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FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
DEPT.OF GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY


REPORT
SUBJECT CODE

TEST CODE & TITLE MG001 - CONSOLIDATION TEST

COURSE CODE
TESTING DATE
STUDENT NAME
GROUP
1.

2.

GROUP MEMBER NAMES 3.

4.

5.

LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR


NAME

REPORT RECEIVED DATE


ATTENDANCE/ DISCIPLINE
/15%
MARKS & INVOLVEMENT
DATA ANALYSIS /20%

RESULT /20%

DISCUSSION /25%

CONCLUSION /20%

TOTAL /100%
EXAMINER COMMENT RECEIVED STAMP
STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC
(SCE)
DEPT. OF GEOTECHNICAL AND TRANSPOTATION ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not
to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge
that everything mentioned in the report is true.

_________________
Student Signature

Name : …………………………………………

Matric No. : …………………………………………

Date : …………………………………………
FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 1/8
DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
EFFECTIVE
5/12/07
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE:
(MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT
5/12/07
DATE:

1.0 OBJECTIVE
TO DETERMINE THE CONSOLIDATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS OF LOW
PERMEABILITY

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME


At the end of this experiment, students are able to:
• Conduct one dimensional consolidation test
• Identify the factors causes soil consolidation
• Determine the consolidation parameters (cv, mv, Cc and Pc)
3.0 THEORY

When a fully saturated soil is subjected to a compressive stress, its volume tends to decrease. The
decreasing of its volume is due to compression of the solid grains and escape of water from the voids.
In a free drainage soil such as saturated sand the escape of water can take place rapidly. But in clay,
due to low permeability, the movement of water occurs very much slowly and therefore, considerable
time may be required for excess water to be squeezed out to permeable boundaries.

Settlement is the direct result of the decrease in soil volume and consolidation is the rate of volume
decrease with time. The consolidation test is use to estimate the amount of settlement and time of
consolidation. From this test some consolidation parameters such as coefficient of consolidation (cv),
coefficient of volume compressibility (mv), compression index (Cc), preconsolidation pressure (Pc) can
be determined.

There are two methods for determining the coefficient of consolidation:


(i) Casagrande or log (time) or 50% consolidation
(ii) Taylor or √ time or 90% consolidation

The coefficient of consolidation can be determined by this equation,

Tv H 2
cv = (3.1)
t
Where, cv = coefficient of consolidation (m2/year)
Tv = Time factor
H = Maximum length of drainage path (m)
t = Time to achieve 50% or 90% consolidation (year or minute)

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 2/8


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
EFFECTIVE
5/12/07
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE:
(MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT
5/12/07
DATE:
Square Root Time (minute)
0 5 √t90 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0

Settlement (mm) 5

10

15

20
x

25 1.15x
2
1
30

Figure 3.1: Settlement versus log Time

Time (minute)
0.1 1 t50 10 100 1000 10000
0% consolidation line
0
20 δ
δ
40
Settlement (mm)

A
60 50% consolidation line

80
B = 4A
100
120 100% consolidation line

140
160

Figure 3.2: Settlement versus square root time

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 3/8


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST EFFECTIVE 5/12/07
DATE:
AMENDMENT
(MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) 5/12/07
DATE:

4.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS

1. Consolidation apparatus
- Consolidation ring
- Corrossion-resistant porous plate
- Consolidation cell
- Dial Gauge
- Loading device

2. Balance readable to 0.1g


3. Vernier caliper
4. Stop-clock readable to 1 s

5.0 PROCEDURES

1. Measure the internal diameter (D) and the height of the ring, using internal vernier
calipers.
2. Weight the ring to the nearest 0.01g (mR).
3. Cutting the specimen and trimming into ring.
4. Determine the initial moisture content from trimming soil.
5. Determine the weight of ring and specimen (m1)
6. Determine the mass of bulk specimen (m) to the nearest 0.01g using this equation

m = m1 – mR

7. Place the consolidation ring and specimen (cutting edge uppermost) centrally on the
porous disc.
8. Fit the ring retainer and cell body and then place the upper porous disc centrally on top
of the specimen.
9. Place the consolidation cell centrally in position on the platform of the machine base.
10. Lift the end of the beam to allow the loading yoke to be raised to the vertical position
and adjust the loading stem by screwing it downwards until the end engages closely in the
recess on the top of the loading cap
11. Attach the compression dial gauge to the arm on the support post.
12. Add weight (2.5 kg) carefully to the load hanger
13. Add water at room temperature to the cell and make sure that the specimen and upper
porous disc are completely submerged.
14. Wind down the beam support and at the same time start the clock.
15. Observe the compression gauge readings and the clock, and record the readings on a
consolidation test form at the selected time intervals.
16. Plot the readings of the compression against time to a logarithmic scale and against
square-root-time.
FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 4/8
DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
EFFECTIVE
5/12/07
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE:
(MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT
5/12/07
DATE:

