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Location based Presence training Management level training Person based training Knowledge - Based Training Function – based Training Organizational structure – based Training
1. Location Based Training In – Company Off – Company 2. Presence Training On – the Job Training Methods Off – the Job Training Methods 3. Management Level Training Top level Middle level Low level 4. Person Based Training Workers Supervisors Management 5. Knowledge - Based Training Technical Non – Technical 6. Function – based Training Production Marketing Finance Personnel And the like…………. 7. Organizational structure – based Training Managerial Non – Managerial
On The Job Training 1. Coaching 2. Job Rotation 3. Job Instruction 4. Observation 5. Lateral Positioning 6. Attachments 7. Junior Boards and Committees 1. Coaching The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor, who functions as coach; often the trainee shares some of the functions of the coach. The supervisor provides has to watch the work of the trainee, offer him suggestions and feedback for improvement. 2. Job Instruction: This method is also known as training through steps. The trainer explains the way of doing the things in steps to the trainee and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback and corrects the trainee. This method involves four steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Prepare the employee for instruction Present the job with each step separately Have him to do the job in each step Follow through till he becomes familiar.
3. Job Rotation This type of training involve is the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The jobs vary in content. This method gives the trainee an opportunity to understand problems of employee on other jobs and how he could transform himself to the situation to solve the other employees or peers. Job Rotation: Merits The trainee can maintain a certain generality of approach and avoid becoming merely a specialist. Awareness of what is happening elsewhere and familiarity with other task-centers helps a balanced and informed attitude to enterprise goal and activities. New contacts are established and the horizon of enterprise governance becomes effective. A competitive environment prevails giving way to inclination from other employees. Each leader's abilities and talents are best tested in a variety of jobs leading to all- round development.
and correspondence. • An employee trained in another job may indulge in costly experimentations in his original job. • It helps the organization to have a flexibility with units employee inventory Lateral Positioning .line employees may resent it as it makes their chances of promotion uncertain.personal and group conflicts. Observation A variant of rotation methods is the observation methods. Observation . • The training is quick and flexible. • The junior second . • In case of inter . this methods not only averts the conflicts but also injects an element of positive attitude in a trainee.Job Rotation . Lateral Positioning .Demerits • An employee asked to hold charge of an unfamiliar job will take to settle down. • It leads to superficial learning. • Since the trainer has no responsibility.functional understanding and team work. letters. • A trainee may take time to settle down and he is prone to erroring due to hasty in learning. Observation . The trainee spends a few sitting in the room of a manager going through the instruction files. in which the trainee is expected to observe the work process in a centre.Merits • It does not disturb the established tenor of work. • More supervision and guidance from the senior level is required on the roving employee or trainee 4. 5. • The trainee is able to get a detached and comprehensive look at the task the systems and procedures.Demerits • This method is suitable for passive observes. He asks the manager as to how the works are completed. . the trainee is permanently posted to take up the jobs in other departments. He has to take full responsibility of the assignment and he will not be know when he will be shifted again.Merits • It enhances inter.Demerits • Change in employee cause dislocation and disruption in normal work. Lateral Positioning In this method. • Interpersonal relationships may take time adjustment. his interest in training may not exist.
6.• The relationship. which helps the trainee in the process of understanding. The senior routes much of the departmental work through the junior and he is taken as an integral part of the trainer. with the employees and discipline within the. The demerits are – • It does not permit any specific attention to the training needs • The debates and discussions often tend to be lacking purposiveness. if the trainer being senior has complex and exclusiveness 7. it is taken as a punishment rather than reward resulting in stymied personal career advancement. analysis and decision making. authority and decision commitment.Merits • The junior i. Attachment . • The trainee may lose the loss of independence in analyzing and deciding the appropriateness of a function. Off – The Job Training Methods Objectives • Emerging complex managerial process. Junior Boards and Committees The trainee is asked to participate in the deliberations of junior boards and decision making committees.e. The trainee is mute observe but having a flair for listening. • Normally. Here. group may an unsettling effect. he often becomes a mere observer of the whole process. different views are debated and decisions are taken. the real .Demerits • Since the trainee has no direct responsibility for the success of the job. • The chances of costly mistakes or upsetting relationship within the group are eliminated. Attachment . the junior is attached to a senior by rotation in different functions. Attachment • In this method. The merits are – • It inculcates a sense of responsibility and participation • Widens the trainee's perspective and team ship with senior and peers from other disciplines. comprehension.life actual problems are discussed. trainee. . is not overburdened with work and responsibility and he secure full participation in the functioning process resulting in the acquisition of insight on the job content..
