Þrotected Areas

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Introduction.

Marine Protected Area

Protected areas are locations which receive protection because oI their
environmental value, or environmental plus cultural values. Examples include parks,
nature reserves, and wildliIe sanctuaries. Not included in the term are historic sites
such as buildings that do not include natural environmental aspects, but some are
"cultural landscapes" which reIlect interaction oI humankind and nature. The term
protected area includes Marine Protected Areas, which reIers to protected areas whose
boundaries include some area oI ocean. A large number oI kinds oI protected area
exist, which vary by level oI protection and by the enabling laws oI each country or
rules oI international organization. There are over 108,000 protected areas in the world
with more added daily, representing a total area oI 30,430,000 km2 (11,750,000 sq m),
or over 12 percent oI the world's land surIace area, greater than the entire land mass oI
AIrica. By contrast, as oI 2 February 2009, only 0.8 oI one percent oI the world's
oceans are included in the world's ~ 5000 Marine Protected Areas.
More precisely it can be deIined as, "A clearly deIined geographical space,
recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other eIIective means, to achieve
the long-term conservation oI nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural
values¨.

Þrotected Areas

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%508.

There are six IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature)
Protected Area categories:
I. $trict natur0 r080rv0ild0rn088 ar0a.
Protected area managed mainly Ior science or wilderness protection.

II. ational 5ark.
Protected area managed mainly Ior ecosystem protection and recreation.

III. atural monum0nt.
Protected area managed mainly Ior conservation oI speciIic natural Ieatures.

IV. abitat$50ci08 Manag0m0nt Ar0a.
Protected area managed mainly Ior conservation through management
intervention.

V. !rot0ct0d Land8ca50$0a8ca50.
Protected area managed mainly Ior landscape/seascape protection and
recreation.

VI. Manag0d R08ourc0 !rot0ct0d Ar0a.
Protected area managed mainly Ior the sustainable use oI natural ecosystems.
Þrotected Areas

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$trict Nature/Wilderness Area:

Giant Panda in Wolong Nature Reserve, China.

Natural Reserve are strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and
also possibly geological/geomorphological Ieatures, where human visitation, use and
impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection oI the conservation
values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reIerence areas Ior scientiIic
research and monitoring.
The main obiectives oI these areas declared by IUCN are:
O To conserve regionally, nationally or globally outstanding ecosystems, species
(occurrences or aggregations) and/or geodiversity Ieatures.
O To preserve ecosystems, species and geodiversity Ieatures in a state as
undisturbed by recent human activity as possible.
O To secure examples oI the natural environment Ior scientiIic studies,
environmental monitoring and education, including baseline areas Irom which
all avoidable access is excluded.
O To minimize disturbance through careIul planning and implementation oI
research and other approved activities.
O To conserve cultural and spiritual values associated with nature.
Þrotected Areas

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Serengeti National Park Wilderness Area

ilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been
signiIicantly modiIied by human activity. It may also be deIined as: "The most intact,
undisturbed wild natural areas leIt on our planetthose last truly wild places that
humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial
inIrastructure."
The main obiectives oI these areas declared by IUCN are:
O To protect the long-term ecological integrity oI natural areas that are
undisturbed by signiIicant human activity, Iree oI modern inIrastructure and
where natural Iorces and processes predominate, so that current and Iuture
generations have the opportunity to experience such areas.
O To provide Ior public access at levels.
O To enable indigenous communities to maintain their traditional wilderness-
based liIestyle and customs, living at low density and using the available
resources in ways compatible with the conservation obiectives.
O To protect the relevant cultural and spiritual values and non-material beneIits to
indigenous or non-indigenous populations, such as solitude, respect Ior sacred
sites, respect Ior ancestors etc.
O To allow Ior low-impact minimally invasive educational and scientiIic research
activities, when such activities cannot be conducted outside the wilderness area.
Þrotected Areas

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National Park:

Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, USA

National Parks are large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-
scale ecological processes, along with the complement oI species and ecosystems
characteristic oI the area, which also provide a Ioundation Ior environmentally and
culturally compatible spiritual, scientiIic, educational, recreational and visitor
opportunities.
The main obiectives oI these areas declared by IUCN are:
O To protect natural biodiversity along with its ecological structure and supporting
environmental processes, and to promote education and recreation.
O To maintain viable and ecologically Iunctional populations and assemblages oI
native species at densities suIIicient to conserve ecosystem integrity and
resilience in the long term.
O To contribute in particular to conservation oI wide-ranging species, regional
ecological processes and migration routes.
O To manage visitor use Ior inspirational, educational, and recreational purposes.
O To contribute to local economies through tourism.
Þrotected Areas

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Natural Monument:

Uros Petrovic - Devil's town, natural monument in the south of Serbia

A natural monument is a natural/cultural Ieature oI outstanding or unique value
because oI its inherent rarity, representative oI aesthetic qualities or cultural
signiIicance. These areas are set aside to protect a speciIic natural monument, which
can be a landIorm, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological Ieature such as a cave or
even a living Ieature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small
protected areas and oIten have high visitor value.
The main obiectives oI these areas declared by IUCN are:
O To protect speciIic outstanding natural Ieatures and their associated biodiversity
and habitats.
O To provide biodiversity protection in landscapes or seascapes that has otherwise
undergone maior changes.
O To protect speciIic natural sites with spiritual and/or cultural values where these
also have biodiversity values.
O To conserve traditional spiritual and cultural values oI the site.

