Assessing Grammar

Christine Alice Stacey Jenny Ann

Five characteristics to measure communicative grammar
1. 2.




The test must provide more context than only a single sentence. The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is. He or she should also know who the intended audience is. He or she must have to focus on meaning and not form to answer correctly. Recognize is not sufficient. The test taker must be able ³to produce grammatical responses.´ responses.´
By: P.R. Dickins


Have the test taker say or write something (5) of discourse length (1) in order to perform some communicative task (2) for a known audience (3), and what is said or written must make sense (4). Assessing grammar can only be tested as part of a test of writing or speaking?

Important Principle: What are we trying to Measure? ³English grammar is chiefly a system of syntax that decides the order and patterns in which words are arranged into sentences.´ ± Close sentences.´ 1982  Separated but closely related to assessing writing and assessing speaking. ‡ Oral performance ‡ Writing samples   Accuracy and fluency Count the errors and rate their severity  Focus on Grammar only ‡ µMeaning¶ is a separated matter Meaning¶ ‡ Integrated tests ‡ Discrete point tests .

Traditional Paper and Pencil Test    NRT: TOEFL CRT: Classroom tests Types of Questions: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Complete sentences Sentence combining Paragraph editing Correct topic sentence task Multiple Choice Fill in the blank True/False Combination .

Alternative Assessment     Games Class observation Online activities Portfolio .

Games   Design to restrict the language need Usually these games are defined by their focus on ‡ The Use of Language ‡ Limited options for communication ‡ Accuracy .

Hand out these pieces to the students. and then cut each sentence in half. and ask them to find the matching half among the other students.Split Sentences    Write out some sentences. Students¶ Students¶ abilities in combing sentences Grammar knowledge to all forms of the sentences .

Examples       If you eat that If you touch the dog If you steal my boyfriend If you go out now If you don¶t leave don¶ If you don¶t book don¶ a ticket       you¶ you¶ll be sick it¶ll bite you it¶ I¶ll never speak to you again you¶ you¶ll get soaked I¶ll call the police you¶ you¶ll be lucky to get a seat .

Accuracy . Ask students to come out sentences from the pictures. Enough grammar knowledge to make sentences by students. Or ask students to tell a stories.Sentences from pictures    Hand out a sheet of pictures.


(enough grammar knowledge) Accuracy The transformation of students¶ students¶ sentences . Ask them to describe the picture without seeing it. Testing students¶ ability of making students¶ sentences.Memory Test     Give limited time for students to see the picture.


haven¶ Testing if a student can make sentences which can help him/her communicate well.Picture Dictation    A student try to describe the picture to other students who haven¶t seen it. Accuracy .


Ask them to find the order and resolve the problem from the story. See if students can find the time order from the tenses of the sentences. Accuracy .Strip Story    Make students into groups and assign them a text from a strip story.


Miming an action    Ask students to role play in a limited situation. (which may contains different tenses. it can test students¶ students¶ ability of thinking of lines. Through acting.) Accuracy .

Growing Stories   StoryStory-building activities Students¶ Students¶ ability of making sentences with different tenses .


(does not contain fully-writtenfully-written-out questions.Questionnaires   Turn what have taught in class into a questionnaire. Get students to survey each other.) It can see if students¶ totally students¶ understand what have learned in class. . Also it can see if students¶ can students¶ use it well.


Classroom Observation    Classroom activities Classroom communication: Elicited dialogues Written exercise .

teachers can use Internet as a way of assessing students¶ ability of students¶ grammar OnOn-line quizzes help students to have more chances of practices OnOn-line tests also provide clear explanation after finishing the quizzes Students can surf on these grammar website to do practice Teachers can ask students to do these exercise and to keep record for themselves. Finally report back for one of the reference of assessment .Online Activities      In multimedia teaching times. mmar .htm Grammar Assessment m Ex1.html ESL Quizzes Center SelfSelf-study grammar quizzes http://a4esl.ccc.prenhall. Irregular verbs quiz http://www.Online activity : websites

Traditional paper and pencil tests 2. Classroom observation 3. Online activities 4.Portfolio Definition:a purposeful collection of student work that tells the viewer about the student  Works should be organized by chronological order and category± teacher category± can evaluate the child¶s achievements child¶  Works including: 1. Written assignments  .

.Written assignments    Give students some assignments to practice at home Ask students using learned grammar in class to write journal Term paper throughout one semester including several drafts± we can see drafts± student¶ student¶s progress in grammar.

Advantages of portfolio     Why portfolio is the best way to assess? Strengthening students¶ learning students¶ Enhancing the teacher¶s role teacher¶ Improving processes .

Analysis of TOEFL Grammar Test  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 8 sentence patterns Basic Sentence & Compound Sentence Adjective Clauses Participial Phrases Appositive Noun Clauses Adverbs Clauses Prepositional Phrases Expletives .

Articles «««««««««. 14 Verbs ««««««....6 % ««...9 % «««...«..14 % ««... 9..11 % ««««««.6% ««.6% 11.««.20 % «««..1 % Total «««««««««.. 6.7 Singular/Plural Nouns «. and Participles) ««..6 % ..100 % «««««««««.... 8.. 1.5 % «««««««««...  . 5.... 10.««. 13..6 Prepositions ««...4 Misplaced Modifiers «..««..1 % Negative Words «««««2 % «««««2 Word Order «««««««.««.9 Pronouns «««««... 2..4 % «««««««..«.«.... 14. Gerunds.«.... 3...«.....1 Redundancy«««««««.Analysis of TOEFL Grammar Test  15 Answering Techniques Word Form «««.....6 Verbal (Infinitives.. 4. 12..7 % «««««. 15.11 Parallelism «««..100 7.5 Comparatives and Superlative sentence««4 % sentence««4 Conjunctions «««««« 4 % Redundancy«««««««.20 Word Choice ««.

Analysis of TOEFL Grammar Test  describes the tendency of a set of scores to be ordered identically on two or more tests.95 SEM 2. Reliabilities and Standard Errors of Measurement (SEM) July 1998 ± June 1999 Reliability Listening Structure/Writing Reading Total Score 0.89 2.73 10.88 0.76 4.8 ³Description of the Computer-Based TOEFL Test´ www. Reliabilities: Table 1.88 ComputerTest´ .98 0. and it can be estimated by a variety of statistical procedures.ets.

. (A) Obtaining (C) To obtain (B) Being Obtained (D) It is obtained 2.Analysis of TOEFL Grammar Test  1. Validity ------pure ------pure lead. buildings used to hold large aircraft. are A very tall that rain occasionally falls from clouds that form B C along the ceilings. Women. whom she published in 1868. then melted. Little Women. Louisa May Alcott is mainly noted for her very popular A B novel. the lead ore is mined. ( ) D 3. C D Some hangars. and finally refined.

org ³Description of the Computer-Based TOEFL Computer- .ets.Analysis of TOEFL Grammar Test Strength:  Accurate and objective scores  Careful monitoring of test  Commitment to international education  Expert advisory committees     Highly skilled test developers Longstanding reliability and consistency Ongoing test improvements Standardized delivery procedures Test´ Test´ www.

ets.Analysis of TOEFL Grammar Test   Conclusion No other test in the world is as reliable as a standard for measuring a nonnative speaker¶ speaker¶s ability to use English at the university ComputerTest´ . ³Description of the Computer-Based TOEFL Test´ www.

2010: Retrieved July .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.