This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
G G
Clarifies important theory and applications
Uptodatrcovers today's complete courses
G
Shows you how to solve problems stepbystep
G
Gives you
fully worked problems
Prepares you for class exams
II2
/se with these r;lursr;s: MEngineering
Mstructural
Design
Mechanics MMaterial science '
SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF
THEORY AND PROBLEMS
STRUCTURAT STEET DESIGN
(Load and Resistance Factor Method)
o
ABRAHAM J. ROKACH, MSCE
Director oJ'Building Design and Softw,are American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.
SCHAUM'S OUTLINE SERIES
New
McGrawHill Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogotri Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Srngapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto
York
San
ABRAHAM J. ROKACH is Director of Building Design and Software ar rhe American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. Previously. he had been a practicing structural engineer fbr twenty years. He holds a B.E. degree from the city university of New York and an M.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has lectured at the University of Illinois and elsewhere and is the author of Guide to LRFD and the Reliability rl' Expert St,stems for ContputerAitled Structurul De.sign. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Secretary of the AISC Committee on Specifications.
Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN (LRFD METHOD)
Copyright
States
O l99l h)'The McGrau'Hill Conrpanies. Inc. All righrs rcserlecl. Printcd in the Unitecl ofArlerica. Except as penritted undel the Coplrilht Act of 1976. no part ol'this publication
nrav be reproduced or distributed in anv fbrm or. b1, anr' t]teans. ot. stored in system. \\ ithout the prior u ritten pcrrnission of the puhlisher. 12 CUS CUS 09 08
I
clata hase or retrie\al
rsBN 00?u535h39
Sponsoring Editor: John Aliano Production Supervisor: Stacey Alexander Editing Supervisors: Meg Tobin, Maureen Walker
Librrry of Congrecs Crtdogingin.Publicrtion Datr
Rokach, Abraham J.
Schaum's outline
of
theory and problems
of
structural steel design (LRFD
exerciscs, etc. 3. L,oad resistance TA684.R66
1991
method)/Abraham J. Rokach. p. cm.{Schaum's outline scries) ISBN G{t0535639 l. Building, Iron and steelProblems, exerciscs,
l. Title. II. Title: Structural steel design (LRFD
624.1'g2l4cm
factor
etc. 2. Steel, StructuralProbl€ms, desigrrProblems, exercises, etc.
8913665
method)
CIP
McGrawflill
A Dittision of
The
McGrawHitl Companics
v
John F. the author and most experts prefer LRFD because it is a truer representation of the actual behavior of structural steel and unlike ASD. Too numerous to mention. Aliano. Although ASD has enjoyed a long history of successful usage and is familiar to engineers and architects. and as a university professor). architects. This work is the first Schaum's Outline on the subject of structural steel design. for her patience and assistance with typing the manuscript. The author wishes to thank Mr. it can provide equivalent margins of safety for all structures under all loading conditions (as explained in Chap. the author is pleased to have been given the opportunity to write this book. Tobin. including students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate engineering and architectural curricula. Executive Editor.Preface In 1986 a new method of structural steel design was introduced in the United States with the publication of the Load and Resbtance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. 1). The author believes that everyone in need of instruction and/ or experience in LRFD can benefit from the Schaum's approach of learning by problemsolving. Because of the newness of LRFD and the scarcity of instructional materials. The only prerequisite for an understanding of this text is the same as for an undergraduate course in structural steel design: a basic knowledge of engineering mechanics. Rorecs lll . are his mentors and professional and academic colleagues. or LRFD. Margaret A. Load and resistance factor design. especially the people at AISC. Publisher. Mr. and practicing engineers. After a long and rewarding use of other titles in the Schaum's Series (first as an undergraduate and graduate engineering student. John A. For these reasons it is anticipated that LRFD will replace ASD as the standard method of structural steel design. but significant in developing his knowledge and enjoyment of the subject matter. this book was written for as wide an audience as possible. has joined the old allowable stress design (ASD) method as a recognized means for the design of structural steel frameworks for buildings. Ms. Pninah. and their staff for their valuable contributions to this work. of the Schaum Division at McGrawHill. Editing Supervisor. AsReunu J. Carleo. then through 20 years of professional practice. and structural steel detailers. Special thanks go to the author's wife.
CONTENTS lntroduction Chapter l STRUCTURAL STEEL Notation Definitions Mechanical Properties Availability Structural Shapes Design Methods ASD versus LRFD Chapter 2 INTRODUCTION TO LRFD Notation Basic Concepts Probability Theory Loads Load Combinations Chapter 3 TENSION MEMBERS Notation Introduction CrossSectional Areas Design Tensile Strength Disolacement 14 Chapter 4 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS Notation Introduction Local Buckling Column Buckling Effective Length Factor: Judgmental Method Effective Length Factor: Analytical Method Design Compressive Strength Column Design Displacement 23 .
Venant Torsion Warping Torsion Deformation .0. 39 Flexural Behavior Elastic versus Plastic Analysis Design Flexural Strength: Ct = 1. Lb L. = Design Flexural Strength: Lu> L.Vi CONTENTS Chapter 5 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL Notation Introduction Compactness MEMBERS. = Bending Coefficient Co Design Flexural Strength: Ca = 1. Lb L.0. Gross and Net Cross Sections Design Shear Strength Displacement and Vibration Chapter 6 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS Notation Introduction Noncompact Beams Design Flexural Strength of Plate Girders Design Shear Strength of Plate Girders Web Stiffeners Stiffener Details 62 Rolled versus BuiltUp Beams Chapter 7 MEMBERS IN FLEXURE AND TENSION Notation lntroduction Interaction Formulas 84 Chapter 8 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND Notation Introduction Interaction Formulas Simplified SecondOrder Analysis Preliminarv Desisn COMPRESSION 9l Chapter 9 TORSION Notation Introduction Shear Center 106 Avoiding or Minimizing Torsion Design Criteria St.
CONTENTS vll Chapter f0 COMPOSITE Notation Introduction MEMBERS. I. tn Columns and Other Compression Members Beams and Other Flexural Members Design Flexural Strength Shear Connectors Special Provisions for Steel Decks ConcreteEncased Beams BeamColumns: Combined Flexure and Compression Desien Shear Streneth Chapter fI CONNECTIONS Notation Introduction Welds 152 Bolts Connecting Elements and Main Members at Connections Typical Connections Bearins on Steel and Concrete Chapter 112 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Notation Introduction Concentrated Loads and Reactions Stiffener Requirements L75 INDEX.85 .
AISC LRFD Manual: Load and Resistance Factor Design Manual of Construction.Introduction This book covers structural steel design for buildings using the load and (LRFD) method.. thus ( ). usually in abbreviated form. also published by AISC. Equations taken from the AISC LRFD Specification are accompanied by their AISC numbers in parentheses. thus [ ]. . published by AISC. Steel Equations in this text are numbered as follows. Illinois. Inc. resistance factor design AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction. The following authorities on the LRFD method are cited frequently in the text. other equations are numbered in brackets. Chicago. AISC LRFD Specification: Load and Resistance Fsctor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.
Chapter
Structural Steel
NOTATION
modulus of elasticity of steel :29,000 kips per square inch (ksi) tensile strength, ksi
1
E: 4: p:
yield stress, yield point, or yield strength, ksi
DEFINITIONS
Structural steel, as defined by AISC (in the LRFD Specification and elsewhere), refers to the steel elements of a structural frame supporting the design loads. It includes steel beams, columns, beamcolumns, hangers, and connections.
BesmA structural nrember whose primary function is to carry loads transverse to its longitudinal axis. Beams are usually horizontal and support the floors in buildings. (See Fig.
11.)
ColumnA structural member whose primary function is to carry loads in compression along its longitudinal axis. In building frames, the columns are generally the vertical members which
support the beams. (See Fig. l1.)
BeamcolumnA structural member whose function is to carry loads both transverse and parallel to its longitudinal axis. A building column subjected to horizontal forces (such as wind)
is actually a beamcolumn. HangerA structural member carrying loads in tension along its longitudinal axis.
ConnectionThe material used
to join two or more structural members. Examples of
connections are beamtobeam and beamtocolumn.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
The major advantage of steel is its high strength relative to the strengths of the other common structural materials: wood, masonry, and concrete. Unlike masonry and concrete, which are weak in tension, steel is strong in both tension and compression. Because of its high strength, structural steel is widely used in construction. The tallest and longestspan structures are predominantly steel. Typical stressstrain curves for structural steel are shown in Fig. 12. They are based on the application of tensile forces to a test specimen. The ordinates (i.e., vertical axes) indicate s/ress, which is defined as load divided by crosssectional area. Units for stress are kips (or kilopounds; i.e., 1000 lb) per square inch, commonly noted as ksi. The abscissas (i.e., horizontal axes) indicate strain, which is a measure of elongation under tension and is defined as the increase in length divided by the original length. Units for strain are inches per inch; strain is dimensionless. The stressstrain curve in Fig. 12(c) is that of ,4,36 steel, the most commonly used structural steel. Note the linear relationship between stress and strain in the "elastic range," that is, until the yield point is reached. The most important design properties of ,{36 steel [see Fig. 12(a)] are
{,,
the yield point, the stress at which the proportionality between stress and strain ceases. 436 steel has both an upper and a lower yield point. For design purposes, the yield point of 436 steel is taken as
4:36
ksi, the minimum lower yield point.
STRUCTURAL STEEL
lcHAP.
1
Fig.
11
Structural steel frame
stress that the material is capable of sustaining. For 4.36 steel, 4, :58 to 80 ksi. E, the modulus of elasticity, which is the (constant) ratio of stress to strain in the elastic ranqe. For ,4'36 steel, E : 29,000 ksi.
F,, the tensile strength, the maximum
The stressstrain curve in Fig. I2(b) is characteristic of several of the higherstrength steels. All structural steels have the same modulus of elasticity (E : 29,000 ksi). Unlike A36 steel, however, the higherstrength steels do not have a definite yield point. For these steels, F, is the yield strength as determined by either of the two methods shown in Fig. lz(b): the 0.2 percent offset value or the 0.5 percent strain value. In the AISC Specifications and Manuals, {, is called the yield stress and, depending on the grade of steel, can be either the yield point or the yield strength, as defined above.
Yield point:
a
F,
:
36 ksi
Strain, in/in \a)
Yield strengths:
E
I o
0.002 0.005
Strarn. in/in (b\
Fig.
12
Stressstrain curves for structural steels: (a) ,4.36 steel; (b) Highstrength steel
CHAP.
1l
STRUCTURAL STEEL
AVAILABILITY
in buildings. In the LRFD
Specification, Sec. A3.1, they are listed by their ASTM (American Society foi Testing and Materials) specification numbers. The yield stress of these steels ranges from 36 ksi for the common 436 steel to 100 ksi for ,\514 steel. As can be seen from Table 11 (adapted from Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual), the yield stress of a given grade of steel is not a consiant. It varies with plate thickness; very thick structural shapes and plates have reduced yield
stresses.
Fourteen types of structural steel have been approved by the AISC LRFD Specification for use
A36 steel is by far the most commonly used type of structural steel for two reasons:
i. In many applications, Z.
the loads and stresses are moderate. Little, if any, saving would result from the use of higherstrength steels. Even where stress considerations would favor the use of lighter (possibly more economical) highstrength members, other criteria may govern. Heavier members may be required to provide increased stiffness to prevent overall or local instability or excessive deflection' b""u.rse stiffness is a function of the geometric properties of the member and is not affected by strength, no aclvantage would be gained from using highstrength steel in such cases.
Table
Steel Type Carbon
11 Availability of Structural {,,
ksi
Steel
ASTM Designation
A36 4529
Plate Thickness. in
36
)L
<8
>8
=l
<11
1 La L2+
4Z
Highstrength
A44l
lowalloy
50 46 42 40 65 60 50 42 65 60 50 42 50 46 42 50 46 42
100
48
<11
A572Grade
<1!
Corrosionresistant highstrength
p.242
Grade Grade Grade
<4 <6
lowalloy 4588
r:4
i11
<4 45 58
Quenched and tempered alloy
,{514
90
<1\ 2t6
STRUCTURAL SHAPES
A structural member can be a rolled shape or can be built up from two or more rolled shapes or plates, connected by welds or bolts. The more economical rolled shapes are utilized whenever possible. However, special conditions (such as the need for heavier members or particular crosssectional geometries) may dictate the use of builtup members. Available rolled shapes are catalogued in Part 1 of the AISC Manual. Those most commonly used in building construction include wide flange (or W), angle (or L), channel (or C), and tee (or WT). They are shown in Table 12 with examples of their nomenclature. Examples of common builtup shapes are given in Fig. 13.
4 in. short leg. 12 in.: . The allowable stress design (ASD) method has been codified by AISC. 30lbift L (angle) I tl n L4x3x i Long leg. weight. 7 in. 90lb/ft f AI T" *l E \t6 cI2x30 Depth. 45lb/ft * Cutting a W14x90 in half longitudinally results in two WT7x45 TWelded plate girder lL tl Cover plated W shape W ! shape with shelf angle Fig. from1923 to the present. Containing the AISC Specification as well as numerous design aids for the ASD method has been the AISC Manual of Steel Construction (also known as the .41SC Manual). I Table 12 Rolled Structural Steel Shapes and Their Designations Example of Designation Explanation of Designation Type of Shape Cross Section W (wide flange) l I C (channel) l ol ol T W14x90* Nominal depth. thickness. The new load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method was introduced officially by AISC in 1986 with their publication of the Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (also known as the AISC LRFD Specification) and the Load and Resistance Fqctor Design Msnual of Steel Construction (also . 14in.STRUCTURAL STEEL lcHAP. 3 in. in nine successive editions of their Specification for the Design. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings (also known as the AISC Specification). 13 Common builtup structural shapes DESIGN METHODS Two methods for selecting structural steel members are recognized in current engineering practice in the United States. weight. weight. I in f WT (structural tee cut from W shape) I tq T f*Thickress wT7x45* Nominal depth. This document has been incorporated by reference in virtually every building code in the United States.
(uuru puu uorlecgrcedg 61cl{'I aql sur€tuoc pnuuIAI 61CUT aqa'Qonuoq etai JSly aql se u^\ou{ .'elqrssod sI {lIIIqeIIer ul .T  ssoJls alqeihollv ssalls elqe^\ollu uu le oAIJJB o1 (uorlucgrcadg aqt Jo sroqlns aql fq paunurelap 'gg) fleyes Jo rolr€J e .{11grqu11or ruJoJrun e 'peol peop aql qlr.{11ensn) sserls Suryrurl y 'f1a.us Jo JopeJ pluau8pnl auo Jo esn eql .{gadord uouces aleudorddu eql .{lutelracun pue .$ryrqeuu^ releer8 aql Jo esneceg 'spuol Jo spur{ snorJBn eql Suotue apetu sI uollJullslp oN rrrJoJrun E 'aJu?lsrsoJ er{l puu speol snorJu^ aql sseJls alqe^\olle = ssalls IBnpv luql uI€ueJSe ol sesseJls alqe^\ollu eql qlp\ peredruoc uaql eJe sasseJls lenloe aq1 '(snynpotu uollJas Jo eare ''3'e).{uf snsuflA osv 'u8rsap 1aa1s IurnlJnlls Jo poqlou pJepu€ls eql auoceq fllenluane IIr^\ pue frlunoc slql uI peldacce .IAIIIS ]VUNIJNUIS k 'avnc .{q s}ueruor[ Jo secJoJ Surprrup .r uosueduroJ ur sp€ol Jeqlo pu€ p€ol a^ll aqt .{lureuacun .tlrluunb lcafqns er{t Jo .{1 qcee JoJ JolJeJ lualeglp u sesn CSU'I'fgaug 'sraldeqc Surpaaccns eql puu Z'det4J ur Felep ur paumldxa sr poqlau CCI{1 eql 'elqrssod lou sr seJnl3nJls IIU JoJ .{q palelncyeJ ale Jequleu] Ieels B ut sassaJls IsnlJV SC / .(q paddr4s aq feu lr 'ecueH '{ooq srql Jo repuleual aql Jo poqlau CCU'I aqt Jo Sutpuelsrapun uu JoJ lerluassa lou sr 'u8rsep Iaels luJnlJnrls Jo spoqlau olu eql serudruoc qctqin 'uotlces stql) o.(q peprrrrp sr (! .o seer8ep eql lJeUaJ sJolJzJ lueJeglp aql esnuJag '.{pn1s yecrlsrlels € Jo llnsal aql sI JolJ€J qJsA 'aJuulsrseJ ro qlSuerls aql JoJ JolJuJ raqloue pue peol Jo ad.{lrpqeue.{uI eql Jo srssn lslsse ol susqc puu selqul .r eql Jo .I\ (IddI leqt paledrcllu€ sI lJ 'uollerulcedS qggl SSIV eql Jo asn eql palordde a^eq suorlJlpsunf 'g'n IIB lsoule 'txal srql Jo uorlellqnd yo alep aqr lV 'uotlecgnads CCU'I JSIV aql uo peseq sr 'uErsap leats I€rnpnrls Jo poqteu C.o .(1ps:antun eq uoos III.:I1{I eql ol flaltsnlcxe palo^ap '>1ooq stql 'poqlaur (.{q pazualreruqc sI poqleur CSV aql ('ll qll^\ JUIIIITTBJ eslAJeqlo eJu Jo osv pasn a^eq oq^\ sJapeeJ asoql ol lseJelur Jo eq 'Ja^eA\oq 'plnoqs lI 'sJaqlo pue sluapnls .
The LRFD method.. (as calculated from the equations given in the subsequent chapters) defines the boundary of structural usefulness. and other structural elements. the loads are taken from the governing building code and the LRFD load factors were derived from statistical building load studies. Limit state is a condition in which a structure or a structural component becomes unfit. where R. @ (always less than or equal to one) depends on the variability of R.g. and @. Test data were analyzed to determine the . beams. = nominal resistance snow load load 17: wind 4: reliability index Y: load factor @: resistance factor o: standard deviation BASIC CONCEPTS applicable limit state is exceeded when the strucure is subjected to all appropriate combinations of factored loads.: roof live load M: margin of safety Q:load R: R: S: rain load resistance R. A structural member can have several limit states. multiplied by their respective load factors y... On the right side of the inequality.= QR" 12. the summation (denoted by 2) of the various loads (or load effects) Q.Chapter 2 lntroduction to LRFD NOTATION D: dead load E: earthquake load L: live load L. Succeeding chapters of this text cover the limit states applicable to columns... the design strength for the given limit state is the product of the nominal strength or resistance Rn and its resistance factor @. Loads and load combinations are covered later in this chapter. as applied to each limit state. The left side is materialindependent. together with the corresponding resistances and resistance factors. excessive deformation and vibration). plastic hinge and buckling). Associated with each limit state are values for R. The left side represents the load combinations. that is.Q. may be summarized by the formula Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) is a method for designing structures so that no 2y.g. Seruiceability limit states relate to performance under normal service conditions (e.11 In the terminology of the AISC LRFD Specification. Strength limit states concern safety and relate to maximum loadcarrying capacity (e. the left side of the inequality is the required strength and the right side is the design strength.
The greater the scatter in the test data for a given resistance. because Q and R are random variables. 21. The load effect Q and the resistance R are assumed to be statistically independent random variables with probability distributions as shown in Fig. The latter figure is a probability distribution for M. i. However. 21.ect Q and resistance R. a margin of safety exists. R > Q).000) by specifying that the mean value of zl(b).31 . simplified explanation of the basis of LRFD in probability theory. 2l INTRODUCTION TO LRFD uncertainty in each resistance. 21 Probability distributions: (a) load eff. the probability of failure can be set to a predetermined small quantity Mbe 4 standard deviations above zero.21 As long as M is positive (i. the lower its @ factor.(a) and (b). (b) margin of safety M : R  Q Referring to Fig. o o O Marginof safety.(a).. which is also a random variable. Let the margin of safety M:RQ 12.M: a I t! RQ (b') Fig. 1 in 100. lil: *Jou 12. (say.CHAP. PROBABILITY THEORY The following is a brief. This unacceptable probability is shown shaded in Fig.e. there will always be some probability of failure (M <O).e.
L.5 (L. while the others are at their "arbitrary pointintime" values. areas occupied as places of public assembly. (A44). The reduced live load is used in LRFD.2S) 0. the one parameter left to the discretion of the authors of the LRFD Specification is @.sE + (0.6L + 0. When beams support large floor areas or columns support several floors.5L + 0.zD + 1. and all areas where the live load is greater than 100 lb/ft'z. or . The selection of a reliability index 9) determines the value of @ for each limit state. and movable equipment and partitions.3W + 0.5L or 0.4D (A41) (A42) (A43) (A44) (A4s) (A46) l. Each combination models the desisn loadins condition when a different load is at its maximum. and E represent either the loads themselves or the load effects (i.S or R) + (0. .zD + 1.3W or 1. building codes generally allow a liveload reduction. furniture. In LOAD COMBINATIONS The required strength is defined in the AISC LRFD Specification as the maximum (absolute value) force obtained from the following load combinations. Wind load (W). W.e.l Loads D. Liue load (L)The gravity load due to the intended usage and occupancy. In LRFD. Rain load (R)Load due to the initial rainwater or ice. includes the weight of people. L.. to reduce the probability of failure.8142) I. design.5r or 0. t. All the other design loads are specified by the governing building code.0 for garages. the notation L refers to floor live loads and L. or S or R) l. the forces or moments caused by the loads).2D + lException: The load factor on L in combinations (A43).10 INTRODUCTION TO LRFD lcHAP. including builtin partitions..6 (L. only one load assumes its maximum lifetime value at a time. the load factors yr have been derived independently by others from load statistics. excluding the contribution of ponding. 2 where M : mean value of M ov: 4: standard deviation of M reliability index In Eq. and (A45) shall equal 1.5E) 1. S. 4 would be increased. In the preceding expressions. In general.11. Earthquake load (E). to roof live loads. resulting in a lower value for @.2D + I. R. the dead load is calculated from the actual weights of the various structural and nonstructural elements. Dead load (D)The weight of the structure and all other permanently installed features in the building.. or S or R) I.9D * (I.5 (L. 12. The resistance factor @ depends on 98 as well as on the uncertainty in the resistance R. Snow load (S). LOADS Structural loads are classified as follows..
