggio di losafa Barbaro nella Persia. the : title by which Abu :i as commonly known for his biography. 'Ali 'Abdu-r RaliTm (i 135-1200) Ibn Hiallikan.e. ii pp. At such times of persecution. of the great Saladin. p. p. d'Ohsson. 455. a Muslim jurisconsult from Spain denounced him for his apostasy and demanded that the extreme penalty of the law should be inflicted on him for this offence but the case was quashed by Al Qadi-1 Fadil.3 In the same spirit. 281 (Ramusio. religion of the Qur'an. had been converted to Islam by force could not times a Muhammadan governor set himself to severely crush an outburst of fanaticism of the same character. C. When .342 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. the talented qadi. the pressure of circumstances has many unbelievers to become outwardly at least Muhammadans. 5-6). pp. when Ghazan (1295-1304) discovered that the Buddhist monks that had become Muhammadans at the beginning of his reign. ii." * A story of a much earlier traveller ^ in Persia. 160. iv. and many instances might be given of individuals who.* Tavernier tells us a similar story of some Jews of Ispahan who were so grievously persecuted by the governor " that either by force or cunning he caused them to turn Mahometans but the king (Shah 'Abbas II. he granted permission to all those who so wished to return to Thibet. fled to Egypt and there openly declared himself to be a Jew. p.) (i 642-1667) understanding that only power and fear had constrained them to turn suffer'd them to resume their own religion and to live in quiet. shows how even in those turbulent . in 1478. see * Abu-1 Faraj (2). driven — — on particular sanction of occasions. where among their Buddhist fellow-countrymen they would be free once more to follow their own faith. rich Armenian A ^ i. Tavernier (i). (when their temples had been destroyed. vol. had feigned conversion to Islam. and the upheld by the decisions of the Muhammadan Moses Maimonides. vol. and the prime minister is same doctrine doctors.) . vol.i one of the most famous of Muslim judges. Muhammadan The passages in the Qur'an that forbid forced conversion and enjoin preaching as the sole legitimate method of spreading the faith have already been quoted above (Introduction. have been harassed into submission to the But such oppression is wholly without the law. who authoritatively declared that a man who be rightly considered to be a Muslim.) only made a pretence of being converted. who under the fanatical rule of the Almohades. in-ni. m. p.

Al Muqtadir (908-932 A. 87. ' - .) gave orders for the rebuilding of some churches in Palestine that had been destroyed by Muhammadans during a riot. about a century before. captured the culprit having been brought into his presence. Similarly. 513-4.^ Neglected as the Eastern Christians have been by their Christian brethren in the West. 103-4. When the governor of the city heard the news. (Eutychius. 96. (pp. or fallen into decay. 343 merchant of the city of Tabriz was sitting in his shop one day when a Haji. Tom. pp. afterwards allowed these unwilling converts to return again to their religion own and rebuild their ruined places of worship. coining up to him importuned him to become a Musalman and abandon his Christian faith when the merchant expressed his intention of remaining steadfast in his religion and offered the fellow alms with the hope of getting rid of him. it would have been easy for any of the powerful rulers of Islam to have utterly rooted out their Christian subjects or banished them from their dominions. 120). he replied that what he wanted was not his alms but his conversion and at length.D. It would have been Salim I. 182. Al Maliin. the common people took up the body and buried it. also he called the son of the merchant to him and comforted him and caressed him with good and kindly words. 85-6. or the English the Jews for nearly four centuries. the merchant.FORCED CONVERSION CONDEMNED. the cause of which is not recorded. saying " What is this the way in which the religion of Muhammad spreads ? " At nightfall. 327-8). enraged at the persistent refusal of . governor stabbed his : whereupon the Governor enraged at this contempt of his order. 260. (pp. S. the him to death with his own hand and ordered body to be cast forth to be devoured of dogs.) Abu Salih makes mention of the rebuilding of a great many churches and monasteries in Egypt that had either been destroyed in time of war (e. Even the mad Al Hakim {996-1020). p. as the Spaniards did the Moors. whose persecutions caused many Jews and Christians to abandon their own faith and become Musalmans. been wrecked by fanatics. suddenly snatched a stander sword out of the hand of a byand struck the merchant a mortal blow on the head and then ran away. (in 1514) or Ibrahim (1646) to have put into execution the barbarous notion they conceived of exterperfectly possible for If indeed by Azi is meant Haji. ii. •gi. 112. he was very angry and ordered the murderer to be pursued and . and Maqrizi quoted m (pp. during the invasion of the Ghuzz and the Kurds in 1 164). gave up the place for three or four hours to be sacked by his soldiers and afterwards imposed a fine as a further penalty .i with a reputation for sanctity.) the Appendix p.g. unarmed for the most part and utterly defenceless.

) ^ * In loannis Evangelium Tractatus. de ^ la Jonquiere. the minds of their masters from such a cruel purpose. Strange as it may life of Islam. and they should not make us lose sight of other factors in the missionary — — whose influence has been of a more distinctly Foremost among these is the influence of the devout lives of the followers of Islam. 213. xxv. accounts for all cases of conversion. Tome p. 102. Persons on whom their religious faith sat lightly would be readily influenced by considerations of worldly advantage. quaerit intercessionem clericorum alius premitur a potentiore. St. 625. Merivale: The Conversion of the Northern Nations. just as the former had massacred 40. imperious and pompous Christianity enthroned by the side of kings. and sometimes paramount above them. did so as the exponents of Muslim law and Muslim tolerance. § 10. that : ! many . : .344 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. pp. nisi ut illis faciat bene secundum tempus Alius negotium habet. it is obvious that the fact of Islam being the state religion could not fail to have some influence in increasing the number of its adherents. minating their Christian subjects. (Paris. ' A. 615. (London. in the one religion as in the other.) . clesia. Islam must have appeared imposing and have exercised as powerful a fascination as the Christian faith presented to the Barbarians of Northern Europe. ille sic impletur quotidie talibus ecin the fifth century. 1878. E. . when " when They found Christianity in the Empire Christianity refined and complex. fugit ad alius pro se vult interveniri apud eum apud quem ecclesiam parum valet ille sic. 312. pp. though the principle that found so much favour in Ger- many in the seventeenth century ~ —Cuius regio eius religio. 1866. C." * But the recital of such motives as little.000 Shi'ahs with the aim of establishing uniformity of religious The muftis who turned belief among his Muhammadan subjects.^ Still. 203. was never adopted by any Muhammadan potentate. Augustine made a similar complaint entered the Christian church merely because they hoped to gain some temporal advantage thereby " Quam multi non quaerunt lesum. ii." * Moreover its to the barbarous and uncivilised as tribes that saw the glory and majesty of the empire of the Arabs in the heyday of power. religious character. and ambition and self-interest would take the place of more laudable motives for conversion. Charveriat: Histoire de la Guerre de Trente Ans.

cenorum. they would no doubt have some influence of attraction on the unbeliever who came in daily contact with them. Laurent. misericordia . aflfabilitas ad This note of praise extraneos. as thei the .g. . p. Ottoman Turks in the early Europe received many a tribute of praise as has already been shown in a former chief factors (beyond such of At the present day there are two the above-mentioned as still hold good) that make for is missionary the revival activity in the Muslim world. and has numerous movements which take rank among In the prethe most powerful influences in the Islamic world. India given birth to ceding pages b 1 and the Malay Archipelago even to the present day. lips. . a Dominican missionary who visited the East ." " The literature of the Crusades virtues. seyne seynt Gabrielle the Aungel often tyme is tolde the wille of God. bears testimony travellers and others quanta in ipsis Sarracenis sollicitudo oratione. . that " the Sarazines ben gode and feythfulle. si diligenter consideret. gravitas in moribus. who have come at of the Muslims the close of the thirteenth century. kinds of vice. in lege tante perfidie poterant opera tante perfectionis quomodo inveniri. 139. Referemus igitur hie breviter opera perfectionis SarraQuis enim non obstupescat. Christians it 345 appear to a generation accustomed to look upon Islam as a cloak for all is nevertheless true that in earlier times many into contact with a living Muslim society have been profoundly impressed by the virtues if these could so strike the traveller and the exhibited therein stranger. as a religious revival its influence is felt throughout Africa. it has already been shown ' how closely connected p. Ricoldus de Monte Crucis. concordia et amor ad suos ? " 1 and admiration finds many an echo in the works of Christian Sir John Mandevile e. devocio in ad pauperes.PROSELYTISING INFLUENCES. ad studium. . For thei kepen entirely sente Comaundement of the Holy Book Alkaron. thus breaks out in praise among whom he had laboured: " Obstupuimus. 131- Mandevile. reverencia ad nomen Dei et prophetas et loca sancta. The : first of these of religious life the which dates from the Wahhabi reformation at end of the last century though this new departure has long lost all political significance outside the confines of Najd. that God hem be his Messager Machomet to the whiche. while the rich in such appreci- ations of Muslim days of their rule in from Christian chapter.

this trend of . sense of a vast unity and of a common life nations inspirits the hearts of the faithful to speak in the presence of the unbelievers. it is significant that those -very Muslim countries that have been longest under Christian rule show themselves most active in the work of proselytising. The spiritual energy of Islam is not. Though in no way so significant as the other. commensurate with its political power. But their very activity at the present day is a proof that Islam is not dead. bring to the front the finer spiritual qualities which are the incentives adversity. to truest of missionary work. as has been so often maintained. so far Islam has learned the uses from a decline in worldly prosperity being a presage of the decay of this faith.i On the contrary. the future only can show. which one looks for in vain in Turkey or Morocco. many revival has stirred up." (The Religions of the World. and to the organisation of devotional given to theological study the fervid zeal it modern Muslim missions are with this wide-spread exercises have all served to awake and keep alive the innate is proselytising spirit of Islam. — another of an of diifer- for. entirely different character. Frederick Denison Maurice was giving expression to one of the most commonly received opinions regarding this faith when he said. p. 28. the latter is rather in sympathy with modern thought and offers a presentment of Islam in accordance therewith. which seeks to bind all the nations the of the Muslim world in a common bond of sympathy around still Sultan of Turkey as Khalifah and spiritual head of the faithful. and the running through the and makes them bold will What further influence these two life movements have on the missionary of Islam. viz. 1852.346 THE PREACHING OF of the : ISLAM. Side by side with this reform movement. the new life it has the impetus it has infused into existing religious institutions. to the loss of political power and worldly prosperity has served. to mention one point ence only. — the Pan-Islamic movement. " It has been proved that Mahometanism can only thrive whUe it is aiming at conquest.) and . thought gives a powerful stimulus to missionary labours effort to realise in actual life the the Muslim ideal of the brotherhood of all believers reacts on collateral ideals of the faith.) (Cambridge. while the former is strongly opposed to European civilisation. The Indian and Malay Muhammadans display a zeal and enthusiasm for the spread of the faith.