• • • • • Emphasis on behavioural outcomes Development of new techniques of management New findings of behavioural science Multi disciplinary approach to management The changing profile of trainees from mute observation to active involvement in the learning process • The presence of complex of socio-cultural dimensions in learning. The lecture method in recent times has been ably supported the use of – • Charts • Graphs • Slides • Flip charts • Models • Films • Other audio .visual aids. an in . " In olden times. Hence. the Guru used to lecture and the pupils used to listen and there was a peripheral or minimal questioning session. Lecture Method – Merits • It is simple and efficient backed up with study materials . the lecture of the speaker is followed by a high intensity of observation. In recent times. discussion and questioning leading to a realistic understanding of the talk delivered.depth understanding of these methods is made under the heads The types of training under Off – The Job Training method: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lecture Correspondence Role Playing In basket Method Case study method Business games Conference Sensitivity training (T – Group) Seminars Workshops Symposiums Programmed instructions Field work (Application project) • Syndicate work LECTURE METHOD A discourse read or delivered before an audience or a class upon a given subject especially for instruction.
• It is normally characterized by halo effect. • The presentation requires a great deal of preparation. • Even though the speaker can adjust to the specific audience group. complexes and emotional excesses. The effectiveness of lecture depends upon content command and audience knowledge level. who are constrained to attend the physical locations of learning. optimally loaded with reference materials and additional suggested readings to motivate trainees to acquire an increased knowledge horizon on his own endeavor. • It helps in illustrating the application of rules and principles. Lecture Method – Demerits • The learners are passive instead of active participants. . which are to be dispatched to the trainees either wholesale or sequentially. the individual differences of' the audience/will mitigate the effectiveness. • The presentation of material should be geared to a common level of knowledge.clarifying and summarizing. which requires a high level of time devotion and public speaking skills.• It reduces anxiety about upcoming training programmes by explaining their basic purpose • The basic material provides a common background for subsequent activitie • It helps in introducing a subject and presenting an overview of scope. • There is tendency of drifting. reviewing. status barrier. It violates the principle of learning by doing and it is normally a one-way communication. . The study material should be more self instructional style than of traditional textbook form. the instructional activity is through correspondence and the speaker's found in lecture method is occupied by the study material sent through post to the learners interested in specific area bf training. anyone of them is certainly lacking and this results ineffective lectures. Most of the times. CORRESPONDENCE METHOD In this methods. Correspondence Method – Procedure The training should be clear about the instructional objectives to be achieved based on the requirement of the clientele or trainees as well as the magnitude of the trainees. This method pre-supposes the scattered locations of the trainees. The trainers should analyze the information content and sequence of the study material contents. It tends to emphasize the accumulation and memorization of facts and figures and does not lay stress on the application of knowledge.
It helps the physically handicapped learners significantly. Arrangement of personal contact programmes (PCPs) is a sine qua non to remove the doubts of the participants. unlike the lecture method in which they listen to it only once. the heterogeneity of the trainee group is taken care of. The trainees should get the feedback after assignment completion. At the end of PCP. It provides an opportunity to study at their own places and at the time convenient to them. which put their intellectual mite for an exploding knowledge It is less expensive for the participants as well as for the training institutions since a large number of participants can be trained simultaneously by a small team of trainers. The PCP provides an interactive forum for heterogeneous intellectual groups.An ingredient of study material is the inclusion of exercise manual along with response sheets for assignment completion and the trainers should see that the trainees respond to them in time. A regular feedback based on evaluated assignments results in an indepth understanding of issues or subjects. A small group of trainers can train a fairly large number of participants simultaneously. Whatever could not be communicated clearly through the written lessons should be transmitted through their visits and discussions. In this way. They could be at their places' of work and learn at the same time. The repeated reading of brief text and elaborate exercises is feasible. if any.training as far as possible. The trainers should be prepared to clarify the doubts as and when they come up and a network of study centers are to he set by the training institution to provide the feeling of venue. Correspondence Method – Demerits . the response to reaction sheet from trainees should be carefully studied by the trainers to improve the contents and standards of the course there by rejuvenating course material Correspondence Method – Merits Training is possible without asking trainees to attend training.