2 x Because kipft + 1.48 kips/ft). support a superimposed dead load of 65l[l.2 x 700lb/ft + 1. 2. which gives the maximum factored load.CHAP. the second load combination governs.0 ft:700lb/ft Total live load L : 40lblftz x 10.6 x kipft:70 kipft 35 kipft: (A41) 116 kipfl (A42) it produces the maximum required strength.g. 2.4D = 1.1. Total dead load D : 50lb/ft + 65 lb/ft2 x 10..2D + 1. it is obvious that one of the first two formulas must govern.2. The moments acting on a floor beam are a deadload moment of 50 kipft and a liveload moment of 35 kipft. Floor beams W21x50. a live (or snow) load of 21lblftz. Solved Problems 2. 2l INTRODUCTION TO LRFD 11 Load Combination Load at Its Lifetime Maximum (A41) (A42) (A43) (444) (A4s) (A46) D (during construction. The required strength is 116 kipft.= S = E =0. spaced 10 ft 0 in centertocenter.4 x 50 50 l.3. Determine the required strength. a .0 ft : 400 lb/ft As in Prob. L. Determine the governing load combination and the corresponding factored load. and wind pressure of L5lb/ft2 (upward or downward). or S or R (a roof load) IV (acting in the direction of D) E (acting in the direction of D) W or E (opposing D) Load combinations (A41) to (A46) are for computing strength limit states.4 x7O0 tb/ft : 980Ib/ft 1.: S: R :W : E:0. governs.1ft2 and a live load of 40lb/ft2. By inspection of formulas (A41) to (446).. 2. In determining serviceability limit states (e. L. Roof design loads include a dead load of 35lblft2.6L:1. as follows. L480lb/ft (or 1.4D 1.6 x 400 lb/ft : 1480 lb/ft : (A4_1\ (A42) The second load combination. R:W: l. Because dead load and floor live load are the only loads acting on the member. Determine the governing loading.1. The two relevant load combinations are l. other loads not present) L L.zD + l. deflections) the unfactored (service) loads are used.6L : t.
Repeat Prob.5 x 1.2x200 + 1.2x200 + 1. Determine the required strength of the column. and 40 kips from earthquake.6 x 25 + 0. load combinations (A43) I.1.4 x :49 :55 :94 :74 :47 :12 The third load combination governs. areas of public assembly. which become Load Combination Factored Axial Force' kips (A4k). 2.2x25 0.3 x 100 + 0.0L + 0.6 (L.2x35+0+0.9 x 200 .0 0.5x25 1. 150 kips (reduced) floor live load.2D + 1. it has a total factored load of 94lblft'. 25 kips from the roof (. 2.zD + 1.5E + (1.0L or 0.r. or S or R) + (1.. Load Combination (A41) (A42) Factored Axial Force' kips 1.6 x 150+0. According to the AISC LRFD Specification.5 x 40 + 1.8 x 15 1.8x 100 t.3W + 1.3 x 15 + 0 + 0. 2.5 x 25 1.0 x 150 + + 1. (A45) are modified for (A43) (A44) (A45) The solution to Prob. The axial forces on a building column from the codespecified loads have been calculated as 200 kips of dead load.5 x 40+ 0.2x200 + t.2x200 +1. and areas with live load exceeding 100 lb/ft'z. (A44).0L or 0'8lV) l.2x200 + 1. and (A4k) (A44) (A45a) t.9 x 35 . 2 The six load combinations are Load Combination Factored Load.4x2ffi 1.2x35 + 1.2x200 + 1.5 x 150 + 0.5 x 40 :50 :120 The required strength for the column is 493 kips.2x35 + 1.2S) to garages.T2 INTRODUCTION TO LRFD lcHAP.2x35+0+0.0 x 150 :430 x 25 :533 :450 .5 x 150 1. based on the second load combination. 100 kips from wind. or S or R) l.5 1.2x25 25 :458 =375 :305 (44tu) @4e) 0.2x200 + 1.5 x 25 7.6 x 25 1.4 is still valid for garages except for load combinations (A45A\.4.1.2x2ffi + 1.4 for a garage column.5. as follows.5 (L.2x200 + 1. or S or R).3 x 15 1. 2.zD + l.6x25+0.9x2001. lb/ft2 (441) (A42) (A43) (A44) (A4s) (446) 35 1.5 x 150 :280 =493 (A4k) (A43b) (A44) :355 =360 (44tu) (A4sb) I.3x100 0.6 x 25 + 0.5 x 40+0.3 x 150 x 100 + 1.
Ans.E. Axial tension: 4.:157kips. load 2. A beamcolumn is subjected to the following forces by the service loads indicated. 40 kips floor live load. A member is subjected to the following axial forces: 35kips (axial compression 30 from dead load) and kips (axial compression or tension from wind). combination (A46\..6. : 8 kips. 2l INTRODUCTION TO LRFD 13 Because 533 kips is greater than 493 kips. 5kips (live load). pairs should be checked in the design of the beamcolumn. M" = 17 kipft. and 55 kips wind. the required strength for the garage column is 533 kips. Determine the required strength. The axial forces on a building column are as follows: 50 kips dead load. the required strengths are Pu:84 kips. Determine the governing load combinations and the required strengths. roof live load. load combination (A44). 10 kips Ans. which is obtained from modified load combination (A44\. Determine the governing load combination and the required axial compressive and bending strengths. the required strengths are P" = 80 kips.CHAP. load combination (A44).7. Ans. combination (446\. Supplementary Problems 2. Axial compression: P. Load combination (A4L) governs for axial compression. M:10kipft (dead load). load . Bending. Both of the preceding P"M. Axial compression: 4. 2. M":I4kipft. 3kipft (live load). = 81 kips. P:60kips (dead load). Load combination (A42) governs for bending moment. Axial compression. Axial tensioni P"=27 kips.
the width of a hole is assumed for design purposes to be twice fr in. the net width is the gross width minus the sum of the widths of the holes. ksi g: gage (i. For one hole. such as hangers and truss members.Chapter 3 Tension Members NOTATION : effective net crosssectional area of member. in2 E : modulus of elasticity of steel: 29. in dr : resistance factor for tension:0. the transverse centertocenter spacing between fastener gage lines).4" : gross crosssectional area of member.. in Q. When a tensile force is applied through the centroidal axis of a member. if a chain of holes extends across a part in a diagonal or zigzag fashion. the net width is the gross width minus the sum of the hole dimensions plus the 14 .90 or 0. Since tolerances require that a bolt hole be rt in greater than the diameter of the bolt.000 ksi F.Pn: design strength of tension member. CROSS. In computing the net area for tension. kips A" s:pitch (i.SECTIONAL AREAS The design tensile strength of a structural steel member depends on the appropriate crosssectional area. The gross area of a member at any point is the total area of the cross section. with no deductions for holes. : specified minimum tensile strength. : nominal axial strength of member. and the effective net area A". The net areais the gross area minus the area of the holes. or { in.75 U: A: INTRODUCTION This chapter covers members subjected to pure tension. in /: member length. The net area of an element is its net width multiplied by its thickness. 7.e. lateral forces also cause bending. the result is a uniform tension stress at each cross section. the longitudinal centertocenter spacing of any two consecutive holes). Members with combined bending and tension are discussed in Chap. The three crosssectional areas of interest are the gross area A* the net area An. However. in2 . in reduction coefficient axial elongation of member. in p: (unfactored) axial force in member. kips P. the width of a hole is taken as *a in greater than its specified dimension. in2 An : rret crosssectional area of member. ksi 4 : specified minimum yield stress. greater than the diameter of the bolt. or two or more holes running perpendicular to the axis of the member. Tensile forces not acting through the centroid cause bending in addition to tension.e..
: For welded members UAn (Bs1) A": Design values for U and UA. and ST Shapes U Criteria (a) Flange width > ] x depth. minimum of three fasteners per line in the direction of stress (b) Minimum of three fasteners per line in the direction of (c) Two fasteners per line in the direction of stress stress otherwise not meeting criteria (a) 0.. 3l TENSION MEMBERS 15 quantity szl4g f. If the force is transmitted by bolts.) It may be necessary to examine several chains to determine which chain has the least net width. the longitudinal centertocenter spacing of any two consecutive holes). lYT.85 0. A. in (See Fig. or S shapes and structural tees cut from these shapes: If the tensile force is transmitted by transverse welds. a reduced effective net area is used instead..e.. where s:pitch (i. P+ +P Fig. (832) A" are given in Sec. For bolted and riveted members A.e. A. M. When the member end connection transmits tension directly to all crosssectional elements of the member.CHAP.75 . IWT. the transverse centertocenter spacing between fastener gage lines). but not all. the value of U depends on the criteria listed in Table Table 3l Values of U for Bolted W.90 0. But if the end connection transmits tension through some. equals the area of the directly 31. connected elements. For W. connection is to the flanges. M. in g:gage (i. 31. S. equals A. 83 of the AISC LRFD Specification.or each gage space in the chain. 31 Definitions of s and g The concept of effectiue net area accounts for shear lag in the vicinity of connections. of the crosssectional elements.
: 4. 3 DESIGN TENSILE STRENGTH Two criteria limit the design tensile strength @. DISPLACEMENT The increase in the lensth of a member due to axial tension under service loads is PI L: EA" 13'11 where A: axial elongation of the member. Since the fraction of the total member length occupied by fastener holes is usually small. kips length of the member. a.) Gross area l2inx 2in with a lindiameter  gross width x thickness A:l2inx2in:24inz Net area = net width x thickness Net width: gross width . : {.94 in A^ = 10.L.88 in'? . :0'90 Pn: FrAr @11) b.06 in Net width = 12in ..1.hole diameter For design. in : /: E: p (unfactored) axial tensile force in the member. Determine the gross and net crosssectional areas of a plate hole.16 TENSION MEMBERS lcHAP. Limit state b deals with fracture at the cross section with the minimum . ksi specified minimum tensile strength.P". kips specified minimum yield stress. For fracture in the net cross section Q':0'75 P^: FuA" where @12) : P. resistance factor for tension nominal axial strength. 32. : @. hole diameter = 1 in + ft in = 1.000 ksi Solved Problems 3.4. in modulus of elasticity of steel:29. the effect of early yielding of the reduced cross sections on the total elongation of the member is negligible. (See Fig.94 in x 2 in : 21. For yielding of the gross cross section @.06 in = 10. Hence the gross section is used. ksi Limitation a is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the member.
54 in l.94  gross width X hole diameters + > 4g * =t2in2x : 10. except with two 1indiameter holes positioned as shown in Fig.54 in Because 10. 3l TENSION MEMBERS I7 p+ +P I.: : net width x thickness 10.1. 33 3.3. one space): Net width  1. Use the same information as in Prob.2. ehain ACDF is critical in this case. 3. A':24 in' .J' ti 2in s:4in J Fig. except with three lindiameter holes positioned as shown in Fig. A. 3.32 3. Use the same information as in Prob. Gross width of plate Chain ACE or BDF (one hole): : !2 in : 12in : : 24 in' in as above Net width Chain ACDF (two holes.08 in'z +p t.94 in.1. 34.06 (4in)' n* 4x6in < 10. 33.06 in 10.54 in x 2 in :21.E 2in F+t A* Fig. CHAP.
13 in x 0. ln t wl0 I0.18 TENSION MEMBERS lcHAP. by inspection. determine the desisn tensile strensth of a W10x49 in .88 in' is critical.) For the other chains Chain Net Width (in) : 6. (The reader can verify this by calculation. ACDG (two holes.: : A.)ou ^ ^.4'36 steel. Determine the net area. A. For design. one space) are not critical. 35 In Probs. 3.2in. and BDEF (two holes. Fig.0 in t Fig.06 3123x1. : 9.. 34 Regarding net width. Width  E Hole Diameters + f t' 49 ACEF ACDEF 122x1.560 in 11.13 in. one space). with the .06+2r4XJ : 9.4in2.4. A. 35 for four lindiameter bolts. 3 N P+ P rl r1 F 1' A\ l r1 .8.88 in Chain ACEF with the minimum net width.560 I * in r 10.88 in'z r u.o. chains BDG (one hole).75 in' 3. 9.88in x 2 in : 19.4in2  4 x 1. hole diameter = I in +  in : 1. .5 to 3. Holes have been punched in the flanges of the W10x49 in Fig. As:14. conditions stated. The holes lie in the same crosssectional plane.: A"  4 x hole diameter x flange thickness 14.
3.88 in'z : 8. based on fracture of the net section.88 in'z: 517 kips 3. 3. 11.2in2:487 kips 0.75F"A":0.91 in'z. No holes.:0.90 x 0. Here.9. 35. The design strength Q.4 :467 kips. . 3l TENSION MEMBERS 19 3. two bolts per line along the member length direction (i.75n. as in Prob.75nA.88 in2.75F"A":0.75nA.6. 3. Design strength @.4in2:467 kips x 17.75 x 1L. For /436 steel. but not at the end support.20 in2. the governing load combination in Chap.4D. The connection of the W10x49 to its support is by bolting as in Fig.4. based on yielding of the gross section.75 x 58 ksi x 14.20 in'z: 487 kips 58 ksi 36 ksi Again Q.4D < Q. the flanges of the W10x49 are welded to the support. 0. 3.P. a total of eight holes). 3.6.CHAP. A": A. A. the two flanges and the web are all welded to the supporting member. : minimum of A": IlA": 0. How much service dead load can be carried by the W10x49 in Probs.75 x 58 ksi x It.7.4:388 kips. based on yielding of the gross section.0 in x 0.: A": flange area :11..90FyAs:0.91 in': kips 0.P": the minimum of x I4. Reduction coefficient U :0.90FyAs : 0.5 to 3.75 x x 14. as in Prob.75 x 58 ksi 388 kips Q.8? Assuming that dead load is the only load. .75.90 x 36 ksi x L4.4in2:626 kips 0. effective net area A": area of directly connected elements : area of the two flanges : 2(10.4 in2 : 467 kips 0. x 14.90FyAs:0.P":467 kips.:0.90FyAs: 0. 58 ksi x 11.e. 3.75 x The design strength for tension is 467 kips.8. only the flanges of the W10x49 are welded to the support. The hole pattern of Fig.4.4inz. Ar:14'4in' At the support. No holes.A": 0.29 tnz Design strength @'P" : minimum of 0. A':r4'4in' For welded connections.5. 35. Design strength 4. : 36 ksi and [ : 53 1t1..P" Maximum service dead load D:0.560 in) : 11.P" : minimum of {. 2 is the first: 1. 1. For bolted connections.90 x 36 ksi 0.4in':467 kips 0.90 x 36 ksi Q. At the holes (away from the member end).P"1t.A": 14.4inz:467 x 8.
= 388 kips. 3. A W10x49 tension hanger. Q.P": 467 kips. critical chain is ABCD. 3.0in'z. 3. P+ . Q. A 10 in x 1.37 = .5 to 3. carries a service load of elongation.4 :277 kips.*+ 1.11. A":12. Maximum service dead load = 467 kipsll4: 333 kips.11 to 3. 37.5 in plate with four lfiin holes.3'6 3. Elongation kips PI L: EA*: 250 29.13. A 10 in x 1.0 12 250 kips.20 TENSION MEMBERS lcHAP. 3.}irf. In Prob. determine the net crosssectional area and critical chain of holes.10. Ans. critical chain is ACEG. 36. Calculate its axial in x x il/ft):0.000 ksi xft14. A^:I2. 3.8. P+ +p  E H 1.P.4 in2 (5.5 in plate with two lfin holes.5 in Fig.036 Supplementary Problems In Probs.t2.7. 3 In Probs. Maximum service dead load = 388 kips/1. 5 ft long.5 in J Ftg. as in Fig. as in Fig. Ans.
5 Fig. as in Fig.P. 3l TENSION MEMBERS 2l 3.16.15. Ans. determine the design tensile strength of the doublechannel configuration (2 C6x10. 38. critical chain is ACEFH. as in Fig. 0.5 in plate with five {fin holes. At certain sections away from the end connection. 3. Steel is . 310 3. Ans. 2C6 x Fig. :200 kips.50 in2. to fbrm a builtup section. d. A.09in'z. A 10in x L.L:i.CHAP. The crosssectional area of each channel is 3.14. . 0. Only the webs of the channels are welded to the support.:IL.10. 39.4. Ans.14 to 3. 3E In Probs. 3. some sections have a iindiameter bolt. to form a builtup section.314 in ll* x 10.5 in Fig. Away from the support. as in Fig.36. a single lindiameter bolt joins the channels. 39.39 3. f= +P _LH lro in tJ 1. All elements of the channels are welded to the support.5) in Fig.P" : 164 kips.
Calculate the increase in length of the 3ftlong tension hanger in Fig. 3.020 in.L6. Ans. 3 3. Ans. A = 0.17.5) under an axial service load of 100 kips.22 TENSION MEMBERS lcHAP. @.P" :200 kips. . 310 with three jindiameter bolts in the direction of stress. The connection of the channels to their support is as shown in Fig. 39 (2 C6x10.
: P.: limiting widththickness ratio for column design Q. kips radius of gyration of the cross section. in (unfactored) axial force in member.h.Chapter 4 Columns and Other Compression Members NOTATION .: r: t: /. 41 in moment of inertia. in 1.q. in thickness. [4.: 1: K: KL: K/: L: /: p: P. in2 b: br: d: E: 4. kips required axial strength. in axial shortening of member.: column slenderness parameter limiting widththickness ratio for compact section zt. ft length of member. Bending combined with compression is discussed in Chap. ksi alignment chart parameter defined inF. in depth. kips @.000 ksi critical comprehensive stress. ft effective length. .: G: G': h.: d: 4. in length of member.4": gross crosssectional area of member. ksi compressive residual stress in flange.: A: io : width. kips nominal axial strength of member. ksi specified minimum yield stress.Pn: design strength of compression member.2] alignment chart parameter defined in Eq. in modulus of elasticity of steel : 29.. Bending is caused by compressive forces not acting through the centroidor by lateral forces.: resistance factor for compression :0. When a compressive force is applied through the centroidal axis of a member. a uniform compression stress develops at each cross section. [a.85 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers members subjected to pure compression such as columns and truss members. ina effective length factor effective length. in thickness of web. 8. in width of flange.1] web dimensions defined in Fig.
are equal increasing thicknesses. If the widththickness ratio of a compression element Steel members with compact sections can develop their full compressive strength without local instability. Because of the penalties imposed by App. provided the widththickness ratios of all compression elements are equal to or less than 1. supported along one edge) Stems of tees blt 761\/1 r2. The widththickness ratios for columns and the corresponding values of . A section is noncompact if the widththickness ratio of at least one element is greater than tro.3 of the LRFD Specification must be used.4. 85 of the AISC LRFD Specification.. In members with slender elements..1.lt* 127 l\/F. Columns with compact and noncompact sections are designed by the method described herein (and in Chap. B5. B5.3 of the AISC LRFD Specification are required.2 : compressive residual stress in flange: 10 ksi for rolled shapes. A section is compact if the flanges are continuously connected to the web.2 2$t!F. the method given in App. Nearly all building columns are in this category.ft*) (blt.. To summarize: if. which are based on Sec. the widththickness ratios to or Table 41 Limiting WidthThickness Ratios for Columns widthThickness Limiting WidthThickness Ratio. flange cover plates blt 2391\/Fy  F. The instability can be either local buckling or overall (column) buckling. elastic local buckling is the limitation on strength. for all elements of the cross section. or less than . ksi for welded sections . depending on the widththickness ratios of their elements. and the widththickness ratios of all its compression elements are equal to or less than lo. outstanding legs of pairs of angles in continuous contact Flanges of square and rectangular box sections..e. it is generally more economical to avoid slender elements by h.. that element is a slender compression element. . column design should be by the method of this chapter. 41. or slenderelement sections.5 42.. 4 The strength of compression members is limited by instability. 21. supported along two edges) *4 dlt blt h. B5.3. are defined in Table 41 and Fig.24 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS lcHAP.7 (rolled) 53. is greater than i. 46. Otherwise. Noncompact shapes can be stressed to initial yielding before local buckling occurs.e.. the cross section is called a slenderelement section.. df t*. the special design procedures listed in App.1.8 and channels. For the occasional case of a slenderelement column. iGeneral . E of the AISC LRFD Specification). LOCAL BUCKLING The cross sections of structural steel members are classified as either compact.9 (welded) and diaphragm plates between lines of fasteners or welds Legs of single angle struts and double angle struts with separators. unstiffened elements (i. to account for local buckling. noncompact.7 All other stiffened elements (i.36 Steel Column Element Flanges of W and other Ratio I shapes blt esl\/1 15.
