Structural Optimization 16, 226-229 (~) Springer-Verlag 1998



O p t i m a l d e s i g n of a horizontal circular t a n k w i t h ellipsoidal heads
K. M a g n u c k i

Institute of Technology, Pedagogical University of Zielona Gdra, al. Wojska Polskiego 69, PL-65-625 Zielona G6ra, Poland

Abstract A horizontal circular tank, supported at both ends, is loaded by internal or external pressure. In the design process of such structures the proper choice of basic dimensions to ensure minimal mass may cause a problem. In this paper the optimal radii, lengths and wall thicknesses of a series of tanks of given capacity have been defined. The results of numerical analysis are presented in the form of diagrams.

pressure Pi, being the sum of the hydrostatic pressure of a liquid having mass density Pro, contained in the tank, and an additional uniform pressure Po. The second load is constant external pressure Pext.


Introduction Fig. 1. Circular cylindrycal tank with ellipsoidal heads In the first load case the tank walls are subject to internal normal pressure, provided that the dead weight of the structure is neglected Pint = P(~) = PO + ~'ma(1
- -

Shells may be optimized by parametric or variational shaping. A detailed classification of optimization problems, together with many examples,, particularly focused on variational shaping, is given by Zyczkowski (1990). For practical solutions of shell optimization computer methods are required. Ringertz (1992) presented numerical methods for optimization of nonlinear shell structures. The methods were illustrated by two examples of parametric optimization related to a cylindrical panel with a rib and a cylindrical panel with a circular hole. Zhou and Haftka (1995) presented a generalization of continuum optimality criteria methods (COC). They developed multiple displacement constraints and multiple load conditions. Kru~elecki (1997) determined optimal dimensions of a barrel-shaped cylindrical shell, loaded by an axial force and external pressure. For solution purposes the use was made of the concept of uniform stability of the shell. Magnucki and Szyc (1996) determined the optimal, rectangle delimited shape of the cross-section of a cylindrical shell loaded by constant internal pressure. The paper considers a horizontal circular tank with ellipsoidal heads, loaded by internal or external pressure (Fig. 1). The tank, of required capacity Vo, may be designed in many ways, e.g. as a short tank of big diameter, or as a long one, of small diameter. The optimization problem is, in this case, of parametric type and resolves into determination of its radius a, length L, wall thicknesses t 1 and t 2 , giving the least mass of the tank. Wilby (1977) similarly formulated the problem of reasonable choice of the basic dimensions of a vertical cylindrical tank of circular cross-secti0n.



where 7m = g *pm is the specific weight of the medium, and g = 9.81 m / s 2. Making use of the membrane theory of shells, discussed in detail by Fliigge (1973) or recently by Farshad (1992), longitudinal az and circumferential a~ stresses of the cylindrical tank wall can be determined. Maximal values of these stresses occur in the lower part of the central cross-section and amount to



+ 7ma +


rma2( PO)
~rred = - ~z(r~


where A = L/a is a dimensionless parameter of the cylinder length. The effective (ttuber-Mises) stress is + o-2


Strength constraint
(3) 4t 2 + 27ma] '

A vertical cylindrical tank of circular cross-section (Fig. 1) is subject to two different loads. The first load is an internal

