P. 1
Lit Review

Lit Review

|Views: 59|Likes:
Published by ArvinNundloll

More info:

Published by: ArvinNundloll on Oct 22, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/22/2010

pdf

text

original

2.

1 Introduction
Three billion people are expected to own mobile phones in the world by 2010. The last official report about mobile subscribers was carried out in 2008. The Mauritius government's statistics office has reported that the number of mobile cellular subscribers went up by 11.3% to reach 1,033,300 in 2008 from 928,600 in 2007. Similarly, the number of prepaid subscribers increased by 1.3% to 969,800 in 2008 and that of mobile cellular postpaid subscribers grew by 11.0% to 63,500 in 2008. At the end of last year, 99% of the population was covered by mobile cellular telephony.

Mobile commerce is a natural successor to electronic commerce. The capability to pay electronically coupled with a website is the engine behind electronic commerce. Electronic commerce has been facilitated by automatic teller machines (ATMs) and shared banking networks, debit and credit card systems, electronic money and stored value applications, and electronic bill presentment and payment systems. Mobile payments are a natural evolution epayment schemes that will facilitate mobile commerce. A mobile payment or m-payment may be defined, for our purposes, as any payment where a mobile device is used to initiate, authorize
1|Page

and confirm an exchange of financial value in return for goods and. Mobile devices may include mobile phones, PDAs, wireless tablets and any other device that connect to mobile telecommunication network and make it possible for payments to be made. The realization of mobile payments will make possible new and unforeseen ways of convenience and commerce. Unsuspected technological innovations are possible. Music, video on demand, location based services identifiable through mobile handheld devices – procurement of travel, hospitality, entertainment and other uses are possible when mobile payments become feasible and ubiquitous. Mobile payments can become a complement to cash, cheques, credit cards and debit cards. It can also be used for payment of bills (especially utilities and insurance premiums) with access to account-based payment instruments such as electronic funds transfer, Internet banking payments, direct debit and electronic bill presentment.

2.2 Mobile Payment Characteristics
According to the research carried out by Karnouskos and Fokus in 2004, a mobile payment service must meet the following conditions in order to become acceptable in the market as a mode of payment:
a) Simplicity and Usability: The m-payment application must be user friendly with little or no learning curve to the customer. The customer must also be able to personalize the application to suit his or her convenience. b) Universality: M-payments service must provide for transactions between one customer to another customer (C2C), or from a business to a customer (B2C) or between businesses (B2B). The coverage should include domestic, regional and global environments. Payments must be possible in terms of both low value micro-payments and high value macro-payments. c) Interoperability: Development should be based on standards and open technologies that allow one implemented system to interact with other systems. d) Security, Privacy and Trust: A customer must be able to trust a mobile payment application provider that his or her credit or debit card information may not be misused. Secondly, when these transactions become recorded customer privacy should not be lost in the sense that the credit histories and spending patterns of the customer should not be openly available for

2|Page

Third. Remote Transactions This type of transaction involves money transactions irrespective of the customer’s location. the system should be foolproof. resistant to attacks from hackers and terrorists. Remote payment is used for applications such as pre-paid top-up. Proximity Transactions are used for applications such as making payment at unattended/traditional points of sale (POS) and payment through mobile parking. Proximity/Local Transactions These types of transactions require a mobile device to be in the local vicinity in order to make payments. word-wide. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) 3|Page . The technology platform for this type of payment includes Bluetooth.3 Mobile Payments based on location The two types of transactions based on location are: 1. biometrics and passwords integrated into the mobile payment solution architectures. electronic bill payment. This may be provided using public key infrastructure security. online payment. g) Cross border payments: To become widely accepted the m-payment application must be available globally. f) Speed: The speed at which m-payments are executed must be acceptable to customers and merchants. An example could be the transaction of goods/services between customers and the merchant done through phone (voice call). or online payment techniques from a remote place 2. SMS. digital cash and international fund transfer. e) Cost: The m-payments should not be costlier than existing payment mechanisms to the extent possible. 2. An m-payment solution should compete with other modes of payment in terms of cost and convenience.public scrutiny. Mobile payments have to be as anonymous as cash transactions.

