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1. The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to: A) dismiss the value of replication. B) reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested. C) exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events. D) assume that correlation proves causation. E) overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions.
2. The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our common-sense understanding is most clearly facilitated by: A) illusory correlations. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) the placebo effect.
3. Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of: A) the false consensus effect. B) illusory correlation. C) the hindsight bias. D) random sampling. E) the double-blind procedure.
4. Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of: A) illusory correlation. B) the false consensus effect. C) the hindsight bias. D) the double-blind procedure. E) the placebo effect.
5. Several weeks after a political election, voters often exaggerate their ability to have predicted the election outcome. This best illustrates: A) the placebo effect. B) the false consensus effect.
C) illusory correlation. D) the hindsight bias.
6. Mike Crampton's stockbroker has informed him of substantial investment losses. When Mike tells his wife, she angrily responds, “I could have told you that your investment plan would fail!” Her comment best illustrates: A) the hindsight bias. B) illusory correlation. C) the placebo effect. D) the false consensus effect.
7. Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as: A) random sampling. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) illusory correlation. E) random assignment.
8. The scientific attitude of humility is most likely to be undermined by: A) the hindsight bias. B) correlational evidence. C) random assignment. D) operational definitions. E) naturalistic observation.
9. Government experts who are convinced of the correctness of their own mistaken political predictions most clearly demonstrate: A) illusory correlation. B) the false consensus effect. C) overconfidence. D) the placebo effect.
10. Overconfidence is best described as: A) a placebo. B) critical thinking. C) an illusory correlation. D) intellectual conceit.
D) respect any religious beliefs that contradict our own. 12. C) recognize the errors in our own theories. A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates: A) the false consensus effect. B) ingenuity and practicality. B) critical thinking. 15. E) illusory correlation. D) skepticism and humility. Phillip's theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence. C) random assignment. B) reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested. However. B) skepticism. The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to: A) perceive order in random events. Alicia insists that Dr. B) illusory correlation. C) practicality. D) the false consensus effect. C) the hindsight bias. D) enthusiasm. Two fundamental characteristics of the scientific attitude are: A) pride and enthusiasm. E) overconfidence. C) creativity and patience. . 14. Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. 13. in order to develop her career.11. Megan's experience best illustrates: A) the hindsight bias. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of: A) pride. she decided to move. D) overconfidence.
. B) replication. B) hindsight bias. Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. 18. A hypothesis is a(n): A) observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables. D) illusory correlation. C) naturalistic observation. 17. D) variables. C) the hindsight bias. D) critical thinking. B) the false consensus effect. The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable: A) assumptions. A hard-headed curiosity that questions truth claims and demands evidence most clearly facilitates: A) an illusion of control. His idea is best described as a(n): A) theory. B) correlations. C) set of principles that organizes and explains newly discovered facts. D) random assignment. B) testable prediction that gives direction to research. E) hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect.16. 20. E) overconfidence. 19. C) predictions. D) unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning. E) critical thinking. Questioning the generalizability of anecdotal evidence best illustrates: A) overconfidence.
The professor's prediction regarding employment success exemplifies: A) the hindsight bias. 22. B) the false consensus effect. B) independent variable. C) replication. E) case study. E) the placebo effect.21. C) illusory correlation. B) the false consensus effect. handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in securing employment. Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances? A) replication B) correlational research C) random sampling D) naturalistic observation E) random assignment . 24. C) operational definition. B) control condition. D) operational definitions. psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed. C) an hypothesis. Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking. D) operational definition. D) standard deviation. 23. 25. thus providing their readers with a(n): A) hypothesis. In a written report of their research. D) illusory correlation. The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by: A) the hindsight bias. A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n): A) standard deviation.
B) a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings? A) naturalistic observation B) replication C) random sampling D) the case study 27.26. The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it: A) is based on naturalistic observation. and educational history. The case study is a research method in which: A) a single individual is studied in great depth. Which research method has the psychologist employed? A) the survey B) the case study C) experimentation D) naturalistic observation 29. D) leads us to underestimate the causal relationships between events. C) organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment. 28. B) may be unrepresentative of what is generally true. In which type of research is a representative random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or opinions? A) experimentation B) the survey C) the case study D) naturalistic observation 31. D) an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior. Professor Saxton was very skeptical about the findings of a recently reported experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation. social. In order to understand the unusual behavior of an adult client. Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion? A) the survey . a clinical psychologist has carefully investigated the client's current life situation and his physical. 30. C) is unusually easy to explain in hindsight.