A discussion of the two methods follows. bt. in. and r is the radius of gyration of the column cross section. AISC recommends that K for compression members in braced frames "shall be taken as unity.T itl tL_ : brl2 'ol . both theoretical and recommended. To make the strength equations applicable to all columns. K = 1.0) as well as cases a and b represent columns in braced frames.l r) for ll 41 Definitions of widths (b.0.'t.0 for columns in braced frames." It is common practice to assume K : 1. In Table 42.CHAP. K/ is the effective length of the column. where I is the actual unbraced length of the column. The more conservative recommendations (from the Structural Stability Research Council) reflect the fact that perfect fixity cannot be achieved in real structures.rl . use in Table 41 COLUMN BUCKLING The most significant parameter affecting column stability is the slenderness ratio Kllr. unless structural analysis shows that a smaller value may be used.l . effectiue length factor an K is used to account for the influence of end conditions on column stability. in. d. C2 of the Commentary on the AISC LRFD Specification: a judgmenral method and an approximate analytical method.o.l F Fig.'1. EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR: JUDGMENTAL METHOD Six cases are shown in Table 42 for individual columns. Column strength equations are normally written for ideal "pinended" columns.) and thickness (flange or leg thickness / and web thickness =ur'. Two methods for determining K for a column are presented in Sec. The LRFD Specification distinguishes between columns in braced and unbraced frames. case d (the classical pinended column. T . and h. In braced frames.l I Ttl totrl lrj !i+ il U il ilf It r F_f tl . 4l COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS 25 b : btl2 b = brl2 b:br . K : 1. in. with their corresponding K values.l b . sidesway is inhibited by diagonal bracing or shear walls. .
0 lt lt lt r IJ It ++ ?'i'' ll lt tl t.0 2.> A 0.11 . Table 43 is a corrected version of Table A in the AISC LRFD Manual.e.O 0.0).Tul\. Again.0.e. 4 Table 42 Efiective Length Factors K for Columns \a) (b) (c. Two such "alignment charts" have been developed: one for "sidesway inhibited" (i. for "sidesway uninhibited" (i. ll It lt 6 ll t.0 X . K>1. 2. that braced frames. K<1. t. At each end of the column. in) of each column ci and each beam gi rigidly connected to that joint and lying in the plane in which buckling of the column is being each of the two joints considered. determine 1(the moment of inertia.5 t 1. unbraced frames.+ I 1. I L t I L I t Theoretical K value Recommended design values when ideal conditions are approximated 0. EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR: ANALYTICAL METHOD beams are rigidly connected to a column.0 End condition code <4 v T ? Rotation fixed and translation fixed Rotation free and translation fixed Rotation fixed and translation free Rotation free and translation free 4 Reproduced with permission from the AISC LRFD Manual. 42 may be used to determine K..2 1.65 0.1J21 X Tr il tl T'i \l \ li t.0 t 2. L.t0 2. K > The K values recommended therein may be used in column design. Cases c. A and B : u lll.) The procedure for obtaining K from F\g. the other. for columns in braced frames. e.26 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS lcHAP.0). 42 is as follows. At (A and B) at the ends of the column. the alignment chart in Fig. Because the alignment charts were developed with the assumption of purely elastic action. and/in Table 42 cover columns in unbraced frames (sidesway uninhibited). If 1.t t\ tr' ..7 2. ina) and / (the unbraced length. [4. (d) (e) Buckled Shape of Column Shown by Dashed Line ? tl \l \l I i il t 4t r il t .t + (l ll)"2 " urD.80 t.. (Figure 42 has been reproduced with permission from the Commentary on the AISC LRFD Specification.. it is customary to conservatively let K : 1. the stiffness reduction factors (SRF) in Table 43 are available to account for inelastic column behavior.0' For columns in unbraced frames. Part 2. nomographs are available for approximating K for column.
70 P"lA*. ksi 20 19 18 17 16 15 1i t+ 13 12 2I * P.0 t0.0 .92 0.0 80 7t) 150 4.65 0. 5.89 0.0 50.38 0.10. G:10fora "pin" supportand G: l forarigid support are recommended.22 0.30 0.76 0.00 Use with Fig.65 0.95 0.O t.iJ .0  1.05 0.97 0. 42 P"* 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 ZJ 22 lAp ksi SRF 0.58 0.81 u. Adjust for inelastic column action Ge: Ge x SRF Gn: Gbx SRF 14'21 where SRF is the stiffness reduction factor for the column obtained from Table 43. is the required strength and A* is the gross crosssectional area of the subject column. 4.14 0. 3.4a Alignment chart for effective length of columns in unbraced frames having rigid joints Table 43 Stiffness Reduction Factors for A36 Steel for SRF 0. . 42.0 10 0 GB  100.99 1. 4l COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS 27 G/ r00.0 50.t0.0 2. Foracolumn endattached to a foundation.0 0 Sidesway uninhibited Fig.0 10.CHAP.45 0. Determine K by drawing a straight line from GA to GB on the alignment chart in Fig.52 0.
:0 (i.419L2)lFy (c821) *. < 1.: resistance factor for compression P."rriui strengths Q.q. F.7 of the AISC LRFD Specification. B.{36 steel )r. of W and other rolled shapes are tabulated in For builtup AISC LRFD Manual.85 Pn: ArFu (E21) If l. reference (E21) ro (E24)l' tables replaces the need to solve the column strength equations [Eqs' .lF" For columns with crosssectional elements having widththickness ratios equal to or less than design compressive strength is Q. for compression members K//r "preferably should not exceed 200'" ' In design. where @. or in the alternate form given in the Commentary on the AISC LRFD Specification @22) p.: where exP(t) : g'. Equation (822) and (its equivalent) E.5. : 1. (E23)l for elastic buckling at ]u.:lYl.o*p. If h. boundary between elastic and inelastic column buckling.000 ksi @. for other grades sections and rolled shapes not tabulated. (E24) l'.: critical compressive stress. Column shapes can be selected directly from those tables.] 1.Kl l. column buckling is inelastic. : slenderness parameter 4: specified minimum yield stress.5 is taken as the " L:. I33 '7 ' COLUMN DESIGN According to Sec.658^l)4. Xlir=0) tothe modified Euler equation [Eq. In both cases.> 1. column buckling is elastic' [exp(0.{36 steel (and similar tables to of steel in the AISC lipo Specification) can be used in iterative design. in2 /r: 4. The terms in these equations include (823) i. providing a transition from d.P.5. ksi E: modulus of elasticity of steel : 29. 4 DESIGN COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH Column buckling can be either elastic or inelastic.5 corresponds to a slenderness ratio Kl I r of. For . ksi Equation (823) is the Euler equation for column instability multiplied by 0.:1. L.5. at 1. Part2. (C821) are : empirical equatiois for inelastic column buckling. F.28 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS lcHAP. ihe design . For design purposes.e'. Table 44 for .: nominal compressive strength' kips gross crosssectional area.: (0.Pn.877 to account for the iniiial outofstraightness of actual columns. selection of an appropriate column can be facilitated by referral to tables in one of the two ways. the :0.
56 30.t6 23.44 6.37 27.37 6.46 18.97 5.37 16.42 r43 r44 145 146 147 148 r49 150 151 r52 153 154 155 156 t57 159 160 l)6 r4.47 7.54 26.67 24.1.02 29. 1.76 29.69 28.8 24.82 23.27 13.44 15.90 28.61 25 26 27 28 29 JU 29.12 22.\7 6.92 20.65 t7 18 T9 r2I 122 123 724 125 126 127 128 t29 130 131.4.08 r37 rr. ksi 30.34 6.36 29.91 5.89 30.22 19. LRFD Specificatron.t6 13.73 20.10 25.5r 27.54 20.CHAP.62 13.68 26.36 30.00 15..37 30.57 t2.81 6.84 7.58 22.s5 s.88 8.47 30.73 s.69 29.09 12.1.83 24.39 r40 I4l 1.90 29.54 30.30 7.97 26.11 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 2I.76 22.57 30.30 6.41 26.98 13.21 7..TL 20.36 28.53 29.74 7.63 25.29 10.44 5.99 24.29 23.99 23. to 27. @.33 * when element widththickness ratio exceeds .64 23.43 10. ksi 8.01 11.48 2I. .50 24..1  18.77 8.66 KI a.64 27.3 r 41.79 28.22 22.3.83 26.59 30.04 10.54 20 2l 22 z) ')A 25.98 19..)) 8.58 10. ksi 28.74 12.56 7.29 30.07 14.5r 17.10 6.33 30.44 30.96 29.23 9.00 8.60 30.11 9.48 9. 4] COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS 29 Table 44 Design Compressive Stresses for A36 Steel Design Stress for compression Members of 36 ksi Specified yieldStress Steel.44 8.1.52 Zt.89 17.84 18.28 29.66 16.04 5.03 18.33 r97 5.24 27.24 30.48 25.93 7.94 22.13 8.6r 9.94 25.15 10.51 6.23 8.70 14. l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 t4 15 16 Q.40 22..25 36 JI 38 39 40 28.73 10.05 6.79 25.32 r7.03 7.89 10.89 6. ksi 21.4. see App.97 6.67 s.08 30.65 7.85 31 32 33 3+ 35 29.06 11.92 12.79 5.75 9. 85.37 138 rt.39 26.20 11. 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 6s 66 67 68 69 70 7t 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 +J 27.58 28.2s 26.52 14.32 133 134 135 136 1. Reproduced with permission from the AISC LRFD Manual.1.36 9.45 29.73 6.23 12.61 t4.70 17.03 21.41 t9.s9 6.59 Kt r Q.23 6.88 tt.60 30.B 16.t6 24.19 9.47 23.56 t6.32 20.74 30.63 75.33 29.r3 101 r02 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 ltO 111 tl2 113 rr4 115 116 1t7 li8 119 720 17.4'.50 5.40 1.39 5.09 28.r7 19. ksi KI r Q.2.80 t3. :0.89 161 162 163 164 165 t66 767 168 169 r70 171 t72 173 I74 175 176 t77 178 179 180 181 182 183 i84 185 186 787 188 189 190 191 192 193 r94 195 196 198 799 200 7.85 5.27 18.94 16.79 19.7 4 16.29 2I.N.38 7.01 Kt r 81 Q.66 6.g5* Kt .99 28.50 30.87 9.26 15.19 30.83 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 t9.47 28.81 15.44 13.
=15. in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual (Compact Section Criteria).36 steel (.fi: I 33: . 14.. in (unfactored) axial compressive force in the member.=42.lto 4. W14x34 is a slenderelement section if { 4.1).{. web h.2..8) and web (h.5)<(r. (SeeProb. Because they are rolled only with relatively small cross sections. .:15. determine whether the given column shape is a slenderelement section: 36 ksi) (a) (b) 4. kips length of the member.:42.3.30 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS lcHAP.2). DISPLACEMENT The decrease in the length of a member due to axial compression under service loads is L: where Pl EA. web h. which are often used in lightly loaded singlestory applications.31 A: p: /: axial shortening of the member. If the widththickness ratio of an element is greater than 1.4. 4 Building columns are most commonly W shapes. lt=37. a W14x43 column is not a slenderelement section in 436 steel.lt:37. In 4.flange blt:4lZtf =7.)Sinceflange(blt:7. = 36 ksi 13. it is a slender element.4)<(I. 4' = 35 ksi 4=50ksi From the Properties Tables for W Shapes.e. (') In436sieel. The W16 to W40 series are seldom used for columns because of their inefficiency due to their relatively low values of r" (the radius of gyration about the weak y axis).forawl4x43. the web of a W14x34 is a slender element in A36 steel. 4. Included in this category are pipe and tube shapes.4.1.:42'. in Solved Problems In Probs. (h. flange blt:btlltt:7.lt*=43'1' A Since web (h..web1. (i.lt*:43. in the W14W4 series.2. for the flanges of a W shape 15. structural pipes and tubes are not available for carrying heavy column loads. :36 or 50 ksi. The most etfrcient column sections are structural shapes with r. : If {:59Lt1 W14x34.8 ) if 4.: r.2).1.8. Referring to Table 41 and Fig.flangel.r * LV5O I V36 2=0r. The W14 and W12 series are well suited to carrying heavy loads in multistory buildings. FromthePropertiesTablesforwshapes. 41. W14x43..4 {. equal radii of gyration about both principal axes). : 50 ksi for the web of a W shaPe ^ n': 2s3 ( .4.5. for a W14x34.
lt* < /. in all cases. Referring to Table 41 and Fig. "rotation fixed and translation fixed" at each end. Although K:0.\/F. 43. b If 4 : 50 ksi.4. 4. 4. 4l COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS 31.. determine the effective length factor K.:35. for the flanges of a welded box section . web. CHAP. there are no slender elements. .s l\6663 \/4=7. : (h.1. b: h. in a braced frame. it is customary to let K: 1.2x )in: lr:l:1:jin L7 in 2:L: 17 in : . (b) 37. there are also no slender elements. 43.0 as a conservative minimum. for the web 238 (3:st. However.o c t. A building column in a braced frame.4. from fable 42. l8in r=+in(typical) { In Probs.8. LV5O :50 ksi in x 18 in box section in Fig.5. because lt and h.l6. 4. in all cases.) Because web 35. for the given columns.0. (See Prob.4)> (1. connected to the column restrict This corresponds to case a. "Rotation free and translation fixed" at both ends is case d in Table 42: K:1.8). is . 4.lt*: 4.r tv50 . a W14x43 column is a slenderelement section if 4 = 59 1ti.3. if d:59ksi. b lt and h.s if ir if if 4:36ksi 4:5oksi ksi ^ .:1'3. deep beams rigidly rotation of its ends. l$:+r.65 indicated for this case in Table 42.. lateral translation of the ends of the column is inhibited.1. jin(a) (b) In .4 to 4.7 . A building column free to rotate at each end.:18 in .=.436 steel.lt* <.1. The welded section in Fig. As a result of the bracing. flange A. l4=rr.  v36 4 :36 4.. 41. For the 18 2s3 (2=0.
W21 x50: 1.39. In Probs.llloina:6.t+(tll\. [4.6. x'= x8 _.1 in' 25. For the typical column.2].2 is recommended.17inj /. .10. case "Rotation fixed and translation free" is c. All steel is A36. 4. end rotation is inhibited by deep beams.26 x 0.0. The webs of all members are in the same plane.30ft 0in long. 42. 180 in For the typical beam. G: G' x SRF.: F.6. 4. the alignment chart parameter " At both the upper (A) and lower (B) joints Gu= : (rlt). At joints A and B.Rotation fixed and translation free" at the top and "rotation free and translation fixed" at the bottom is case /. 15ft 0in long.. : 948 ino / 180 in : 30. The column shown in Fie.7 A building column in a rigid frame (not braced). Determining SRF (the stiffness reduction factor): AE fl.8 ksi Interpolating in Table 43. 4. [4. Wl4x99: 1. except that the base of the column is "pinconnected" to a footing. sRF:0.32 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS [CHAP. K:1.0 ft x 12 in/ft: !.1**!:z.' Ga=2.1]. x SRF:2. a siraight line drawn from G. :0'88 to Ga :0'88 intersects with K: 1'3' .8 to 4. all beams are W21x50. use the alignment chart to determine K.0 ft 360 in x 12 inlft: 360 in !984ina..ze 2 x 2. as shown.73in' ls According to Eq. 44. K : 2.8.. Go: Gu: G'. 44 All columns are W14x99.2. .73 in' From Eq. The same as in Prob. 4 4. ull)*'+ul\.88. 4.39:0. In Fig. Fig. _ 750 kip_s: 29.. : II l0 ino /: 15.
(b) pinned. G":Ga: G'xSRF= In Fig.=ir":2. 44) turned 90".23in3 ' " 4o2ina " ' Irllr:2.73. by interpolation. K: 1.23in=:o.7l it* From Table 43. The webs of the column and the beam are in the plane of the frame.02.1. 42 from For pin connection to the foundation. 42. 4.0.3 in Fig.72:1.72.4t x0.8. Drawing a line in Fig.^. with the W14x99 columns (in Fig. A.10. 4. 4l COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS 33 4. 45 For the W10x33 column: I.32 to Gn:0.9. :2r2. a straight line extended from G. At joints A and B. Column required strenglh: P" = 200 kips Fig.32. A and B as in Prob. Ge: Gri x SRF :1.CHAP. At joint For rigid attachment to the foundation. Column connection to the footing is (a) rigid. The W10x33 column is 12ft 0in high. :0.39. Ga:I. Gr:10.39 :0.ll.84:1.02 1.18/0. c. SRF:0.gz 2x233in3 The stiffness reduction factor. Gr = 10 indicates that K: Ga: 1. as above. : 30L ino /:30.9. SRF:0. . 14. For the typical column.82 x 0. The column shown in Fig. W14x99: Iy: 402ina n /: l3oiTypical beam At joints I. the W16x26 beam is 30ft 0in long. 4. Repeat Prob.11. 42.8.41 P" As (a) (b) _ 2fi) kins : 2o'6 ksi g.32 indicates that K : 1.0 ft x 12 in/ft : I44in I.0 ftx 12inlft:360 in I^ /": From Eq. l7}ino . l'16lnI"= rM^: 7 For the Wl6x26 beam: 1. 45. 301 ina 360 in : o'84 in' Gi:1.: t70ina l:12. 0.
t Interpolating in Table 44. O.25 Extrastrong Double extrastrong 5.:3.Ar=26. select a W10 column (A36 steel) for required strength of 360 kips. 0. select a W10x49 (Q.0.P":372kips>360kips required).0ft.fl. Determine the design strength of a W8x40 column (4'36 steel).34 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS ICHAP.4. . : KrLr: 72.53in.0ft.=26. Select the most economical W10 column for the case shown in Fig. rv From Table 44. The design strength for this pipe. required. @.13 ksi. K"L.L1.7inz.P^: Q.40 in'z I #'r'""': ro.60 2. 2.0 ft.32 kips/in'z x 11. use a W10x49 column. required strength:360 kips. K. select a 6in pipe (see Table 45) 200 kips. 46. = 20. 46: K'L' = 1.0ft.32 ksi.n.06 Try a 6in standard weight pipe: ry=tooli12'i"/r'=s:': From Table 44 by interpolation. From Table 46.58 in': : 147 kips < 200 kips Try a 6in extrastrong pipe: to o ": 8.34ksi. for KrLr:12.04in.{36 steel. This is okay.1 = 372kips.0 ft Table 45 6in Pipe Sections A.36 steel. Q. 4. governs. Given: .4.7 in'z : 238 kips 4. Q. ln 2. From the Column Tables in the AISC LRFD Manual.0ft:24.: KrLr:15. The design strength of the column Q. The design strength. 4. the design axial strength of a W10x49 column. In .:26.13 kips/in'zx : 219 kips > 200 kips required. A:l7.r.L..n.04in 6. Q.58 8.12. 4 4. Since the 372 kips > 360 kips required strength. Standard weight in2 r.0x 24.34 kips x 5. for KrLr=12. rr:2. From Fig. Krl.4'36 steel.14. Check xaxis buckling.13.P": Q.= 1'0x 12'0ft= l2'0ft' Assume yaxis buckling governs.40 15.. KrL.Ar:26.r9 2.P" = _15.0tt:72tnlft _ rr. Sincer" <r.4*:20. . Krlrlr. a From Table 46 (reproduced with permission from the AISC LRFD Manual). K: 1.d. KL : for a required axial compressive strength of 10. it can be seen that in '4.0 ft ForaW8x40section.
64 162 >e .r5 2. 49 36 447 422 50 612 577 565 551 A< 39 50 36 352 50 489 36 .56 93.s3 6.6 10.2 9. P".38 99 15 1.1 209 94 10. 48.7 t3 t43 77 t2 111 131 l2r 78 t42 108 64 88 88 57 79 L" (ft) L.ffiJ'*' Table 46 : F.6 32.6 1.9 l3 I4 15 T6 444 430 57].4 r). 547 v.39 IJ 1.7 15. (kips) 2l 246 130 9.5'7 1al L.1 I ).3 3t.16 Note: Heavy line indicates KIr of 2U). (ft) A (in'z) .98 t70 36.64 1q9 1. (kips) 1.8 69 38 8.66 202 184 167 150 135 20r 188 .1 81 .4 2. ') 7.77 64 11 1.1 10.94 2.81 55 10 2.38 83 1.'' L 26r 252 z+3 J4f 329 491 480 469 457 638 617 440 431 420 409 398 385 JIJ 536 392 382 520 502 484 465 350 337 324 311 436 412 388 290 278 266 254 3t2 294 276 257 11 zJ5 222 12 595 3tz 361 350 338 JZO c* >. (in") r.1 17. 36 ksi = 50 ksi COLUMNS W Designation shapes (@ Design axial strength in kips = 0...0r 2.5 7.7 30. Reproduced with permission from the AISC LRFD Manual.8 303 103 L4.../ft D 1. 2.0 28.41 )J 74 65 61 33 J+ 36 14r IJJ 118 134 126 119 106 134 t26 119 106 '73 r49 IJJ 149 133 133 118 Properties U P".4 209 45 1.t ) 36 407 50 0 o 7 8 o 10 6) 539 517 748 706 692 675 657 672 s65 515 497 297 276 4t3 J/J 509 500 634 621 606 590 572 553 533 380 416 409 401 377 to I 328 320 311 301 444 428 269 360 478 458 4t2 393 374 353 J..1 24.7 43.16 /. i91 168 158 170 150 1.4 272  J+l 116 248 53.0 21. bo 512 490 468 296 444 +L+ 403 282 267 252 :) I 364 339 315 310 2tl 200 189 476 401 387 523 497 247 228 215 289 267 239 220 II 18 19 472 360 346 JJZ M5 A)) 399 376 353 309 314 301 382 361 340 319 290 266 243 221 246 225 \77 1.7r r.96 89 16 104 1.2 t1.9 27.8s) w10 60 36 50 36 483 +o+ 457 449 54 \tl wr.75 79 IJ 1.6 40. t 1 2.52 138 1.71 2.54 7..4 9.93 109 18 7.9 Irl I )4 26 28 30 )L 27t 248 219 191 168 158 299 255 220 248 221 195 266 227 ))A r99 175 I 278 239 204 176 153 i38 116 t12 94 80 69 60 53 lt2 94 80 69 60 53 138 118 138 118 1:6 99 85 99 85 74 65 61 i96 170 150 !02 J8 78 73 r02 88 7?.3 8.53 116 19 168 106 t.1 8.r (ln .00 15 (ksi) ft" (kips) P. (in) Ratio r"/r. 35 .7 t9.9 9.54 101 1a LI r.. 371 356 340 309 446 A1l 318 20 22 395 'J16 304 276 288 275 250 222 207 205 185 167 138 155 175 744 IJJ r92 1.