2. Secondly. Short messages are stored and forwarded by SMS centers. Essentially. the m-payment client application may reside on the phone or else it may reside in the subscriber identity module (SIM). USSD or WAP/GPRS. 4|Page .1 Short Message Service (SMS) This is a text message service that enables short messages (140-160 characters) that can be transmitted from a mobile phone.Examples – Remote and Proximity Payments: 2. SMS can be used to provide information about the status of one’s account with the bank (informational) or can be used to transmit payment instructions from the phone (transactional). SMS messages have a channel of access to phone different from the voice channel.4.4 Types of mobile payments The mobile technology landscape provides various possibilities for implementing m-payments. a GSM mobile phone may send or receive information (mobile data service) through three possible channels – SMS. The choice of the channel influences the way m-payment schemes are implemented.

Pros and Cons Pros Cons The security is greater than other options like Near Field Communication (NFC) payments. GPRS provides packet-switched data for GSM networks. 2. enabling a variety of applications. The inconvenience caused by keeping cash or plastic cards can be avoided. hence lowering the reliability of the system. GPRS enables services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access. delay in a merchant receiving a receipt may lead to long waiting times for the customer. WAP involves the customer using online pages on the handset in order to purchase goods or services. The speed may not be good. Using the web-based payment system on handsets provides the following key advantages: 5|Page . It is a capability built into the GSM standard for support of transmitting information over the signaling channels of the GSM network. and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access in mobile phones. USSD provides session-based communication.4. USSD is session oriented transaction-oriented technology while SMS is a storeand-forward technology. and is considered more secure than SMS based payments. Turnaround response times for interactive applications are shorter for USSD than SMS.3 WAP/GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to GSM users. 2.2 Unstructured Supplementary Services Delivery (USSD) Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) is a technology unique to GSM. Text messages can get lost if the connection/network is poor. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).4.

in which users are directed to a ‘credit card payment’ page where they are required to fill in their credit card details. The actual payment mechanisms behind the web pages may differ. a new handset has to be personalized again.4 Phone-based Application (J2ME/BREW) The client m-payment application can reside on the mobile phone of the customer. it is a small chip with processing power (intelligence) and memory. Credit Card – This involves the usual web-based credit card transaction. The information in the SIM can be protected using cryptographic algorithms and keys. If the application is placed on the phone. as it causes inconvenience to the end customer Online Billing through Third Party Players – This involves mobile payment through companies such as ‘PayPal’. which adds to customer satisfaction. The filling of details can act as a barrier. ‘Amazon Payments’ and ‘Google Checkout’ that offer the option for making payments through mobile devices.e. Reliability: The transaction is reliable. whenever the customer acquires a new handset only the SIM card needs to be moved.4. 2.5 SIM-based Application The subscriber identity module (SIM) used in GSM mobile phones is a smart card i. 2..4. After sales proceedings: Consumers can bookmark the pages that they wish to access at a later stage and wish to share with friends.1. 2. 6|Page . Also. This makes SIM applications relatively more secure than client applications that reside on the mobile phone. Personalization of the phones can be done over the air (OTA). as per the following techniques: Direct Operator Billing – This involves a direct connection between the customer and the billing operator. This application can be developed in Java (J2ME) for GSM mobile phones and in Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) for CDMA mobile phones.

Pros Speedy: the process is similar to swiping of credit and debit cards. The mobile phone can be used as a contactless card. NFC enabled phones can act as RFID tags or readers. . but without any contact with the machine.6 Near Field Communication (NFC) NFC is the fusion of contactless smartcard (RFID) and a mobile phone. this method is more convenient than the SMS based payment method.4. 7|Page .based payment is generally considered less secure than the SMS-based model. The technology involves contactless communication between two devices over a range of 10 cm. Since there is no need to type a message. Cons NFC.2.