popular meaning of warfare against unbelievers attached to the word Jihad. taken with the context can Lane. p. labour. all the wars of Muhammad were defensive. It is further maintained that the common.i and that. There are no passages to be found in the Qur'an that in any way enjoin forcible conversion. or religious war. and that the passages in which this word or any of the derivatives from the same root occur.APPENDIX JIHAD. in accordance with such teaching. as the word is commonly translated. or studious to take pains : it is applied to exertion ' ' ' ' . toil. 1885. in fact whether Islam has been •without .) compulsory conversion. or (Calcutta. " La guerre sainte n'est imposee comma devoir que dans le seul cas ou les ennemis de I'islam ont ete les aggresseurs . p. of Muslim missionary activity would be incomplete some mention of the Jihad. should be translated in accordance with the primitive meaning. is not allowed in the Koran. How inadequate is such an account of the spread of Islam may be judged from the pre•ceding pages it remains now to see whether the teaching of the Qur'an authorises forced conversion and exhorts the believer to an armed and militant propaganda. " No precept is to be found in the Kuran which. to be diligent. 93. ce n'est que par suite d'une interpretation arbitraire des theologiens. The meaning of the simple verb. 152. if only for the fact that the faith of Islam is commonly said to have been propagated by the sword and the typical Muslim missionary is represented as a warrior with the sword in one hand and the Qur'an in the other offering to the unbelievers the choice between the two. jahada is to strive." Dozy (i). Any account — missionary despite itself. justify unprovoked war." ' : that all the . and that aggressive war. and many that on the contrary limit propagandist efforts to preaching and persuasion. I. Maulavi Cheragh Ali A Critical Exposition of the Popular Jihad showing wars of Mohammad were defensive . It has farther been maintained that no passage in the Qur'an authorises unprovoked attacks on unbelievers. to exert oneself . is post•Qur'anic. si on prend autrement les prescriptions du Koran.

as these verses were revealed in Mecca.' and the noun of action from the same form.) And they swear by (xvi. but derives its particular application from the context only. 69. And. had certainly raised up a warner in . or exerting. one's utmost power. and verse 1 1 1 to the flight into Abyssinia the jihad of these persons therefore was the great exertions and toils they had to make through persecution and exile. occur arranging the passages in chronological order. We if them not. Whoso Then after forced to (shall he hath believed in God denieth Him. denotes to take pains to form a right judgment.' using. . respecting a doubtful and The meaning of the noun of action. 1 11.• We We every city Give not way then to the unbelievers. gracious. jahadu) for our path will surely guide for verily God is with those who do righteous deeds." and it is obvious from the above account of the various meanings of different forms that the root assumes.) striven. ijtihad. : be guiltless) to those who after their trials fled their country and strove (jahadu) and endured with patience. then obey . or ability. in exerted themselves. jihad is " the difficult point. (have We : . much less to fighting against unbelievers or forcible conversion of them. (xxv.) Moreover but have enjoined on man to show kindness to parents they strive (jahada) with thee in order that thou join that with Me of which thou hast no knowledge.) God with their most strenuous (jahda) oath.348 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. verily thy Lord will afterwards be forgiving. for the purpose of forming an opinion in a case of law. in any kind of affair. striveth (yujahidu) for his own self only verily God is independent of all creatures.) (The reference is here clearly to preaching. that primarily the word bears no reference to war or fighting. And us. ijtahada. even the churning of butter or the eating of food. 7.) And whosoever striveth (jahada). had pleased.) those who have (xxix. 5. (xxix. and (in the the 8th case of things) to their becoming much and spreading form. 'a lawyer's : ' exerting the faculties of the mind to the utmost. (xvi.) (Verse 108 is said to refer to the tortures inflicted on some of the converts. in contending with an object of disapprobation.— in the 4th form ajhada. : (xxix. and to translate jihad warfare is as absurd ' ' as it is illegitimate. if he were it and if his heart remain steadfast in the faith. 53-4. endeavour. In the following pages it is proposed to give all the passages in which jihad or any other derivatives from the same root. but by means of this (Qur'an) strive against them with a mighty strife (jahid hum jihadan kabiran). efforts. also to swearing. 108. 40.

i (Ixi. sit at home free from trouble and those who themselves mujahiduna) in the way of God with God has their property and their persons. and turn others from the way of God.) Verily. Verily they who believe not. and they who have given shelter to and have I helped (the Prophet). 31. and strive (exert yourselves tujahiduna) in the way of God with your property and your Do ye think persons. Think these men of diseased hearts. 136. that with not.) Those believers fc it' . (xlvii.) that ye could enter Paradise without God's taking knowledge of those among you who have striven (exerted (iii. ( But they who beheve. 33-4. 349 they (i.) who have turned plain to them.) most strenuous (jahda) oath. 109. and have given shelter to and have helped (the Prophet). 76. are not equal.APPENDIX But if I. But as for those who have believed and have fled their country and have striven (jahadu) in the way of God. shall be near of kin the one to the other.e. ' most strenuous (jahda) (vi. 14.) country. shall in no way injure God : but their works shall He bring to nought. (viii. Satan hath beguiled them. made — Ijack after the guidance hath been . until we know those who have striven (mujahidina) and those who have been patient among you . and separate themselves from the Apostle after that the guidance hath been clearly shown them. and we will test the reports of you.) They swore by God with (xxxv. 7S-) L And they who have K I —these are of you. jahadu) in the way 1 . and strive of God. f 73. and God is gracious and merciful. that God will not bring out their malice to light ? And we will surely test you. may hope for God's mercy. 11. obey them their (xxxi. they who believe and have fled their country and have striven (jahadu) with their property and their persons in the way of God. (ii. Goodly promises hath God made to all but God hath assigned to those who strive (exert themselves who strive (exert : . 215. Me thy parents) strive (jahada) to make thee join of which thou hast no knowledge. these are the true believers Mercy is their due and a noble provision. Verily those since believed and have fled their country and have striven (exerted themselves jahadu) together with you. (viii. their And they have sworn by God with oath. and who fly their (exert themselves. 27. .) yourselves jahadu) and have been patient? Believe in God and His apostle. . 40. assigned to those who strive (exert themselves mujahidina) with their property and their persons a rank above those who sit at home.

97.) Prophet. although they believe not that truth which hath come to you they drive forth the Apostle and yourselves because ye believe in God your Lord. strive (jahid) with the unbelievers and hypocrites. who sit at home. for God is a sufficient guardian " accordingly the verse is taken to mean " exert thyself in preaching to. (xxii. They who have believed and fled their country.e. and remonstrating with. then I well know what ye conceal. Haply ye shall fare well . He hath elected you. be not smooth with them or be beguiled by them. : . i.) (As Muhammad never fought with the munafiqina or hypomaking war the feeling crites. 186.) And they swore by ! God with their most strenuous (jahda) (xxiv. 16. and be strict towards them. And strive in the Lord (exert 3rourselves jahidu in God). and put thy trust in God. and hath not laid on you any hardship in religion. as it behoveth you to do for Him. and what ye discover.3 so THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 76-7. These are the sincere. the faith of your father Abraham. (xlix. (Ix. and the visitation of the sacred temple. If ye have come out striving (jihadan) in My path and from a desire to please Me and (yet) show them kindness in private. oath. and striven (jahadu) with their property and their persons on the path of ' O ' : : — .") ^ O ye who believe take not My foe and your foe for friends ye show them kindness. : ' ChiragJi 'All. 52.) The true believers are those only who believe in God and His apostle and afterwards doubt not and who strive (iahadu) with their property and their persons on the path of God. and striveth (iahada) in the path of God ? They are not equal before God and God guideth not the unjust. 74. and that God doth not yet know those among you who strive (exert themselves jahadu) and take none for their intimate friends besides God and His apostle and the faithful? (ix. ix. i. mujahidina) a rich recompense above those (iv. and work righteousness. we cannot translate jahid as that guided his conduct towards them is rather indicated in xxxiii.) Do ye place the giving drink to the pilgrims. — ! . (Ixvi. p. 47 " Obey not the infidels and hypocrites and take no heed of their evil entreating.) O behevers bow down and prostrate yourselves and worship your Lord. on the same level with him who believeth on God and the last day. . the unbelievers and hypocrites. 9. And whoso of you doth this hath verily therefore gone astray from the right way. 15.) Think ye that ye shall be forsaken. and be severe towards them.