Participants are psychologically “inside” the problem situation. Provides for execution of action or solution. Aim of Role Play Advantages Role playing provides an opportunity for developing insight into what is happening when it is happening. The interaction for clarification by a trainee is done through the trainer. but through the study material. Make for emotional involvement. Allows continuous feedback. Emphasizes the importance of feelings. to cope with real or hypothetical problems in human relations and other areas. Provides for testing ideas and hypotheses. There is a dearth of sound coordination to manage the whole show. The problem involves ongoing processes. . Provides practice in interpersonal skills.The PCP between the trainers and trainees is not the extent it is desired. interrupted or postponed leading to the possible low knowledge level. especially problems associated with human relations Role playing enables the manager or supervisor to see a situation from a perspective different to his own. which inanimate and hence the learning process is hampered. Trains in emotional control. in the timely availability of study material. The problem typically involves the participants themselves.Demerits Getting adequate and relevant additional reference material may that the learning pursuit. Role playing emphasizes the importance that feelings and emotions play in many problems. Emotional and attitudinal aspects are dealt with in a similar frame of reference. Correspondence Method . Places a problem in a life like setting. ROLE PLAYING Role playing is a training technique in which participants assume an identity other than their own. There is general delay.
• Players are given time to fix their characters in their minds and audience are oriented to what they are to watch. thereby providing a dynamic situation during the course of which attitudes can be modified and new attitudes developed. Role playing. Ex : To study different leadership pattern. develops the interest of the learner. Why the scene developed as it did. Types of role play 1) Structured role playing Leader sets both the situation and the roles. Specifies the goals of the activity. • The audience can be divided into Listening or watching Or a special observer for later panel discussions. How is it conducted? 1) Trainers start by briefing all the participants • He outlines the situation. 3) The actors and the audience discuss the proceedings What was enacted? The motivation of the people involved. Next the enactment. Or alternatively the trainer might assume the role of the leader in the role playing. Multiple role reversal during the scene. Spontaneous role playing No advance planning by the leader of the group. 2) The group acts out. Tape recorders or CC TV may be employed. Repetition of the scene itself with role reversals. successfully handled. Simulated situation is presented to group first. • Gives a concise description of the characters involved. Or Role playing planned in advance by members of the group itself. 2) . Problem situation arises from the group discussion. Variants Role reversal. He orally assigns the other roles. The planning group determines the degree of the spontaneity and the amount of advance information to the players. Elaborate written material describing the role and situation may be provided.
Enactment itself serves as the briefing. Observation and feedback. marked "in" and "out" for mail and memoranda. under some pressure and thus some measure of his potential or his competency. the exercise provides information on how a participant handles a sequence of problems in a given situation. The name is derived from the wire baskets that formerly were seen on almost every manger’s desk. Learning through Doing. 5) Real life transfer may be improved by having individuals who are involved in real life conflict situation undertaking for role playing together. it can be used to help the trainee identify areas in planning. game like atmosphere.groups. organizing and administrative behaviour in which his skills need to be improved. Imitation. Following multiple role playing there is a discussion on the mutual experiences. Analysis. May result in very little transfer of behaviour change to real situations. 6) If the problems lack sufficient conflicts or variety participants may find it boring. as well as an opportunity to practice those 8kils in a situation in which he can obtain feedback on his performance. As a training device. As a diagnostic tool. 2) Time consuming. the In-Basket is a simulation of a manager’s workload on a typical day. 3) Multiple roles playing Divide the entire participants group in to role-playing sub. IN-BASKET Definition: Developed originally as a possible measure of aptitude for the administrative components of the managerial role. Design and Methodology: . Everyone role playing simultaneously. Drawbacks of Role Play 1) Effectiveness depends on the skill of the leader. playing each other’s role. 4) Some feel it is too artificial. 2. 5) Group should be accustomed to informal. 3) Restrict the number and complexities of the problems to be dealt with at one time. Major Aims: 1. 7) Spontaneity in the culture of the community or group is very essential.