Financial institutions prefer this approach as they can exercise full control over the chip and the mobile payment process.9 kb/s symmetric transfer rate. Customers can multi-home with several debit or credit payment instruments in a single wallet. 2. customers would have to invest in dual chip mobile devices. Bluetooth has some established and widely used applications like headsets that are connected to mobile phone via Bluetooth. Bluetooth could also serve as connection tool for mobile payment service.8 Mobile Wallet M-payment application software that resides on the mobile phone with details of the customer (and his or her bank account details or credit card information) which allows the customer to make payments using the mobile phone is called as a mobile wallet. It uses 2. For non-time-critical 8|Page . The range is about 10 m and because of its radio form. this has to be done in collaboration with the telecommunications operator (the owner of the SIM). dual chip phones have two slots one for a SIM card (telephony) and another for a payment chip card. Bluetooth is usually a chip constructing of two parts: baseband chip and a radio chip. To avoid this.4. But. it doesn’t need visual contact and different Bluetooth devices can locate in different rooms or behind obstacles (Bluetooth SIG.7 Dual Chip Usually the m-payment application is integrated into the SIM card. The drawback for it to succeed is long connection set-up-time. Asymmetric transfer is used for data and symmetric for voice. 2003). Normally. SIM cards are purchased in bulk by telecom companies and then customized for use before sale.48 GHz ISM band and reaches 723.4 – 2.4. Several implementations of wallets that are company-specific are in use globally. 2. If the mpayment application service provider has to write an m-payment application in the SIM card.2.9 Bluetooth Bluetooth is a locale over the air connection technology for mobile devices developed by a coalition of telecommunication companies. In test cases the connection delay can vary from almost instant to more than 20 seconds.4. Radio chip does the connection to the outer world and baseband interacts with the device where Bluetooth chip resides. but there is not much encouraging examples about it.2 kb/s asymmetric or 433. It varies depending on the quality of connection.

Transceiver converts electronic signals into IR signals. costing average 5$. IrDA org. serializing and desterilizing and managing frames for data. For mobile payment transfers there is an additional standard developed. cheapest. it means the whole duration of transfer both equipments need to be still. Serializer and deserializer convert bytes into serial bits and vise versa. but as a general payment method it’s not.solutions it is acceptable. Hardware handles transceiver. It requires line-of-sight and with a range of one meter and maximum angle of 20 degrees. It is called IrFM (Infrared Financial Messaging).10 IrDA IrDA technology is a connection technology that uses infrared light to transfer data. The transfer speed varies depending on transceiver from 116kbits to 16Mbits per second. The Bluetooth chip is also more expensive than its alternatives. but because its usability it is not likely to have much success against rival technologies 9|Page . The IrDA specification consists of two parts hardware and software. It has had a couple of pilot projects in Japan and Korea (12. But it suffers from a basic fact that it is difficult to use.4. encoding and decoding. Framer manages the frames for sending and makes received signals into machine-readable frames. It has also lower security risk because of short range and no possibility of eavesdropping. It’s highly probable that Bluetooth won’t be largely used as a connection tool for mobile payments 2. fastest and most power efficient technology for short distance communication. 2002). Software part handles error recovery and interrupts and communication with other hardware and software. IrDA has a range about one meter and connection establishing takes 1s IrDA has advantages over many technologies because it is the smallest.

NFC and WAP-based payment models.5 Mobile Payments based on Charging Methods There are three types of payments:– 1. 2. prepaid 3.The figure below provides a comparison between the SMS. post-paid 2. This is the most common method used for paying through m-commerce and e-commerce This user can opt for one of the following payment methods: o Phone bill based: Internal phone bill charged by the operator o Account based: payment done through banks/credit cards 10 | P a g e . real-time payment Post-paid In this method. the user pays after the bill is generated.

etc. monthly bills. the services and goods are paid for in advance It is the most common method for evaluating a customer’s potential. Both the operator-centric and bank-centric models play an important role in the successful implementation of B2C m-payments. Business to Business (B2B) Mobile Payments This type of payment structure involves transactions between businesses or enterprises through mobile phones. insurance premiums and taxes using this kind of a payment model. Consumers pay for all types of day-to-day items. amount recharged.6 Mobile Payments based on Relationship Models Business to Consumer (B2C) Mobile Payments The B2C mobile payment model provides an alternative to the usual cash transaction and is therefore one of the most popular models.Pre-paid In this method. The model’s success is therefore dependent upon the capability of the handset and its user interface. and this sometimes forms the basis for migrating the customer to the postpaid method The user also has the flexibility to monitor usage in advance Real-time In this method. 11 | P a g e . The supply chain generally involves the purchase of finished products by the end consumer. the user pays the amount in real time or almost real time Example: Electronic Wallet 2. The supply chain generally involves the purchase of specific industry solutions between industries. Customer’s potential is determined on the basis of frequency of recharge.