(v. them who said." those of tion." (ix. 39. and dwellings wherein ye delight. God . then wait until God shall Himself enter on His work and God guideth not . and merchandise which ye fear may be unsold. which was to have been made after In this case. and and ! strive (exert yourselves jahidu) in His path : it may be that ye will attain to happiness. from which the last nine verses have been quoted. (ix. and strive (jahidu) with your property and your persons on the path of God. (ix. 24. be dearer to you than God and His apostle and striving (jihadin) in His path.) And their the faithful will say. 58.) If your fathers and your sons and your brethren and your wives and your kindred and wealth which ye have gained. and desire union with Him." of riches demanded exempsit and Allow us to be with those who at 87. the impious. 82.) who Moreover when a SQrah was sent down with strive (exert yourselves jahidu) in " Believe in God and home. ! implied in jihad. 351 : God. 13. (ix. that they were surely on (v. "Will ye not do battle with a people who have broken their covenant and aimed to expel your apostle and attacked you first ? " (ix. (ix. 20.) (The ninth Surah. 41. 44. " March not out in the heat.) But the apostle and those who have believed with him.) Those believe in God and in the last day will not ask leave of thee to be excused from striving (yujahidu) with their property and their persons. was revealed at the end of the ninth year of the Hijrah. the expiration of the four sacred months. the light and heavy armed. 89.) March ye forth. (ix.) They who were left in their homes were delighted (to stay) behind God's apostle and were averse from striving (yujahidu) with their property and their persons in the path of God and said.) fighting in defence of their aggrieved allies would naturally be . though forming no essential part of its meaning we can thus understand how jihad came in later times to be interpreted as meaning fighting against unbelievers. " Are these they who swore by God most strenuous (jahda) oath. when the Meccans had violated the truce of Hudaybiyah and attacked the Banu Khuza'ah.) ye who believe fear God.) ! your side?" ye who believe should any of you desert His religion. strove (exerted themselves jahadu) with their property and persons and these good things await them and these are they who shall be happy. 5. are of the highest grade with God and these are they shall enjoy felicit}^. (ix.) The timely submission of Mecca however removed the necessity of this retaliation. who were in alliance with Muhammad. " are possessed company with His apostle. 19.APPENDIX who I. (ix.

grievous to the unbelievers. jizyah. . then raise up a people whom He loveth. none (as far as I am aware) have ventured to justify compulsory conversion but have always vindicated for the conquered the right of retaining their own faith on payment of . 59. being in no way intended as positive injunctions for future observance or religious precepts for coming generations. legists and commentators that due to the Muhammadan jihad came to be interpreted as a religious war waged against unbelievers. considered apart from the context and the special circumstances under which they were delivered and to which alone they were held to refer. they It is God and will strive (exert themselves yujahiduna) in the path oi (v.) will not fear the blame of the blamer. and who love Him. But though some Muhammadan legists have maintained the rightfulness of unprovoked war against unbelievers.352 will THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. lowly towards the faithful. who might be attacked even though they were not the aggressors but such a doctrine is wholly unauthorised by the Qur'an and can only be extracted therefrom by quoting isolated portions of different verses.

followed the footsteps of their Prophet in courtesy. saying " I am sent to be kind and considerate to all men and not to deal roughly or harshly with them. For those trustworthy. So I have followed this excellent way and have begun my letter with the salutation of peace and blessing. Muhammad.APPENDIX II. feeling bound to show gratitude for the services you have done us. LETTER OF AL HASHIMl INVITING AL KIND! TO EMBRACE ISLAM. So I have written this to you in obedience to the messenger of God (may the peace and mercy of God be upon him !)." Likewise I have observed that those of our Klialifahs that I have met. the Merciful. graciousness and beneficence. and because of the favour of my lord and cousin the Commander of the Faithful (may God assist him !) towards you and his trust in you and his praise of you. " Verily God is kind and merciful to believers. and made no distinctions in this matter and preferred none before another. my family and my parents. and because of the love and affection and inclination that you show towards us. The to following is the text of Al Hashimi's letter inviting Al Kindi : embrace Islam " In the name of God. nobility. Muhammad (may the peace and mercy of God be upon him !) used to say that love of kinsmen is true piety and religion. the messenger of God (may the peace and mercy of God be upon him !). the Compassionate. So in all sincerity desiring for you what I desire for myself. and that God has approved of for us and for all creatures and for which He has promised a good reward in the end and safety from . I have been guided therein by my affection towards you because my lord and prophet." and quoting the words of God. righteous and truthful persons who have handed down to us the traditions of our Prophet (peace be upon him !) have related this tradition concerning him that such was his habit and that whenever he began to converse with men he would commence with the salutation of peace and blessing and made no distinction of dhimmis and illiterate. I have begun this letter with the salutation of peace and blessing after the fashion of my lord and the lord of the prophets. I will set forth the religion that we hold. between Muslims and Idolaters (mushriq). that I be blamed of none who sees my letter.

their kneeling and prostrations and touching the ground with their cheeks and beating it with their foreheads and humble bearing throughout their prayers. . 97). "And whoso desireth any other religion than Islam. and Holy Ghost. and again. our Prophet Muhammad (the peace and blessing of God be upon him !). 79). So I have sought punishment when unto Him we shall return. and when they spend the whole day standing in — — prayer. 17). and in the days of their retreats which they call Holy Week when they stand barefooted in sackcloth and ashes. . vast learning. with what cleanliness they keep the bread for it. and I have prayed that He may make me an instrument to this end. God in His perfect book says "Verily the religion before God is Islam" (iii. and have attended their prayers. fear God as He deserveth to be and die not without having become Muslims " (iii. especially on Sunday and Friday nights. " Dispute not with the men of the book except in the best way. your virtuous behaviour. lofty qualities and your extensive influence over your co-religionists. famous for their austerities and vast knowledge. . . And you know (May God deliver you from the ignorance of unbelief and open your heart to the light of faith !) that I am one over whom many years have passed and I have sounded the depths of other faiths and weighed them and studied many of their books especially your books. confirming His first saying. to gain for you what I would gain for myself. says. but had hope of it for you from God who showeth the right path to whomsoever He willeth. when He feared . I have observed their extraordinary diligence. good and mild perchance you may be aroused and return to the true path and incline unto the words of the Most High God which He has sent down to the last of the Prophets and lord of the children of Adam. Son.. 45. and the long prayers they recite with great humiHty when they elevate it over .354 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. and wailing with strange cries. Therefore I have determined to set before you what the favour of God has revealed to us and to expound unto you our faith with good and gentle speech. following the commandment of God. continually repeating the name of the Father. nobility of character. " O believers. and on their festivals when they keep watch all night standing on their feet praising and glorifying God and confessing Him. with much weeping and shedding of tears continually. and explains how he has studied the various Christian sects. and again He confirms it decisively. and seeing your high moral life. I have not despaired of success. I have seen also their sacrifices. have visited many churches and monasteries." (Here he enumerates the chief books of the Old and New Testaments.) So I will discuss with you only in words well-chosen. it shall by no means therefore be accepted from him.." (xxix. . I have had compassion on you lest you should continue in your present faith. and in the next world he shall be among the lost " (iii.) " I have met with many monks.

for he was a Hanif and MusHm. renowned for their learning and their devotion to the Christian faith and extreme austerity in the world. He begetteth not. have invited you to the worship of this the One God. seeking for the truth. Also I have visited their Metropolitans and Bishops. I invite you to accept the religion that God has chosen for me and I for myself. So I have written at such length to you (may God show you the better way !) after long consideration and profound inquiry and investigation. they have spoken openly and without deception of any kind. have held discussions with them and asked them to speak freely as their reason. and in this my letter I have added nothing to that wherewith He has denominated Himself (high and exalted This is the be His name above what they associate with Him !). etc. and there is none like unto Him. the only God. Abraham (may the blessings of God rest upon him !). So. And it is this. i. •deliverance from Hell. laying aside all contentiousness. On all such occasions I have been present and observant of the people. and the chosen one of the God . for none I •of His creatures could know Him better than He Himself. their creed and their conclusions prompted. . I have given them opportunity to maintain their arguments and speak out their minds without interruption or browbeating.e. and their inward feelings have been laid bare to me as plainly as their outward appearance. the Eternal. and have discussed with them impartially. and I have observed also the meditations of the monks in their cells during their six fasts. Then I invite you (may God have you in His keeping !) to bear witness and acknowledge the prophetic mission of my lord and the lord of the sons of Adam. neither is He begotten. religion of your father and our father. as is done by the vulgar and illiterate and foolish persons among our co-religionists who have no principle to work up to or reasons on which to rest. now (may God shower His blessings upon you !) with this "knowledge of your religion and so long-standing an affection (for you). 355 the altar in the well-known church at Jerusalem with those cups full of wine. so that none may suspect that I am ignorant of the things whereof I write and that all into whose hands this letter may come. Muhammad A a 2 . •of all worlds and the seal of the prophets. the four greater — and the two less. may know that I have an accurate knowledge of the Christian faith. ostentation of learning and imperiousness in altercation and bitterness and pride of race. who hath no consort and no son.APPENDIX II. assuring you entrance into Paradise and . whose attribute is such. This is —You shall worship the one God. . or religious feeling or good manners to restrain them from rudeness their speech is but browbeating and proud altercation and they have no knowledge or arguments except Whenever I taking advantage of the rule of the government. i the attribute wherewith God has denominated Himself.

which are the words of the Truth. with compassion and pity and good words. of which God disapproves and which calls for punishment. the Creator of the worlds. who hath sent His Apostle with the guidance and a over every religion of the truth. from mountain and from plain. So God set them up in the cities and subjected to them the necks of the nations of men. with kindly manners and gentleness. albeit they who assign partners to God be averse from it. and concludes. and sincerity of his purpose. that He may make it victorious other religion. the only God. except those who hearkened to them and accepted their religion and bore witness to their faith." He then enumerates the various ordinances of Islam. and recounts the joys of Paradise and the pains of Hell." He then enumerates various religious " So now in duties and privileges of the Muslim. and the clear argument and plain proof that he brought. and in his name becoming victorious over those who denied his divine mission and rejected his message and scornfully entreated him. " So I have admonished you if you believe in this faith and accept whatever is read to you from the revealed Word of God. But if you refuse and continue in your unbelief and error and contend against the truth. and speak no more of Father. willing assent when they beheld the truth and faithfulness of his words. All gave to those who are willing to give heed to admonition. the expounds the doctrine of the resurrection fast of Ramadan. their property and their honour were safe and they were exempt from humbly paying jizyah. the Self-sufficing. from land and sea. these words that you yourself admit to be so confusing and give up the worship of the cross which brings loss and no profit. whose promises cannot fail and in whose words there is no deceit. " Say Assuredly if mankind and the Jinns should conspire to produce the like of this Qur'an. they could not produce And (xvii. the like of which cannot be produced by men or Jinns. : : . 91.) its Uke. such as the five daily prayers. and they entered into his religion and accepted his authority without being forced and without unwillingness. I shall have my reward. this my letter I have read to you the words of the great and high God.356 sent by " He it THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. though the one should help the other. for I wish you to turn away from it. Jihad of the dead and the last judgment. Then give up your unbelief and error. Then all these people accepted his invitation. bearing witness that he is the apostle of God." So he invited men to the this is sufficient proof of his mission. 33. is God with glad tidings and warnings to all mankiiad. since your learning and nobility : . then you will profit from my admonition and my writing to you. having fulfilled the commandment. whereby their blood.) So he invited all men from the East and from the West. but rather humbly acknowledging him and soliciting the light of his guidance." (ix. worship of the One God. Son and Holy Ghost. namely the book that was sent down to him from God. And the truth will judge you.