Since r. as originally assumed. Framing plans Elevation Fig.4in2 = 0. recomputation of 4. 4 FI{ upper Upper level level J FI{ Intermediate level lntermediate level FI{ Lower Lower level level I .46 For a W10x49.072 in ." is not necessary.000 kiPs/in2 x 1. Pl 250 kiPs x (10. In Table 46. (See bottom line in Table 46.: I. Use a W10x54 column with a design strength Q. 29. the W10x49 with a design strength Q.:385kips (KL:14'}ft)>360kips required' (K"Lr)"u'. Shortening.O t (KrL")"o"*:Ztr" l.O. 10 ft long.0 ft x 12inltt) L: DA.4.) The equivalent KrL" for use tn K.7I : . Calculate its axial shortening.7tfor the W10x54.15.O .36 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS lcHAP. for KL:14.71. the ratio the Column Tables: r.P":350kips is not adequate./r" :l.P.lr. :rO.L.0ft. A W10x49 column. carries a service load of 250 kips..
Ans. From Table 42.3. buckling 4.0 in2 Q.I) rn Kllr:67. All columns are W12x45. compressive strength if the steel is .4.13 kips/in'z x : 845 kips Supplementary Problems Are the following columns slenderelement sections if @) r':36 (b) 4:50 ksi? ksi? 4.13 ksi. (E21) lr is known. 43 is used for a 40ft column.9 ( inz I.1E. 4. Determine the design 0.4.2 r /.4.0 ft x l2inlft:480 in Kl it A : (18 in)'?.0. W10x45. K:1. all beams are W16x31.0.36.16.P".14 for a required strength of 300 kips.: I":  t8 in)o  ( 17 in)a t: By interpolation in Table 44. 1y':15. Assume Ky:1.:t. 4.21.1: case e. K :2. (a) No.17. Q.0 x 40.r in Kt:ry+:67. Select the most Repeat Prob.7. Ans. W12x35. 47 (.36 steel). 4. Ans. Use the alignment chart to calculate K for the column in Fig. Assume K. Ans.t2. .4. can be obtained from Table 44. Select the most economical W14.CHAP.?3.4. The design compressive strength K. W14x109. (a) Yes.0ft. W14x99. 44.4.(tZ in)'?:35.9. 20ft }in long.:24. determine the effective length factor K for a column totally fixed at the bottom and totally free at the top. The webs of all members are in the same plane.4:24. Ans. Ans.2. Complete thd design of the column in Prob. 4. (b) Yes. In this problem K/ : 1.19. 4.0ft.8.4.: Kr:1. Wr2x26. for n?s&'f :7'15 V:sn i. The value of Q. for perpendicular to the frame in Fig. 4l COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS 4. 4. the design compressive strength 35.4. Ans.4. of the column in Prob. The section shown in Fig.Q. 4. Complete the design economical W14.:15. t. 15ft Oin long. (b) Yes.
4. 150 kips : : tB. Ans. A:0. =i I Fig. 4 wt6 x 3l (typical beam) T ntr s5 N= x! =l :l El Column required strength P.15 in.22 under an axial load of 200 kips. 47 Calculate the decrease in length of the 24ft column in Prob.38 COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS [CHAP. .
: unbraced length which is the boundary between elastic and inelastic lateraltorsional /: M: buckling. 57.. kips r : radius of gyration. in shear force. kips 39 . ft Lp : limiting unbraced length for full plastic bending capacity (C6 : 1.000 ksi compressive residual stress in flange. in 1: moment of inertia. in2 A* : area of the web. in bending coefficient. in overall depth.0). h. in thickness of web. ksi G : shear modulus of elasticity of steel : 11. ft length of member. ina "/ : torsional constant. ft L. kipin Mz:larger end moment in an unbraced length of beam.: limiting unbraced length for full plastic bending capacity (Cb > 1. : Y: S elastic section modulus. ft L. ksi "fa: maximum normal stress due to bending. kipin M.Chapter 5 Compact Beams and Other Flexural Members NOTATION = crosssectional area of member. defined in Eq. ksi specified minimum yield stress.0. : M.. and Ca : 1.{.10] warping constant. in A br : Ca: C. in modulus of elasticity of steel:29. nominal flexural strength of member. kipin Mr: smaller end moment in an unbraced length of beam. in2 b : width. 52. in3 thickness.0). kipin P : concentrated load on member.2fi) ksi ft : web dimension defined in Fig. kipin buckling moment at Lu: L. in : t: /. kipin plastic moment. in" distance from the centroid to the extreme fiber. : c: d: E: f : . ina La : unbraced length.: web dimensions defined in Fig. : width of flange. in bending moment.: : Mo : M. in h. kipin elastic buckling moment. [5.
(F19) x : subscript relating symbol to the major principal centroidal axis y : subscript relating symbol to the minor principal centroidal axis 7 : plastic section modulus. Torsion and the combination torsion with flexure are covered in Chap. in ip : limiting widththickness ratio for compact section Qt. (e. (Fl8) X2:parameter defined in Eq. F of the AISC LRFD Specification) foilowing kinds of compact cross sections and loadings: doubly for flexural members with the Tt."t. members are covered in C6ap.i". 6. nominal shear strength. 5: (a) w in a plane of loaded through shear center in plane of symmetry or parallel ."lut" to beams are described in the next section. kipin :0'90 0r.. 51 to web Examples L \illL\ \ I r= covered (singly II (b) N shape (doubly symmetric) loaded Shear center of beams y. kips per linear ft parameter defined in Eq. (b j cnanneishape . kiPs unit load.40 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. or the developmentofaplastic the web or a frange). 7. Axial of axial compression combined with bending is discussed in Chap. lateraltorsional hinge at a particular cross section' are valid The equations given in this chapter (and in Chap. noncompact flexural Compactness criteria as they .g. 8. : resistance factor for shear : 0'90 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers compact flexural members not subjected to torsion or axial force.y.. in chap."*y. The strength of flexural members ii timitea by tocal buckting of a crosssectional element buckling of the entire member. : resistance factor for flexure huVn: design shear strength. 5 : w: X. tension combined with bending is the subject of Chap. inl A : deflection of beam. kiPs d.Mn: design flexural strength. : V. 9.l I tl l ++l Fig.
g. Flanges of square and rectangular box sections. 6401\.8 7l. 51(a) and (b) will cause torsion.g. . 4. Table 51 Limiting WidthThickness Ratios for Beams Limiting WidthThickness Ratio. and the widththickness ratios of all its compression elements are equal to or less than /. the strain will increase under additional load.. flange cover Plates and diaphragm plates between lines of fasteners or welds Webs in flexural compression h. which is a simplified version of the actual stressstrain curves in Fig. Structural steel members with compact sections can develop their full strength without local instability.. 54) are also linearly distributed on the cross section.{. WidthThickness Beam Element Flanges of W and other and channels Ratio General .7 FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR Fig. from the outer fibers to the neutral axis.F. COMPACTNESS The concept of compactness relates to local buckling. cross sections are classified as compact. On one side of the neutral axis. The distribution of internal normal strains and stresses on the cross section of a beam is shown in It is based on the idealized stressstrain diagram for structural steel in Fig. In design. noncompact. Yielding will proceed inward.. or slenderelement sections.If the widththickness ratios of the web and flange in flexural compression are equal to or less Ihan ). As shown in Fig. loadedintheplaneof symmetryorthroughthe W. the flbers of the flexural member are in tension (or elongation).lt". /. The maximum stress.box. the equations of this chapter are still valid. beam design is by the standard method described in this chapter' Otherwise the special provisions of Chap. jl(o)] andsinglysymmetric(e.CHAP. 51(b)]. the limit state of local buckling need not be considered for compact members. The shear center is defined and its significance is explained in Chap. 85 of the AISC LRFD Specification) are given in Table 51 and Fig. until a plastic hingeis formed. t06. The distribution of normal stresses depends on the magnitude of the load. Under working loads and until initial yielding. As described in more detail in Chap. and solid rectangular shapes). shear center parallel to the web [as in Fig. however. 6 (taken from the appendixes of the AISC LRFD Specification) are required.channelshapes). stresses (which are proportional to strains in Fig.. However.on the other side. 5l COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 4T symmetric (e. or twisting of the member. Loads not applied as shown in Fig. Beyond initial yielding. A section is compact if the flanges are continuously connected to the web. I shaPes blt blt 6sl\/i rs}l\/F.n.436 Steel 10. Shear center locations for channels are given in the Properties Tables in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual. 53. 53. as the load is increased. the normal strain distribution is always linear. 54. The magnitude of strain is proportional to the distance from the neutral (or centroidal) axis. 12. 9. in compression (or shortening). loaded in a plane of symmetry [as in Fig. 52.r. Compactness criteria for beams (as stated in Sec. is the yield stress . if reitraint against torsion is provided at the load points and points of support.
"1 ..) for use in tl F T .) and thickness ( flange thickness t and web thickness Table 51 I Strains Cross section \ \ Comprcssion + Tension Worting lmd Ifg. 5 b=b/2 b = b/2 b=br TT.53 \'\. brl .t"l I t I I h"=h.3t trtg. Initid Yielding Plastic hinge Flexural strains and stresses .lll T I lr IJL_ IT .i tll i L . b=43t t t I $2 Definitions of widths (b and ft.'%.l .42 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS [CHAP.
4) ls.5 ksi in either flange. Only beams which are compact (i. 5l COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 43 Strain. bending moment due to the applied loads.4l Equation [5.1] to 15. At the various stages of loading. ksi specified minimum yield stress. yielding actually begins at an applied stress of 4. 10 ksi for rolled shapes. for welded shapes Elastic section modulus S = ! c [5. as a result of uneven cooling after rolling of the steel member). however. The relationships between moment and maximum (extreme fiber) bending stresses. ksi compressive residual stress : S: 7: 4: /6: 4 = the maximum 16.e. .41are defined as M: M..2] should be modified to M.3] is still valid. kipin plastic moment. Because of the presence of residual stresses f.. they are as follows: Until initial yielding M=Sfr At initial yielding [5.2l [5. in3 plastic section modulus.3] Mo: ZF.d.54 Idealized stressstrain diagram for structural steel The plastic hinge condition (under which the entire cross section has yielded) represents the absolute limit of usefulness of the cross section. Equation [5.: S(Fy .) The terms in Eqs.CHAP. [5.: 44. Is. (Because of their existence in a zeromoment condition before the application of loads. the tensile and compressive residual stresses must be in equilibrium. in/in Fig. kipin elastic section modulus. plastic hinge) SF. (prior to loading.e.1] M.5] . at a given cross section have been derived in a number of engineering mechanics textbooks. The plastic moment is not affected by residual stresses. in3 maximum normal stress due to bending. kipin bending moment at initial yielding.: At full plastification (i. not susceptible to local buckling) and adequately braced (to prevent lateraltorsional buckling) can attain this upper limit of flexural strength. tension or compression.
4) [5. A5.M^.1).. Compact sections bending about their major (or moment capacity without buckling.(F. in. and c is the distance from the centroid to the extreme fiber.2.. Several restrictions have been placed on plastic design. Unlike the bracing of columns (which requires another structural member framing into the column).EL.8] for bending about the major axis if Lo: L.2.: Mr. the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling. the fact that elastic analysis is less complex and is valid under normal service loads has led to its widespread use.. They are stated in the AISC LRFD Specification in Secs. For compact sections.0. Lp < Ln I L. S.H1'2. [5'4]. M. A5... The Properties Tables in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual include the values of 1. ELASTIC VERSUS PLASTIC ANALYSIS Design by either elastic or plastic analysis is permitted by the AISC LRFD Specification (Sec.7] and [5.FL.1. The more popular elastic analysis has been adopted throughout this text.90. the bracing of beams to prevent lateraltorsional buckling can be minimal. lateraltorsional buckling is an overall instability condition of a beam involving the simultaneous twisting of the member and lateral buckling of the compression flange. C2. The equations for the nominal flexural strength M" follow from the preceding discussion of flexural behavior. if Lb< Lp. a beam must be braced at certain intervals against either twisting of the cross section or lateral displacement of the compression flange. DESIGN FLEXURAL STRENGTH: Ca:L. lf Lh: L. and 11. [5. Even the intermittent welding of a metal (floor or roof) deck to the beam may be sufficient bracing for this purpose. where do:0. To prevent lateraltorsional buckling.44 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. for bending about the minor axis regardless of L6. The design strength of flexural members is Q. [s. Mnr: Mor: ZrF. and Z for all the rolled shapes listed.2.6l axes x) will also develop their full plastic Mnr: Mor: ZrF" for bending about the major axis if Lb=Lp.: S. ls. design bending strength is governed by the Lb=L.el .7] Mn*: M.8]: Mn. s where 1 is the moment of inertia of the cross section about its centroidal axis.)(TZ) ls. M^ for bending about the major axis is determined by linear interpolation between Eqs.. Compact shapes bending about their minor (or y) axes will not buckle before developing a plastic hinge. Although this assumption is incorrect at the strength limit states. ina. From Eq.lateraltorsional buckling occurs at initial yielding.85. . As the name implies.(Mr. If. Length L6 is defined as the distance between points of bracing.1. the factored moments are obtained assuming linear elastic behavior. When an elastic analysis procedure (such as moment distribution or a typical frame analysis computer program) is used.
000 ksi ina G = shear modulus of elasticity of steel: 11. ina The limiting laterally unbraced length determined as follows. For solid rectangular bars bending about the major axis . in crosssectional area./ and C* for many structural shapes are listed in Torsion Properties Tables in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual.: where (F. are For Ishaped sections. inr Lengths Loand L. Xr:S. (F14) where !: .200 ksi 1" : moment of inertia about the minor centroidal (or y) axis. For lshaped sections and channels bending about their major axis Lo: For solid rectangular bars and box beams w 300r.CHAP. IEGrA (F17) (F18) (F1e) where E : modulus of elasticity of : 29. (F110) (F111) Values of . L.000rr\/JA M M.X. doubly symmetric and singly symmetric with the compression flange larger than or equal to the tension flange. where Q6M^is plotted versus L6for Fr:36 and 50ksi or (2) constructing a graph similar to Fig. also in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual.are defined in Sec./ : Ln: 3750r. and L. The practical design of steel beams (Ca: 1. in6 For symmetric box sections bending about the major axis and loaded in the plane of symmetry. r_57.:4Q l'!)' ' Iy \GJ/ steel . F1. 55 from data in the Load Factor Design Selection Table.2 of the AISC LRFD Specification as follows. in: (Fls) torsional constant. and channels loaded in the plane of the web J_r' "'FrE r. and the corresponding buckling moment M. shall be determined from formulas (F17) and (F110). . C. (F16) M. inl with respect to the major centroidal (or x) axis. : plastic S.. X.A : . : section modulus with respect to the minor centroidal section modulus elastic section modulus (ory) axio. inl with respect to the major centroidal (or x) axis.: FrS. : warping constant. M. 5l COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 45 In the foregoing Zr:plastic 2. V .t . in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual. respectively..4)S. YJA * the radius of gyration with respect to the minor centroidal (or y) axis.0) can best be done graphically by (1) reference to the beam graphs in the section entitled Design Moments in Beams.
Coefficient C6 accounts for the effect of moment gradient on lateraltorsional buckling. Mn.0 for unbraced cantilevers and for members where the moment within part of the unbraced segment is greater than or equal to the larger segment end moment (e.lrun  (M. is the smaller and M2 is the larger end moment for the unbraced segment of the beam under consideration. Ct:I. simply supported beams.. Mnr: Mr": ZrF.0.O) Lb<L" Incorporating C6 requires modification of Eqs. t t(#)'f= z. and the linear interpolation 6.111 equation.9 Lb LP Fig. (Cr:1. If the rotations due to end moments M1 and M.3. is negative.F.9]. Lb< [5. where it can be seen that L.. Eq.7] for bending becomes L.. s for C. If the moment diagram between two successive braced points is not constant.0) BENDING COEFFICIENT CD The bendins coemcient is defined cn as :lt. .e].) = Mp. where Mt: M2:0).is the unbraced length at which Eqs.t s+ 1 os #. the described region is less susceptible to lateraltorsional buckling. then Mrl M. about the major axis if Lb: L.  *)(Te)f= r.: CrS.0 '< Cu .7] does not change. 7. DESIGN FLEXURAL STRENGTH: C6>l.46 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP.8] and [5.g.z ls.2. failing in lateraltorsional buckling. (F13) u": c. 55 Determination of design flexural strength Q6M. L. All the terms in the equations are as defined above. Equation [5.1o1 where M. [5. 56.7] and (F 13) intersect. The LRFD moment capacity equations were derived for a beam with a constant moment braced only at the supports. Coefficient Cr.(4. [5. are in opposite directions. = 1. [s.. The relationships are shown graphically in Fig.:1. However.: CtM. . for bending about the major axis if. for L^<Lh<L. otherwise. Mtl Mz is positive. in general.
If the unbraced length Lo) L. \ For solid rectangular bars and symmetric box sections 57. 56. When C6 ) 1. The critical elastic moment M. and QrM.0 (as in the graphs in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual): (1) the unbraced length for which Mn:Mo is extended from Lo to L^. $oM. However. (r)' IrCn 2(Lnlrr)' (F113) :chs.0) The design of steel beams (1. to avoid such uneconomical designs.for L' '\ \ \ LE Fig. if possible. For doubly symmetric Ishaped members and channels loaded in the plane of the web M.3) should be done graphically by developing a plot similar to that in Fig. is multiplied by Ca. There is a significant reduction in the flexural design strength S6M" as L6 increases beyond L.. Intermediate bracing should be provided. l6M^for C.0.oCf.) in the Load Factor Design Selection Table in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual. L. >\ 4oM. the moment capacity M. [5. QtMp.0 in Eqs.. and Co:1.. 5l COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 47 lrM" ColuM. and (2) for Lo>L^. for C.for Cr:1.0 CuluM.0 q. The reader can find these facts depicted in Fig.CHAP.. if Lb> L.0 QoM.11] and (F13). > 1. there is a twofold advantage in including Cb> 1. is defined as follows.0/ t'l " QuM.. one can find the other required parameters (Lo.Cb{iA M. After determining C. with Eq. a bLt fr Erycr . > 1.. Cr: L^ 1.xtrt rE*@ Lrlr. Mn: Mrr= Mo (F112) for bending of a compact section about its major axis. 56. [5. DESIGN FLEXURAL STRENGTHZ L6> L. Ltlry (F114) . and not conservatively letting Ct:I.0. elastic lateraltorsional buckling occurs.0< Cb<2.10]. 56 Determination of design flexural strength ObM" (Cb>1.
523 !F. r lI T F:ll 1U Fig. Vn:0. 57 Definition of /r for various shapes . Although flexural strength usually controls the selection of rolled beams. only the area of holes in excess of 15 percent is deducted. Bl of the AISC LRFD Specification.6FrAn For \s.90. For rolled shapes and builtup members without web stiffeners. For holes exceeding this limit.Vn. h 4r8 ror.48 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. particularly for shortspan members or those supporting concentrated loads. t9 !F. shear strength may occasionally govern. the rules for beams with holes in the flanges are as follows: (1) No (2) deducation is made for holes in a given flange if the area of the holes is equal to or less than 15 percent of the gross area of the flange.6FrA*ryP [s. s GROSS AND NET CROSS SECTIONS Flexural members are usually designed on the basis of their gross sections.121 418 h (S. DESIGN SHEAR STRENGTH The shear strength of beams should be checked.lt. The design shear strength is Q.131 Tl.IT. In builtup members. :0.T['lll'lll'lll r J L.. According to Sec.L. the equations in Sec. F2 of the AISC LRFD Specification can be somewhat simplified.=ffi Vn:0. as follows. where C. the thickness of the web plate is often determined by shear.
v:! 2 P13 48EI Midspan .5] COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 49 tsor h 523 )v4.: h:the following web dimensions. together with the resulting maximum shears. and elastic buckling of the web in Eq. Depending on the use of the member and its span. the maximum deflections of floor beams have been limited to $ of the span under the service live load specified in the governing building code. Traditionally. in thickness of web. The most common beam loadings are shown here in Table 52. DISPLACEMENT AND VIBRATION The two primary serviceability considerations for beams are displacement and vibration. and deflections. Table Loading Condition Simple beamuniform load 52 Beam Formulas Maximum Value Location wl2 M:T Midspan Ends Midspan v =*l 2 5wlo 384E1 A: Simple beamconcentrated load at center I t M l" l/2 . clear distance between flanges for welded sections (See Fig.121. inelastic buckling of the web in Eq. [5. under the heading Beam Diagrams and Formulas. in : /. Formulas for maximum beam deflections under various loading conditions are given in many textbooks on engineering mechanics and in the AISC LRFD Manual. moments. 15. 57. in: clear distance between fillets.CHAP. other deflection criteria (stated in inches or in fractions of the span) may be more appropriate.l M:PI 4 Midspan Ends lt2 4.ul where % d : Aw: nominal shear strength. in2 : dt* overall depth. tw vn:A*#S t*r \n I V. for rolled shapes. Part 3.) The limit states for shear strength are yielding of the web in Eq. kips ?tr? of the web.141.13]. [5.