Taking the above into account one can modify (4). The minimal value of stress concentration coefficient is _ (cyl) f~r = Oredmax/. Thus.2m I + m2 = 27rpsa 2 (~tl -I.84. provided that the dead weight of the structure is neglected. and fb is the buckling safety factor.0572. (9) where E k4 B 2 = -Pc ( l k 2 + n 2 _ 1) (k 2 + n2) 2 ' Xl~ = X~-' (5) where x I = t2/tl. On the grounds of the theory of boundary displacements numerical analyses and experimental verification of stress concentration occuring in this region were carried out by Magnucki et al. consisting of two ellipsoidal heads. characterized by the ratio b/a -= 0. Considering (5) the head thickness is tI = ~x~.38017 m 2 -. and Ps is mass density of the vessel material. Hence Vo = 2VI + V2 =~ra3 ( ~ + )~) . as @2 _~n2) 2 n2) 2 1 2 uk 2) _ 4aallow ~ + . and ~. may be written as In the second load case the tank walls are subject only to constant external normal pressure Pext. (4) k4 ~2 ' where C~allo is the allowable stress. as discussed by Spence and Tooth (1994). n is the number of circular waves. a = 0. w Tank supports may cause important increase of the stress due to bending.1 from which the value of dimensionless parameter x 2 = a/t 2 may be obtained for the assumed value of the external pressure Pc. as for the mathematical description a middle surface. A comprehensive description of the stability of shells subjected to various loads is given by Volmir (1967). 1). delimited by the stability condition. a suitable shape of the support may reduce its unfavourable effect. is taken into account. therefore the following wall thickness of cylindrical part of the tank is assumed: B 0 ---- 12 (1 .4~allowTrna2 8 ( ~ l+~--~ma/p0 q_ ( ~ "]2 _1)2 (6) 4 Objective function The tank is a thin-walled structure. However. Therefore. He drew attention to simplification made in the theory of shells and their effect on critical loads. . Due to the condition and taking (8) into account.1 .5.t .l n (v~-t.5 occurs when the cylinder to ellipsoid thickness ratio satisfies the condition e . loaded with external pressure: PCR = E (~t2~3min .2) ~ 1.2x . describing the tank length for given capacity.~.. c = 0. In the region of contact between the ellipsoidal head and the cylindrical part of the tank a local stress concentration arises. the wall thickness t 2 is obtained. His general considerations were illustrated with many detailed examples.. The least concentration of reduced stress in the tank of dimension proportion b/a = 0. and a cylindrical shell (Fig. a dimensionless parameter. Therefore buckling may occur.g(cyl) = 1. is Poisson's ratio.227 The strength condition %ed -< C~allow gives the required thickness of cylindrical part of the tank.12. obtained by means of FEM. where k --= rr~ = ~. x 2 = a/t2. (10) 3 Stability c o n s t r a i n t where V1 = ~a 3 is the capacity of ellipsoidal head.2~rpst2aL is the mass of cylindrical shell. (7) The wall thickness of cylindrical part of the tank determined this way corresponds only to the first load case and results from the strength condition."0 : 0. (1994). E is Young's modulus. ~ = 1+ 4 . \hi n kltj' ~_yo ~ra3 2 3' (11) The mass of the tank ms -. (1997). where Pc = fb * Pext. where (rred = (v'~/2) x 2 is red the effective stress in cylindrical shell. t 2 .2) Pc l k2 + n 2 .At2) . one can derive algebraic equation of the third-order 9 . instead of external and internal ones. The capacity Vo of the tank is usually slightly oversized. Q . V2 = ~ra2L is the capacity of the cylindrical shell. was obtained by Maguncki et hi. (12) where m 1 = rc~pstl a2 is the mass of ellipsoidal head. An exemplary solution of such a support. Making use of his conclusions one may write the following formula for the critical load of a circular cylindrical shell. The stability condition of the tank is of the form Pc <_ PCR.