and they with (xcviii. those who join other gods with God. a grievous chastisement shall assuredly befall such of them as beheve not. in which they shall abide for evermore. that He may show His kindness and favour to them by guiding them into the true path by means of His guidance. 357 : are degraded thereby. for him who feareth his Lord. shall go into the fire of Hell to abide therein for ever. ness. ." Verily. ." (iii. hath devised a great wicked- And again " Surely now are they infidels who the Messiah. therefore. 106. 5-8. Will they not. that you and I might be of the same opinion and tlae same faith. the true faith. for I have " Verily the unfound my Lord saying in his perfect Book believers among the people of the Book and among the polytheists.) So I have had compassion upon you lest you might be among the people of Hell who are the worst of all creatures.) . This. Merciful The Messiah. Son of Mary. But they verily who believe and do the things that are right— these of all creatures are the best. ! . and ask pardon of Him ? since God is Forgiving. " (iv. it had surely been better for them. Believers there are among them. my Lord and your Lord. : ' ' what is just. is but an Apostle other Apostles have flourished before him and his mother was a just person they both ate food. God is well pleased with them. turn unto God. and their abode the Fire and for the wicked no helpers They surely are infidels who say. and ye believe in and if the people of the book had believed. and I have hoped that by the grace of God you may become one of the true believers with whom God is well pleased and they with Him." Ye are the best folk that hath been raised up for mankind. Of all creatures they are the worst. for I have desired to take you to myself. God doth exclude from Paradise. and fill up the measure of His goodness unto men." for the Messiah said. Their recompense with their Lord shall be gardens of ^ Eden. God is ! . For the great and high God says "Verily. God will not forgive the union of other gods with Himbut other than this will He forgive to whom He pleaseth. Embrace this faith and take this.) Then leave this path of error and this long and stubborn clinging to your religion and those burdensome and wearisome fasts which are a constant trouble to you and are of no use or profit and produce nothing but weariness of body and torment of soul. And whoso uniteth gods with God. 76-9. " children of Israel worship God. but most fofthem are disobedient. 'neath which the rivers flow. " God is a third of three " for there is no God but one God and if they refrain not from what they say. and they are the best of all enjoin God : • • . So I have advised you and paid the debt of friendship and sincere love. . self . the ample law and the way that God has chosen for His favoured ones and to which He has invited the people of all religions." (v. Son of Mary .APPENDIX of soul II. ." say. the right and easy path. 51.) "Ye Him. ! : . and ye forbid what is evil.

Therefore bring forward all the arguments you wish and say whatever you please and speak 3'our mind freely. Folium subsequens exsecuit possessor codicis.and blessings of God " There can be very little doubt but that this document has come down to us in an imperfect condition and has suffered mutilation at the hands of Christian copyists the almost entire absence of any refutation of such distinctively Christian doctrines. ing note after Epist. the Spanish editor of the controversial letters that passed between Alvar and "the transgressor " (a Christian convert to Judaism)." (Migne. creatures. You are free to set forth your case bring forward no plea that fear prevented you from making your arguments complete and that you had to put a bridle on your tongue. 483. Peace be with you and the mercj'. whereby God makes us responsible Herein I have dealt justly for our own rewards and punishments. all that you hold to be true and established by strong proof. cxxi. submitting willingly without refusing or rejecting or fear. with you and have given you full security and am ready to accept whatever decision Reason may give for me or against me. Tom. Now that you are safe and free to say whatever you please. adds the follow" Quatuordecim in hac pagina ita abrasae sunt liniae. without any fear or apprehension. contentiousness and ignorance. purpose only to listen patiently to your arguments and to yield to and acknowledge all that is convincing therein. and the references to such attacks to be found in AI Kindi's reply. But if you refuse and persist in your obstinacy. in order that I maj' compare your account and mine. : : ! : readers. appoint some arbitrator who will impartially judge between us and lean only towards the truth and be free from the empery of passion and that arbitrator shall be Reason. For " there is no compulsion in religion " (ii. and if you reject my words and refuse the sincere advice I have offered you (without looking for any thanks or reward. ne transgressoris deliramenta legerentur. injustice or partiality for that is far from me. Patr.) then write whatever you wish to say about your religion.! ' Similarly. ut nee verbum unum legi posit. certainly indicate the excision of such passages as might have given offence to Christian for I . p. as that of the Blessed Trinity.) : . So now you are free to bring forward all your arguments.358 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. xv. and I have hoped that you will join yourself to that religion which is the best of the religions raised up for men. your iniidelity and error. 257) and I have only invited you to accept our faith willingly and of your own accord and have pointed out the hideousness of your present belief. without curtailment of your proofs or concealment of your beliefs — . so that you could not freely express your arguments. that you may not accuse me of pride. Lat.

). been other whether the heathen . no or similar agencies of missionary work. though fewer in number. Of these it is not proposed to give a detailed account here. have been among the apologists of Islam. Christians before their conversion.APPENDIX III. but it is of importance to draw attention to their existence if only to remove the wide-spread misconception that mass conversion is the prevailing characteristic of the spread of Islam and that individual conviction has formed no part of the propagandist schemes of the Muslim missionary. Darwesh 'Ali in the sixteenth. e. etc. particularly to Christians and Jews. there has been no lack of reasoned presentments of the faith to unbehevers. It is interesting also to note that several renegades have written apologies for their change of faith and in defence of the Muslim creed. CONTROVERSIAL LITERATURE BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND THE FOLLOWERS OF OTHER FAITHS. Abu Yusuf ibn Ishaq al Kindi (a. which has The number of been actively continued to the present day.D. but from the ninth century of the Christian era begins a long series of systematic treatises of Muhammadan Apologetics.d. Although Islam has had no organised system tract societies of propaganda. Ibn Jazlah in the eleventh century.) in the fifteenth. In India. I have no information. Mas'udi (ob. but Jewish renegades also. such works directed against the Christian faith has been far more numerous than the Christian refutations of Islam. etc.g. etc. 958 a. e. besides many Muhammadan books written against the Christian religion. there is an enormous number of ' controversial works against Hinduism : as in to Muhammadans have equally active countries. 1 1 II A. 'Abdu-llah ibn 'Abdu-llah (of whom an account is given in Appendix IV. Al Ghazzali (ob.d. The beginnings of Muhammadan controversy against unbelievers are to be found in the Qur'an itself.g. Yusufu-1 Lubnani and Shaykh Ziyadah ibn Yahya in the thirteenth. 994-1064).). 813-73). Ahmad ibn Abdi-Uah. an Enghshman born at CamThese latter were all bridge.. and some of the ablest of Muslim thinkers have employed their pens in their composition. Ibn Hazm (a.d. in the seventeenth century.

) Martin Zur Geschichte der Polemik zwischen Juden Tind Schreiner Muhammedanern. 341 fF. (Z. (Z. Ignatius Goldziher Ueber Muhammedanische Polemik 1877. p.G.G.M. p.) gegen Ahl al-kitab. The reader will find a vast store of information on Muslim Moritz Steincontroversial literature in the following writings schneider : Polemische und apologetische Literatur in arabischer : (Leipzig.M.) : : . zwischen Muslimen. 42.36o THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. 1878. Vol.D. Sprache. 32.D. Christen und Juden. 1888. 591 ff. Vol.

attracted any persons in Christian Europe to the faith of the Prophet.) : Hispaniae lUustratae.) (Francoftirti. iv. or whether any of the adherents of the many heretical sects of the Middle Ages sought to find greater freedom of thought in the pale of Islam. we Probably one of the earliest of such conversions is that of a Greek named Theodisclus. Whereupon he went over to the Arabs and embraced Islam among . and some account Lucae Diaconi Tudensis Chronicon Mundi. The number of such persons is probably by no means inconsiderable. (Andreas Schottus Tom. Isidore (who died A. 1603-8.D.i Whether or not the knowledge of Islam that came into Europe from Spain or later through the constant communication with Muhammadan countries in the time of the Crusades. but have enrolled themselves among the followers of the Prophet after study of some of the documents of Muslim theology. who succeeded St. I have been unable to determine. 636) as Archbishop of Seville he was accused of heresy. . CONVERTS TO ISLAM THAT HAVE NOT COME MISSIONARY INFLUENCES. 53. for maintaining that Jesus was not one God in unity with the Father and the Holy Spirit but was rather son of God by adoption he was accordingly condemned by an ecclesiastical synod. as possessing an individual interest quite apart from any connection with the general history of the spread of Islam. Of the subjects of the Byzantine Empire or the Crusaders who came under the immediate influence of Muhammadan thought and society. UNDER DIRECT Any account of the spread of Islam would be incomplete without some mention of those persons who have embraced this faith without ever having been brought under any proselytising influences and without even (in some cases) having come into personal contact with Musalmans at all before their conversion.APPENDIX IV. them. p. but the records In the following possess of these conversions are very scanty. pages the narratives of some of these converts have been given at length. deprived of his archbishopric and degraded from the priesthood. . it is not the place to speak here.