B) wording effects. 33. D) the hindsight bias. When conducting a survey. This best illustrates: A) an illusion of control. 36. E) naturalistic observation. B) illusory correlation. The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as: A) the hindsight bias. .B) naturalistic observation C) the case study D) experimentation 32. C) illusory correlation. D) the placebo effect. Jeff best illustrates: A) the false consensus effect. C) hindsight bias. gathering representative samples is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as: A) the hindsight bias. D) an illusion of control. B) an illusion of control.” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of: A) random sampling. Jeff mistakenly assumes that everybody around him enjoys listening to country music just as much as he does. C) an illusion of control. D) the false consensus effect. 35. C) the false consensus effect. 34. Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support “welfare” than “aid to the needy. B) the hindsight bias. Conservatives are more likely than liberals to perceive high levels of popular support for conservative views. B) the false consensus effect. C) the false consensus effect.
enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies led Governor Donavan to become overconfident about his chances of winning the upcoming election. In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college. In this instance. C) case study.D) the placebo effect. Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. 40. . In this instance. all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n): A) population. B) there will be a large number of participants in the research study. Ariana employed the technique of: A) random assignment. E) control condition. D) the same number of participants will be assigned to each of the experimental conditions. 38. The sight of large. C) the study will not be influenced by the researcher's personal values. B) naturalistic observation. Which of the following scientific procedures is most useful for helping researchers avoid false generalizations? A) the case study B) naturalistic observation C) random sampling D) operational definitions 41. D) independent variable. Psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that: A) the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying. E) random sampling. Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. the governor needs to be alerted to the value of: A) replication. 37. C) replication. In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School. B) representative sample. 39. D) correlation.
44. B) naturalistic observation. B) the hindsight bias. Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as: A) the survey. After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in: A) survey research. investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. C) experimentation. E) random sampling. 46. D) the case study. C) the false consensus effect. C) experimental control. 45. D) replication. In order to compare the pace of life in different countries. This best illustrates the use of a research method known as: .B) random sampling. People often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ________ cases. C) naturalistic observation. D) naturalistic observation. 42. B) experimentation. Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Professor Ober carefully monitors and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Ervin's conclusion best illustrates the danger of: A) replication. D) generalizing from vivid cases. A) randomly selected B) vivid C) representative D) the most frequently occurring 43.
D) mean. C) control. In order to discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences.A) the case study. D) replication. B) independent variable. 48. . Correlational research is most useful for purposes of: A) explanation. 49. D) naturalistic observation. 47. C) random assignment. B) prediction. 51. C) correlation coefficient. researchers would most likely make use of: A) case studies. Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables? A) correlation coefficient B) standard deviation C) range D) mean 50. E) the survey. B) naturalistic observation. In order to determine whether the strength of people's self-esteem is related to their income levels. A statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called a(n): A) standard deviation. D) the double-blind procedure. researchers are most likely to employ: A) the case study approach. B) naturalistic observation. B) correlational research. C) correlational measures. C) experimentation.
B) financial poverty and physical health. D) bar graph. C) better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among elementary school students. In order to represent graphically the correlation between two variables. 53. D) dependent variables. B) scatterplot. B) negatively correlated. B) positively correlated. this would indicate that: A) the relationship between weight and reading ability among elementary school students is not statistically significant. this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are: A) causally related. If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are. C) self-esteem and depression. researchers often construct a: A) skewed distribution. If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right. D) school grades and school absences. this would suggest that the two variables depicted are: A) normally distributed. D) body weight has no causal influence on the reading abilities of elementary school children. C) independent variables. 56. If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +. 54. C) standard deviation. E) positively correlated. A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between: A) intelligence and academic success. B) low body weight has a negative effect on the reading abilities of elementary school children. 55.85.D) experimental research. . 52.
An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-esteem tend to picture God as kind and loving.06 E) .60 B) +. 58. this would not necessarily indicate that watching TV violence influences aggressive behavior because: A) random sequences often don't look random. C) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. D) not correlated. whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as an- .25 E) -. A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +. B) more frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness. 61. If those who watch a lot of TV violence are also particularly likely to behave aggressively.01 C) -. 57. Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body weight from knowledge of self-esteem level? A) +. C) it is impossible to predict levels of physical attractiveness based on knowledge of dating frequency.00 C) -. B) correlation does not prove causation. D) less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness. Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables? A) -. D) events often seem more probable in hindsight.50 60.60 would indicate that: A) physical attractiveness has no causal influence on dating frequency.C) negatively correlated.00 59.12 B) +1.99 D) +.10 D) -.