Another approach is to perform a simplified dynamic analysis. or energy release.." AISC Engineering Journal. 1981. Particularly sensitive are large open floor areas with longspan beams. Information on beam vibrations is available in several published journal papers. "Design to Prevent Floor Vibrations. including: T.g. The subject of structural dynamics is beyond the scope of this text. free of partitions and other significant sources of damping. . 2d Quarter. t975. 3d Quarter. *) of their span. "Acceptability Criterion for OccupantInduced Floor Vibrations. 5 Table S2contd. Murray.@ +2b) 27EII Cantilever beamuniform load M:w12 2 V=wl Fixed end Fixed end Free end a=8EI WT Cantilever beamconcentrated load at free end l" M: Pl V:P P13 Fixed end Fixed end Free end 3EI Beams that are otherwise satisfactory have occasionally been the cause of annoying floor vibrations. T. M. To prevent excessive vibration it has been customary to specify the minimum depth of floor beams as a fraction (e." AISC Engineering Journal. Loadine Condition Simple beamconcentrated load at any point Maximum Value Location M =Pob I Point of load Right end a(a + 2b) t a)b v =Po ^ I _Pab(a +2b)\6. M.50 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. Murray.
if 4 :591ti flange )"o:9'2 web 'l'o Because flange (b :99'5 (See Prob' 5'1') lt: 9.t t ztr webL:2I. 52.7).9 t* (a) In A36 steel flange 'l'o : 1g'3 (See Ptob.9)<(7r:106. W12x65.{36 steel ({.1 to 5.i.{36 steel. in . ffr: 1g: tvso for the web of a W shape to't ir n..lt*=24.CHAP.8). and web compact in . in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual (Compact Section Criteria): for a W6x15 fl"ng. (b) if 4.{36 steel. lv36 ir ir 4 : 5o ksi From the Properties Tables for W Shapes. determine whether the given beam is compact: (c) in .7 Since flange (blt:9.1. the section is noncompact. W6x15.) beam web l. : 59 lG1. .2). sl COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 51 Solved Problems In probs. 5.3.. 6s a. ir 4 :36 ksi 4:5oksi 4:36ksi " n. Likewise.5.8).. it is 5.5)>(1r=10. for a W12x65 n"ng. for the flanges of a W shape .:n n webL:24. ! :*. Referring to Table 51 and Fig. (h. = 106.: &o ($:tu. the W6x15 beam is noncompact noncompact if { :59 f. If the widththickness ratio of an element is greater than Lo. From the Properties Tables for W Shapes.1.6 t_ Since flange (blt:t1.2... a W12x65 beam is noncompact if {. {r: l#: . a W12x65 (D) However.:fF.:36ksi).9) > (Ao =9.9)<(ho:10.9:!:tt. : 50 ksi' 5.
the plastic section modulus for majoraxis bending.8) (b and web (4.'". in x I in = 2.25 in2 Ga*a "r*= r8*' : Lr'/o Since the area of the holes is less than 15 percent of the flange area. (b) The beam is also compact if 80. { : 59 ksi because flange lt = 9.) Also ..36 steel because flange 80. the holes may be disregarded.o &: =40=+ t* U. (Otherwise.0) < (blt:9. where x is the major centroidal axis. with four 1rtindiameter flange. 58 I 5..) ln = 8o.: (h. s 5. determine the design values of holes for bolts (two holes per (o) S. 52: _ b br .0) < (Ao:9.8I_: nange:i.52 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. For the cross section in Fig.4. (a) S.=Z*trn *.2) and web 'l T + sl *l el IT ll El tl t ti T :l ' l8in Fig. 58. For design purposes.3. calculation would be required. The "15 percent rule" is then applied to determine whether the gross section may be used in flexural design.4. For each flange Hole area: 2 x (l rl + .5). (b) 2. Referring to Fig.0)<(^p:10.:l:oT":r"n .lc.25in' Gross area: 18 in x I in: t8 in'z Hole area 2. as shown). 57.o (a) The beam is compact in . the elastic section modulus for major axis bending. the width of each bolt hole is taken as ft in greater than the nominal dimension of the hole.lt: 106.u n.0)<(1"=90.7).lt*: (h. The builtup beam section in Fig.:I. the gross cross section is used in flexural design. the centroid can be located by inspection. For the symmetric section in Fig. 58.
667 17.5 in) in) x 20.4 for four lfiindiameter holes.799 ina x (40 in)3 12 in' . 5.5 in) x Net section "tffi:li"'i:hote 2:23 Z' in3 5. = gross section 1" . Steel is 436. for each flanse. d  462ina =rt. 5. [(18 in x 1 [(20 in x 0. :2AD2: [0.5 in)2]x2:462ina Net section 1.5 in)'z] 0.15 x 18in2:2.55 in'zx (20.4: Hole 1. Use the Load Factor Design Selection Table for Beams in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual.70 inz : 0. For a simply supported W24x76 beam.5.5 in x2:15.hole 1. Design hole area : 3.25 inz  2. 17 J22in'= 848 in3 (b) Z. :2AD . (a) Adjusting d in Prob. laterally braced only at the supports.4: "#= 826 inl Hole Z. 5. 5.55 in. In calculating 2.25in2. For each flange. an excerpt from which appears herein (with permission) as Table 53.4).. the upper half of the web (in flexural compression) and the lower half (in flexural tension) are taken separately.6.CHAP.r.. In flexural design.I32in' +0.55 in'? x 20. gross area: l8in2 (as in Prob. only the hole area in excess of 15 percent of the flange area is deducted. 15 percent of gross area:0. hole area:2 x (ift + $)in x 1 in: 3. in Prob.. .70in2. where A is the crosssectional area of each element and D represents its distance from the centroidal axis. determine the flexural design strength for (c) minoraxis bending and (b) majoraxis UenOing. : 17.J5ttn Net section s : += c (b) Adjusting Z.:2AD: (0. sl COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 53 The contributions of the two flanges and the web to the moment of inertia 1.799 ino r.:2.5 in] x Z: 738 in3 x 10 in x 2:200 in3 5. are Elements BT3 n +AD" 2 Flanges Web r ln)(20. Repeat Prob.
: QoZrFr: 0. = 23. L^) Lo. For a simply supported member. Figure 59 can be plotted from the information in Table 53: For 0< Ln<(L. Linear interpolation is required tor Ln<Lo<L. : 1.1 23. 59 L.54 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP.:8.9 62. s W24 x'76 1'0 C.. QoM.:QoM. 6 in3 x 36 ksi = 927 kipin : 77 kipft.0 o8 473 as 3{n 302 rbulated is vali.6 ./24x76 is always equal to QuM.. refer to the beam graphs in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual Table 53 Excerpt from Load Factor Design Selection Table (AISC LRFD Manual.(oty) axis bending..=23. M^r=Mor=ZrFrregardless of unbraced length (Eq.: 36 ksi (Table 51).6]). (a) (b) For minor. = laM. otherwise. Lp L.0 10.5 26.:343kipft. Part 3) Forfi:36Lt1 2. = 343ktpft lo = 8.)J JJ/ 8. 90 x 28.4 38.= 540kipft At Lb=L.6 67. 7. and h.4ft.0.5 7.0 ?.24 221 2r2 2ll ?..0ft). both b..8 10.For Lo> L.6 11. the end moments Mt = Mz: 0.5 22. Here @a :0 90' for Ln< L If C. QoM.4 Nore: Flexural design strength @r& '.: QoM. The flexural design strength for majoraxis bending depends on Co and L6.0 13.lt* for a W24x76 beam are less than the respective flange and web values of A.6 w18x97 572 570 tt L JO/ wax76 W16x 100 W21x83 540 535 529 518 v3 34r J. l2t.0ft Fig. L^: Lo. Cr : 1..4 42.5 w14x 109 W18x86 WI2xl20 WZx68 W16x89 502 502 324 318 11. ln" Shape QoM.7 35. for F. The flexural design strength for minoraxis bending of a'V. ft kipft 605 597 kipft 3E2 374 ft 8.6 15. [5. QuM": QuM.00 198 196 192 186 186 177 I75 W2/X8/ W21x93 W14x 120 4.1 7.9 38.5 75.7 15..4 ft The W24x76 is a compact section. This can be verified by noting that in the Properties Tables in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual.7 24.
The previous (C.2 x For uniformly distributed loads.36. Lo = 1. s 7 kip5/f1 x \27 ft)'z : 52t kipft Required Here. tbe design flexural strength for Cr = 1. For all Lo.CHAP. M.75): L75 x QoM^(Co: 1.6 x 2. According to Eq. [510] c. : 1. Mr:0 and M.7 UDS ft " 2 < Lo (all rolled shapes).\ QoM. W24 CuloMo x 76 : 1. For the case of dead load and floor live load only. 59 as follows.0) < QoM*. determine the flexural design strength.:23. Dead load supported by the beam (including its own weight) is 1. :lt ts + L.6 kips per linear foot. Select the most economical rolled shape for a27ft simply supported floor beam. For the same W24x76 beam in majoraxis bending.:540kipft) cannot be exceeded. or S or R) : t. the plastic moment strength (QoMr. (See Table 52. laterally braced at its centerline. For either unbraced half of the beam under either loading indicated.z (ff)')=z t Refer to Table 52.75 x 540 kipft = 945 kipft Ct = l'75 CoiuM.os#+ o.75). Cb= Q.75.4ft 5.6L + 0.lM.:0. . QoM*(Co: f .2 is formula (A42t: l.>0. The deepest (architecturally allowable) member is a W21. Assume: (a) (b) (c) There is no member depth limitation.:343ktpfl L Zn:8'0ft Fig.8. with either a uniform load or a concentrated load at the center. The upper (compression) flange of the beam is adequately welded to the floor deck at 1ft Oin intervals. Steel is 4.0) design flexural strengths are multiplied by (Cr:1.05 x 0+0.3 x0): 1.75+ 1.zD + l. maximum M = Required 1.75 x 343 kipft 600 kipft irMo : 54OlrlLpfl . however.6 kips/ft + 0 : 5. 510 L.7 kips/ft wl2 18 and v : wllz. si COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS f) 5.3 kips/ft + 1. Figure 510 can be derived from Fig.5(L.) A = ff 14. the critieal load combination in Chap. The deepest desired member is a W18.0 27 ft :77kips = 5.75.3 kips per linear foot. live load is 2. In Eq.7. = = 1. [510].
as in Prob. the leastweight W18 for which Q6M* : QrM* = 521 kipft is a W18x97.75 .121. Of those beams.V. 5. 36 ksi Q. as in the beam Selection Table in the LRFD Manual.75.43inx 0.. hlt:49.4ksix 18. One page of the AISC beam graphs :27 ft.=19'4ksixdt*' For a W21 x83' Q"V.0 where M'lM.535 in = 193 kips > 77 kips required. 5. the solid lines denote the most economical W shape. C6 = 1. 5. Similar plots will show the same values for the other beam sections in Table 53.6 x :19'4 For a W24x76.05 + 0. Repeat Prob. 512.90 x 0.1. Accordingly.4 ksi x23. the design shear strengths Q"V"for W shapes can be found tabulated in the section Uniform Load Constants in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual. M. a W21x101 (solid line) is most economical.0.4ksi xdt*. Use a W18x97. (Note: In lieu of calculations.05.56 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. C6: j.. 510.V. 15. the dashed lines indicate alternates. Checking shear: @.:+= 13. By inspection of Table 53.7..) Then @. Q.V.V. and M.1. Determine c6 for the span of the continuous beam shown in Fig. fot 111t*' V" $I8l\/\= dt* 4l8l\/36=)69.= (500kipft/500kipft)= 1. For these shapes. where it can be seen that at La a W18x119 (dashed line) can be with euM^>521 kipft. From Fig.0) + = 1.5 ft For this case. 5.0 . Use a W24x76..3(.8 for Here.11. [5.. Repeat Prob.: '/l!\' <2.0<69. = 19. L. is negative moments M.6FyA*: 0.8 are still valid' a beam braced only at its end supports' 5.:19. the design flexural strength QoM. : 19.1.V":0. 511.3 : 1.8 assuming that the floor deck is not present and the beam is laterally braced only at midsPan and the supPorts. 5 (a\ In Table 53. 5. (See Properties Tables for W Shapes in the AISC LRFD Manual. Use a W21x83. cause rotations in opposite directions' Cr=1.59inx 0..4ksix21.15 + 1.75 + because the end M' '\ 1. Fot a W18x97.3 M'l tvl2 0. as for the fully braced case. Checking shear strength with Eq.9. Lo > L. the leastweight W21 for which QuM*=QtM^=521 kip/ft is a W21x83.440 in: 205 kips > 77 kips required.) 5.f0].92 in x 0. The beam graphs in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual (for Cr:1.. 4:36ksi) are helpful in this case.6 x 36ksi x dt.0. (b) (c) By inspection of Table 53. the most economical beams appear in boldface print. among the members is reprcduced (with permission) as Fig.: QoMr. part 1. For some of the W shapes in question.515 in:214 kips > 77 kips required.:19. In the graphs.7 ksi x dt* = 0.0)' = r. it is evident that L6:13.7.lM. the one of least weight for which QoMn=QuMo> 521 kipft is a W24x76.05(. (a) (b) (o) Lateral braces are provided only at the supports' Lateral braces are provided at midspan and the supports' In Eq. Checking shear: @. used if beam depth is limited to 18 in.5ft<L^ for a W24x76. the results of Prob.+0..10.
\ \\ \\\ \N '\ lt \. t.\.v II '[ \.\2\ \\ ). :... tI \ \t= A\\ tr\:\ 1 \\ l0 t2 14 5r0 500 l6 18 20 22 24 Unbraced length.9.t\ \rr.CHAP.) .\l i\ I ffi 630 a 620 A T Gi \\i\ . Cr : l. sl COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 57 Beam design moments ({ = 0.^\.i \r 610 o 600 590 u0 o 580 I \1 a' \") I I + 570 560 550 \Vi I I I 540 s30 520 . ft 26 28 30 JZ )q 36 38 Fig."[\ 670 660 650 \.\\'N i 680 \t\. 511 (Reproduced with permission from the AISC LRFD Manual. F" : 36 kips/in'?) 700 690 .\ .
4 for both halves of the span. 5.U. cause rotations in the same direction.0) + 0.0)'z s 2.exural strength. MrlMr: +(200 kipft/500 kipft) : M'lM. In Eq. s Fig.3 :2.3 :3.75+ r. 513 . Here. positive because the moments M1 and M2 cause rotations in the same direction.10] .75 + 1. MllM2=+(400kipft/zlffikipft)=*1.3 :1. + o 3( +o 4)'z Determine C6 for the span of the continuous beam shown in Fig.10<2.L3. In Eq. where M'l Mt is positive because the end moments M.3(+1. Lateral bracing is provided only at the supports.os + + os(!\' =z.10j.t \M2/ M2 : 1. [5..05+0.05(+ 1. and M. Fig.3 4010 kipft Required fl.3=2. M.0. 51il (b) +0.58 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. 15. Ct " : r.75+1. is '' ii:l i liTlil 5.
= (36  16. 938 in3 Z.4. A = 56 in2.36 steel.:0. (strong axis bending).5 ksi. The residual stress d:16.13. [5. As 16.F. According to Eq. and F.5 in)3 T+0:0. : 848 in3.5)ksi : = QuS.D:0.  Z*4. and L.:4+(+)' Iy \GJ / F.:4't7 . for Ishaped members \/4 The radius of gyration 'r: tlj' The contributions of the two flanges and the web to the moment of inertia 1. 5."#g'"I+o] 40 in x (0.=uH!:2o8in : r7. Mr. and 1972in' I : V so ir'.17 in.200ksi.5kips for welded shapes. According to Eq.: Q. Lp.882 kipin : 1240 kipft Lr= 300r. QoM. Assume . where r. S. 11.67 inn [zt0 in x (0. S. ObM. n IE.. [58]. are Elements BTI n +AD" x z =e'2ina 2 Flanges Web tl.CHAP.5) ksi : 19.391 kipin : 2533 kipft determined in Prob.JA z x. (Fl6).4ft According to Eq. for lshaped members . V Here..90 x 848 in3 x (36 t4.000ksi. QuMo. = 848 in3.:938 36 ksi in3. r.:S!(4 4). According to Eq. 5.4.5 in in Crosssectional area 4 : (18 in x 1 40 : 56 in. sl COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 59 5.90 x x : 30.Z..71. :4.(4 . Determine the following parameters for the builtup section in Fig. M. (Fl4).Xr FrE ^':s. 58 Q6Mo.4ina in) x 2 + in x 0. As determined in Prob. E=29.5 in)3]] : .4. G: f ==^' : !Ar3 j{t18 in x (1 in)312 + t3.
5 kips (30 ft)3 x (12 in/ft)r ln" :0.I7 in x 1306 :658in:55ft Simply supported 30ftlong floor beams. are spaced 10ft 0in centertocenter.5 kips at midsPan.l)in l'z =:. = 510in.5 ksi = 1306 I  4..000 kios x (30 ft)4 x 112 in/ft)l !+ in' 30 x 510 ina Since live load deflection A : o'62 in :0. Determine the maximum deflections of the same W18x35 beams under concentrated loads of From Table 52. 5.49 in Supplementary Problems Are the beams in Probs. W18x35.5 :il:: 384 x 2e.U) Ll1.67in"J X'  rr)'?.200ksix l3.:nqet 5 x 0. for a uniformly loaded simply supported beam. acceptable. the )wt ^ .14)(d . for a concentrated load on a simply supported beam at midspan.*.:ott maximum deflection lb kiPs For a W1gx35 beam.4'36 steel? (b) If 4 :50 ksi? ilrF .ur]'  848inr x(42.Ley(*)'. 1. C*: (1.60 COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS lcHAP. s For Ishaped members. : ["({. From Table 52.62 in L ':tffi:1'oin ft x 12 in/ft it should generally be 7. 5.0ft=s00. Then : s48 irf 19.l =U.16 and 5'17 compact (a) In .L5. Pl3 L=4BEI:ffi 7. the maximum deflection x . Whit is their maximum defliction under a live load of 50lb/ft2? lh ^^ ^w:sortx 10. .
Ans.515 zt t. 3.20. 514 is subjected to a concentrated factored force of 50 kips. The unfactored concentrated live load for the W24x62 beam in Fig. Determine the maximum liveload deflection. W21x68. (b) supports and midspan only. 514 5. (b) w24x62. Select the most economical W21. 514 is braced at the supports and quarter points only. Determine C. Select the most economical W section for the beam in Fig. 3). (d) Wt6x77. The simply supported beam in Fig.4'36.:o I 1. P. . 515. Assume continuous lateral bracing. (c) supports only. determine the appropriate Ans.21. Ans. in Fig. (o) (b) (c) (d\ Determine the required flexural strength.4 (Chap.CHAP. Select the most economical W16. (b) Yes. design cross section for bending.1O0 kipft.75 5. Ans.3o I r. The gross section.17. (a) Yes. = 50 kips I Fig. (c) W21x68. (b) No. A :0.1s l. (o) M":.2:2. 5.19. 5] COMPACT BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS 61 5. (See Fig. 514.16. 5. Ans. For the W10x49 in Prob. Select the most economical W shape. (a) W24x62. 5. 5.1E. Steel is . The beam unbraced length. (c) W18x97. (b) WZ4x62. for each Ans. W14x90.61 in.) Ct = 777 Fig. braced at the (a) supports and quarter points only. 514 is 20 kips. (a) Yes. Ans.
r: h. (AG35) and (AG36) D: coeffrcient for use in Eq.qFF' . ina coefficient defined in Eq. kipin M.. [5. in critical plate girder compression flange stress. (AG42) d: 4. (AG41) coefficient defined in Eq./: /: k: Lr': lsr: lflofil€flt of inertia of stiffener or pair of stiffeners. a:clear a.: 14o: plastic moment.: 4: 4.: overall depth. in br: distance between transverse stiffeners. in S: elastic section modulus.: shear parameter defined in Eqs. ksi specified minimum yield stress of the stiffener material. in Ca: bending coefficient.: b: width. in nominal shear strength. kiPin M. A crosssectional area : in2 A.10] C.. ksi web dimensions defined in Fig. defined in Eq. inl s. ttlrsional constant..": elastic section modulus referred to the compression flange. in3 S'r: r: /*: %: elastic section modulus referred to the tension flange' in3 thickness' in thickness of web.: limiting buckling moment when I : i. ft nominal flexural strength of member. in moment of inertia. h.: crosssectional area of stiffener or pair of stiffeners.: w€b area.Chapter 6 Noncompact Beams and Plate Girders NOTATION of member. kipin Rpc:plate girder flexural coefficient' defined in Eq' (A'G23) r: radius of gyration.a ina /: . kiPs 62 '!!. in rr: radius of gyration of the compression flange plus onethird of the compression portion oiitre weU taken about an axis in the plane of the web. in ratio of web area to compression flange area width of flange. inz : dt. in /l= thickness of flange. 6"2. ksi compressive minimum yield stress. in2 A". (AG34) unbraced length.: required flexural strength. kipin M. ir.