was sent to the University of Lerida in Catalonia. named Nicolas Martil. . from all parts. attending on him continually. so that at length he made me the most intimate of his intimate friends.i This priest occupied a very high position in Bologna on account of his learning. : . (he tells us) in the house of an aged priest who was highly respected. life. With this priest I studied the principles and ordinances of the Christian faith I served him for a long time. Jesus "There shall come after me a prophet whose name is the Paraclete. he asked me. In this way I spent ten years in the service of this priest and in study. began to discuss various learned topics. Difficult points of theology were continually being submitted to him for solution. who also sent him large presents. . he went so far as to entrust me with the keys of his house and of his storerooms. and in the course of their discussions there happened to come up the words that God spoke by the mouth of His prophet. Now one day it happened that the priest fell ill and was unable to go to the lecture hall. by a Christian priest who after his conversion to Islam took the name of 'Abdu-llah ibn 'Abdi-llah in the preface he gives an autobiographical sketch of his life." An animated discussion followed lasting for some time. . by kings and others. has already been given in preceding pages of the converts won from these sources. his piety and : — : . As I continued to serve him devotedly. When I returned to the house of our professor. while waiting for him to come. . . This book was written in 1420 A. he devoted himself exclusively for four years to the study of theology. during my absence ? " I told him how we had been unable to come to an agreement on the question of the name of the Paraclete that his ascetic . of well-to-do parents that from his childhood he was destined for the priesthood at the age of six he was set to study the Gospels and learned the greater part by heart then after studying grammar and logic. but in the end they broke up without having settled the difficulty.D. which was " I lived at that time at the zenith of its fame and popularity. ' Professor Guidi has suggested to very probably Martello.362 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. from which we learn that he was born in Majorca. in respect of which he was unsurpassed by any of the Christians of his time. The students who attended his lectures. where after going through a course of physics and astronomy for some time. " What was the subject of your disputation to-day. me that the Italian form of this name was . From Lerida he went to the famous University of Bologna. One of the most remarkable and circumstantial accounts of a conversion of this kind is found in a controversial work entitled " The book of the present of the scholar to refute the people of which contains an attack upon Christianity and a the cross " defence of the Muslim faith.

363 one had expressed one opinion and another another. Sir. my child." " By the most High God. they would be in possession of the religion of God. to whom Of a surety." " If this is so. except with your permission. " My son. . and have learned of you more than I can tell now fill up the measure of this kindness towards me by expounding to me this illustrious name. Sir ? " I asked. " is the religion of God. Muhammad." "But." tion ? (I asked) "will he who embraces Islam obtain salva- " "Yes. in fact I wanted to find Then know." " son. " And what solution did you offer ? " said he. none of you have made much progress in knowledge. for the religion of Jesus. as given in the commentary on the Gospels. He replied " Embrace Islam." The old man began to weep. " That of such and such a theologian. . out what hatred you felt towards Islam. there is great advantage to be gained from the knowledge of this illustrious name. of a surety you are very dear to me for the services you have rendered me and for your devotion to me. 4." At these words I threw myself at his feet and kissed them and " O Sir." " How near and yet how far you are from the truth " he cried." ' Daniel xii. saying. like that of all the book of which the prophet Daniel that this would be revealed to him. " so and so was quite wrong and so and so nearly guessed right. whether your fellow-countrymen went to war with them or they with you. T asked My you for informait tion about your native land. but yet not one of you has arrived at the true meaning." (I asked) " what is your opinion about the Christian faith ? " child. death.APPENDIX IV. when you first came to me." (he answered) "if the Christians had reniained faithful to the religion of Jesus. for I wished to know whether was Muslim country. his religion is the true religion and his doctrine is the glorious doctrine of which the Gospel speaks. no one can rightly interpret this illustrious name except those who are deeply versed in knowledge and. " I promise that I will reveal your ! secret to no one. Besides. my son. so far. by the truth of the Gospel and by Him who brought it " I cried." : Then what remedy is there." (he answered) "he obtains salvation in this world and the next. you see that I have come to you from a far said to him country for these ten years I have served you. and I told him of the various suggestions that had been offered. Assuredly. that the Paraclete is one of the names of the prophet of the near to the Muslims. has been revealed the fourth 1 speaks when he announces "My prophets. but I fear that if I reveal it to you. the Christians will at once put you to 1 : .

Sir." " ^ May God preserve me." (said I) " your advice to me is to go to the country of the Muslims and embrace their religion ? " " Yes." (he replied) " God has revealed to me the truth of what I have just told you with regard to the superiority of the religion of Islam and the greatness of the Prophet of Islam. Now. only Now I am burdened with years and my body is in my old age. " In entering into the true faith." (he replied) " if you are wise and seek salvation. for thereby you will gain this world and the next. " I am come to live among you. the wise he has recognised to be the best . where I stayed six months then sailed to the island of Sicily. I am innocent of your believed. you have done good to yourself but you have conferred no benefit on us. ignorant of their language and doomed to die of hunger. I do not mean that this can serve as an excuse on the If God had contrary. for while what I said against you would be " But." and they would answer. my birthplace. guided me to this path when I was your age. . while they would know nothing of the high position I had held. an old man of seventy years. If then you say a word of this matter. But let us suppose that I succeeded in escaping them and in making my way safely to the Muslims. : ! no one would believe what you said against me. where I waited five months for a ship to set sail for the country of the Muslims. they would all unite to slay me at once. for if it should get abroad ever so little. For by entering into the religion of Islam you have escaped the chastisement of God. Sir. the argument of God is strong against me." I cried. God be my witness " " Then. I set out for the city of Majorca. I have remained faithful to the religion of Jesus and the revelation he brought. poor. blood. thanks be to God. " from the very thought of Having promised him what he wished. chooses for himself that only which then when you maintain the superiority of Islam." Then I should remain among them. as a Mushm. Now up to the present no one knows anything of this matter of ours and do you be most careful to keep it secret. But love of the world is the source of all sin. this is what would happen I should say to them. what hinders you from embracing it ?" " My son. Well. if they were once to perceive how things really stood and my tendency towards Islam.364 THE PREACHING OF man : ISLAM. . I would have given up everything and embraced the true religion. A ship going to Tunis having arrived. you would at once be put to death and I could do nothing for you. make haste to do so. weak. It would be of no avail for you to throw the blame on me. I went on . You know what a high position I hold among the Christians and the respect and consideration they show me. I got ready for my journey and bade him farewell he blessed me and gave me fifty dinars for the expenses of my journey.

one of the chief servants of the Sultan. the Physician. "Tell our Lord. . and the Islam. When I disembarked at the custom-house. The Sultan at that time was his late Majesty. " He is a man of great learning in our religion." asked the Sultan." (he said) the interpreter. to which I replied that I was thirtyinquired what studies I had pursued and I told a him. This information gave me great pleasure and having inquired where he lived I was shown the way to his house. some of the Christian soldiers heard of me and took me to their houses some merchants too residing in Tunis accompanied them. the Sultan. whose physician and favourite he was. so that you may hear what they have to say of me after that I will embrace .APPENDIX board : IV. told the Sultan my story and begged him to give me an audience. and going in. " he will never do that. I was admitted into the left Sicily in we the harbour of . blessing of the I said to " become High God be upon you. by such and such a ship " answered." Then he sent for the Christian soldiers and some of the merchants and put me into a room close to the place where he sat and asked them. first asked Then he me my age. ! ." " Your request is replied through the interpreter 'Abdu-Uah ibn Salam made of the Prophet when he as embraced Islam. presence of the Sultan. that no man ever abandons his religion without many persons crying out against him and calumniating him I beg you to grant me the favour of summoning the Christian merchants and the Christian soldiers and of making inquiries from them regarding me. At the end of this time. I passed four months with them enjoying the most liberal hospitality. more especially as this happy event was to take place through his intervention. " if he were " to become a Muslim ? " God forbid " they cried. The physician was exceedingly glad to hear this news. He five. " You are welcome. I made inquiries among them as to whether there was anyone in the Sultan's court who could speak the language of the Christians. " What is your opinion of the ? They priest who recently came. the physician above mentioned. So he mounted his horse and took me with him to the palace." " What would you say of him." Muslim. This request being granted." The Sultan same : the . I explained to him my situation and told him that my desire to embrace Islam was the reason of my coming. Abu-1 'Abbas Ahmad. When I came before him. They informed me that at the court there was a learned man named Yusuf. and our men of learning have not met with any one of greater eminence in learning and piety than he is. 365 the evening twilight and cast anchor in Tunis at mid-day.

1290) (s. (1885) pp.l.ettyp.) Croix. numerous renegades who went to — ' Kitfibu tuhfati-1 arib fi-r Le present de Thomme lettre pour refuter les partisans de la AUah ibn 'Abd-Allah." ^ As to the numerous As for the swell the numbers of the Barbary corsairs. When he had heard the opinion of the Christians. there seems very little information to be gained regarding their religious life. * The Adventures Hottinger. N. His tomb is still shown at Tunis." i After his conversion he received an allowance of four dinars a day from the Sultan. II. Then. 12-13.) of Thomas Fellow. pp. I repeated the profession of faith. 32-3. made the sign of the cross on their faces and said. 1660. 5-8 (a. edited by Dr. Traduit par M. whose names occur in Turkish history. for such a lawless life of bloodshed and piracy could offer no attractions except to the escaped convicts. where it is an object of peculiar veneration. . iSgo. le Drograan. •^ raddi 'ala ahli-s salib. that it is not surprising to learn that in the sixteenth century " not a few Socinians passed over to religious Christian renegades. (London. I'Histoire des Religions. often occupying high and responsible posts.) .h. Tome xii. and the points of difference so few. Abu-1 'Abbas Ahmad (1370-1394) and was shortly afterwards placed in charge of the custom-house. Historia Orientalis. and some I madan community. (Revue de . 69. par 'Abd.366 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. p.) J. The common points of doctrine in the teachings of some of these sects and in the Muslim creed. have been unable to discover. pp. 80-81. there is probably not a single instance to be found in which religious conviction had anything to do with their apostasy. " It is only the desire of getting married (for among us priests do not marry) that has driven him to this act. . deserters and scoundrels of all kinds who made their way to the North coast of Africa from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. at that very time and in the presence of the The Christians Christians. were so many. belonging to various nations of Europe. and cases occurred of Protestants who fled into Turkish territory to find there the freedom of worship and opinions which was denied them in Christian Europe. (Zurich. when the influence of freethinking literature— especially in France had weakened in many minds their old belief in the doctrines of the Christian faith. 75-9. 363.3 It has already been shown that during the Reformation period.Id." and they left the palace in great distress. the Protestants of Hungary and other places preferred the rule of the Turks to that of the Catholics.* Towards the close of the eighteenth century. beyond the fact that they were once Christians and afterwards became Musalmans whether there were any among them who left their native country solely from a desire to embrace Islam and join a Muham: Muhammadanism. pp. Robert Brown. the Sultan sent for me.

