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Ese US History

Ese US History

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Published by: dtltirane on Oct 22, 2010
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The road towards the United States Constitution

The Constitution of the United States has acted since 1789 as the basic frame of government of the republic of the United States. It was the work of a constitutional convention that sat at Philadelphia from late May 1787 until mid-September of that year. The convention had been called into being as the culminating event of a lengthy campaign for constitutional reform staged by a number of nationalistic political leaders, above all James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, both of whom had long been convinced that the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION were hopelessly deficient as a frame of government. By 1786, the growing somnolence of the Confederation Congress, the manifest incompetence of the Confederation government in foreign affairs, and the obvious state of national bankruptcy, together with the sense of panic and dismay occasioned by SHAYS'S REBELLION in Massachusetts, had at long last spurred the states into concerted action. The Virginia legislature issued an invitation to its sister states to meet in convention in Philadelphia in May 1787. As one after another of the other states responded, the Confederation Congress reluctantly joined in the call. Twelve states in all sent delegates to the convention at Philadelphia. Rhode Island alone, then in the grip of a paper-money faction fearful of federal monetary reform, boycotted the meeting. In all, the twelve participating states appointed seventy-four delegates, of whom fifty-five actually put in an appearance. Of these, some fifteen or twenty men were responsible for virtually all of the convention's work; the contribution of the others was inconsequential. Dominating the convention's proceedings from the beginning was a group of delegates intent upon the creation of a genuinely national government possessed of powers adequate to promote the security, financial stability, commercial prosperity, and general wellThe US Constitution Besjana Hasani 1

The states were no longer under the protection of Great Britain. Critical questions needed to be resolved concerning the control of these lands. The call of this historical convention at Philadelphia in 1787. the outcome it generates cannot be subject to the whim and fancy of the “normal” legislative body. education and means. Also. nor were they allowed to compete with the former Mother country.being of all of the states. The only commonalities they shared were that each had some experience in public service. the states would not accept any final product of this convention if it went too far in giving power to the central government. A constitutional convention is a sort of “super-legislature. and the latter controlling the western trading and trapping posts from Lake Champlain to Mackinaw. and it was necessary to find some basis for compromise. family background. and each enjoyed a reputation that was beyond reproach. the frontier lands to the west were moving further westward. the former controlling the mouth of the Mississippi. They were men of various ages. they wanted to set up a government which was a republic. Third. there was a critical need to regulate foreign and interstate trade. in agreement on the following points: the Articles of Confederation were not adequate to meet the needs of the nation. brought together many diverse men. Second. they had no idea whatsoever that they were about to produce the greatest piece of legislation that would be a referral point for any attempt to democracy made by them or countries around the world. First and foremost. generally. and else. The US Constitution Besjana Hasani 2 . as their ships were not even allowed into ports that were controlled by England.” in that. The members of this convention were. The problems arising from this were much too numerous. the control of frontier lands appeared to be threatened by Spain and England. The regular legislative body may enact one law today and reverse itself a year later by enacting such legislation. leaving the ultimate power in the hands of the people. careers. no national currency existed. making provision for its amendment by member states. A constitutional convention writes a new constitution.

Each side was able to save face through this compromise. The southern states wanted to count their slaves in the population count for the purposes of representation in Congress. This division arose between the northern and southern states over the question of slavery. frank discussion and dedication to the task. drop the “Articles” for the “New Constitution”.000 inhabitants could exercise the same equal voice as a state of one million. The small states doggedly opposed anything less than equal representation. The small states advocated equal representation. The struggles to maintain the powers of the large states over the small states were resolved. but not for the purpose of representation in Congress. After all that is why they had accepted in the first place to ban one form of governmental framework for another.without which the convention would be hopelessly deadlocked. while the large states thought it to be preposterous that a state of 50. Further. Another division between the representatives developed which would eventually require the same procedure for discussion. The will of these men to create “a more perfect Union” prevailed in what was to be called the “Great Compromise. The northern states favored the opposing view. On July 16. perseverance. some southern The US Constitution Besjana Hasani 3 . or better say. modeled after England’s Parliament. that slaves should be counted for taxation purposes. perseverance and compromise. but not for the purpose of taxation. This discord threatened to break up the convention. an equal vote of the states in the second house. The ensuing events proved to be a masterful blend of patience. a census to be conducted every ten years for the purpose of redistribution of seats and the first house to have the exclusive power to initiate money bills. Agreement had already been reached that in any final decision in the form of a pact or treaty the legislature would be bicameral. the Great Compromise was narrowly adopted. There was disagreement concerning the basis of representation in both houses of the legislature. after much debate.” It provided for representation in the first house to be according to population.

It has brought the United States on top of the world. More are being added in compliance with the evolution of society in the US and the Globalization of life itself. 1787. regulate trade between the states and foreign countries. liberty. In fact. The most important of the new powers that were granted to the new federal government were: the power to raise taxes. The struggle for ratification of this document. prosperity and the pursuit of happiness. the most perfect piece of legal work laid out in 7 Articles had to be broadened and specified with 27 Amendments in around two centuries. the sole power to coin money. the final document was signed and ordered delivered to the states for debate in special conventions. tiresome and bloody one. if this document was to be ratified. and in other cases the powers of the central government under the old Articles of Confederation were restated. On September 17. had begun.” which counted every five slaves as three people for the purposes of both taxation and representation.states demanded that the new Constitution should absolutely forbid any interference with slavery by the national government. With these compromises intact the remainder of the convention was a flurry of activity to hammer out the powers and operations of the new federal government. This discord was settled by developing the “three-fifths ratio. The road to drafting and signing of the constitution has been a long. This objection was not to be ignored. The US Constitution Besjana Hasani 4 . In some cases new powers were added to the central government. radical as it was among such documents elsewhere in the world. the first ten being the Bill of Rights where the basic civil liberties were drawn. The Constitution has created grounds for life. And in fact. the clamor was so great that assurances had to be given to states that objected on these grounds before they would be persuaded to ratify the Constitution. It has invested the people with the right to believe in the American Dream. One of the main objections to the Constitution was the absence of a section which specifically enumerated the liberties of individuals.

com/Q/What_are_all_of_the_amendments_127 The US Constitution Besjana Hasani 5 . http://www.loc.BIBLIOGRPHY US History Lessons. Shpresa RIRA The Library of Congress .html Wikipedia Answers.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Constitution.answers. “The American Constitution”. “What are all of the amendments 1-27?” http://wiki. (2009-2010).

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