.90.. and . the nominal flexural strength M" is the lowest value determined from the limit states of lateraltorsional buckling (LTB) flange local buckling (FLB) web local buckling (WLB).): Lr<L<. 61. The subject of the next section is noncompact beams with a widththickness ratio (1.:0.g.r. for each of the relevant limit states.CHAP.: resistance factor for shear:0. As shown accomplished by schematically in Fig. for which buckling is inelastic design flexural strength. that is. as the nominal flexural strength. For noncompact beams.: M. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 63 : x: y: 2: . required shear strength. Plate girders with slender webs (1. M. kips QtMn: : @a QuV.. in each limit state. are given in Table 61 (which is an abridged version of Table AFl.: Mn.1.l.1. : /"o : i. are covered in the followins section. AP/ (AF13) For all limit states. Graphically interpolating in each case to obtain an Mn for the given tr. beams with a widththickness ratio (for flange or web) ) ir.Expressions for M. Selecting the minimum M. M" : Cr. .).90 design shear strength.: @...   (Mo  r.).tro <)'=).. in3 slenderness parameter (e.. largest value of i. widththickness ratio) largest value of tr for which M. NONCOMPACT BEAMS The flexural design strength is QoM. in each limit follows.. as For the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling. )". (AF12) For the limit states of flange and web buckling M.i in App. the flexural design of noncompact beams can be Looking up in Table 61 values for Mn and M.M. and.n.)\ffi. kips subscript relating symbol to the major principal centroidal axis subscript relating symbol to the minor principal centroidal axis plastic section modulus. M.: l{.(=\ _ \4. if ...1. where 4r... ).. usually stiffened..(Mr. F of the AISC LRFD Specification).lM.1".:Mp.90 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers flexure of noncompact members.. ). For . kipin resistance factor for flexure = 0.l )= U..) /)A .)"=10. state is obtained by linear interpolation between Mn and M. as well asfor M.
/iA Me s7. = lqs. (F18). (4.s. f.. 5 and (Fl9) in Chap. (4.s" Lb rv 3s7o\/iA Mp 190 s7. Limit State LTB: doubly symmetnc members and channels l Lb f" 1e L See Eqs.. 61 Nominal flexural strength of a noncompact beam (example) . t 1qfr for rolled shaPes uqfr3 WLB Channels and doubly symmetric lshaped members bending about minor axis Solid rectangular bars bending about major axis Symmetric box sections loaded in a plane of symmetry F.. major axis LTB: singly symmetric members FLB (4 4)S.= M. 4. FLB ! t L w w.Z. for welded shapes h. &0 fr for maioraxis bending 970 FLB 4J" F.2. 238 WLB fr 640 t4 970 \\J llr FLB \1 \1__i WLB LTB Fig. Channels and doubly and singly symmetric Ishaped beams bending about FrZ'  4)s. F.. Lb 'v b_ w w t4 Same as 65 300 Value of i for which M".vil\/iA M. with Cb = I  4)s. LTB n.Z LTB (4' .64 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS [CHAP. Lb rv 3s70.. t4 300 (F16).w\/iA M.s. 6 Table Cross Sections Me Gl Flexural Strength Parameters M..s.4)s' 4.
: Mo : i. for WLB : M.. kips Additional terms used in Table 61 are {.121 to [5.90 and Vn. ina compressive residual stress in the flange welded shapes : 10 ksi for rolled shapes : 16.: : %: i for which buckling is inelastic nominal flexural strength. the nominal shear strength.. h.14].lt*<260 and adequate shear strength is provided by the web in accordance with Eqs. two terms are used for flexural members: beam and plate girder. 52. : : elastic section modulus about the major axis. is determined from Eq. or both Stiffeners are discussed later in this chapter. with respect to the outside fiber of the tension flange. 52.:plastic section modulus about the major axis. Web stiffeners are not required if web h. ft is the clear distance between flanges less the fillet or .f t>9701\/1. or Shear capacity should also be checked. [5. S. Ca )"0: the largest value of /. in3 ^t &. Beam Plate Girder Rolled or welded shape No web stiffeners and webh.14]. with respect to the outside fiber of the compression flange. t.f t*9701\E Welded shape Web stiffeners or web h.ftn. in3 S. as defined in Eq. M. for FLB:web depththickness ratio h. in radius of gyration about the minor axis. defined in Fig. The differences between them are as follows.: . in3 Zr:plastic section modulus about the minor axis. ksi Z...CHAP. The definitions of the terms used above are l:slenderness parameter:minor axis slenderness ratio L6fr. 52. in crosssectional area. in3 S. where @" :0.. kipin buckling moment at h: i. 12].4 : J: d: r. in2 torsional constant. /. [5.5 ksi for PLATE GIRDERS In the AISC LRFD Specification. (Please note: Two different parameters in the AISC LRFD Specification refer to the clear height of the web: h and h. kipin largest value of bending factor. for LTB:flange widththickness ratio blt. in3 Lo:laterally unbraced length. 5.In Sec. as indicated in Chap. defined in Fig. [5. 85 of the LRFD Specification they are thus defined: For webs of rolled or formed sections. [5. : elastic section modulus about the minor axis. in3 : b.10] nominal shear strength.131. for which Mn: M.: {. : specified minimum yield stress. The design shear strength is [s. in dimensions of cross section. defined in Fig. kipin plastic moment. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 65 QuVn.
h. (b) doubly symmetric builtup sections For plate girders. G of the AISC LRFD Specification.66 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP.lF.l I I Tension flanges (a) Compression flanges Neutral axis Tension flanges (sarne as compression flanges) (b\ Ftg.0M V Fy(Fy (AG11) h' where a= a\i<  + F. 6 corner radius at each flange. The stiffening of slender . The distinction between h and h" is shown in Fig. in stress of steel.) . is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the nearest line of fasteners at the compression flange or the inside face of the compression flange when welds are used. ksi t: $: 4 = specified minimum yield compressive residual stress in flange: 16. For webs of builtup sections. where it can be seen that for doubly symmetric crosssections. is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange less the fillet or corner radius.1 h Tf a 5 h 2000 t*. G2 Definitions of /r and lr.h:h. the maximum permissible web slenderness stiffeners. ft is the distance between adjacent lines of fasteners or the clear distance between flanges when welds are used and h.5 ksi for plate girders Plate girders are covered in App.: (c) singly symmetric builtup sections.) (AG12) clear distance between transverse stiffeners. h t14.. 62. in web thickness. hlt* depends on the spacing of the If <.
CHAP." After the web buckles.90. and Cp6. and see the previous section of Chap. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 67 plate girder webs enables them to exhibit significant postbuckling strength through "tension field action. where Rrc:1  o. For yielding of the tension flange Mnr: S"rRro4 For buckling of the compression flange (AG21) Mrt: SrrRp6\.: tztio of web area to compression flange area 4. a girder acts like a Pratt truss: the stiffeners become vertical compression members. . C pc:286.: S. 4. in Eq. (AG22) depends on the slenderness parameters ). (AG24) For ). 1 L. is governed by the limit states of tension flange strength yielding and compression flange buckling. the web is slender).Ln f7 (AG27) (AG28) (AG2e) (AG210) "'' L 300 lFy 756 YF.lt :(i_t)] = t (AG2s) For 7> ).ulzl) = r.: For io < F. and the intermediate web panels act as diagonal tension members. the lower value of d.: S.e.: c. If h"lt*>9701\/F. M. 6 for noncompact shapes. (i.lt=970VFy.n. see Chap. DESIGN FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF PLATE GIRDERS The design flexural strength is Q6M.. ksi minimum specified yield stress. governs. in3 d. (AG22) The nominal flexural strength M" is the lower value obtained from these equations..(r. where fu:0. n. h." s )v...r: The critical stress critical compression flange stress..:+ For the limit state of lateraltorsional buckline (AG26) The slenderness parameters are determined for both the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling and the limit state of flange local buckling..: 4.000Cb ^' .ooos .: if h.... 5 for compact shapes. To determine the nominal flexural M. ksi elastic section modulus referred to compression flange. in3 elastic section modulus referred to tension flange. as follows.o (AG23) where a. )r. F.
(c"*JL) "\ .6A*FrC.l260 ::^ h khB In such cases tension field action does not occur and v 1l V. is determined from Eq. is the area of the web. 1] is true or if no stiffeners inz: dt*. [5.6A*F.NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS ICHAP. in.i{u c. is the radius of gyration of compression flange plus onethird of the compression portion of the web taken about an axis in the plane of the web. ^65 ^o:@ . For hlt*=1.=234\i.(hlt*)2F. DESIGN SHEAR STRENGTH OF PLATE GIRDERS The design shear strength is QuV.: ' (A_G2_11) @G212) (AG213) (AG214) # !F.0 i. A. and d is the overall depth. '.:0.0 if Expression [6. fi t87vt=.:ff Fy (AG3s) If n l* 44.15V1 +(alh)'/ except for end panels and where t AG32) ( 3. I k h ^^.:0. For (AG31) hlt*>I87\ElFy v":0.90. in. t n.6A*F.. If :r. where d.' (AG36) . . : 5. In the preceding equations (AG33) k:5 + . For the limit state of flange local buckling n bt ^:. :0.oook vu 'Y >23411.87t/klFy V.i.1.. 6 where C.^1r1'2ao The limit state of web local buckling is not applicable.. 101 and r.* (a lh)' except that k @G34) are present.
: moment of inertia of a transverse web stiffener about an axis in the web center for stiffener pairs or about the face in contact with the web plate for single stiffeners. ksi and C" andV.z+ (AGs1) must be true. ksi ksi 4. and Mu are the required shear and moment strengths at a cross section calculated from the factored loads. is inadequate.lo. : 2. Here.= 0V^ and M.s d. see Chap.. If a pair of stiffeners is used..r rn.urrLVn t."r: specified minimum yield stress of the stiffener material.] > o (AG42) for tension field action where i:ffi2>o. their shear strength is governed by Eq.CHAP.e. are the nominal shear and moment strengths (l/. 5 (for unstiffened beams). ina crosssectional area of a transverse web stiffeners. STIFFENER DETAILS Special requirements apply to stiffeners at concentrated loads or reactions. (AG32)1. . Plate girders with webs that depend on tension field action [i. as determined from Chap.8 for single angle stiffeners V.{. they can be welded to the web only. Single stiffeners are also welded to the compression flange. are as defined above.9). The web stiffeners provided in accordance with the provisions cited in this chapter may be onesided or twosided. (AG41) and : 4". V" and M. V. D :1.*6  r. Additional requirements for stiffeners are I"r= at3*j whenever stiffeners are required and 16. as are stiffeners attached to lateral bracing. 12. must satisfy an additional criterion.4 for single plate stiffeners required shear strength at the location of the stiffener. flexureshear interaction. in2 specified minimum yield stress of the girder steel.0 for stiffeners in pairs 1.< QM^: @:0. If then ouh=h<sh Uo Mn *r. The stiffeners should be spaced to provide suffrcient shear strength in accordance with the preceding provisions for plate girders.21 o. h 18'.  *. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 69 WEB STIFFENERS Transverse stiffeners are required if web hlt>260 or web shear strength. : . The welds connecting stiffeners to girder webs are stopped short of the flange four to six web thicknesses from the near toe of the webtoflanse weld.
) or stiffness (a function of 1. beams are normally oriented to take advantage of the superior majoraxis properties (2.0. Therefore. Welded girders are used when (1) the depth must exceed 40 in or (2) the rolled shapes available for the specified depth do not provide sufficient bending strength (a function of Z. Steel is . u5.: to's (For the definition of b for a welded Flange I shape. for the limit state of flange local t* in ^:L:s:+:128. b b. see Fig.. Working with Table 61 (for a doubly symmetric I shape bending about its major axis): .= zt r^:g'o ^6565 "': tF. Regardless of whether rolled or welded shapes are utilized. Web Web M. rolled beams are used whenever possible.70 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP. and 1. {36=1'06'7 " 970 gjy "': {r.1.36. compactness should be checked. 6 ROLLED VERSUS BUILT.) For the flange /.= I I @ l+ N \Ol I €l n ll 1t T v l'l tl . l. <.>2.: M. The (upper) compression flange is continuously braced by the floor deck.4.l I I A. 63 (selected from the table of BuiltUp WideFlange Sections in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual). Rolled W shapes (the most popular beams) are available in depths of 4 to 40in (W4 to W40). 63 I First.o.) Web "a ^ 640 640 "'= {F.: {36:161"7 . determine the design moment and shear strengths. For the welded section in Fig.0 (See Fig. Bending is about the major axis.>1"). l8in i:=i. and buckling (FLB).). the flange is compact. C6:1. 18in Fig. 62. Solved Problems 6. 52.UP BEAMS Because they are more economical than their welded equivalents.1.
Lo: O. M. M*) governs.. of the cross section in Fig. = Mo.  {M. Flanges 2j Webs x 1 in) x 28. relating to the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling (LTB)..^:\ \4. For this continuously braced member.5 in]Z x 0.0) <(4.CHAP.7)< (i:128. f. = : 1369 inl 1369 inl :4107 kipft 12inlft 36 kips/in'? x 1230 in3 M. the upper and lower halves of the web are taken separately. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 7l For the web..s in)']2 0.7).403 in 35.AP/ The properties S. for the limit state of web local buckling (WLB).: FyZ. Determining flexural strengths. M. To determine Mo. where .<Mo.' where '=. M. Next. (AF13)... we obtain Mr...or a doubly symmetric Ishaped member bending about the major axis. Summarizing: Limit State M* MF MF LTB FLB WLB The limit state of WLB (with minimum M.. r t :..= 35..1(!.. = F"S.=':l:zsin { are d 58in The contributions of the two flanges and the web to the moment of inertra BT3 Elements n+AD' in)(28. The web is noncompact.: FrS. refer again to Table 61. and M^. . = M.<M*<M.647 in^ x (56 in)r 12 +0: t. is determined from Eq. we calculate )AD. M^..=761.244ino 6. and Z.n represents its distance from the centroidal 1230in' To determine 2. a check is made of lateral bracing. (. r axis... for LTB. 63 must now be calculated.44 in 2 Flanges Web :29. for WLB and from Eq.44 in) x 14inl2 [(28 in [(18 in : 1026 in3 = 343 in] Z.: = 3690 kipft 12inltt 36 kios/in'zx ..*. (AF13) (for WLB): M^. M.4 is the crosssectional area of each element and D In calculating 2. = 106..1. = FrZ. There Mr..647 in' : Zn.<M.
72 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP. (AF13): 3946 M". Design web stiffeners to double the shear strength of the web at the end panel. depending : 56 inl1.7 ).0 kips.1 frames into a column as shown in Fig. 64 or Eq.121. (AG33): V":0.e 128. \n I 132.90 x204.44 in) x 132.2. 5)7 5?3 128>== 1==87. Fig. h I t* on hlt.. The value of Mn can be obtained by linear interpolation using Fig.14].4 kips = 184.C. The nominal shear strength determined from Eq. 14] governs: V": A" .0.0 161. Here.Min : 128. Shear strength for an unstiffened web is governed by Eq.0)'z = 204. [5. or [5.000 (128. 6 4to't 3946 I > t_ I I t 106. 64 I.. The welded beam in Prob.90 x 3946 kipft :3551 kipft. The design flexural strength @rM".4 kips The design shear strength 0"V":0.000 k (h I t*)'}F. [5. 65. :0.000 I*r = (58 in x 0. Assuming for a stiffened web (AG36) is h > t* 234ryn 1 tk 44. . 6.13]..6A*F. 6.7 t Fig.. vJ6 Equation [5.: kipft.2 ! h. 65 At end panels there is no tension field action.
Because tension field action is not utilized. la]') To double the shear strength. (AG34) k:5+i==ro ln)\a Thisimplies alh:I.at3*i (A44'2) where 1".66 The moment of inertia of the stiffener pair about the web centerline . Try a single stiffener plate..*. rr' 0'25 in x (5'44 in)3:3.5 :2. [5._z:0. thus.Oor a:h.67 6.6A*4"ffi. and (AG51) can be ignored. let k : 2 x 5 :10.q. a:h:56in.25 1n . In Eq. the clear distance between transverse web stiffeners Checking the original assumption. as in Fig. 2j in x I in in Fig.CHAP.. (AGj3).44 in)' x 0.2] must be satisfied: 1". 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS t5 Substituting for C.25 1.44 in I t ! +l Fig. 3l in x I in. 66 +l l s. However. in F. (This can be verified by comparing the justderived expression for V" with Eq.34inn as Try a pair of stiffener plates.k.35 12 ino >z.r+ l* Fig. 2\ j=.:0. we obtain v.56 t:#z>os . 0. Eqs. we obtain o. 67.5 in x (0.34ino o. . the case of no stiffeners corresponds to k = 5.:A'z## As indicated in the text of this chapter. Stiffener design can be determined as follows. Formula [6.k.
Rp6F. we obtain S.lif .(&p)=r. Determine the design lh..3. M*: S*RpcF. equations for M. 6 The moment of inertia of the stiffener about the face of the web .0 i.or both @.F.=+:+= ro. Checking web slenderness.t.o:10. :29 in .57 ina >2..:s'.7) : 9.= \.0.:&. the girder web : =: iLn :0 because La = 0 for continuous bracing. (Since be stiffened if an increase in its shear strength is required. by Eq' (AG24)' Therefore. S.: 58in . 6.78(224 M*: SoRa.74 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP. we obtain to f.) The flexural design equations can be solved as follows: For the limit state of LTB hlt*:ZZ+ <260.93 The nominal flexural strength M"./ The ratio of web area to compression flange area (AG23) '' R.. ( AG 27\ For the limit state of FLB ^ bt=_18in :9.=.. " 161..o \f. and the flexural design provisions of this chapter govern [Eqs. (AG21) to (AG214)].34in' o.. From above' 4.k.:F. reduce to . where .: j in. d =.G212) LTB and FLB L: n: for this plate girder.o<(t.o :'1. 56in _. both M*: in this case.\ _ l1 = zz+ > ) \^' o:s i" _970 970 :7=*= rot't \ = G ) need only Because the web is slender.'i"'" =o : 1 . yF.  0'25 in 1(3'5 J in)'= 3. the member is classified as a plate girder. Change the web thickness moment and shear strengths.000sd. f. 2t" 2xlin (AG211\ v. L : r. Determining S. 63.0005 x 0. 36 ksi (AG24) R. 6. is the minimum of (AG21) (AG22) For a doubly symmetric shape.8) Vn V:o / Because A< A. See Prob.1 and Fig.
ffi0 k (r'o1ff : \F : 2^ 4) c:": W. l fl8inx(lin)r + (18 in x t in)(28. 6.000 v. The nominal shear strength is obtained from Eq.4.6An" f:T91 . Shear strength for an unstiffened web is governed by Eq. Assume a : 24 in.:0. 6. = s.90 x 38. : 3.1 kips : 34.: 234 tz'z (:: #. To determine C".ror(Y Equation [5. we have v. 15.\Vrt: . : Zf03 in" = I 135 in' 29 in x 9t91136 kips/in'z: 3337 1135 in3 kipft The design flexural strength QuM":0.13f.1kips The design shear strength Q"V.' . (AG36) Substituting for C" in F.14]. (AG33) in this chapter: V^:0.4ffi _(58in x x 32.3 kips. s * 1z+fi 561.6A*4C".2 (56 in/0. [5.q'? t*)' \h / :38.90 x 3337 kipft : 3003 kipft.Rp6F.5. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 75 The contributions of the two flanses and the web to the moment of inertia 1. on hlt*. (AG33).:Aryry = (58 in x (224. hI t* : 56 inl 0.121. :0.: 44.25 in : 224. to increase shear Tension field action is not permitted for end panels of girders.fi bv Eq.400 k 1n1t*f 0.ln lt*).CHAP.25 in)26.in)'12 Lfij :29.0 * ' .are u$*o. in Prob. depending Here. 14] governs !76:87 '2) sn .25 in)132.: t: Since 5+ ds: 224).^* 26.659 ina s M.3. Design web stiffeners for the end panels of the plate girder strength.\ 0.q.244 ina 0.f y _A .25(56 in)3 LZ * U. or [5.25 in)'? : 246 kips .