the participant is literally forced to scan many different items calling for different actions and deal with them By Setting priorities Delegating certain items to his subordinates for handling. there will be a written record of every action which each participant has taken 4. 2. Getting familiar with the situation:-The participant is presented with numerous background materials so that he may become familiar with the organizational situation. Each player is presented with a group of letters. At the end of that time period. the participant may be scheduled as part of the exercise to attend a crucial meeting or conference at which at least some of the items in his In-Basket will be discussed.Once a player is familiar with the situation. Attend a crucial meeting or conference: . The player's actions are either- . He is then asked to take any actions he deem appropriate with the In-Basket items within a limited time period. In order to be prepared for this conference. 3.The underlying idea of the In-Basket technique is that a person is required to assume the role of a fictitious executive or supervisor in a hypothetical situation. The situation into which each participant is placed contains a time period during which all available work must be accomplished. Take actions: . for example. Thus. They may include such items as – Financial statements Organizational charts Job descriptions Formal position papers Informal items such as descriptions of the personalities and performance of other characters in the test situation. the In-Basket p1ayer must actually do it. Though they may vary in nature and content. as an executive. Write all his notes: . 5. Explaining their actions:-The In-Basket game also includes a procedure which allows players to explain their actions. they all share the common purpose of increasing the reality of the hypothetical situation for the participants by placing the tasks which they are to perform in context.An important dimension of the In-Basket experience is time pressure. reports. notes and related items which have presumably accumulated in the' In-Basket of the hypothetical manager. the exercise itself is begun. 1.Unlike some other types of exercise in which a participant merely tells what he would do. They must actually write – All his notes and memoranda Write out his conversations with others Put down the contents of his telephone calls on paper. at the end of the exercise.
Although each participant plays the "game". if the objective is to develop or improve human relations skills. The In-Basket can also be adapted to the level of the position for which training is required – If first-line supervisors are participating. the In-Basket material can be weighed heavily with interpersonal conflicts. it is constructed so as to call adequately for use of the participant's decisionmaking and problem-solving abilities. The trainee who participates in the In-Basket exercise is not constrained "by other people's behaviour in a dynamic fashion.If the selected situation is similar to one in which the participant actually has or expects he will function and if. It is handicapped by the fact that is difficult to score or measure its effects. Disadvantages: Like any other training technique. he plays it by himself.For instance. it may become unrealistic no matter how "realistic" the situational setting is made. other responsibilities being held to a minimum. This may step from the fact that the In-Basket is essentially an individual and non-inter-active device. Further since the In-Basket is a form of role-playing. there is little opportunity for interaction between participants. The In-Basket exercise thus provides little training for team management responsibilities. and with his own materials. or by a group of his fellow players. Decisions are made during the In-Basket exercise without the advantage of consultation. Advantages of in-basket exercise:The key to the In-Basket's effectiveness as a training device is the fact that it is rooted in real-life situations . his behaviour in the game may be more natural than in some other types of training techniques. diversification and decentralization. It can be designed either to focus on the activities that are part of all executive positions or to emphasize certain specific aspects of performance . CASE STUDY METHOD . supervising work. and technical aspects of production. the problemcan be constructed to emphasize such factors as providing staff services. this In-Basket method has certain shortcomings. or both. in addition. Except for the post game review period. If it 1s desired to train higher level executives the problem may be related to activities such as long range planning. Scored in some manner Reviewed with him by an interviewer or instructor.
SHORT CASES: these may be only a page or two. This is what the case study method aims to do. PRIME PURPOSE: 1. 4. 3. DIFFERENT TYPES OF CASES: 1. All extraneous information is removed. INCIDENT METHOD: The Incident Process:- . Sometimes run to 40 – 50 pages of text with supporting charts and documents. leaving only information that is pertinent to one problem. This approach uses detailed case reports. It will present reports. It is usually in the form of a running narrative that includes – History of the company Biographies of key persons Information about finances Marketing information Production information Drawbacks of the Long case method: Needlessly long. facts. To develop habits of logical thinking. LONG CASES: Also called as classic case or Harvard cases. The information needed to dig beyond the obvious symptoms of trouble. One of the foremost tasks of any effective management education is to improve the ability of managers and embryo managers to take wise decisions and make plans for their successful implementations. To develop skills in discovering and defining the vital questions that need to be answered and then to learn how to set about finding the answer. it will have been gleaned for the most part from research in the field and will have been put together in a conscious effort to ensure accuracy and reality. Long cases or Classic Cases 2. opinions but will not evaluate. Too much trouble deciding just what is important 2. diagnose and solve the problem is absent 4. Short Cases 3. and even.This form of case study will provide an authentic management problem. Drawbacks of the short case method: Limits the depth to which the trainees can probe. Incident process 1. 2. To train in analysis and decision making.