B) a correlation that exceeds the value of +1. B) the poor are more likely to have a psychological disorder than the wealthy. this would demonstrate that: A) intelligence is inherited. B) generalizing from extreme examples. 62. B) intelligent parents provide their children with greater educational opportunities than do unintelligent parents. Statistical measurement is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as: A) the hindsight bias. C) a cluster of points on a scatterplot that suggests a correlation between two variables. E) assuming that correlation proves causation. 64.00. D) all the above are true. C) the intelligence of parents and children is positively correlated. The researchers concluded that the children's self-esteem had apparently influenced their views of God. Illusory correlation refers to: A) the perception of a relationship between two variables that does not actually exist. D) exaggerating the extent to which others share our beliefs.gry. A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that: A) poverty makes people vulnerable to psychological disorders. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of: A) perceiving order in random events. C) psychological disorders usually prevent people from accumulating wealth. D) a correlation that is not statistically significant. 65. C) randomly sampling children's views. D) all the above are true. C) overconfidence. If psychologists discovered that intelligent parents have smarter children than unintelligent parents. . D) the placebo effect. B) illusory correlation. 63. E) random sampling.
Karen erroneously believes that her test grades are negatively correlated with the amount of time she studies for her tests. . B) an illusory correlation. B) random assignment. Research on illusory correlation suggests that she is especially likely to notice instances in which: A) poor grades follow either brief study or lengthy study. D) poor grades follow lengthy study and good grades follow brief study. 67. 70. which of the following would be the most likely sequence of boys (B) and girls (G) for the next six births? A) G G G G G G B) G G G B B B C) G B G B B G D) All the above would be equally likely. 69. Our tendency to notice and remember instances in which a premonition of an unlikely phone call is actually followed by the call most clearly contributes to: A) the false consensus effect. D) the placebo effect.66. Adelle concluded that dreams accurately predict future events. When he actually did call for a date several days later. Her belief best illustrates: A) the placebo effect. 68. D) the false consensus effect. The perception that seemingly infertile couples who adopt a child are subsequently more likely to conceive a child themselves best illustrates: A) the process of replication. If the total number of boys and girls born each year is exactly equal. B) illusory correlation. B) either poor grades or good grades follow lengthy study. C) an illusory correlation. C) replication. Adelle dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. C) good grades follow lengthy study and poor grades follow brief study. D) the placebo effect. C) random assignment.
76. D) the false consensus effect. A) radically overestimate B) slightly overestimate C) accurately estimate D) underestimate 72. B) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. B) events often seem more probable in hindsight. C) is inconsistent with the false consensus effect. Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships? A) the survey B) the experiment . it is reasonable to conclude that Oleg's predictive accuracy: A) defies the laws of statistical probability. The fact that some basketball fans believe the outcome of a player's last few shots is a predictor of the outcome of that person's next shot best illustrates: A) the hindsight bias. 74. he should be reminded that: A) random sequences of events often don't look random. D) correlation does not prove causation. C) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. On a series of coin tosses. For randomly generated sequences of numbers. Myer's second-grade classroom were born on exactly the same day. Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. C) illusory correlation. In this instance. 75.71. people tend to ________ the sequential repetition of any particular digit. The illusion of streak shooting in basketball best illustrates the need to recognize that: A) random sequences of events often don't look random. D) is a random and coincidental occurrence. Six of the children in Mr. 73. In this instance. C) events often seem more probable in hindsight. B) illustrates the phenomenon of illusory correlation. B) random sampling. D) the tendency to seek confirming evidence promotes overconfidence.
D) experiments. false consensus 81.C) correlational research D) naturalistic observation 77. random sampling D) independent variable. B) causes and effects. Prediction is to ________ as explanation is to ________. D) random samples and representative samples. B) surveys. survey C) random assignment. A) correlation. In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process? A) the survey B) the case study C) experimentation D) naturalistic observation . 78. C) case studies and surveys. dependent variable E) the hindsight bias. Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between: A) facts and theories. C) naturalistic observations. experimentation B) case study. Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness? A) the case study B) the survey C) naturalistic observation D) the experiment 80. The most accurate way of assessing the impact of breast milk feedings on the intellectual development of children is by means of: A) case studies. 79.