i. 5 Numerical results The numerical analysis was applied to the series of steel tanks of capacities V0 = 25. or by the root of (9). 10 20 30 50 100 200 300 500 Vo[m3] Fig. 2.300 m 3.1 MPa.7 118i 1.36. the objective function has a minimum (M2) .10~ 1.2 1. the optimization problem is of parametric type and consists in such a choice of the a radius of the cylinder.10I 29-1ff 28. when a strength condition prevails.r- 13 12 11 a[m~ 10 9 8 f J/ .9.9. For example.129. and allowable stress aallow = 330 MPa or gallow = 250 MPa.6.50. The minimal value of the objective function. 3.129.9.e. additionally. For the other tanks of the series.3.81 k N / m 3 and.105 MPa.4 1. Thus. when a stability condition is decisive.5] 1.. 4. For the case limited only by the strength condition. corresponding to point M 1 for assumed series of tanks are shown in Figs. these parameters are of the following values A -. The following properties of steel have been assumed: Young's modulus E = 2. takes the least value. while the wall thickness t 2 is given by (6). The presented solution for .330 MPa. Optimal dimensions. Graph of the objective function The objective function (13) of every considered tank was of similar shape. the tank mass.9.4. in the form of diagrams.5 MPa. The dashed lines represent an optimal solution for the tank made of steel of less allowable stress ~allow = 250 MPa.6431x~ +)~) P s . 50. In the second load case they are affected only by constant external pressure Pc = fbPext = 0.9 o.e. which corresponds to the least function value. In the first load case the tanks are filled with water of specific weight 7m = 9. Optimal thickness t2opt .228 Introducing the head thickness (7) one obtains the objective function in the following form: ms = 27ra2t2 ~ e 2 + ~ (~x~ ) Ps -~ 2~ra2t2 (1.9.37. is achieved when the wall thickness t 2 of the cylindrical shell simultaneously approaches both strength and stability conditions.0. subject to constant internal pressure P0 = 2.44. for which the objective function. Poisson's ratio u = 0.0.200 m 3.129. (13) where the dimensionless length parameter A is determined by (11).6 1.3 1. 2 shows the objective function of the tank of capacity V0 -. 3 and 4.56 and z 2 = 130.05. 7 10 / f 20 30 50 100 200 300 500 Vo[m3] Fig. the radius aop t and thickness t2opt.1 0 ~ 16 15 14 m S J/.I "r ~1" "./ t/ 9 J // Fig.128. 100.. Fig. made of the steel of allowable stress equal to crallow -.8. i. l ~ "" 27. Optimal radius aopt - - capacity 110 graph t2opt [kg] 17 30.200. the mass of the structure.capacity V0 graph 6 Conclusions Optimal solutions achieved for a cylindrical pressure tank are characterized by almost constant dimensionless length parameters ~ = L / a and z 2 : a / t 2.

Tooth. Berlin.. Kaczyfiski. W. Appl. 1967: Stability of deformations structures (in Rusian).. Moscow: Izdatielstvo Nauka Wilby. Polish Academy of Sciences. 1998 Revised manuscript received April P2. 1997: Selection of design parameters of a cylindrical pressure vessel together with its support. Zagadnienia Eksploatacji Maszyn. Polish Academy of Sciences Magnucki. K. 1992: Design and analysis of shell structures. Proc. (eds. Struct. i.263-266 Magnucki. 1997: On optimal barrel-shaped shells subjected to combined axial and radial compression. K. M. 321-331 Ringertz. Szyc. W. 211-216 Magnucki. Vol. 921-924 Zhou.. References Farshad.) 1990: Structural optimization under stability and vibration constraints. on Modelling in Mechanics. W. Walczak. A.T. Z. R. Heidelberg. 1977: Optimization of design of circular tanks. Silesian Technical University in Gliwice. A. Comp. Optim. Meth.T. 1998 . Vol 4. 124. New York: Springer Kru~elecki. Proe.S.229 the parametric optimization allows reasonable acceptance of the dimensions of pressure tanks. XXXVI-th Syrup. Haftka. I. Struct. 467-472.) Proc. Szyc. J.. C. pp.. M. pp. M. London: Chapman & Hall Volmir. Vienna: Springer Received Jan. 1992: Numerical methods for optimization of nonlinear shell structures. 1973i Stresses in shells. 253-271 Zyczkowski. P. 1994: Pressure vessels design concepts and principles. Second World Congress on Structural and Multidiseiplinary Optimization. CISM Udine. 1994: Minimization of stress concentration in pressurized cylindrical vessel (in Polish). U... R. MrSz. 1995: A comparison of optimality criteria mathods for stress and displacement constraints. 193-198 Spence J. 63..S. (ed. Civil Engrs. WCSMO-P. M. 1996: Optimal design of a cylindrical shell loaded by internal pressure. In: Gutkowski. Optim. Engrg. 11. 4. K. Inst. W. Part 2. Stasiewicz. 2. Mech.A. Dordrecht: Kluwer Fliigge.

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