(AG32)..V":0.33 ino > 4. v. is determined from F.2.:224.r. As in Prob.66 in: Any pair of stiffener plates (A. and (AG51). Stiffener design taking advantage of tension field action must comply with formulas 16.000 0.!..000 x 32.'sor.4".ooo..78) xffikips 18(0.= (n4f x36 44. Checking formula (AG42). .ts* .4 for an intermediate web panel.4.76 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP.>24 in x (0.90 x 300 kips : 270 kips. hlt".25in) x :o5T fo. 6 The design shear strength becomes Q"V":0.35 in* o.25 in)'l : . : 't ]l Ll5Vt+\alDzJ v.l  0. 6.l in [The moment of inertia of the stiffener pair about the web centerline / 6.'. (a) A single stiffener plate 4 in x j in I 36 270 .atlj where .l 'r The design shear strength is Q.2]. _ 0. a large increase over the 34.4 comply with formula [6..90 x 246 kips : 221 kips.0 x s6 in x 0. ) h rar'l>o V": e.4xs6in x0.5 'i= lalhl' : Q^'"stfr2: rr'6 1. including tension field action..25in x (1 0. k:32...2]: 1".f0.lC. + The nominal shear strength (including tension field action) is governed by Eq.21.78) x 270 ffi kips l8(0..15y'1 +(24inl56int.25 x (6.5. = *fr  0.] (b) A pair of stiffener plates 3 in x .=ffiksi I10.2s'n)'l 0.02in' Any single stiffener plate 36 ksi (.?. ts x 1.6x (58in x 0.25 in x ( I   0.. (b) A pair of stiffener plates 3 in x ] in o. > 0) is okay.: 270 kips.3kip strength of an unstiffened web (in Prob.' .25 in)r x 11.. 6..k. 'cffip .6A *F.. and C. 6. ^ c': k 44.35 ina Among the possible stiffener configurations are (a) A single stiffener plate 4 in x J in [The moment of inertia of the single stiffener about the face of the web 1.=.2 =o'78 WhfF.6:4.9..  0'25 in x ) (4 in)': 5. 6.tr Assume c. (AG42).3). Stiffener design (with no tension field action) consists of complying with Formula [6..15 x 2.r2>0.o* in' I 1. The designs in the solution to Prob.V.=*.=l :. we obtain o..25 inlr i:: 5'09 ina > 4'35 in' o'k'l Repeat Prob. > 0) is satisfactory.2. (AG36).:0.
Repeat Prob. crosssectional area A: (30 in (i : 128.*:*:o.1. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 77 Regarding criterion (AG51) (flexureshear interaction): V.63) with the following changes: br:30in.6.7)< The flanges and web are noncompact.0). if the 6. 6. 63.0) < (. Flange .\/FlFy + 165. lZ": 3337kipft (from Prob. The contributions of the two flanses .w From Prob.:270kips.0) <( .. According to the AISC LRFD Specification (App. Let the required flexural strength M. : 161. L6:40ft.: 65 65 10.3)..s .:1.22in h 2000 2000 37::: I* VR V:O ln stiffened girders (alh>1.. in unstiffened girders hlt mrst be less than 260. and C6:1. Determine the minimum web thickness for the plate girder in Fig. However. : 10.:24.l6.8 _: _: ' vF" v36 trr . because of the need to weld (the flange plates and stiffeners) to the web. = 106.<M.<Mrfor the limit states of FLB and WLB.\66(36 + 16i) :322 The minimum web thickness: h.CHAP.: 15.44 in) = 84.8) < (. h <260 In stiffened girders implies that t*> h 260: 56in (alhI. M* is determined using the linear interpolation F.5 in'. ts'o 106 vn.500kipft at the same cross section. 6. The theoretical minimum web thicknesses for this plate girder are 0. (i..17in if stiffened.000 14. assume .7.5): ^:0.4'36 steel.7) M.17in JJJ JJJ stiffeners are closely spaced (alh. 106 __= v36  r6. both with and without web stiffeners. (AF13). a web thickness of less than j in is inadvisable. Because ('% : #ffi : 0'18/rt)' (r :: ft= "" #ffi : ''tzftt) criterion (AG51) (flexureshear interaction) need not be satisfied. Checking compactness with Table 61 (for a doubly symmetric Ishape bending about its major axis): Flange Flange ^ b bt i==ir:2.1.L+.q. G).75. Regarding lateral bracing and the limit state of LTB: i: L1.30in ^: A. V":300 kips.s For the flange. 'fne x 1 in)2 + (56 in x 0.5).5): _< 1jj h 14. .000 t.1 (Fig.6.22in if not stiffened and 0. In both cases. 6.f r.1. where r" =l/Lle. for the web (which has not changed) (4.
(f.I.200 ksi.44 in)3]] = 2r.78 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP.: (36 . Esoo t't' : V s+s irr 40 7'30 in ^ i:: Lo f. as follows. Then y._4lt.5 in: E: 29.J 300 12 inlft :o5.(d .4)' x _n lrcte 2' F.5) ksi = 19. G : 11.403 ino *: tt. 300 V:o_: ru. . 5.1/ t + Vt + X. 6 and the web to the moment of inertia 1" are t" = For LTB. are : 0.16. .tr)'z\ll\'= f s.5 ksi.\' x2:oi\a) =>b:' = 1 ttro in x JJ (1 in)312 + [56 in x (0.. tr. c"/s.. (F16).u For LTB.: d lz: 58'r"lz:29 i" The contributions of the two flanges and the web to the moment of inertia 1.000 ksi.u For LTB ^.r/)l' . . (F18). and (F19) in A.l4(d . A :84.lool.V .: where a: ft.6ina For lshaped members.LL r' :.tr)r. J ''=s. can be determined (as indicated in Table 61) from Eqs.1 1.44 in 48.'"": leor inl . \GJ I L GJ I ^I.F. g*= lrl4(d .740 ino x (56 in)3 : 6. ft x * tn /.: t/E: Chap.
The design flexural strength QoM".1.7 with an additional change.5 (for a stiffened web). = in3 F"Z. 36 kipslln':I2053 inr = 6159 kipft For LTB and FLB M..CHAP. and the "noncompact beam" provisions of this chapter apply. 2 Flanges 2 halfWebs [(30 in x 1 in) x 28. it is evident that FLB governs for minimum M".. M". 6.6 ino f' 2 :o ro " 900 19.4)S. = \S^ 36 kips/in: x l90l inl :5703 kipft The various results for 7 and M are plotted in Fig.: FrZ' f (4.:0..44 in) x 14 inl2 : 1710 in3 = 343 in3 Z. ror noncompact beam.. Repeat Prob. the upper and lower halves of the web are taken separately.s :144.. is.he member is a rn summary... 6. From the figure. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 79 *t:l[ 'For LTB. The thickness of the web is t*: !in.90 x 5182 kipft The design shear strength is 184 kips as in Prob. . : 4664 kipft. (AFl2) and (AF13). Mr... The equationsfor Mrand M. we obtain Mo.. A : 1901 in3 t x (58  1) in t.4.E.. and 6. M":1is.ha.i:*::?...3 For the limit state of LTB A<).:2053 Determining flexural strengths.5 in]2 [(28 in x 0."ffi.3 (for an unstiffened web). The design shear strength is as in Probs.zoo ksi x 2l.:.:5182 kipft. 6. = (F.::. 6. are given in Table 61 (for a doubly symmetric I shape bending about its major axis) a. To determine for LTB and FLB ror wLB 2..hree.20(19. 2. or by solving Eqs.. 68.5 1 + 0. 6. In calculating we obtain >AD.4)s" : 3089 kipft For WLB M.
3089 kipff 65.75 is stated in Prob.25 in) :32.r) (L e The appropriate equations arc (AG21) to (AG214).= 0.J zz. V36 .3 Lo l:zn"r :40 fta=1. .25 in)l ::: rn L2 :n 2250in' 4 : (30 in x 1 in) + (9.5)<(1.:50.'' 12 Flange +0 :2250in4 * weu 9..9.3 in x in 0.:8..1. 10]. ) =y+ : zz4\ \t. Cr:1..7.80 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP. :\/I. 69.8 tro : 50'0 ). vro Determining r'.25 in 'l > \V4.r.: lE= vT6: ^ 7s6=:$:no.3 in2 n: I: [5. t: M^ = (LTB. (.: 5182 kipft Md= 5406 kipft (LTB. The value of Co is normally determined from Eq.:126.75) : M. the plate girder provisions must be applied because :# :.o n'=rt.u of a segment consisting of the compression flange plus "S*oo' in x (30 in)3 '. = 3089 kipft (FLB) '.0).6E Regarding flexural strength. For the limit state of LTB.0 \YJ r. 6 M' = 6159 kiPft M^ = 5703 kipft (v M.7 t=15 FLB Fig. however.lin. For LTB. = 106.l onesixth of the web.0)<(i:57.3 in x (0." .u.3 lo=10. 300 300 )u. = 144. Ct 1. 6.2 f7 6.8TI. (See Fig.) Element 1  . )': Lalrr ^. *.Cr:1.=24.J rn in/ft: . we obtain r..
: S.:25.c : 1 .8) < (.. 69 Regarding the limit state of FLB lin la I =56in u : 9. we obtain D.6565 io.t: 15. : 1 0 x 3orcifr . I / ll^rl 4 : r 75x 36 ksifr 36 ksi (#ffi)] = :o r. M*: (AG22) governs. : &. = c.:G=v36= r _150:150:r. S. :36 ksi).47 x(# #) M^: S*Rp6F" = t. for both LTB and FLB.o.7 ksi (fFiH] =rrci #) = r. n. is the lower value obtained on the basis of LTB and FLB. Because 7...n :W: "'u For FLB. : 30. S*Rp6F. Cu: 1.O). 30.CHAP. Also.25 in Fig.ll For LTB.ooos x 0.8 ^.*tr*0.1. Eq.<).3 in bt : 'otn 1: 2r" 2x1in : " "'o .7 ksi) < (4.F.<.: For FLB E. (d. (AG25) applies in both cases.i 4. (1" = 10. I t\L _ t))= .25 in :o'ot R. 6l NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 81 _L I Tn I _+l F_ 0. Eq.0 for FLB.: R pc ='t .. (AG22) Because the plate girder is doubly symmetric.o 4. .(L in x o': 56.o.ooosa.0) <( .o RPc:0'99 For the limit state of tension flange yielding (AG21) For the limit state of compression flange buckling. The critical compression flange stress d.
refer to Fig. I rl a I _l I Trl I ::t L +l Fig. t: lin.436 steel.82 NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS lcHAP.s : 4: c 52'399 in^: 58inl2 r8o7 inr The nominal flexural strength M^. The design shear strength. Lr:0. 610 6.99 x 30. 610 and determine (a) (b) (. Assume . (c) Q"V":391kips.Rpc4. br T : 13 in. beam. The design flexural strength.: S.0.90 x 4576 : 4119 kipft. Ans.740 inn x (56 in)3 : 3. 6. or plate girder.7 ksi 12inlft kipft : 0. .: : 0.) Whether the flexural member is a compact beam.: :4576 kipft The design flexural strength QrM^ L807 in3 x 0.9. ty :2in.9 to 6. Supplementary Problems For Probs. 6 Determining S. (a) Noncompact (b) QoM^: 7829 kiPft.25 in 48. noncompact beam.I2.659 ina . Ct:I.
/r: i in.. br:26 in. Ans.14. For the plate girder with stiffeners in Prob. Design stiffeners to increase the design shear strength of the plate girder Neglect tension field action. (b) Q. 5 in x ] in stiffener plates or pairs of 4 in x ] stiffener plates. (c) Q.: I in. (a) Noncompact beam. NONCOMPACT BEAMS AND PLATE GIRDERS 83 6. (b) Q.. (a) Plate girder. spaced at ft 0 in in either 6. br 13 in. 6. tt t* : lrin.:5763 kipft. Single case.M".13.72. r.V":25 kips. kips. 6.13.:381 6. (c) Q. (a) Plate girder. 6I : :2in.. in Prob.CHAP. t" : J in.12 to 280 kips. Ans.10. Ans. Q.V.11.V":371 kips. determine the design action is included.. t. (r) Q. = 1 in. br:26 in.V":24 kips. Ans. 6. (b) QrM*:7406 kipft. shear strength if tension field . 6. 2 Ans.M*:5955 kipft.
kips major principal centroidal axis minor principal centroidal axis QuMn. 71 Combined tension and flexure 84 .Pn: design tensile strength. kipin or kipft n6inal flexural strength for xaxis bending. kipin or kipft Mu. kipin or kipft 4r.: design flexural strength for xaxis bending.( T (b) (c) ll ll J* Fig. kips required tensile strength. kipin or kipft Mn" = P: axial tensile force.Chapter 7 Members in Flexure and Tension NOTATION e: eccentricity. kipin or kipft QrM: design flexural strength for yaxis bending.90 or 0.) INTRODUCTION This chapter applies to singly and doubly symmetric members subjected to combined axial tension and bending about one or both principal axes.: P. 71(a) to the centroidal axis of the member.90 Q. kipin or kipft Mn": nominal flexural strength for yaxis bending.75 (See Chap. : resistance factor for flexure :0. as in Tr ll ll lll "Ll r \al <. kipin or kipft Mur: required flexural strength for yaxis bending. 3.: y: x nominal tensile strength. kips dr: resistance factor for tension :0. in or ft M: bending moment.: required flexural strength for xaxis bending. The combination of tension with flexure can result from any of the following: (1) A tensile force that is eccentric with respect Fig. kips P.
r) are the required tensile and flexural strengths calculated from the combinations of factored loads in Chap. 73.P") <0.u:0). +:l M.tl e. They are also valid for uniaxial bending (i..Pn M" 4')=i. :. P" +P^'9ioM.CHAP. Cr:1. Interaction formulas (H 11a) and (H 11b) modified for axial load combined with bending about one axis only 72 Solved Problems 7. Try orientations (a) to (c) in Fig.2 + P. 72. The subscript x refers to bending about the major principal centroidal (or x) axis.1.l=t.0. i M. if Mu.r 2 \+p^l M. y refers to the minor principal centroidal For (P"lQ.o (H11a) + (H11b) 'u *( 2Q. and M.. :lil+ P. The terms in the denominators are as follows: Q. M*. Find the lightest W8 in .. in which case they can be plotted as in Fig.2 p./ ln these interaction formulas.P^ \QnM^" QrMn.lQ.2 (or y) axis. lrP.9 l +bM" luM^ Flg. 2.:0 or M.P.. 3. 5 or 6.{36 steel to support a factored load of 100 kips in tension with an eccentricity of 6 in. s.) = 0. ll(b) (3) A beam transmitting wind or other axial forces.' 0. 7l MEMBERS IN FLEXURE AND TENSION 85 (2) A tension member subjected to lateral force or moment... the terms in the numerators (P. as in Fig. g I i+=l sr#in+ffi)=r'c ?+. The member is 6 ft long and is laterally braced only at the supports. is the design tensile strength as determined in Chap. as in Fig. and Q6M^ is the design flexural strength as determined in Chap. {P.M"  ' 0. . 4. whichever is applicable: For (P.P. 7l(c) INTERACTION FORMULAS The cross sections of members with combined flexure and tension must comply with Formula (H11a) or (H11b).. Interaction formulas (H11a) and (H11b) cover the general case of axial force combined with biaxial bending.e.
/ \=r.86 MEMBERS IN FLEXURE AND TENSION lcHAP.2kiptr M. +0):0.90 x 27.73 p.tin'.rz+! l.61:0.: : 100 p. try a W8x28. Eq.37>0.8 ft)..2kipfr. [5.e8<1.Z.4 For (L6 : Q. QoM".\'lo.90 x 10.4 kipft / : 100 kips. s. Eq.2 Q. (D11)] Try a W8x28: the design tensile strength (for a cross section with no holes) Q.9llPt :0.: QuZrF 50 kipft Again.0 ' 9 \73.F. &*9 ( M^ * 4.4kipft which is also the tabulated value for QuMo for a W8x28 in the Beam Selection Table in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual. 7 Fig. M*:0.P" 267 kips the first of the two interaction formulas applies.1 in3 l2'r"/ft :27.6]) x 36 ksi : Because 0.90 x x 8. . Since P: :1o.e  100\ips 12 inlft I 6 in: 50 kipfr For orientation (a) in Fig.r:27. For all Lo.P" 9 For orientation (b) in Fig.FrAr 36 ksi :0.37+0. : 100 kips. 3. [5.o o. Eq. \QbM* Q. Mu":0 [Chap. 0.0 ft) < (Lo:6. M. Try a W8x48: Ar:t4.2 in3 x 36 ksi (Chap.7]) 12inlft =73.73 P.. o. s. the design flexural strength for xaxis bending QoM*: QrMo: Q.k. a W8x28 is inadequate.?0. the design flexural strength for yaxis bending QoM: QuMr: (chap.25 in'z= 267 kips : 6. 7. M* : 50 kipft. M.3 Q kips.r:5okipft>QuM.
fl) : In Interaction Formula (H11a\ o zr + "' 0.0 ?o Y\ krptt / : e cos 45":6 in x 0.e4 < 1.F. +_l 0..e.Eu.7 ft) QnM* = QuMo: Q. As above '* liiJno ''":35.72:0. 5): L^ =:: . = For orientation (c) in Fig. P" Q.P.100 kios x 4.90 x 49. '+ M. Since (1. 5Ur. From Eq.) = u.22>0..2.. ' vF.'' " o. Given are M*: 54 kipft and M* :0.n 0.2in :35. .P" 457 kips Q.A.1: Q.75 = 0. [5.22 + 0.CHAP. Determine the maximum axial tension that can be sustained by a continuously braced W10x19 beam with a required flexural strength M*:54kipft." t "'l<lo g \ QnM.1kipft P..k.P"):(100kips/457kips):0.k. 300r. Referring to Fig. as The most efficient conflguration is orientation (a).e. +l (o * bl...zz 8 r M". s. M.27+0.90 x 22.. (FLa) (Chap.1 Q.22>0.:0.Z.2.0 in3 x 36ksi l2'"rlft = 132 kipft kipfti 135'4kipft*' 35'4 \ t:Z tiptt 61.: M: Again.90 Because !+ tn in: = 457 kips (P"lQ.rr + 0."lft 36 :61'8 kiPft x 14.2 Q.08 300r.707 : 4.22+8Q. L" and Q6M* can be calculated. : 6.8 kipft/ 9 0. Eq.interaction formula (H11a) again applies.2in e" : e sin 45' : 6 in x 0. 7j MEMBERS IN FLEXURE AND TENSION 87 Zy = 22. j : v36 = 50 x 2.9 in' x x 36 ksi 12.'l t'. try a W8x48.707 :4. assume that the load is eccentric with respect to both principal axes. strong axis bending.4 kiprr P: : l9+'P' :0. in: 104 in:8."" ."J .0 o. 436 steel. 73.57) I =.2 in e. 73(c) P. which requires a W8x28 opposed to a W8x48 for the other two cases.9 in3 QoM"': 0.F.0 ft) < (L. :8. 7. QoM.7 ft (Chap.= 61'8 kiPft Although the W8x48 is not listed in the Beam Selection Table in the AISC LRFD Manual.97 < 1.M.
Interaction Formula (H11b) is applicable For P" :0.: Since Lu o. QoM* = QtM...66 *".The beam is of . respectively.rl P" P" +( M* + 4' \=r. N".and yaxis bending. the latter interaction formula qoverns.P^)<0. .3 kipft (436 steel) as listed in the Beam Selection Table in the AISC LRFD Manual.o "" + (o'o: + o') = o 2 \' 182tiP5 f.0kip_ft ."'u) where s'o xiP''x rz rt: L l5. 74.2. Formula (H11b) reduces to P"lP":0<0." QoM. N" . M". M^ M" It must first be : N.: 30': kips x 0. * '" ''n QoM* QoM..A.As shown in Fig. and M. the factored force N" is skewed with respect to the principal axes.866: 8.9o x * H x 5..\ : Q.:58.88 MEMBERS IN FLEXURE AND TENSION lcHAP.:__f kips x l2 ft :26.0 kips The respective bending moments are 8.36 steel and has lateral bracing only at the supports.2 is required. as follows. Consequently. < L. are the required flexural strengths for x.62in2 : 182 kips :0. sin 30o: 10 kips 10 x 0. zQ..P" \QnM..4. cos N. __ 54 kipft _ n o. resolved into components parallel to each principal axis.74 This is a case of biaxial bending with no axial load since (f":01. 7.3 kipft Inspection of Formulas (H11a) and (H11b) indicates that (P"lQ.o kipft ''"'r' M. 6ft Fig.. . 7 For a W10x19 Q.500: 5. i! 6ft . < 26 kips The maximum required (or factored) axial tensile force is 26 kips.F. 74. Check the adequacy of a W10x30 as a simply supported beam carrying the concentrated factored load shown in Fig.66 kips N".3.. QnM^ 58.
4. 0. 76.17in2.0 o.31 + 0. Z:4.9 kipft =.0 ft. 5.4 kipft for the W10x30. For a simple beam. we obtain 26.4 kipft l. see Fig.: Q. luM* : 83. 7.k.17 in : 103 kips . 75.0) can be determined either directly from the beam graphs in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual or by interpolation of the data in the Beam Selection Table presented therein.0 ft Fig.2 kipft 30 w10 x C':l0 Ln : 12.0kipfr n kipft 23. determine the maximum acceptable eccentricity e.. Llllr q JT <+ r{" Fig. For yaxis bending (regardless of L6) erM^.90 x 36 !S tn x 3. 75 Using either method one obtains QrM*:83.= 0.A. 7l MEMBERS IN FLEXURE AND TENSION 89 The design flexural strengths are determined as in Chap.m3c# CHAP.P. : O. QoM* (Lo: 12. Here Q.94 < 1.F.0. For .0kipft 83. C6 = 1.{36 steel. Cn : 1.63 :0. 76 P" = a0 kips. A 4indiameter standard pipe hanger (A:3.M^ :63. The latter procedure is shown in Fig.9 kipft Substituting in the interaction formula for biaxial bending (4.4 * l5.: eoZ"F" 0'90 x 8'84 inr x 36 ksi: 12inlft 23.31in3) supports a factored load of 40kips. For xaxis bending.