B) median. C) placebo. C) case study. E) correlational research. D) an experiment. E) double blind. B) whether the experimental findings will be statistically significant.82. C) how the dependent variable is measured. In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption. some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. 84. This nonalcoholic drink was a: A) dependent variable. D) correlational research. D) which experimental treatment. Participants in an experiment are said to be “blind” if they are uninformed about: A) what experimental hypothesis is being tested. The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of: A) survey research. D) replication. they are receiving. B) case study research. 86. if any. C) naturalistic observation. 83. This research is an example of: A) naturalistic observation. B) survey research. research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a: A) placebo. In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills. C) a case study. 85. B) replication. . E) experimental research. D) random sample.
C) random sampling. C) random assignment. A) critical thinking B) random sampling C) positive expectations D) random assignment 89. B) the hindsight bias. Both the researchers and the participants in a drug-evaluation study are ignorant about which participants have actually received an experimental drug and which have received a placebo. B) the double-blind procedure. B) the hindsight bias. The placebo effect best illustrates the effect of ________ on feelings and behaviors. C) the false consensus effect. D) experimental treatment is absent. E) illusory correlation. D) operational definitions. E) replication.87. E) replication. 91. D) the placebo effect. To minimize the extent to which outcome differences between experimental and control conditions can be attributed to placebo effects. 90. researchers make use of: A) random sampling. . 88. C) research participants are exposed to the most favorable levels of experimental treatment. The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates: A) random assignment. This investigation involves the use of: A) the false consensus effect. B) research participants are exposed to all the different experimental treatments. In the control condition of an experiment the: A) experimenter exerts the greatest influence on participants' behavior. D) the double-blind procedure.
the researchers should make use of: A) random assignment. McDuffee had one group of research participants work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. D) operational definitions. D) case studies. Being randomly assigned to the experimental condition in a research project involves being assigned: A) to that condition by chance. A) experimental B) survey C) control D) correlational 93. Dr. B) to the condition in which participants are representative of people in general. Those who worked in the quiet room were exposed to the ________ condition. In order to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group. In order to study the effects of loud noise on worker productivity. C) naturalistic observations. 96. men with symptoms of impotence received either Viagra or a placebo.92. Those who received Viagra participated in the ________ condition. B) naturalistic observation. researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression. B) the double-blind procedure. A) correlational B) control C) survey D) experimental 94. C) in a fashion that ensures that the independent variable will have a strong effect on the dependent variable. E) scatterplots. 95. D) to the condition in which participants are all very similar in personality characteristics. C) standard deviations. To accurately infer cause and effect. experimenters should use: A) random assignment. . In an experimental study.
standard deviation D) median. A) scatterplot. 3. 4 D) 12. 8. 8.E) replication. A) frequency distribution. Central tendency is to variation as ________ is to ________. E) percentile rank. D 6. 97. 6 C) 12. 9. C 2. 16 98. 27. D) standard deviation. B) range. C 5. normal curve C) mean. bar graph B) mean. 9. 15.Chapter 1 1. correlation D) central tendency. 12. A 7. Median is to range as ________ is to ________. correlation B) range. C 4. 8. The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the: A) mean. 7. 7 B) 10. 12 E) 23. B . variation 99. 6. mode C) scatterplot. B 3. Answer Key . 8. 22. For which of the following distributions of scores would the median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean? A) 9. C) median. 5. mode 100. 9.
C 48. B 21. B 42. A 50. A 38. D 25. C 24.8. B 29. B 49. C 37. B 46. A 40. B 30. E 39. A 36. A 28. B 34. B 43. A 19. D 23. C 20. B 16. D 44. E 12. A 9. B 47. A 32. C 45. C 10. C 22. E 18. B 27. B . A 26. C 41. C 15. D 13. B 31. D 17. B 33. B 14. C 35. D 11.
B 53. D 88. A 86. D 67. C 57. A 66. E 62. B 70. B 55. B 77. C 82. B 61. D 80. D 83. A 74.51. C 63. C 52. D 79. D 71. C 68. D 92. D 58. D . C 93. D 85. A 81. B 65. D 73. B 64. A 54. C 56. A 59. C 76. B 78. E 84. D 90. A 60. B 91. C 87. A 75. B 69. D 72. C 89.
A 96. A 97.94. A 95. B . C 100. B 98. D 99.