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Fission and Fusion

CS 4.4 State that in fission a nucleus of large mass splits into 2 nuclei of smaller mass numbers, usually with the release of neutrons. CS 4.5 State that fission may be spontaneous or induced by neutron bombardment.

CS 4.6 State that in fusion, 2 nuclei combine to form a nucleus of larger mass number. CS 4.7 Explain, using E = mc2, how the products of fission and fusion acquire large amounts of kinetic energy. CS 4.8 Carry out calculations using E = mc2 for fission and fusion reactions.

Fission

When atoms are bombarded with neutrons, their nuclei splits into 2 parts which are roughly equal in size. Nuclear fission in the process whereby a nucleus, with a high mass number, splits into 2 nuclei which have roughly equal smaller mass numbers. During nuclear fission, neutrons are released.

Spontaneous Fission 2.Nuclear Fission There are 2 types of fission that exist: 1. Induced Fission .

.Spontaneous Fission Some radioisotopes contain nuclei which are highly unstable and decay spontaneously by splitting into 2 smaller nuclei. Such spontaneous decays are accompanied by the release of neutrons.

. The nuclei of the atoms then split into 2 equal parts.Induced Fission Nuclear fission can be induced by bombarding atoms with neutrons. Induced fission decays are also accompanied by the release of neutrons.

The Fission Process A neutron travels at high speed towards a uranium-235 nucleus. 1 0 n 235 92 U .

1 0 n 235 92 U .The Fission Process A neutron travels at high speed towards a uranium-235 nucleus.

The Fission Process A neutron travels at high speed towards a uranium-235 nucleus. 1 0 n 235 92 U .

The Fission Process The neutron strikes the nucleus which then captures the neutron. 1 0 n 235 92 U .

The Fission Process The nucleus changes from being uranium-235 to uranium-236 as it has captured a neutron. 236 92 U .

.The Fission Process The uranium-236 nucleus formed is very unstable. It transforms into an elongated shape for a short time.

. It transforms into an elongated shape for a short time.The Fission Process The uranium-236 nucleus formed is very unstable.

The Fission Process The uranium-236 nucleus formed is very unstable. . It transforms into an elongated shape for a short time.

1 0 141 56 Ba 1 0 92 36 Kr 1 0 n n n .The Fission Process It then splits into 2 fission fragments and releases neutrons.

1 0 141 56 Ba n 1 0 n 92 36 Kr 1 0 n .The Fission Process It then splits into 2 fission fragments and releases neutrons.

1 0 141 56 Ba n 1 0 n 92 36 Kr 1 0 n .The Fission Process It then splits into 2 fission fragments and releases neutrons.

The Fission Process It then splits into 2 fission fragments and releases 1 neutrons. 0n 141 56 Ba 1 0 n 92 36 Kr 1 0 n .

Nuclear Fission Examples 235 U + 0n 92 U + 0n 92 1 1 141 Ba + 36Kr + 30 n 56 Cs + 37Rb+ 20 n 55 96 1 92 1 235 138 .

EK before fission << EK after fission Energy is being released as a result of the fission reaction.Energy from Fission Both the fission fragments and neutrons travel at high speed. . The kinetic energy of the products of fission are far greater than that of the bombarding neutron and target atom.

5925 x 10-25 1.2895 x 10-25 1.Energy from Fission 235 U + 0n 92 Element 235 U 92 138 Cs 55 96 37Rb 1 n 0 1 138 Cs + 37Rb+ 20 n 55 Atomic Mass (kg) 3.6750 x 10-27 96 1 .9014 x 10-25 2.

6750 x 10-27 = 3.9014 x 10-25 + 1. The total mass before fission (LHS of the equation): 3.Energy from Fission Calculate the total mass before and after fission takes place.91815 x 10-25 kg The total mass after fission (RHS of the equation): 2.2895 x 10-25 + 1.5925 x 10-25 + (2 x 1.6750 x 10-27) = 3.9155 x 10-25 kg .

Energy from Fission The total mass before fission = 3.91550 x 10-25 kg total mass before fission > total mass after fission .91815 x 10-25 kg The total mass after fission = 3.

m = total mass before fission ± total mass after fission m = 3.65 x 10-28 kg This reduction in mass results in the release of energy.91550 x 10-25 m = 2.Energy from Fission mass difference. .91815 x 10-25 ± 3.

Energy Released The energy released can be calculated using the equation: E = mc2 Where: E = energy released (J) m = mass difference (kg) E c2 m c = speed of light in a vacuum (3 x 108 ms-1) .

65 x 10-28 kg c = 3 x 108 ms-1 E=E 1 138 Cs + 37Rb+ 20n 55 E = mc2 E = 2.Energy from Fission Calculate the energy released from the following fission reaction: 235 U + 0n 92 m = 2.385 x 10-11 J 96 1 .65 x 10-28 x (3 x 108)2 E = 2.

. Large amounts of energy are released when a large number of nuclei undergo fission reactions. This is because it is produced from the fission of a single nucleus.Energy from Fission The energy released from this fission reaction does not seem a lot.

The total number of atoms in 1 kg of uranium-235 can be found as follows: No.9014 x 10-25 No.9014 x 10-25 kg. of atoms in 1 kg of uranium-235 = 1/3. of atoms in 1 kg of uranium-235 = 2.Energy from Fission Each uranium-235 atom has a mass of 3.56 x 1024 atoms .

then the amount of energy released by 1 kg of uranium-235 can be calculated as follows: total energy = energy per fission x number of atoms total energy = 2.385 x 10-11 J of energy.56 x 1024 total energy = 6.Energy from Fission If one uranium-235 atom undergoes a fission reaction and releases 2.385 x 10-11 x 2.1056 x 1013 J .

two nuclei with low mass numbers combine to produce a single nucleus with a higher mass number.Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. 2 H + 1H 1 3 4 He + 0 n + Energy 2 1 .

The Fusion Process 2 1H 3 1H .

The Fusion Process 2 1H 3 1H .

The Fusion Process 2 1H 3 1H .

The Fusion Process 2 1H 3 1H .

The Fusion Process .

The Fusion Process .

The Fusion Process .

The Fusion Process .

The Fusion Process 1 0 4 2 He n .

The Fusion Process 1 0 4 2 He n .

The Fusion Process 1 0 n 4 2 He .

The Fusion Process 1 0 n 4 2 He .

008 x 10-27 6.647 x 10-27 1.345 x 10-27 5.Energy from Fusion 2 H + 1H 1 Element 2 3 1H 1H 3 4 He + 0 n + Energy 2 Atomic Mass (kg) 3.6750 x 10-27 1 4 He 2 1 n 0 .

Energy from Fusion Calculate the following: The mass difference. . The energy released per fusion.

675 x 10-27 = 8.Energy from Fusion 2 H + 1H 1 3 4 He + 0 n + Energy 2 1 The total mass before fusion (LHS of the equation): 3.345 x 10-27 + 5.008 x 10-27 = 8.322 x 10-27 kg .647 x 10-27 + 1.353 x 10-27 kg The total mass after fission (RHS of the equation): 6.

1 x 10-29 kg .353 x 10-27 ± 8.Energy from Fusion m = total mass before fission ± total mass after fission m = 8.322 x 10-27 m = 3.

1 x 10-29 x (3 x 108)2 E = 2.1 x 10-29 kg c = 3 x 108 ms-1 E=E 3 4 He + 0 n + Energy 2 E = mc2 E = 3.79 x 10-12 J.79 x 10-12 J 1 The energy released per fusion is 2.Energy from Fusion 2 H + 1H 1 m = 3. .

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