thinking about and acting in a particular business situation. 2. After the Fact – Finding – stage the group attempts to determine the major issue to be resolved and whether or not minor issues must also be considered. 3. Fact – Finding – stage: Only a bare incident is reported to the group. It may involve merely a statement.1. The group gets the information only by asking for it specifically. 4. Lengthy and tedious process. 5. Other information relevant to the incident is known only to the discussion leader. It improves participants’ skills in – Problem Analysis Communication Decision making 3. Case study analysis helps participants to realize that there are several ways of looking at. . Advantages of case Study method:1. and then joins in a short period of general discussion of all the proposed solutions. The method develops a systematic way of thinking about business issues and managerial decisions. Those with similar solutions meet to iron out the differences and select a spokesman to argue the merits of their approach in debate with other viewpoints. so that it may be studied in detail. 2. It distributes knowledge and facts. The leader finally reports the real life situation. A Case study presents a sample of business life in slow motion. Drawbacks of the Incident case method: Time consuming. 3. Time of the knowledgeable managers who supply the facts also needed Objectives of the Case study method:1. The objective diagnosis of causes and alternative broadens participants understanding and provides an improved guide to action. Each member writes his own solution. 2. It affects attitude formation and particularly brings home to the participants that nothing is absolutely “right” or “wrong” in the field of human behaviour.
a judge or a delegate was called a syndic in ancient Greek syndicate is a body of syndics. In the course of studying and making decisions on a number of cases. Syndicate – it represents a body of individuals having the ability to tackle a case or a problem with a profound analysis and their role being conceived to be judges giving decisions. 5. participants will discover some of the underlying principles of management. improving his executive skills and developing insight into human behaviour. The purpose of syndicate method is to expose a participant to a milieu in which he is persuaded into reflecting upon his experiences as an executive. Using case studies is a convenient means of exposing participants to a diversity of business situations and problems during a training course. The main task of the tutorial staff is to organize the work so that this mixture of the experience takes place to the maximum extent possible within the duration of the course. The essence of the syndicate method is that men should learn from each other and should contribute their own experience to the fullest.4. updating his knowledge. Any method of working which a small group may use to achieve a particular purpose might fairly be described as a syndicate method. FIELD STUDY . QUESTIONS YOU MUST ANSWER TO SLOVE THE CASE What is going on here? Is there a problem at all? What precisely is the problem? What has caused it? Are we looking at causes or symptoms? What are the main issues? Why are these issues important? Whose problem is it? What precisely are its objectives? What should he try to do now? What possible courses of action are open? How realistic is each of the actions/solutions proposed? What are their possible effects? SYNDICATE METHOD An advocate.
By “interesting case” we mean the company should have a striking strategy event in the recent corporate records.the participants must meet the policy-making level of the company . 2. Let us examine the various criteria in more detail.the visit of a well-choosen company . which makes it interesting to know more about it. which was introduced at the Centre d’Etudes Industrialize (CEI) a couple of years ago and enjoys an over-all acceptance among both teacher and student body. looking at the situation more closely. a development of a diversified product range or even simply an outstanding rate of growth. a preparation of the expected problems should precede the trip . The industry study trip 2.this report should not only record the situation in the company but should show the author’s opinions about the problems and the way of tackling them practically. 1. In the following pages we want to present a more structured version of the method. Only then can the right questions be brought up. . the company must be assessed according to its openness and willingness to respond to questions. Assessing a company’s situation means studying and analyzing the latest annual reports. This can either be a take-over of a competitor. . . At the same time. The company must be an “interesting case”. they have to study the company’s situation before they visit it. INDUSTRY STUDY TRIP Criteria We understand by the “Industry Study Trip” a teaching method that fulfils the following set of criteria : .the participants have to report on their studies in the field .Field studies normally appear among the set of teaching methods currently in used with management schools all over the world. Management system study. The Participants want to know more about the company when meeting the management. And yet. which may lead to a deeper understanding of the present situation. it is in most cases a very unstructured activity and stands just for “going into the field”. The two versions of field studies 1. . Hence. At CEI a series of sessions on the environment sectors . the competitive situation and the whole environmental sector in which it operates. the environment in which the company operates .a well-prepared examination of company’s annual reports.