Þrotected Areas

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abitat/$5ecies Management Area:

Galapagos tortoise in the Galapagos, Ecuador.

abitat/Species Management areas aim to protect particular species or habitats
and management reIlects this priority. Many oI these protected areas will need regular,
active interventions to address the requirements oI particular species or to maintain
habitats, but this is not a requirement oI the category.
The main obiectives oI these areas declared by IUCN are:
O To maintain, conserve and restore species and habitats.
O To protect vegetation patterns or other biological Ieatures through traditional
management approaches.
O To protect Iragments oI habitats as components oI landscape or seascape-scale
conservation strategies.
O To develop public education and appreciation oI the species/ habitats concerned.
O To provide a means by which the urban residents may obtain regular contact
with nature.
Þrotected Areas

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Protected Landsca5es/$easca5es:

Great Barrier Reef, Australia

A protected area where the interaction oI people and nature over time has
produced an area oI distinct character with signiIicant ecological, biological, cultural
and scenic value: and where saIeguarding the integrity oI this interaction is vital to
protecting and sustaining the area and its associated nature conservation and other
values.
The main obiectives oI these areas declared by IUCN are:
O To protect and sustain important landscapes/seascapes and the associated nature
conservation and other values created by interactions with humans through
traditional management practices.
O To maintain a balanced interaction oI nature and culture through the protection
oI landscape and/or seascape and associated traditional management
approaches, societies, cultures and spiritual values.
O To contribute to broad-scale conservation by maintaining species associated
with cultural landscapes and/or by providing conservation opportunities in
heavily used landscapes.
O To provide opportunities Ior enioyment, well-being and socio-economic activity
through recreation and tourism.
O To provide natural products and environmental services.
O To provide a Iramework to underpin active involvement by the community in
the management oI valued landscapes or seascapes and the natural and cultural
heritage that they contain.
O To encourage the conservation oI agrobiodiversity6 and aquatic biodiversity.
O To act as models oI sustainability so that lessons can be learnt Ior wider
application.

Þrotected Areas

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Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources:

Rwenzori Mountains National Park, Uganda

These protected areas conserve ecosystems and habitats, together with
associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They
are generally large, with most oI the area in a natural condition, where a proportion is
under sustainable natural resource management and where low-level non-industrial
use oI natural resources compatible with nature conservation is seen as one oI the
main aims oI the area.
The main obiectives oI these areas declared by IUCN are:
O To protect natural ecosystems and use natural resources sustainably, when
conservation and sustainable use can be mutually beneIicial.
O To promote sustainable use oI natural resources, considering ecological,
economic and social dimensions.
O To promote social and economic beneIits to local communities where relevant;
O To Iacilitate inter-generational security Ior local communities' livelihoods
thereIore ensuring that such livelihoods are sustainable.
O To integrate other cultural approaches, belieI systems and world-views within a
range oI social and economic approaches to nature conservation.
Þrotected Areas

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O To contribute to developing and/or maintaining a more balanced relationship
between humans and the rest oI nature.
O To contribute to sustainable development at national, regional and local level (in
the last case mainly to local communities and/or indigenous peoples depending
on the protected natural resources).
O To Iacilitate scientiIic research and environmental monitoring, mainly related to
the conservation and sustainable use oI natural resources.
O To collaborate in the delivery oI beneIits to people, mostly local communities,
living in or near to the designated protected area.
O To Iacilitate recreation and appropriate small-scale tourism.

i8tor.
International commitments to the development oI networks oI protected areas
date Irom 1972, when the Stockholm Declaration Irom the United Nations ConIerence
on the uman Environment endorsed the protection oI representative examples oI all
maior ecosystem types as a Iundamental requirement oI national conservation
programs. Since then, the protection oI representative ecosystems has become a core
principle oI conservation biology, supported by key United Nations resolutions -
including the orld Charter Ior Nature 1982, the Rio Declaration at the Earth Summit
(1992), and the Johannesburg Declaration 2002.
Globally, national programs Ior the protection oI representative ecosystems
have progressed with respect to terrestrial environments, with less progress in marine
and Ireshwater biomes.
Critici8m.
Some countries such as China, Madagascar, Namibia and Venezuela place a
protection category over lands, but provide little enIorcement, such that the areas are
not substantively protected Irom development or misuse.
Protected areas oIten involve the exclusion oI resources users Irom the protected
area. As such they have been criticized Ior the displacement oI local population. Much
oI the new protected areas are in developing countries which makes the local
population vulnerable.
In some places, wildliIe is protected by armed guards, killing 'poachers' looking
Ior subsistence.
Þrotected Areas

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!rot0ct0d Ar0a8 !rot0cting Moth0r Earth.

Nature has always helped in Ilourishing the mankind. But this isn't about what
nature gives to us, it`s what we, as a human being give back in return. Are we
concerned about nature? Does saving the endangered species and taking necessary
actions Ior those who are on the brink oI extinction means something to us? Then let`s
ioin hands with the nature and the wildliIe organizations to save mother Earth!
The natural proiects and programs started by the Indian government such as
Proiect Tiger, Nature Camps and Jungle Lodges have been organized to promote
wildliIe awareness among the people. These proiects not only help in preserving our
natural heritage but also encourage eco-tourism.

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