L A B 5 : 4 S T R O K E E N G

Study of four Stroke Engine. Explanation of its working and parts by demonstrating a four stoke engine model: → Introduction, History and Invention → Working of four Stroke Engine → Application and advantages Introduction: The four stroke engine is probably the most common engine type nowadays. It powers almost all cars and trucks. Four stoke engine is internal combustion engine. An internal combustion engine is any engine that operates by burning its fuel inside the engine. In contrast an external combustion engine burns its fuel outside the engine like in steam engine. In 4 stroke engine an explosive mixture is drawn into the cylinder on the first stroke and is compressed and ignited on the second stroke; work is done on the third stroke and the products of combustion are exhausted on the fourth stroke History and Invention: Many people claimed the invention of the internal combustion engine in the 1860's, but only one has the patent on the four stroke operating sequence. In 1867, Nikolaus August Otto, a German engineer, developed the four-stroke "Otto" cycle, which is widely used in transportation even today. Otto developed the four-stroke internal combustion engine when he was 34 years old. The Diesel Engine came about in 1892 by another German engineer, Rudolph Diesel. The Diesel engine is designed heavier and more powerful than gasoline engines and utilizes oil as fuel. Diesel engines are a commonly used in heavy machinery, locomotives, ships, and some automobiles. The basic operating principles of these engines have been around for more than a hundred years and they are still in place. Some people get discouraged when they look under the hood and cannot recognize a thing on their automobile. Rest assured that underneath all of those wires and sensors lies an engine with the same basic operating principles of that "Otto" engine over a century old.

Working of 4- Stroke Engine: There are four movements, or strokes, of the piston before the entire engine firing sequence is repeated. The four strokes are described below → Intake stroke

Some early engines worked this way. Thus ignition occurs at the end of this stroke. When the volume is the smallest.→ Combustion stroke → Power stroke → Exhaust stroke Intake stroke: The engine cycle begins with the intake stroke as the piston is pulled towards the crankshaft. Intake stroke Compression stroke Compression stroke: With both valves closed. the electrical contact is kept opened. as described by the laws of thermodynamics. however. As the piston is pushed away from shaft toward top dead center (TDC). To produce the increased pressure. and a current of electricity flows through the plug. the volume is reduced and the fuel/air mixture is compressed during the compression stroke. As the volume is decreased because of the piston's motion. it is drawn open by the vacuum produced by the intake stroke. and the pressure the highest as shown in the figure. no heat is transferred to the fuel/air mixture. During the compression stroke. the combination of the cylinder and combustion chamber form a completely closed vessel containing the fuel/air mixture. most modern engines incorporate an extra cam/lifter arrangement exhaust valve is held shut by a spring. the contact is closed. Piston moves from top dead center (TDC) to bottom dead center (BDC) completing one stroke A poppet intake valve can serve the purpose. Power stroke: . just as you have to do work to inflate a bicycle tire using a pump. During the compression. During the intake stroke draws a fresh charge of vaporized fuel/air mixture. we have to do work on the mixture. the pressure in the gas is increased.

Rapid combustion of the fuel releases heat. The exhaust valve is then opened by the cam pushing on the rocker arm to begin the exhaust stroke. the volume occupied by the gases is increased because of the piston motion and no heat is transferred to the fuel/air mixture. the combustion of the fuel takes place in a totally enclosed (and nearly constant volume) vessel. and produces exhaust gases in the combustion chamber. This initiates the power stroke. Heat that is left over from the power stroke is now transferred to the water in the water jacket until the pressure approaches atmospheric pressure. During the power stroke. the pressure and temperature of the gas are decreased. any residual air in the combustion chamber. The high pressure of the gases acts on the face of the piston and cause the piston to move towards the shaft and to bottom dead center. As the volume is increased because of the piston's motion. the hot gas does work on the piston during the power stroke. the piston is located at bottom dead center. the increased temperature of the gases also produces an increased pressure in the combustion chamber. and to compress the gases in the neighboring cylinder's compression stroke. and the propellers. Exhaust stroke: At the end of the power stroke. where the linear motion of the piston is converted to angular motion of the crankshaft. Power stoke Exhaust stroke The work done on the piston is then used to turn the shaft. The force on the piston is transmitted by the piston rod to the crankshaft. and the combustion chamber itself. Unlike the compression stroke. Because the intake and exhaust valves are closed. . From the ideal gas law. The combustion increases the temperature of the exhaust gases.

Heat is released during combustion which increases both the temperature and the pressure. The volume remains constant and the pressure adjusts back to atmospheric conditions. Stage 2 begins the compression stroke of the engine. and the gas volume increases as fuel/air mixture is drawn in. the exhaust valve is closed and the engine begins another intake stroke Ideal Otto cycle: Stage 1 is the beginning of the intake stroke of the engine. and the pressure increases because work is done on the gas by the piston. Between Stage 4 and Stage 5. Stage 4 begins the power stroke of the engine. Between Stage 1 and Stage 2 the piston is pulled out of the cylinder with the intake valve open. the exhaust gas is pushed past the valve and exits the engine. As the exhaust stroke begins. the piston moves back into the cylinder. The pressure is near atmospheric pressure and the gas volume is at a minimum. At the end of the exhaust stroke. Between Stage 2 and Stage 3. the cylinder and combustion chamber are full of exhaust products at low pressure. At Stage 5 the exhaust valve is opened and the residual heat in the gas is exchanged with the surroundings. Because the exhaust valve is open. The combustion occurs very quickly and the volume remains constant. Stage 6 begins the exhaust stroke of the engine. The pressure remains constant. The intake valve is closed and the electrical contact is open during this movement of the piston. Stage 3 is the beginning of the combustion of the fuel/air mixture. the volume decreases and the pressure remains . and the pressure falls as work is done by the gas on the piston.The purpose of the exhaust stroke is to clear the cylinder of the spent exhaust in preparation for another ignition cycle. the gas volume decreases. the volume in increased.

At the end of the exhaust stroke. Pressure-volume diagram for a diesel 4-stroke cycle Characteristic quantities: Indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP): The fallacious pressure which when applied to piston will give same work as under actual P-V diagram. The power developed within a cylinder can be calculated by measuring the imep (indicated mean effective pressure) and the engine speed. conditions have returned to Stage 1 and the process repeats itself.P = Pimep × V ×N60 . Larger area is the work obtained and smaller area is work done during compression.constant. Actual 4 stroke Otto cycle: Some characteristics of the true cycles are incorporated in the actual cycles of modern engines. I. That is “power available at piston head”. Indicated power is an important variable because it is the potential output of the cycle. Indicated power: It is the theoretical power of a reciprocating engine if it is completely frictionless.

It is also used in Air crafts and water crafts further also in automobile rickshaws.Brake power: Power available at crank shaft is known as brake power. Due to its power and regular efficiency it is used in construction work. mostly heavy machinery uses 4-stroke engine like tractors. Disadvantages → More complex and harder to troubleshoot → Require oil to be changed regularly. . In agriculture.P B. Advantages of 4-Stroke Engine → Can produce far more power than 2-stroke engine because they can be made much larger. It is also the real output power available. → More expensive than 2-stroke engine. power supply generators.P = 2 π N τ60 Application and Advantages 4-Stroke engine is now a days very common in heavy and light type machinery b/c of its power and its dependency. harvesters. It is commonly used in automobiles. water pumps etc. buses. Armed forces vehicle also implies this type of engine. → Pollute less than two stroke engines → More efficient use of gas. motorcycles. trucks. Symbolized as B.

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