the competitive situation and environment) . It is hypothesized that the method on the whole has a comparative strength over other methods at the outset of the problem-solving cycle while the different phases might enhance knowledge.The limited range of topics (mostly one these). Moreover. guest lecturers gave a series of sessions on the situation of the industry as well as on the environmental sectors of the companies. preferably operating in different environments . . .The number of companies. If the participants only meet functional department managers.given by a guest lecturer – if necessary – premise the actual trip. etc. attitudes and skills unequally. 3. . we can distinguish certain phases of the trip as a teaching device : . . However. The most interesting issues normally have a strategic character. of course an interesting question which phase contributes most to learning given taxonomy of teaching objectives representing the different learning domains. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS STUDY The second version of field study is a trip lasting several weeks to selected companies in different cultural. at one stage a Swiss aluminum company was selected which had the highest rate of growth among the competition. strategy is not formulated at middle management but at the top. It is absolutely necessary that the participants meet the top management people in the field. For example.preparation of a report on the company that has been visited . The main features that distinguish the management systems study from the industry study trip are : . political and economical settings. At the same time.the actual visit to the company .preparation and discussion of the reports. the competitor balance sheets and annual reports. small study groups analyse different aspects of the company and present them in class so that enough background material on the company is available. It is.preparatory phase (gathering of information on the company. This preparation enabled the students to talk very competently with the managers they met. the discussion necessarily focuses on administrative and operational matters and just deals with strategic issues to a minor extent due to the position of the managers in the company. The participants were analyzing the annual reports. Effectiveness Looking at the industry study trip from a time dimension.
It gives him a certain outlook and a feeling that there is not one panacea to tackle and handle business matters. a fairly expensive way of learning.. including foreign trade. Although there are no effectiveness studies on the method. The chosen topics are generally very attractive. the effect of internationalization. SEMINAR A seminar is a meeting for discussion based on the presentation of the views and empirical evidences on theme and arriving at certain conclusions on the issue. sales promotion and distribution. It is a certain threshold of exposure which leads to learning. If one does not confine the topic when visiting a company. It is significantly different from . training of managers and other personnel within the enterprise . It prevents getting locked in with a certain type of thinking by being confronted with various approaches that are often equally successful. a seminar is conducted under the guidance of a chairman.Duration. Seeing two or three companies has only minor impact. practices and techniques in market research. Use of this method must necessarily take longer. It stimulates the readiness for becoming more creative and innovative. characteristics which are required in a business world that changes constantly. The following list representing the topics chosen in the last years documents the areas of interest at the particular point of time : factors contributing to company growth . In our opinion. 2. however. technical innovation . for example. motivation of man . 1. 3. Normally. It is very intriguing to see. due to the number of areas which are of general interest. the discussion will stay normally very much on the surface. how diversification strategies are pursued in different countries or how innovation is organizationally structured in different economic systems. The pre-selection of a topic known to both the students and the company people well in advance guarantees a certain depth in the discussion between them. It is. The management systems study as a teaching method is especially powerful in international business education. This method is particularly rewarding for a student who has to deal with international issues. it is well accepted in industry. who is called a trainer for the purpose of study here. on the organization of the enterprise . control of international operations .
The merits are 1. which is a given to the trainees seeking the writing and presentation of the papers. The modus operandi of seminar method is presented below. Recognition of undercurrents of a phenomenon leading to new theorization and adoption of the same to real problem situations. doubts and disagreements without inhibitions. Tendency of building up of participant numbers precipitating the usefulness and outcomes. The paper presentation is very formal and lasts for a short time on each papers based on the abstract of the paper. The trainer is a principal presenter of information in a lecture. After the receipt of the papers. 4. the rate of participation is lower than that in a seminar. Learning of participative techniques leading to confidence formation 3. Participants speaking out their observations. The scope of the theme is briefly explained in a brochure. Normally. Time constant leading to shallow discussions . seminars attempt to develop higher cognitive attributes through discussions. Meticulous advance preparation of the contents by the paper readers and of the discussion points by the participants . Sidetracking to unnecessary and irrelevant exchanges among members thereby wasting much of the time.a lecture method. 2. From the viewpoint of instructional objective. paper writers and the other participants. 4. an initiator and a guide in a seminar. creativity and team spirit and 5. but he is an expert a facilitator. In a lecture. Involvement of the participants is passive during presentation and it becomes active. The demerits are 1. sometimes turbulent. The participants are the trainer. the multimedia approach is adopted depending upon the presentation strategy of the paper writers. comments. After the presentation and discussions. whereas lectures aim at information content and comprehension. the major fact-studied observations are recorded and distributed to the participants. Major time is devoted for discussion. the copies of the papers are sent in advance to all participants for their perusal and oncoming discussion. . they are subject to evaluation from the viewpoint of justification parameters by the trainee or the seminar committee and the papers are selected for presentation on the scheduled date or dates. Development of higher cognitive attributes. which is normally not more than a page. Normally. Seminar is for a small group of highly intellectual participants and a lecture is targeted towards the novice in the field. A theme is identified by the trainer or a group of experts well in advance of the seminar scheduled. at the time of discussion. 3. 2. A lecture is dominated by speech and a seminar is identified with domination of discussion. Presence of participants as mute observers thereby nullifying the very objective of training.