3 It is rare that any news of such conversions has reached Christian Europe and rarer still that any of these renegades has committed to print any account of himself. dass es wenigstens nicht leichtlich geschahe. den diese Leute noch hatten. 1827. (Leipzig. auch sonst andre Personen ihr Vaterland verlassen und nach der Turkey kommen sehen. he had learned to read. Das Lesen der freygeisterischen Schriften. so presumably he had some knowledge of the Muslim faith before he left his native country. (1780. for example. who embraced Islam in 1888 after a correspondence with the Shayjdiu-1 Islam at Constantinople. 183. taking the name of Isma'il. wozu ihnen der Unglaube keine Hoffnung fUr die Zukunft ' : : — uberliess. dergleichen Unbesonnenheit oder vielmehr Gottlosigkeit begehen soUten. there to embrace Islam. Ich habe verschiedene Petit-Maitres und Abbes. die sich auch wohl einer grossen Belesenheit riihmen. Oder besser zu sagen. and the conversion of England and America forms the subject of many a Muslim prayer. so reizend abgeschildert worden. 367 had appeared from the pens of writers of the free-thought which the Muhammadan rehgion was belauded to the disparagement of Christianity. zumal von den Franzosen. was done by a French mihtary officer who became a Musalman in the beschool. (pp.) Mimoires sur la Grece et I'Albanie par Ibrahim-Manzour-Efendi. diess Lieblings. bis zu diesem Grade zerriittet. . as. The following letter addressed to the new convert . ^ M. um Muhamedaner zu werden. Speaking of the renegades. several Europeans. und denen man einen gesunden Verstand zuschreiben soUte. Liideke : Glaubwurdige Nachrichten von dem Turkischen Reiche. afterwards changed to Ibrahim Mansur ^ during his student days in Paris. by this important ecclesiastical functionary was published in the newspapers of Constantinople and thence translated into French and English at the present day when efforts are being made to present Islam to the Christian world in as attractive a form as possible. for the history of which some materials are available such for example is the case of a Mr. das Christenthum herabsetzen. write and speak the Turkish lan: guage. in ginning of the present^ century. and among them even some French Abbgs left their own country and migrated to Turkey. welche fast stets (larch witzig eingekleidete Vorstellungen von den Tiirken.) ^ The following account is given of such persons by a Protestant clergyman who was for nine years (1759-1768) pastor of the Evangelical community in Smyrna and during this period visited Constantinople.) Notice sur I'autenr des ces memoires.xvi. Comte de Boulainvilliers Vie de Mahomet. 1770. aber auch die Freyheit. dass Leute mit kaltem Blute. die Frechheit zu leben und bey den Tiirken in den liebsten Fleischesliisten ungestrafet und ohne Gewissensbisse sich herumzuvvalzen. In recent years there have been several conversions of this kind. Nachstdem war ihnen die Freyheit zu denken.) i. he says : " AUein man soUte denken." C.APPENDIX works 1 IV. die Bewegungsursachen und die Verleitungen dieser Witzlinge 2U einem solchen Unternehmen zu erfahren.-lx.und Losungswort der vermeynten starken Geisier. Man ist vielleicht begierig. dass sie als Muhamedaner hier ein Paradiess zu erlangen trachteten. Solche waren zweyfach. it is of considerable interest as a . hatte den wenigen Verstand. (1730 ) Anacharsis Cloots La certitude des preuves du Mahometisme. (Paris. Henri. Schumann of Hanover. p.

for our part. Consequently. has overwhelmed his servants . and evidently intended to create as favourable an impresit is therefore signifision as possible on the minds of Christians cant in the missionary history of Islam and is accordingly given " Dear Sir. forms. felicitate you with pride and joy for having been touched by divine grace. practice religions differ as to their rules. faith in the unity of God and in the mission of his dearest servant Muhammad (may God cover him with blessings and grant him salvation) i. : .368 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. almsgiving. If. Man. of the .) sinner who repents and in person asks A God's forgiveness . between God and His servants. the Last Judgment. like the clergy. as you promise in your letter. practical duties of prayer. The reflections which you make on this occasion appear to us worthy of the highest praise. It is sufficient to believe and to proclaim In fact. But the human intelligence does not suffice to assure us of the manner of praying which is most worthy of the divine glory so God in His mercy. was created out of nothing to adore his Creator. that is to say. for Islam does not admit of any intermediary. writings and books. Such is a summary definition of faith. you decla^re that there is only one God and that Muhammad is His prophet. in sending to them. you become a Musalman without having need of our acceptance and we. places. — with blessings. conversion to Islam demands no religious formality and depends upon the : : — authorisation of one's belief. the Prophets. The letter by which you ask to be here at length received into the heart of the Musalman reUgion has been received and has caused us lively satisfaction. in according to certain human beings the gift of prophecy. This double adoration exists in all religions. and other articles of~'belief next. to accept conscientiously this faith and to avow it in words. times. inspiration. statement of Muslim doctrine emanating from so authoritative a source. who is superior to the other animals by his intelligence. etc. and we shall testify in this world and the other that you are our brother. etc. Let us enter now upon some developments of it. by angels. Believers are all brothers. This adoration may be summed up in two words to honour the commands of God and to sympathise with his creatures. as expressed by the phrase " There is only one God and Muhammad is His He who makes this profession of faith becomes a prophet." Musalman. you make this profession of faith. Islam has for its base. without having need of the consent or approbation of any one. and in so revealing the true religion. (The letter then goes on to speak of the Qur'an. At the same time we ought to call your attention to the fact that your conversion to Islam is not subordinated to our consent. As to its . Our duty consists only in teaching the people religious truths.e. no one. the greater or less number of their rites.

in his name. . the religious affairs which he revealed deigns to confide to us. however. and God. It is necessary to learn the will of God. Only the rights of his neighbour are an exception to this rule for the servant of God who cannot obtain justice in this world. such as pride. to make part of society he must be baptized by a priest when he grows up he needs a priest to marry him if he would pray he must go to obtain forgiveness for his sins to a church and iind a priest he must confess to a priest and he must have a priest to bury When . where there is no clergy. In the Musalman religion. quittance from your neighbour whom you have wronged. A convenience. director. As to our mission. attentive is righteousness in character presumption. Only the accomplishment of certain religious ceremonies. and to merit the remission of his sins he goes He does not confess them to others. English few years before the date of the above letter an A solicitor. In all cases. . is subordinated to the will of the Caliph. Mr. All this no doubt seems strange to people accustomed to a sacerdotal regime. the most important religious duties. To revere the great and to compassionate the insignificant are . by the Prophet. Musalman prays all alone in any place which suits his When . him. reclaims his rights at the Day of Judgment. gives him a name.APPENDIX . . can do this the presence of a religious chief is not necessary. In a word. Feb. . it consists in administering. or the chief of the family. who then compel the oppressor to make restiEven the martyrs are no exception to To avoid this responsibility the only means is to get a this rule. since the arrangement of ceremonies for Islam Obedience to his orders is one of is one of his sacred attributes. do not become a Musalman. nor ought directly to God. IV. and obligations have no place. precepts of Islam. he to do so. and to act in conformity with it. his fether. egotism and obstinacy. New York. the man and the woman or the their agents make the contract in presence of two witnesses contracting parties are the only ones interested and others cannot intervene or take part. they wish to contract a marriage.. in all religious acts there is no intermediary between God and His servants. had embraced 1 The Independent. 369 obtains pardon. such The infant is born a Musalman. At his death the Musalman inhabitants of the town Any Musalman are obliged to put him in a coffin and bury him. a Christian child is born. such as the prayers on Friday and at Bairam. 9th. 1888. One of the things to which every Musalman ought to be very vices. will tution to the oppressed." 1 . there is no need of the intercession of a spiritual is just. . William Henry Quilliam by name.

especially in India.1 Brought up as a Presbyterian.) . who guaranteed the payment of a large sum of money towards the establishment of a Muslim mission in America. embraced Islam there and began to preach it in America. La langue et litterature hindoustanies en (Paris. noticeable as they presenting certain features of activity in Islam ' This was not the first attempt to preach Islam in America. Mr. In America another convert named Muhammad Alexander Russell Webb. public lectures were delivered.370 THE PREACHING OF ISLAM. he early abandoned Christianity. and became a materialist afterwards becoming interested in the study of Oriental religions. as in 1875 * Methodist preacher.) ^ Islam. At this time Mr. Webb proceeded to New York. pamphlets circulated. Islam after an independent study of the Qur'an and various works on Muhammadanism. who had gone to Constantinople as a Christian missionary. the number of the English converts had risen to 137. p. ' These two movements in England and the most recent expressions of missionary are particularly in America are among . Quilliam was invited by the Sultan of Turkey to visit him in Constantinople. while on a visit to Morocco in 1884. active methods of propaganda were then adopted. He instituted a Muslim mission in the city of Liverpool. who had been led to embrace Islam through private and independent study. In 1891 Mr. where he opened a mission and advocated the cause of Islam in a periodical entitled The Moslem World. named Norman. a lecture by Muhammad Alexander Russell Webb. Webb was American Consul at Manilla. 92.' 2 . After visiting India and lecturing in some of the chief cities with large Muhammadan populations. His attention had first been drawn to this faith. 1875. published by Badruddin Abdulla Kur. where he was especially struck by the apparent sincerity of the followers of Islam and the absence of drunkenness and other vices that so forcibly obtrude themselves in the great cities of England. (Garcin de Tassy. he was particularly attracted towards Islam. 1892. where he was visited (after this correspondence had been carried on for nearly two years) by a wealthy merchant of Jiddah. where after five years' More vigorous and labour he gained about thirty converts. a magazine published and the doctrines of Islam vindicated by open-air preachers. named Badru-d Din 'Abdu-Uah Kur. Ten years after Mr. (Bombay. Quilliam's conversion. This missionary movement has attracted considerable attention in the Muhammadan world. started a mission in the year 1893. and three years later he was commissioned to be the bearer of a decoration from the Sultan to a Muslim merchant who had erected a mosque in Lagos on the West Coast of Africa. where every incident connected with the religious life of the English converts is chronicled in the Muhammadan newspapers. 1876. Haji 'Abdu-llah 'Arab. and entered into correspondence with a gentleman of Bombay.

b 2 . They have introduced into their religious worship certain practices borrowed from the ritual of Protestant sects. rationalising exponents and apologists. and strikingly illustrates the power of this religion to adapt itself to the peculiar characteristics and the stage of development of the people whose allegiance it seeks to win. We have thus a presentment of Islamic doctrine and practice that differs from all others. praying in the English language. and derive their knowledge of Islam mainly from English translations of the Qur'an and the works of its modern. 371 accommodation in order to recommend this religion to the modern civilised world.APPENDIX IV. The missions in England and America are conducted by men who are profoundly ignorant of the vast literature of Muhammadan theologians. such as the singing of hymns. etc.