One of the biggest examples of this kind of mobile payments system is Paypal Mobile.An example to distinguish between B2B and B2C models: Consumer to Consumer (C2C) Mobile Payments This involves end-to-end transactions between two consumers through a third party business platform. m-banking and digital goods exchanged between two individuals. The involved business platform charges a commission on every sale completed and usually does not take any responsibility for the quality of the offered product. in which the first consumer places an article for sale while the second consumer bids to purchase it. The transaction is generally SMS-based and may involve top-up credits. A typical example is the mobile based transaction of virtual goods such as gaming features. Person to Person (P2P) Mobile Payments Person-to-person mobile payments involve private mobile transactions between two people either directly or through a third party. A typical example of this model is an online auction. 12 | P a g e .

let us have a look at the different entities which are involved Entity Customer Description · Purchases goods/services from the merchant · Gives validation of his/her credentials to the issuer · Makes the final payment – direct cash.7 Mobile Payments – Implementation Models First. or else from issuer · This can be a financial institution. cheque. credit.2. bank cards or third party card issuer Merchant Acquirer/Service Provider Issuer 13 | P a g e . a card association or mobile network operator · Acts as an intermediary between the ‘Issuer’ and the merchant · The party that authorises the payment as per the generated bill against select customers · Has details of user’s credentials in its database · Performs authentication and authorisation of the transaction parties – customer and merchant · Can be a financial institution (bank).debit or through m-payment · Merchant generates bill as per the goods/services purchased by the customer · Sends bill to the acquirer · Registered with the acquirer/issuer · Receives final payment – directly from customer as cash.

the transaction fee is reduced considerably The operator has the flexibility in determining the transaction fees. During roaming. Cons Operators need to obtain a banking license which might result in delays or regulatory issues. Operators have little/no exposure and expertise in handling complex transactions and related risks. 14 | P a g e .Operator Dominated Model The pros and cons of this model are listed below: Pros Allows the operators to take advantage of their existing customer base by positioning mobile payments as a Value Added Service to its customers Since there is no hopping between acquirers. networks and issuers. transaction-based issues might arise across different operators.

15 | P a g e . Cons There is hardly any involvement of the mobile operator. therefore there is no setup cost involved. their distance may lead to poor service. This investment might include the following: · Installation of new POS readers · Supporting software/applications · Network allocation · Banking license · Banking resources/experts and infrastructure Financial Institution Dominated Model Pros and Cons of a Financial Institution Dominated Model: Pros Traditional payment techniques (existing methods used by credit/debit cards) are leveraged.Initial investment is high.

transaction charge thus increases. cost is borne by the customer.Financial institutions have expertise in managing payments and related risks. 16 | P a g e . Cons There is a lot of hopping involved between operator and bank’s network. Customers share a historical relationship with banks and thus consider services to be more reliable. Collaboration Model Pros and Cons of a Collaboration Model: Pros Account-and risk management is handled by the financial institutions –experts for the job.

Mobile networks and handset technology have also improved. Operators in the European region realise the need for speeding up deployment and this has led to an increased focus on mobile payment services from operators as well as other stakeholders. Mobile payment services are still at an early stage and have started picking up only recently in the US. The increasing interest shown by Canadian mobile 17 | P a g e . Moreover. However. In Europe. the Single Euro Payment Area (SEPA) was created in 2000 and restrictions on payment operators are gradually being eased. many pilot projects are being run to introduce the service commercially in this market. considering the large number of stakeholders involved. Development of a mobile payments ecosystem is a challenging task in the US. did not succeed because they lacked a clear business model. In North America. such as DualSlot and Simpay. payment through the Internet is still the preferred payment channel in the US. over the past few years.8 Current situation worldwide Since the beginning of this decade.Primary acquiring done by the operator – experts for the job. the market has witnessed various positive changes that have made the mobile payments application more attractive and more realistic. setting the stage for better and more successful mobile payment services in most regions worldwide. Contactless technology is being increasingly used by the financial world and its application in mobile payments is going to be a natural progression. the infrastructure cost was very high and did not justify the revenues the services generated. The uptake of mobile payment services will be less aggressive in the North American region than in European markets. Operator does not need to acquire a banking license 2. This also helps the operator in leveraging its existing customer base. the market for the service is expected to grow slowly. however. there have been a number of mobile payment initiatives worldwide. Many of them. These factors are expected to improve the chances of success for mobile payments across Europe.

