# Structural Optimization 16, 226-229 (~) Springer-Verlag 1998

Brief

Note

O p t i m a l d e s i g n of a horizontal circular t a n k w i t h ellipsoidal heads
K. M a g n u c k i

Institute of Technology, Pedagogical University of Zielona Gdra, al. Wojska Polskiego 69, PL-65-625 Zielona G6ra, Poland

Abstract A horizontal circular tank, supported at both ends, is loaded by internal or external pressure. In the design process of such structures the proper choice of basic dimensions to ensure minimal mass may cause a problem. In this paper the optimal radii, lengths and wall thicknesses of a series of tanks of given capacity have been defined. The results of numerical analysis are presented in the form of diagrams.

pressure Pi, being the sum of the hydrostatic pressure of a liquid having mass density Pro, contained in the tank, and an additional uniform pressure Po. The second load is constant external pressure Pext.

1

Introduction Fig. 1. Circular cylindrycal tank with ellipsoidal heads In the first load case the tank walls are subject to internal normal pressure, provided that the dead weight of the structure is neglected Pint = P(~) = PO + ~'ma(1
- -

Shells may be optimized by parametric or variational shaping. A detailed classification of optimization problems, together with many examples,, particularly focused on variational shaping, is given by Zyczkowski (1990). For practical solutions of shell optimization computer methods are required. Ringertz (1992) presented numerical methods for optimization of nonlinear shell structures. The methods were illustrated by two examples of parametric optimization related to a cylindrical panel with a rib and a cylindrical panel with a circular hole. Zhou and Haftka (1995) presented a generalization of continuum optimality criteria methods (COC). They developed multiple displacement constraints and multiple load conditions. Kru~elecki (1997) determined optimal dimensions of a barrel-shaped cylindrical shell, loaded by an axial force and external pressure. For solution purposes the use was made of the concept of uniform stability of the shell. Magnucki and Szyc (1996) determined the optimal, rectangle delimited shape of the cross-section of a cylindrical shell loaded by constant internal pressure. The paper considers a horizontal circular tank with ellipsoidal heads, loaded by internal or external pressure (Fig. 1). The tank, of required capacity Vo, may be designed in many ways, e.g. as a short tank of big diameter, or as a long one, of small diameter. The optimization problem is, in this case, of parametric type and resolves into determination of its radius a, length L, wall thicknesses t 1 and t 2 , giving the least mass of the tank. Wilby (1977) similarly formulated the problem of reasonable choice of the basic dimensions of a vertical cylindrical tank of circular cross-secti0n.

cos!a),

(1)

where 7m = g *pm is the specific weight of the medium, and g = 9.81 m / s 2. Making use of the membrane theory of shells, discussed in detail by Fliigge (1973) or recently by Farshad (1992), longitudinal az and circumferential a~ stresses of the cylindrical tank wall can be determined. Maximal values of these stresses occur in the lower part of the central cross-section and amount to

=

2t--

+ 7ma +

'

rma2( PO)
~rred = - ~z(r~

(2)

where A = L/a is a dimensionless parameter of the cylinder length. The effective (ttuber-Mises) stress is + o-2

2

Strength constraint
(3) 4t 2 + 27ma] '

A vertical cylindrical tank of circular cross-section (Fig. 1) is subject to two different loads. The first load is an internal