5. Basically. Participants acting as experts may level to solution in involvement. SYMPOSIUM METHOD The origin of this method goes back to a situation when a group was discussing over an issue in a free and half-drunken mood and at the same time. trainer. To conclude. There is a chance for participants to take up the role of experts. There are three components in any symposium viz. which helps the participants in deeper understanding. 3. The trainer briefs experts and the participants about the theme. going deep into the issue in discussing it threadbare. The participant and the audience (if any) will ask questions relating to the issue. group of experts and participants. the symposium method involves a high degree of involvement by the specialists. Emergency of acrimonious relationship because of philosophical and cultural differences (Remember that truth is not sweeter. The method is similar to seminar method but with a few marked differences. Then a summary view is presented to all the audience including experts and participants. where the employees are the specialists with homogeneity attitude and aptitudes. The discussion is indepth in nature. the method is adopted at a higher levels of management. The demerits are 1. The trainer has to start with the selection of the topic or theme or issue. The merits are 1. the danger lies in perceiving it to be situation of work-free and holidaying-in. the seminar method of training requires presentation of views and issues in a capsule form and an in-depth discussion to arrive at startling conclusions and innovative concepts to be further examined leading to cognitive abilities of the participants. To conclude. The tendency of perceiving training as a corporate dole-out. However. The session starts with the discussion on the issue or topic by the experts. Hence the expert group should be of high caliber. 2. Hence. but bitter) and 6. If the discussion is sub-standard. There may be a passive involvement from participants. the method flops. CONFERENCE METHOD . the symposium method is one where discussion is predominant and the entire procedure is full of deep involvement in discussion. 2. The discussion held is not superficial or a routine performance but an indepth one.
As the number of presentations is larger. 2. because the delegates or participants ‘confer’ to discuss the issues. 4.This method is called so. There is always an improper time management. Generally. The advantages are 1. The observation session is meant for summing up the issues and drawing up a list of conclusions after discussions. 3. a conference is characterized by large number of participants unlike a seminar. Literally. It provides the knowledge of objective oriented activities to the participants. The disadvantages are 1. syndicate and symposium excepting the procedure involved. care should be taken to allow for free expression without fear and to control the distraction. It helps to develop the ability to make presentations before a learned group. The trainer occupies the chairman’s role. the chairman highlights the purpose or the objective of the papers to be presented and the discussions to be held are explained. However. a discussion session and an observation session. When it is borrowed and use din training. semiskilled and unskilled) is done. 3. its operational definition changes to work done with full involvement in problem solving and designing activities which need not be manual but also intellectual in nature. It takes care of a large number of delegates for presentation and discussion. Presentation session. it means the place or venue where some manual work (skilled. because the discussion on first presented papers take away much of the time resulting in top sided discussions. Each delegate’s name is announced and he is requested to make the presentation. To conclude the conference method is the most generally preferred method because of its usefulness. The discussion session focuses on analyzing the issues or ideas presented by the delegates. ‘workshop’ is borrowed from the area of industry. The plenary session is followed by the presentation the delegates. WORKSHOP METHOD The word. discussion is postpone for the next session. It may be difficult to arrange everything systematically for large number of delegates. The progress is slow because all those desiring to speak on a point are generally allowed to do so. In the plenary session. . 4. This method requires a high level of organizational competence to make it successful. 2. It helps develop higher cognitive abilities. The agenda includes a plenary session. This method is some what similar to seminar. A conference is conducted according to an agenda prepared in advance by the trainer.