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. Zollinger (H. (Verb. 383 Wassaf: Geschichte persisch herausgegeben und deutsch iibersetzt von Hammer-Purgstall. van K.) . Ixiii.) Wilken (N.LIST OF AUTHORITIES. concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East.) (i) The Book of Marco Polo.) Yule (H. 1704. Gen. arcivescovo di Antivari. : The Muhammadans Part : of Eastern Bengal. 1866-73. (J.. fFezV (Gustav) Geschichte der Chahfen.L. Wiistenfeld. Singapore. „ „ : Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenliindischen Gesellschaft. Ned. „ „ (2) Het Heidendom en de Islam Bolaang-Mongondou.) (Med. P. . 1851. Deel xxiii.) : (i) (Bibliotheca Barberina. (Leipzig. Bat. Jacut's Geographisces Worterbuch. en W... (Journal of the Indian Archipelago. ii. v. S.) ZDMG Yaqut: Kitabu Mu'jami-1 Buldan. B. (London. A. id.) The Island of Lombok. A. Zendelinggen.) WzV^ (James) Vol.) Zmaievich : Notizie universal! dello stato di Albania e dell' operate da Monsig.) Weher und Wane's Kirchenlexicon. 1866. 1871. 126. herausgegeben von F. 1856. 1885 sqq. : (Leipzig. iii. (Vienna.) : (i) Gedachten over het stichten einer zending in Bolaang- Mongondou. 1894. 1850. esaminate nelle Congregation! Generali di propaganda fide di 3 Debr.) Die Geschichtschreiber der Araber und ihre Werke. (Gottingen. N'. 1867. (Freiburg im : Breisgau. 1846-51. Rome.) (2) Verslag van eene reis naar Bima en Soembawa.) en Schwarz (J. (Mannheim. in (id.) (2) Cathay and the way thither.) Wistenfeld (F. Vol. Vol. Vincenzo Zmaievich. Zweite Auflage. 1703—12 Febr. translated and edited by.) (London. 1882.

329. Arabs Cape Coast Colony. 68. 287. 93. 309. 98. 114. 90. Albanians. Aurangzeb. 312. 106-7. Bali. 67. Capitation-tax. Almohades. Africa. 188. 91.. and soldiers in Muhammadaii service. 334. 26. 311. 319. 86. 293-4. George. 47. 24. 184. Bulgarians. 134. 307. 82-3. Banu Ghassan. ° -. 298. 263. Church of North. „ Bilal. 169-172. 87. Armenia.. 314.INDEX. 296. 307. Bukhara. 82. 271. 262. Clergy converted to 74. Bambara. Berbers. Amiroutzes. 287-8. 308. 66. 42. 322-3. 271. 306. 329. 137. Borneo. 103. . Celebes. 304. 206-7. Buddhists converted to Islam. 201-2. 183. 185. 170- . 316.DI-LLAH. 49. 50. Bogorailes. Islam. 305. 318-323. 223. 325 " \ 334Chinese in the Malay Aichipelago. Adoptionism. 246. 57. 87-S. Bolaang-Mongondou. 191-2. Borahs. 309. 323. 306. 316-18. 241. Alfurs. II.. 268-9. 274. 258-262. Abyssinia. 286. 45. 219. Al Mutawakkil. 11. 189. Almoravides. III) 258-260. Achin. . 327. 97. Council 284-5. Officials Baduwis. 311. Ashanti. Bugis^ 318. the first-fruits of. 58. 258-292. 189. 191. 226-7. 232. 161. 247. Christian Arabs converted to Islam. 73. 321-2. Atjih. Assam. Amir^aniyah. 142. Arianism. see Atjih. 222. 281. Baraka Khan.4. in Africa. 242-257. Arabs in China. 44. 318. 87-111. . Brunai. 205. 151-2. 91. 163. 97-i03> 282. 263. 333. Al Ma'mun. 199. 89. 303. 302. America. 261-2. 336. 213-15. 'Abdu-1 Qadiri-1 Jilani. Bashkirs. 144. 166-7. 122. 247. 268. 266. 162. Abu Bakr. 318. 159. 9-10. 316. 300. 57"^i 82. 56. 153. Banu Ta^lib. 165. 246. Bosnia. 264. 241. Arab society in the time of Muhammad. China. 245. 227-230. 127. 271. 56-7. Banten. Baele. 250-1. Islam in. 302-3. 183. 13S. Bagirmi. 208. igi. 276-7. 322-3. Ceram. Clieribon. 179. Banjarmasin. 311. 44. 167. 184. 316. 362-6. 59. Ceylon. 183. 135. see Tax. 318. of. Aria Damar. 296. 307-8. Bilal. Christians preferring Muslim to Christian rule. 312. 183. Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam. 105. Al Mu'tasim. 261-2. Af^anistan. 39-41. 316. 230. AI Azhar. 327. 330. 169-172. 119. 24. 107-111. 48. 68. Bengal. 327. 155. 235. 152-165. 'Abdu-llah IBN 'Ar. Bambuk. Bomu. 370. Arabs in the Malay Archipelago. Chalcedon. Antivari.

Ghazan. 334. Dongola. 102. 267. Cutch. 313. 193. 287. 212. to Christianity in Abyssinia. 304-312. 56-7. converted to Islam. 56-7 built 385 102. 213-4. king of Armenia. 77. 246-7.. . 277. Hausa. 160. . 192.. Jacobite Egypt. 273. Funj. forced. 285. Gujarat. 115. Ilorin. 7. 277. Fulahs. Jacobite Church in Egypt J. 267. . 277. 328-330. condemned.. 336to Christianity in Halemahera.letterof Jesujab III. Conversion. 39-41. 276. 333.. 75-80. 86. 273. 208-9. Golden Horde. 83-6. a missionary religion.. Firiiz Jaghbub. the Malay Archipelago. 23-5. IsmaTlians. Harar. Danfodio. 71-2. 71. 316. 166-7.. 271. „ Greeks in the Crimea. 93. Chinese. English Muslims. 265-7. 31O. 263-4. Shaykh 'Uthman. vindicated by contemporaries. 309. Greece. a universal religion. 297. Deccan. 225-6. 304-313. 265-7. 286. 58-9. 211-241. 74 5-6. 282-3. 142. 172-6. 80. 126. Gragne. 27-8. Hunyady. Flores. Darfur. Ahmad. John. 172. 3 1 8. 305-6. 338. 195-6. Islam. 149. Jews. 101. 325to Islam in India. Copts. . 48-9. . 141. „ Patriarch. 203. 321... 155. 274-5. 369-70. 51. 94. 191. 286. 127. IlAjis. 204. 134. 197. 133. Churches Muhammadan 343 n =. see Nubia. see „ Jacobite Copts. Heythoum. absence of. 98-9. 208-241. 268. 275. 338-9. 182. Christians serving in the tation-tax. Circassians. 221-2. So-51. 270. . 181-2. 58-9. 276. 99-100. 336. the brotherhood of. 186. 188. 180. countries.. 271. 308. 142. . 141. in Nubia : see Copts. 199-201. . Dyaks. 275. Hungary. Damascus. Muslim army exempted from the payment of capiin Gallas. 189-190. of : see Abyssinia. 107. 277. 87-93. 23. forced. 113. 249. Hoey-hu.. 143- Shah Tug^laq. C C . 264. Georgia. 72. 135-6. „ . Hindus converted to Islam in the Malay Archipelago. 192-7. 315. 226-7. Conversion. Church in Abyssinia.INDEX. Spanish. Futah Tore. : . 40 65-6. 74- Falaba. Patriarchs. Daylam. 116. Gennadios. . 359. Guinea Coast. India. 289-290. Christians 3. of Mongols to Christianity. 210. of Muslims to Christianity. Gold Coast. 129-131. 359-60. Dahomey. Crusaders.. 341-3- . Intermarriages between Christians and Muslims. 225-6. 270.. Janissaries. 191 n '. Finns. Controversies between Christians and Muslims. Java. 93. Gresik. 134. the first-fruits of. 52. 342.215. I.. . 6-7. 38. Heraclius. 3271 329Jerusalem. 64. Gerganos. 294.. 294. 21. 137 " ^ 166. to Islam in North Africa. churches built in. 131-2. Crete. 188. . ". to Christianity in Europe... Hindus converted to Islam in India. „ Ilkhans.