The region has already witnessed some of the earliest and most successful mobile banking deployments and mobile payment services have transformed the lives of many Africans. the Philippines and Indonesia are demonstrating decent growth in mobile payments uptake. In Latin America. which has 48 million subscribers (as of 1 December 2008). as a large proportion of the African population does not have access to traditional banking services. The company launched its ‘Osaifu-Keitai’ service in July 2004. Let us have a look at three m-payment systems that have proved to be a success 1) NTT DoCoMo – Mobile Wallet NTT DoCoMo operates the world’s leading mobile Internet portal service. is expected to foster the growth of mobile payment services. Mobile payments have fared very well in both countries and the trend is expected to continue in the years to come. where many pilots are being run to commercially launch mobile payment services. the robust smartcards market. Due to the strong value proposition it brings to the masses. tickets and more. The Middle East is also witnessing growth in mobile payment services. while the markets of Hong Kong. Africa also has a fast growing mobile market. the success of mobile payments is expected to continue in the future in Africa. Overall. most countries in the Asia Pacific region are watching the progress of mobile payments in Japan and South Korea with interest and these services are likely to show growth in the Asia Pacific region. i-Mode. In order to be compatible with this service.subscribers is expected to boost the mobile payments market in Canada. certain 2G 18 | P a g e . coupled with an emerging mobile market. Singapore and Taiwan have shown little comparable adoption of mobile payments with use restricted to specific areas only. Service Description Under the mobile wallet concept. The developing countries of Africa are expected to be the biggest beneficiaries of mobile payment services. Japan and South Korea have been world leaders in the development and adoption of mobile payment services. mobile handsets can be used instead of coins and paper currency. credit cards. The markets of China. India. which refers to mobile handsets with wallet functions.

The figure reached over 20 million subscribers by March 20079 and 28. more than 13 million of NTT Docomo’s users were using this mobile wallet service in Japan8. Transportation: Mobile wallet handsets can be used for booking flights and also enable customers to automatically check in at airports. a clear indicator of the success of the service. Partnerships with Handset Vendors: The company had formed alliances with handset vendors to provide advanced handsets for mobile wallet services to its customers. Factors that Influenced the Success of Mobile Wallet Service a. b. Online Shopping: Payments can be made to online services via mobile handsets. Cashless Payments: Purchases can be made at a wide range of stores and vending machines. The company also ensured that they had enough handsets available at the time of the launch of the mobile wallet services.5 million subscribers by March 2008. Tickets: Tickets which are reserved online can be printed out by waving the mobile handset in front of a machine at the venue. Subscriber Base As of May 2006. c. e. Remember the saying.000 by March 2008. “You never get a second chance to make a good first impression”. which enables the use of this service when a user holds the mobile handset over i-mode Felica reader at a store or a ticket gate.and 3G handsets are fitted with a contactless communications IC. Train tickets and other services can also be billed through the mobile wallet. Membership Card: Mobile wallet handsets can serve as programme ID cards as well as purchase point cards. The growing uptake of the service is complemented by the growth in the number of shops providing the facility – approximately 608. d. Finance: Cash withdrawals and credit card payments can be completed with ‘Osaifu. The mobile wallet services provided to NTT DoCoMo’s customers include the following: a. 19 | P a g e .Keitai’ handsets. f. Keys and IDs: Systems can be deployed at residences and offices which enable mobile wallet handsets to act as door keys. g.

Globe Handyphone and Touch Mobile subscribers have to register for GCash via SMS to make use of the service. A high penetration of mobile data services amongst the Japanese population has been one of the major reasons for the success of new innovative services. While the mobile market in the Philippines has five major operators. Service Description GCash is an m-commerce service which allows Globe’s Handyphone and Touch Mobile subscribers to make electronic transactions. helping to keep the nation at the cutting edge of such innovation in technology. 2) Globe Telecom – GCash The Philippines’ mobile market is characterised by its consolidation in the last two to three years. leading to the emergence of two key operators. Sales commissions and payroll disbursements Payment of school tuition fees Purchasing airline tickets Cash deposits and withdrawals 20 | P a g e . insurance premiums. Extelcom and Next Mobile. Sun Cellular (Digitel Mobile). Once registered. Mobile Market in Japan: Japan has the most advanced mobile market in the world. Smart and Globe are the leading MNOs in the country. GCash was launched by Globe Telecom in October 2004.b. such as mobile wallet services. namely Smart. The service has the following features for its registered customers: Domestic and international transactions (remittances) Payment of utility bills. Internet access via PCs has been surpassed by Internet access via mobile handsets. The Japanese population is extremely tech-savvy and early adopter culture is strong. with the majority of the total mobile market share between them. enabling them to send and receive cash. and make payments via SMS. online bills. Globe. etc. users can then load their GCash wallets by visiting authorized GCash outlets and submitting cash and identification forms (to prevent money laundering). in the country. loan interests.