It is a teaching method which places the emphasis on . the workshop manufactures or produces something useful for participants themselves or for others. The demerits are 1. participants and venue.The important components of this method are trainer. The result is virtually a compendium of ideas or contents put in a sequence. It produces something which is really useful. the deficiencies are corrected and sequencing of parts or packages in terms of inter and intra packages is done. the problems of which need a package of solutions. 7. The trainer conducts the proceedings of this method. Its application gets restricted to top and middle management. The session starts with a lecturette (normally a briefing) by the trainer or the expert dignitary. 8. there is a chairman selected by each group and it is assisted by a co-trainer in conducting the deliberations. Long sessions may decrease the quality of output. The trainers knowledge increases. The cotrainers assist the trainer in conducting this method. visualized as the objective of training. 3. 2. The background materials are sent in advance to the participants for acquainting them with problems and pondering over the issues. Here. Its uniqueness lies in turning out something tangible. These packages are further deliberated when all the sub groups assemble again as a group to deliberate on the packages. The session of each group comes to an end with the development of package of solutions or contents. True to its name. The trainer has to select a theme. The session in workshop may get disrupted because of conflicting views. The theme. It develops higher cognitive attributes affect attributes. 3. 5. The participants are the target trainees assigned for training purpose. It helps in developing work experience. the number of which depending upon grouping or clustering of issues. 6. The process of conducting the workshop is given below. After this the participants are divided into small groups. The merits are 1. co-trainers. PROGRAMMED LEARNING Programmed learning is one of the training methods developed in recent years from extensive research. Venue is the arrangement of physical facilities to do the work or exercise. For each group. provides scope of participants to work out something substantially and through practical involvement. 4. The active group is participant and the passive group is trainers. It makes the participants work with full involvement. Eventhough it is very similar to syndicate method. It requires minimum physical facilities. 2.
It places the emphasis on 'COMMUNICATION with the trainee . 6. he must answer questions correctly. or may not. Trainee works at his own pace. or in a vocabulary which the trainee understands. He may not have explained properly. 7. To endure that he is really learning the information in each step. The person for whom the programme is written is called the TARGET GROUP. 2. 5. The programme is thoroughly tested before it is printed SENSITIVITY TRAINING OR T – GROUP TRAINING OR LABORATORY TRAINING The National Training Laboratories (NTL) in US pioneered “Laboratory training associated with T – Group or Sensitivity Training for executives’ middle managers and people from non – business organizations and many executives have been exposed to these types of programme. In fact. 3. -. Programmed Learning is a self – instructional method of training stressing MOTIVATION to learn. It is capable of releasing some important forces which can enhance man’s ability to control more effectively and creatively his human environment. 1. have given him enough information. 8. The information to be taught is presented in a form known as PROGRAMME The person who writes the programme is known as PROGRAMME WRITER or PROGRAMMER. sensitivity training means different things to different people. On a very general basis. 4.communication . He has immediate knowledge of results at each step so that he can check to see how well he is doing. He cannot go on to the next step until he has mastered the preceding one and so on to the end. this can be taken as a development technique that attempts to improve or increase the human sensitivity and awareness of his own . It is therefore up to the programmer to make sure that his trainee is learning.if the student or trainee fails to learn then it may well be the fault of the teacher rather than his own Programmed learning is a method whereby the trainee teaches himself by working through a series of steps all leading to carefully defined goals or objectives.to learn then it is probably the programmer (the instructor) who is at fault.if he fails . Through a series of logical steps All leading to predefined goals and objectives By actively responding And by mastering each step He receives feedback information Which motivates him to continue.
These are the three stages of the T. Refreezing .feelings and the feelings of others is a vital necessity for the adoption of the individual to the organization. T – Groups are really small discussion groups with no set leader. especially emotions. The groups are totally unstructured. they have no set task or agenda and the trainer merely raises questions and provides occasional comments. Change 3. withheld effort and ultimately reduced organizational effectiveness. T – Groups are expected to learn more about themselves. Unfreezing 2. A manager who is sensitive to the impact of his behaviour on others is the cause of resentment. T – Group training is often called laboratory training because T – groups are in effective laboratories in which people experiment on their own discussions.group training: 1.
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