216. 342. Imam Dikir. Darwesh Bulbul Shah. 241. Kanem. Mawlawi 'Ubaydu-llah. 308. 274. 141. 340. 277. 12. Abu 'Abdi-Uah Muhammad. Khwajah Khunmir Husayni. 'All. 321. Khubilay Sian. Liberia. Niini-d Din Ibrahim. Mappila. 139-141. 240. 217-19. 18-19. Lithuania. Jalalu-d Din. Moses.1. 46. 325. 31 1. 317. 22. 325. 279. INDEX. Hakim Bagus. 3. Metaras. 221-2. 347- Abu 'All Qalandar. Malay Archipelago. ibn Tha'labah. 'Ayyash. 197. 263. ICashmir. Islands. Cyril. 312. Malay Peninsula. KUchum Khan. Salahu-d Din. 232. Al Ma'mun. IlajT Muhammad. LouisVII. Macarius. 63. 225. 270. Kiloa. 304. Khatib Tungal. Yusufu-d Din. 220-221. 225-6. Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr. pimam 190. Nuru-d Din. 322-3. 287. 222. 188. Muhammad Ghorl. 109. 204-5. Mawlawl Hasan 'All. 297. Malacca. 232-3. Ibnu-1 Hudhayl. 246. 28. as missionaries. 327. 309. 267. Majapahit. Katsena. see Tax. MuUa I'So. Lagos. 271-3. 283. 79. Mir Shamsu-d Din. 309. 276. 1S4. 322. Kashgar. 231. 300-304. Ibrahim Abu Zarbay. Muhammad ibn Sayyid 'All. 222. 263. 231. Sa'adat. 234.. 'Amr ibn Murrah. 217. Mawlana Ishaq. Muhammad 'Uthmanu-1 AmirGJjani. 269. Khwajah Mu'Inu-d Din ChistI. 299. Darwesh MansEr. Mawlawi Baqa Husayn Khan. 294-5. loi. 309. . Mawlana Hasanu-d Din. Mecca. ^usayn Gaysudaraz. 65. 34-5. Laccadive 206-7. 42-3. 220-1. Macassar. 207. 286. 370. 264. Merchants. 306-312. Baba Faridu-d Din. 48. 232. 327-8. 86. Siazars. 183. Maldive Islands. 320. Khurasan. . 300. 313. Ahmad Mujaddid. 325. 202. 271. 338. 263. 308. Lucaris. 300. 302. 225. PirMahabir Khandayat. Kei Islands. 217-19. Malik ibn Habib. Khadriyah. Kabils. 134-5. 225-6. 70-71. Shah Farldu-d Din. 222. Muslim : 'Abdu-llah ibn Yassln. Hasan ibn 'All. 141. Kordofan. 267-8. 226. 284.386 Jihad. 265. 231. 33-9. 245. 234. Abu Sayda. Sayyid Sayyid Sayyid Sayyid Sayyid 'All. 260. 37. 336.352Jizyah. Khalid. 323. 34. 78. Nur Satagar. 180. 220. Khallfah Husayn. Hasham Pir Gujarat!. 24I. 187. 180. 305-6. 302. 277. 221. Firuz Shah Tughlaq. 333. 327. 212. 65 ". Nicodemus. Mawlana Jamada-1 Kubra. 234. 270. 105. 270. Justinian. 329-30. 311. 270. no. PIr §adru-d Din. 191. 285-6. Eahau-1 Ilaqq. Ahmadu Samudu. Lombok. 73-4. Imam Tuweko. 219. 277. 318. 20. Khojahs. 271-2. 322. 316. 327. 326. Kano. Leger. 195. 75-6. Minahassa. 222. 231. Muslim. 9-25. 201. 262. 240. Nasiru-1 Haqq Abu Muhammad. Malik ibn Dinar. 248. Abu-1 Faraj lbnu-1 Jawzi. 224-5. 212. Malik 'Abdu-1 Latif. 303. 226. 192. 183. Maimonides. 300. 288. Madura. 286. '97. 319-321. Kirghiz. Safdar 'All. 224. Mawlana Malik Ibrahim. 55. 268. 278. 139.1. Missionaries. Muhammad. Muslims in. Mandingos. 186. 264.

271. Salawatti. Missionary activity enjoined in the . 188. 35-6. 114'"^ 116-17.. 188. . 326. 33'. III. 169-170. Senegambia. 60. Moassina. no.. 'Uthman Danfodio. (used of the chief of the . of Christians by Muslims. 66-8. 276. 231. 185-201. 120-123. 50. Wathilah ibnu-1 Asqa'. 177 l8z. „ . 334-5.. Kaden Rahmat. 293. 186. 294. Montenegro. 341 " '• of Christians by their co. 'Urwah ibn Mas'ud. 315. 199-207. 78. Samarqand. 37-8. 169. Shayli 'Abdu-Uah. 334-5.. religionists. Hadrian I. Palembang.. 188-9. Pope Gregory . 84. 199. 262. 310-311.. Moluccas.. 201. 107. 324-5. Tufayl. 11. 326.. 268. 67. 307. 123-4.. 270-271. 265-7. 3i8> 319Prester John (used of the King of Abyssinia). Panjab. ShSh 387 Muhammad Sadiq Sarmast Persecution forbidden in the Qur'an. . 83. ." Innocent IV. Rubruquis see William of Rubrouck. „ in Qur'an. Leo IX. 166-9. 96.. 305. 314. 24. 138. Religious orders. Muwallads. influence of the. 21. 322-3. 195. times of political weakness. 267-8. Papuans. 82. 28-33. 117. Karaits). 97. 'Umar Idrus Basheban. 307. 15. 324-5. 271-2. 5-6. 197. 30I-3. 227. Raden Husayn. .. I!u5aynl. 307-8. 1 80. Qadkiyah.. 20-44. Sahara. 271. 11 • . 274. 311-12. 326-7. 273-5. 232-3. 326. Rajputana. 36. John XXII. 205-6. Sennaar. 314. 2. 90. Portuguese in the Malay Archipelago. Mongols. Nubia. Shaykh Jalal. 268. Muzarabes. Mujiammad. Protestants converted to Islam. 235-6. 210°. „ Mindanao. Pechenegs. women.. Misool. 332. Saman. 222.. 8-18. 334Scanderbeg. 274. 273. 98. 93-6. 230. of the early Muslims. 307-310. Moriscoes. . 143-4.. Pilgrims to Mecca : see Ilajis. Senegal. Philippine Islands. 183. Shaykh Mansiir.. 245. 237. 267275.INDEX. . 222. 203. Gregory VII. Paulicians. 297- . 92. 78. : NafIsah. Pajajaran. Russians. 102. 310-312. 120.. 3-4. 74. 119. by the Russians. Servia. Saladin. 20.. §amudu. 268-9. 247-t). 169. 83. 182-3. 276. 335-6. 190. 169. 29-30. 326-7. 140. .1.. 288. 276. 271. 113. Sanusiyah. 189-190. . 242. 313-316. 222. 152. Shaykh Isma'TI. 316. the wars of. 134. 305. 333. t9'-S> 245. 90. 108. Sambawa. 318. . 174. 370-71. 'Umar ibn 'Abdi-1 'Aziz. 142. 247. 230-31. 260. 60-61. 2:7-18. 260. 200. Raden Patah. 124. Sharif ibn Malik. Segu. of Muslims by the Mongols. Leo III. 16S. 252. in. 102. 108. 91..315. 323. „ Mu'tazilites. „ 190. 64-5. 60-1. 324instances of unsuccessful. Nestoriaus. Missionaries. New Guinea. Persia. Shaykh Babu Sahib.

in. 'Umaru-1 Hajl. : Socimans converted to Islam. 265. Ternate. influence of. Sophroiiius. I12-124. 315. 181. 93. Sind. Sonrhay. Tartars. 268. Muslims by Christians. Somaliland. 326. 127. 70.n. Spain. „ „ towards the Christian Arabs. 134. Spaniards in the Malay Archipelago. 183. 'Umar ibn 'Abdi-1 . 15. 52-3. 289-292. 134. 72. empt from payment of. 1 15-16. 125-136. 162. 276. 177-8. 287. 13.3. Tidor. LIMITED. 57- Wauai. Shi'ahs. 259. Waigama. 294. Transylvania. 339 " '. Christians in military service ex- 183. Turks. 249. Sierra Leone. 243. 287. 262-3. William of Rubrouck. 242. 275. paid by non-Mus- lims. 201-3.. 187. when exmili- empt from Tcheremiss. Vladimir. 204. 304. 268. 266. Zanzibar. 222. Tax. Tlmfir. 172-4. 24. 338. 177-180. E. 45. 134-5. see Uigurs. 206-7. 295. see Merchants.. 5-6. . 222-225. 39. Toleration enjoined in the Qur'an. 274. . 270-3. 278. 361. 87-8. 45. 142. 81. 345-6. etc. 266. 126-7. Suhayb. Traders. 203-7.4. 192. 47- acknowledged 71. Muslim. 21. Wahhabi reformation. i63->76. 278. 75. 8i. 299. Thibet. 316. 148-151. Silesia. 274.. JOHN S HOUSE. 145- Tabaristan. Tchuvash. capitation. Sukkadana. 329. CLERKENWELL. Russia. 184. Uigurs. 109. 73. Sulu Islands. Tibesti. Sumatra. 247. 46. 316-7. 212.388 Shamanism.324-6Sudan. 45. 269-273. 314. „ of Siam. Zoroastrians. 157. 88. 241. as missionaries. Turkistan. Metropolitan of Athens. 123-4. Sokoto. 246. „ „ 163. 341"'. 153. 180. INDEX. 334-5- Yunnan. 274. 199-201. Muslim Transoxania. SI Ahmad ibn Idris.. 44. 284. 157. 260. GILBERT AND ElVINGTON. Tripolis. Walata. the ordinance „ „ of. 204. 197. Syria and Palestine. Timbuktu. 314-15. Siberia. 179.314. Spain. Tokudar. 262-276. Turkey. 184. 54-7. 82. 267. 210. ST. 67. 51-2. 307-8. 'Umar ibnu-1 Khattab. 56-7imposed on Muslims Venetians. 230. Ta'if. 188-9. 131-2. 324-6. 326. 50-1. 58. Tijanlyah. tary service. 36. 247. Ottoman. North Africa. 262.. UzbegHl5. towards the Christians of Egypt.C. Slavery under the Muslims. . . 200-1. Waigyu. 210. 248. . 282. 141. Tedas. Theodisclus. 165. Women. 'Aziz. 264. 366. 255. 102. 115. 153. Saljiiq.