12 However.13 By the end of year 2007. Factors that Influenced the Success of GCash Service The key success factors of Globe Telecom’s GCash service include the high volume.15 GXchange. reduced by the number of voluntary suspensions net of reactivations during each month.2 million. including the GCash service.9 million by September 2008. starting May 2006. registered GCash customers were reported on the basis of cumulative registrations. low price model and the presence of strong distribution networks by establishing partnerships with various industries present in and outside the Philippines. This reduction in the number of GCash registered customers is due to a change in the way the company counts the number of subscribers using GCash. manages the m-commerce initiatives of Globe Telecom.P2P credit transfers Donation to charitable organisations and institutions Micro-finance through co-operation with rural banks and business registration Prepaid account recharge GCash is also providing a facility for wholesale payment in addition to the transactions stated above. Until May 2006.349 as of end-June 2006. After May 2006. a registered GCash user was considered as a GCash user until such a time as he or she voluntarily suspends or stops his or her GCash service. GCash registered users reached 1. the registered GCash customer base stood at 469. Subscriber Base GCash totalled more than 1. 21 | P a g e . a whollyowned Globe Telecom subsidiary.2 million users by December 2005.14 The GCash registered user base touched 1.

000 Kenyan Shillings) and to buy pre-paid airtime. Vodafone launched M-PESA.18 In March 2007. Equity Bank.5 (50. within a year of operation (as on 10 February. The conversion of real money to virtual money at the sender’s end and the subsequent re-conversion at the recipient’s end takes place with the help of authorised M-PESA agents. after a highly encouraging pilot. The M-PESA subscriber base has reached more than 3. Service Description M-PESA is essentially a mobile money transfer service that does not require a new handset or SIM card. a simple SMS-based money transfer service. the market opportunity was significant: Kenyans send more than 5 million text messages a day and at the time of launch. Using M-PESA. 22 | P a g e . in Kenya in collaboration with the country’s largest mobile operator. subscribers can change real money into virtual money (emoney) and transfer this virtual money to other subscribers—recipients of M-PESA transfers can then withdraw the money in its physical form. Safaricom. M-PESA had 2 million subscribers—some 20 percent of Safaricom’s subscriber base.3) Mobile Banking (M-PESA) — Vodafone and Safaricom (Kenya) Vodafone launched an SMS-based mobile money transfer service called M-PESA in Kenya in March 2007. M-PESA addressed a significant gap in the market and opened up banking channels for Kenya’s significantly large ‘unbanked’ population.6 million subscribers. the country had only 400 bank branches and 600 cash dispensing machines. Poor banking infrastructure excluded more than 80 percent of the population from adequately participating in formal banking channels17 and about 38 percent of the Kenyan population—mostly from rural areas—was entirely unbanked. Subscriber Base The service met with phenomenal success and. After a year of operations.6 million by July 2008. 2008). M-PESA can also be used to maintain virtual accounts of up to USD 669. Other than transferring money. and Vodafone partner. With 2 million subscribers. gathered 1. by the end of March 2008. which had just over 1 million account holders. M PESA dwarfed the largest bank in Kenya. Here.

MPESA is a brilliant example of how operators in fast-growing. Therefore. M-PESA is offered to Kenyan mobile subscribers for a negligible fee. Secondly. but low ARPU markets can capitalise on popular data services. While keeping the charges low. it is based on the most widely used data service in Kenya—SMS. Vodafone and Safaricom worked out an innovative business model for creating revenue streams from MPESA. first and foremost. 23 | P a g e . and break technical and regulatory bottlenecks to finally create an innovative business opportunity.Factors that Influenced the Success of M-PESA Service M-PESA’s success can be attributed to several factors. think beyond the normal mode of delivering data services.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->