6.0 CALCULATION EXAMPLE

Date started: 9/7/07 Sample No.: A1 - 1


Soil Type: Silty clay Cell No: 4

BEFORE TEST

Moisture content from trimming: 22.9 (%) S.G. (Assumed) : 2.7


Weight of ring : 439.35 (g) Diameter of ring : 74.9 (mm)
Weight of sample + ring: 260.43 (g) Area of ring: 4406 (mm2)
Weight of sample : 178.92 (g) Thickness of ring: 20.1 (mm)
Weight of dry sample: 145.35 (g) Volume of ring : 88.56 (mm3)
Weight of initial moisture: 33.57 (g) Density, ρ : 2.02 (Mg/m3)
Initial moisture content: 23.1 (%) Dry density, ρ d : 1.64 (Mg/m3)

Gs
Initial void ratio, −1 = 0.622
ρd

SETTLEMENT READINGS
Elapse time Cumulative
Time Clock Gauge
hr min sec √ time compression, ∆ H
(min) time reading
(mm)
0 0 0 8.00 am 0 0
10 0.17 0.41 21 21 x 0.002 = 0.04
20 0.33 0.57 23 23 x 0.002 = 0.05
30 0.50 0.71 25 25 x 0.002 = 0.05
40 0.67 0.82 29 29 x 0.002 = 0.06
50 0.83 0.91 35 35 x 0.002 = 0.07
1 1 1.00 8.01 am 41 41 x 0.002 = 0.08
2 2 1.41 8.02 am 49 49 x 0.002 = 0.10
4 4 2.00 8.04 am 58 58 x 0.002 = 0.12
8 8 2.83 8.08 am 66 66 x 0.002 = 0.13
15 15 3.87 8.15 am 75 75 x 0.002 = 0.15
30 30 5.48 8.30 am 86 86 x 0.002 = 0.17
1 60 9.00 am 95 95 x 0.002 = 0.19
2 120 10.00am 107 107 x 0.002 = 0.21
4 240 12.00 pm 115 115 x 0.002 = 0.23
8 480 4.00 pm 124 124 x 0.002 = 0.25
24 1440 8.00 am 126 126 x 0.002 = 0.25

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 5/8


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
EFFECTIVE
5/12/07
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE:
(MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT
5/12/07
DATE:

7.0 RESULTS

CONSOLIDATION TEST – CALCULATION SHEET

Date started:_________________ Sample No.: _______________


Soil Type: __________________ Cell No: ________________

BEFORE TEST

Moisture content from trimming: _______(%) S.G. (Assumed) : 2.7


Weight of ring : ___________________ (g) Diameter of ring : _______________(mm)
Weight of sample + ring: ____________ (g) Area of ring: ___________________(mm2)
Weight of sample : _______________ (g) Thickness of ring: _______________(mm)
Weight of dry sample: _______________(g) Volume of ring : _________________(mm3)
Weight of initial moisture: ____________(g) Density, ρ : _____________________(Mg/m3)
Initial moisture content: ______________(%) Dry density, ρ d : _________________
(Mg/m3)
Gs
Initial void ratio, −1 = ____________
ρd

SETTLEMENT READINGS

Elapse time Cumulative


Time Clock Gauge
hr min sec √ time compression
(min) time reading
, ∆ H (mm)
0
10
20
30
40
50
1
2
4
8
15
30
1
2
4
8
24

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 6/8


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
EFFECTIVE
5/12/07
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE:
(MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT
5/12/07
DATE:

8.0 CALCULATIONS

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 7/8


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
EFFECTIVE
5/12/07
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE:
(MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT
5/12/07
DATE:

9.0 DISCUSSIONS

10.0 CONCLUSIONS

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.:


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION:
TRANSPORTATION
REVIEW NO.:
ENGINEERING
EFFECTIVE
TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

11.0 OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS

QUESTIONS 1

1. From your experimental data, determine the coefficient of consolidation, cv (m2/year) using
Casagrande Method. Please comment your answer.

2. Clay samples collected from 5 metres deep in Batu Pahat has a unit weight (γ ) of 18 kN/m3.
The following data were recorded during an oedometer test.

Effective Stress (kN/m2) 25 50 100 200 400 800 200 50


Void ratio (e) 0.85 0.82 0.71 0.57 0.43 0.3 0.4 0.5

(i) Plot the graph of void ratio against effective stress on semi-log graph and determine the
compression index (Cc), Preconsolidation pressure (Pc) and coefficient of volume
compressibility (mv).

(ii) Define whether the soil is normally consolidated or over consolidated.

QUESTIONS 2

1. From the experimental data , determine the coefficient of consolidation, cv (m2/year) using
Taylor Method. Please comment your answer.

2. Clay samples collected from 10 metres deep in Parit Raja has a unit weight (γ ) of 20 kN/m3.
The following data were recorded during an oedometer test.

Effective Stress (kN/m2) 50 100 200 400 800 1600 400 100
Void ratio (e) 0.95 0.92 0.81 0.67 0.53 0.4 0.5 0.6

(i) Plot the graph of void ratio against effective stress on semi-log graph and determine the
compression index (Cc), Preconsolidation pressure (Pc) and coefficient of volume
compressibility (mv).

(ii) Define whether the soil is normally consolidated or over consolidated.