:20kips. Repeat Prob.: P"e.6."" e <2.31 in' x 36l$: lnSubstituting in the modified Formula (H11a).9 l40 kipin .M^: Q. 7. 7 Because o9f"o':o'3e>o'2 ": = Q.436 steel to resist an axial tension P.Mo: QrZF.n 0.39+qrr4okiPttt=.7. e<6... 103 kips use Formula (H11a).P. Ans.O.4 in Supplementary Problems 7. . 8 M' l'o an+ g ahM"= M.. For all Ln.n "'. Ans.. we have tou o... Select the leastweight W12 in .:0.4 for P.90 x 4.:100 kipft and M.3in. Q. which for uniaxial bending becomes P. Because it has no "strong" and "weak" axes.90 MEMBERS IN FLEXURE AND TENSION lcHAP.5. W12x72. = 50 kipft. a pipe section cannot fail in lateraltorsional buckling.=200kips combined with M.
: sum for all columns in a story of Q and P. kipin or kipft m : a factor given in Table 81 for use in F. kips D P".a. kipin or kipft Mr : smaller end moment in an unbraced length of beam. : translational deflection of the story under consideration. for xaxis bending.r: Mu for yaxis bending. kipin or kipft M.F1 : horizontal force.7.. (H14) E : modulus of elasticity of steel : 29.2] x: major principal centroidal axis / : minor principal centroidal axis Ao. (H15) and (H 16) Br: C^:coeffi. to be checked against the Column Load Table in AISC LRFD Manual U: a factor given in Table 81 for use in Eq. 18. kips P" = a function of K/ defined by Eq.21 P : axial compressive force.: M. in M: bending moment. : nominal compressive strength.. kips P.order factored moment assuming no lateral frame translation.000 ksi . kipin or kipft M.. in / : unbraced length. Chapter 8 BeamColumns: Combined Flexure and Compression NOTATION morlent magnification factor for beamcolumns defined in Eq. kipin or kipft M. : 6. kipin or kipft M./]. kips P.cient for beamcolumns defined in Eq. [8. [8. respectively QaM*: design flexural strength for xaxis bending.. kipin or kipft Mu.:required flexural strength including secondorder effects.n:effective axial load for a beamcolumn.der factored moment due to lateral frame translation. inr K: the effective length factor L : story height. in D n : sum of all horizontal forces producing A..l: moment of inertia. kips &. kips . kipin or kipft Mz:larger end moment in an unbraced length of beam.r. : required compressive strength. kipin or kipft Mn : 6rtro. kipin or kipft M.!*. (H13) Bz: morl€nt magnification factor for beamcolumns defined in Eqs.q.: nsmital flexural strength for xaxis bending." : neinal flexural strength for yaxis bending. EP. kipin or kipft 9l .
For (P. as in Fig. 81(b)..P.r.D. !o\=r. as in Fig.. 81(c). 8 QnM^r: design flexural strength for yaxis bending.l Q..) <0.92 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION [CHAP.90 @6 Q. 1F lP L \a) il n "ll ll ll _ll t I rWz . (b) Fig.Pn: design compressive strength. kips 0.2 j+*:(:?*l!r)= p" e.P^) . M.. whichever is applicable.. kipin or kipft : required compressive strength (based on the factored loads).lQ. 81 Combined compression and flexure INTERACTION FORMULAS The cross sections of beamcolumns must comply with formula (H11a) or (H11b).:required flexural strengths (based on the factored loads) including secondorder effects. The combination of compression with flexure may result from (either) (a) A compressive (b) (c) A beam transmitting wind or other axial forces. 9 \ enM.l> (c) +b .2 ^1": 2Q.ilil . For beamcolumns: M. 7. there are some significant differences in the definitions of the terms. as in Fig. kips ^fl. . 81(a) A column subjected to lateral force or moment..o +(+:* QnMnr/ (Hlrb) Although the interaction formulas for beamcolumns appear identical with their counterparts in Chap.. force that is eccentric with respect to the centroidal axis of the column.0.85 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers singly and doubly symmetric beamcolumns: members subjected to combined axial compression and bending about one or both principal axes. : resistance factor for compression :0. enMnr/ r o (H11a) For (P.P^ 'QoMn. kipin or kipft : resistance factor for flexure :0.
the required flexural strength in a member assuming there is no lateral translation of the structure. Normally.+R.. they are multiplie<l by their respective magnification B' and Bt.r) axis. QnM^.lhe required flexural strength in a member due to lateral frame translation.:81M..=0. (a) apply fictitious horizontal reactions at each floor level to prevent lateral translation and (b) use the reverse of these reactions as "sway forces" to obtain M... M." V.90 as determined Q. M1. Fig.e.. Tl satisfy the AISC LRFD Specificatioii.CHAP. In a braced frame. the AISC LRFD Specification presents a simplified alternative method. factors.. Secondorder effects are neglected. (H 12) . if either the vertical loads (i. Original frame = nonsway trame for M^. In an unbraced frame.85 @6 : resistance factor for flexure:0..+ B2Mr... M7. 8l BEAM.5 or 6. This procedure is illustrated in Fig. M.. that is. from the vertical loads is zero.sway forces.e. =design flexural strengths as determined in Chap. lateral translation occurs and M1.Pn: design compressive strength The subscript r refers to bending about the major principal centroidal (or . secondorder monrents in beamcolumns must be considered in their design. M. and M. calculated manually or by computer. the everyday methods used in practice (whether done manually or by one of the popular computer programs) assume the forces as acting on the original undeflected structure. Insiead of rigorous sec'rndorCer analysis. kipin or kipft @. As is indicated there.... = resistance factor for compression : 0. To determine M. M. Once Mn. for an unbracecl frame is the sum of the moments due to the lateral loads and the '.. minor principal centroidal (or y) axis.ORDER ANALYSIS Secondorder moments in beamcolumns are the additional moments caused by the axial compressive forces acting on a displaced structure.. and added to approximate the actual secondorder factored moment M. However. and M1. + sway frame for M. 82 Frame models for M. y refers to the SIMPLIFIED SECOND. Mn. l'he components of the total factored moment determined from a firstorder elastic analysis (neglecting secondary effects) are divided into two groups. structural analysis is firstorder. 2.*0. and M1...COLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION 93 in Chap. It includes the firstorder moments resulting from the gravity loads (i. includes the moments from the lateral loads. dead and live loads). have been obtained. 82. 1' Mn. 4. If both the frame and its vertical loads are symmetric. kips QoM*... dead and live loads) or the frame geometry is asymmetric and the frame is not braced.
and B... kips (H 13) . then Mtl M2 is negative. C. llM.(.(Kt1' [8. Fig. tl ll =Mt.0. I is the moment of inertia (ina).r] where K : I.t 94 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION lcHAP..85. = B. n'EI '" . (2) For beamcolumns subjected to transverse loads between supports. (a) column in braced frame.:.:0. M.6 . if the ends are unrestrained against rotation.. If the rotations due to end moments Myand M2arc in opposite directions. (1) For restrained beamcolumns not subjected to transverse loads between their supports in the plane of bending C^:0. (Both 1 and / are taken in the plane of bending only.+PL =BzMn .A effect in unbraced frames. C^: 7'0' Two equations are given for 82 in the AISC LRFD Specification: Bc:tE 1 P.L=l.) where P.. otherwise Mtl Mzis positive.h) 'DP" (H1s) ur:h (H16) .) A \r" t/ M. covers the P . + Pd lt 1 (b) t :HL ". is the ratio of the smaller to larger moment at the ends of the portion of the member unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration.o (t P"lP. Bt accounts for the secondary P . (b) column in unbraced frame The coefficient C.6 effect in all frames (including swayinhibited). and / is the unbraced length (in). is the factored axial compressive force in the member. The analytical expressions for 81 and 82 follow. B. 83.is determined as follows. (a) 83 Illustrations of secondary effects. 8 As shown in Fig. if the ends are restrained against rotation.O O# (H14) where Mrl M.: M^.
and. Eq.9 2. and M.9 2.2 3. .8 2.4 2. Equation (H 15) is generally the more convenient of the two formulas for evaluating 82. have been evaluated.. considering the actual K and / of each column in its plane of bending.rm * M.5 2.4 2.).1 2. The quantity L"nlL is the s/ory drift index.0 2. and Mu. M.e. [8.21.o<the tabulated e.=i.8 2.e.rare as defined in interaction formulas (H11a) and(H11b) (P.. 18. M*. P". two values of B. 1].3 2. in E P": summation of P. m and u are factors from Table g1.8 1. the total factored gravity load above that level). kips A.4 2.8 3. one for each majoi direction. for all colunrns in a ."r: Pu I M. w4 w5 f1 10 1a IL t4 l6 18 20 >22 U w6 w8 w10 wl2 w14 4. kips l.5 verified with formula (H1ta) or (H1tb\.2) where &.5 1.4 3.. select a W14 section for a beamcolumn (in a braced frame) with the following of factored loads: f. adapted from the AISC LRFD Manual.0 r. kips. it should be Solved Problems 8. Once a satisfactory trial section has been selected (i. In 436 combination steel.4 2. for each story.0 2..9 2.3 2..5 1.8 2.5 1..4 3.r. Often.:36 ksi KL..7 3.0 l..0 i.6 : translational deflection of the story under consideration.wIJ 81 Values of m and U for Eq. for the applicable interaction formula.9 1." and Brr) are needed for each column and two values of B.4 2. [8. : story height.:200kipft.7 1.4 2..P.0 1.5 3. M. 8i BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSIOn\ 95 where EPu:required axial strength of all columns in a story (i. B. Using it in Eq.6 3.ry: CHAP.2 3.4 1.tory.r.9 2.8 3.4 2. especially for tall buildings.1 2.0 2.3 1. firstorder moments M. (Hl2) can be used to PRELIMINARY DESIGN The selection of a trial W shape for beamcolumn design can be facilitated by means of an approximate interaction equation given in the AISC LRFD Manual..1.o.3 2. (8. (H15) facilitates the determination of Br. the maximum drift index is a design criterion.. Values of P" are obtained from Eq..4 2.:800kips. Bending moments are converted to equivalent axial loads as follows. M.5 2.3 4.8 3. Once the appropriate Br and determine Mu. For columns with biaxial bending in frames unbraced in both directions..1 3.5 2. Table Pu.. kipft).u is the effective axial load to be checked against the Column Load Table in part 2 of the AISC LRFD Manual. in D A: sum of all horizontal forces producing A.0 2.p. m F.
0 and U P" : 1.:1. end moments in opposite directions). (H11a) or (H11b).i5+ r...e. [8.P"=1280 kips (>P.. 5 of this text or the Load Factor Design Selection Table for Beams in the AISC LRFD Manual.2] still leads to a W14x159 as the trial section. F..2 O. (the secondorder moment). we have p. [5. (H12). (Hf 3) B.0x15ft=15ft. For M.. M. 10] in Chap.63>0.4(1.0) : For a W14x159..os+ \M.219 Q.. For a braced frame.= 1900in' _l!= _.6:IzC0 kips) for a W14x159. we obtain + 200 x 2. 5: Ct : t.+o..2].P" +9 M"'.. W14 shape using Eq.e.L.5.0 1. (F/13) n'EI='ffi z':x 29. K:1. and no transverse loads along the member. equal and opposite end moments). Substituting in Eq. From Eq.:KrLr:1. t.0.o where C.m * M..4(MtlM) for beamcolumns not subjected to lateral loads between supports.t(*\ =z. M..'= Btx200kiPft According to Eq. For a W14 with KL = K... (Substituting M*:Zl1kipft in preliminary design. the basic equations are used instead.:0.:0.: Because the frame is braced.= 0. M.mU 15 ft m: 1.*: P.6 . reduces to P" Q./ M.1. the secondorder required flexural strength. (the design flexural strength). :Mz=200kipft in single curvature bending (i..:36ksi and KL:l1ft.:1ftp"=t.P" 1280 kiPs Use formula (H11a). : 0.= 81M.0.05 x 200kipft:210kipft.000 kips/in') x t900 ina : 16'78'l kins B':..*'frfrr**:r _ Sookips :0. refer to Chap. Try a W14x159. M". in Table 81.2].96 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION [CHAP.o 9 QoM* To determine OhM. use Eq. B1M* + B2Mk M.0 + "n:800 0: 1200 kips In the AISC Column Load Tables (p.0 for design (see Chap. M. for os Here.t ..q._ Mz 200 c". which.. Select a trial P.[8. The floortofloor height is 15 ft. Since the W14 x 159 is not tabulated therein. 8 single curvature bending (i..) Selecting the appropriate beamcolumn interaction formula. of the LRFD Manual) if 4. [8. or M.4).* M. To determine M.6 .0 ' In Eq..
:1.''."r: P.0 and U : 1.P":1430 kips (>P.2] : r 12 .05(1.0 in and (3oo x 4'oillr(tz in/rt) : .Lr:1:O0rrltf.0 for equal end moments in single curvature bending (i. 2I9 ot the AISC LRFD Manual. [8.  \/36 ft.24:0. which.q..e.5 : 14ffi kips In the Column Load Tables of the AISC LRFD Manual (p. For a W14x 159. n2 x29. 8. in3: J6 lips/in'?: M*: Z.7 tt) .5 (Table 81). it can be shown that a W14x145 is also adequate.F". .P" for 1570 kips = 4. 8] BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION 97 Again. As in Prob.: t.Frfor bendingaboutthetaxisif Lo<Lo(seeEq.7]).8ood#4m kbs M. rt Because (L.:0. (H13) B' : &.'. we obtain 8 210 kipft u'6r+etttkifi :0.0)'z= 1.0) + 0. Substituting KL.8.63 + 0.''. (the secondorder moment).219) if 4. Determining P.r:8oo +o+224 x 2.. : 15.0.': 1400 kips) for a WL4x 176..:0).:1.: K"L. r 1. M'lMr: 1.. Again. E. for a braced frame (M1.:36ksi and KL:l1ft. we obtain P". Assume the beamcolumn in Prob.0.. [5.l2 x 200 kipft : 224 kipft. M. use Eq.P" for W14x 176 W14x 193 (See p.0.75 + 1..3(1. By a similar solution of interaction formula (H11a). becomes M":BrM.CHAP. (1.. Try a W14x176. for yaxis bending of a W14x 176. [8.: The secondorder required flexural strength Substituting M"r:224 kipft in preliminary design Eq.0 ft) < (Lo : 16.mU : 800 + 0 + 200 x 2. (firstorder moments). M. that is.90 861 kipft x 861 kipft: 775 kipft Substituting the interaction formula. To determine M". end rotations in opposite directions). [8.1 is turned 90'.k.offi ksi/in']x 838 ino P":Grr:1'. for a braced frame. ft: 15 ft In selecting a trial W14 shape with E.0 If Cb=1.2]. = 0.2]. Ct.:Mo=Z. r":4.)for W shapes bent about the x axis [Eq.uu'y=74o3kiPs InF'q.. Select the appropriate W14 section. m :1. @Lql.:838 ino) ^ n'EI. (H12). Mn:2OOkipft K: 1.2.0 x 1.87 < 1.1. or M"":Brx200kipft.0 x 15 in Eq. 0.0 o.5 P". C^:1.) .2s7 12inlft and Q6M.. * M^m * M.0 x :147?kips > < 1430 kips : 4.
..98 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION ICHAP.=0.0 x Select a trial W14 shape using Eq. M*: Br. we obtain P". use Eq. Mr:200 kipft."n = 200 + 200 x 1.90 x 540 kipft : 486 kipft.. Substituting in Eq.:931 ino zr': p. From Eq..0 o.k. we obtain o. (the design flexural strength). 8 M^ a.lP. (H13) x 29. P.r"* sffi=t'o To determine fhM"...: 0. [8.0 x 15 ft x 12 in/ft)': 1. which. : L 11 x 200 kipft : 222kipft. C 1..41:0.liPs/in'z: 12inlft 540 kipft and QnM. K: 1. in Table 81. for a braced frame (M.4.. : o'5r > o'2 Use formula (H11a).21.mU KL: 15 ft.u: M". firstorder moments M. and Mu. = 800 kips c?o 6..0 and U: 1.0 . its ends are "pinned..5. = r.. reduces to (>{.0 x 1. 5 of this text.3. 8 Try a W14x 1.P" = 1280 kips Try a W14x 159.0 + 200 x 2. = 1. (for minoraxis bending) regardless of the unbraced length Lr. for M"...5 : 1200 kips In the Column Load Tables of the AISC LRFD Manual (p.51 + 0.r. For a W14 with 1 M. For a Wl4x 193.36 steel) For a braced frame.:36ksi and KL:I5tt. = K"L.L. for a beamcolumn in a braced frame with the factored loads: P":200kips. (H 12). 2.800 kipvrzz kips "u c. (H13) BryM^.. = t8o in''I. The 15ftlong beamcolumn is subjected to transverse loads. reduces to P.. :3= '^  . o.  P"tn. M. which. 0.."cr: P.: _C'. = ZrF.P.r: According to Eq. Substituting in the interaction formula.222kiPft 9 486 kipft : 8..M^.2]: 15 ft: 15 ft P.1r1: 1 . * 9 .m i M. : 1'11 P.. m:2.6].. if 4.:+4(Kl)' In Eq. = M.0. Selecting the appropriate beamcolumn interaction formula. 8." Select a W14 section (. and M. To determine the required secondorder moments.:0). refer to Chap.3o.. [5.o '.000 kips/in': x 931 ina:8224 kips (l. 219). 8..92 < 1. K. 0. (H11a) or (H11b) 1t:. 1200 kips) for a W14x 159.:200 kipft.0 u': The secondorder required flexural strength M. = 180 inl *. [8.93 I.
0).) Selecting the appropriate beamcolumn interaction formula.: 1'0.4.') M.=202kiptt and M. t5 fi t t. Use formula (H11b): 200 kios @.CHAP. : 400 kips.:206kipft. : 1.: I .". = 748 ino "2':  x 29.M". = 146 in'x 36 kios/in: n"rltt : 138 kiPft QoM. In ..1200k ips/16.o '" *(!++ 2q.. K : I.. (Substituting these values in preliminary design F.0 I B.86 < 1. can be determined from Eq.=^l '. : n'El. firstorder Mh. Qr.52 = 0..: r: x 29.. Cb =1. Ca : 1.. : C. (H1la) or (H11b).:0.1 was determined that for a W14x159 (Lb:15ft. For a W14x 159. \enM. /fr)': "'' ("JJ rnEq. Therefore. C.. )=r.: 146 inr.: I. : 1900 ina C^:1. all other moments equal zero. 1.l For a simply supported member (i. (H1j) 1.0l x 200 kipft = 202kiptt I. [5.. end moments Mr : Mz: 0). The allowable story drift index . 8] BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION 99 For a beamcolumn subjected to transverse loads and with ends unrestrained against rotation.03 x 200 kipft = 206 kipft The secondorder required flexural strengths are M. 1202 kipft . The value of QoM^.0. By a similar solution of interaction formula (H11b). Member length is 12 ft. 8.784 kips .r:M.P.. we obtain .. 8. (for minoraxis bending) regardless of the unbraced length Lr.: r28o k'ps : o'16 < o'2 M".0.:100 kipft due to wind..21 reconfirms a W14x159 as the trial section. 200 kips/6608 kips :r..9.$:ffi=66o8kipsinr In Eq.q. (Hl3) r.e.16 o.:775kipft..2) with the following factored loads: P.08 + 0.90 x 438 kipft:394 kipft Substituting in Interaction formula (H1lb).436 steel. P"":(K. Z.6]: M. 206kipft\ 2 * \775 ktpft * 394 kipft/ : 0.. 18. it M".000 kips/in': x 748 ^ n'El.o: 1.26 + 0.p. enM.000 kios/in2 x 1900 inr : ( lJ . select a 'N72 section for a beamcolumn (in a symmetric unbraced frame. For a Wl4x 159..k.0 0. we obtain P.''"' 16'78'l kips M. In the solution to Prob. it can be shown that a W14 x 145 is also adequate.=ZrF.
A"r/L:0.4.:0.21. _4oo kips = 0. Assume the beamcolumn in Prob. The total factored gravity load above this story is 4800 kips.. or 0.4 * M. Selecting the appropriate beamcolumn interaction formula.55 > 0...u: 683 kips) for a W12x96. By a similar solution of interaction formula (H11a). it can be shown that aWl2x87 and a W12x79 are also adequate. DP.l8 x 100 kipft: 118 kipft. as tabulated. M.:0.4. Given: P"=400kips.:4800kips..reduces to P" o.1: 4oo + o + 118 x2. KL : 1..:B2Mq.5 : 825 kips . 8.4. m :2.5.P": 732 kips (>P".4 + 0: 683 kips By interpolation in the Column Load Tables of the AISC LRFD Manual (p.2 x L2 ft = 1.y:100kipft.rmU where for aWl2 (KL:14.:0..g The design flexural strength QoM*for aWLZx.2 x 12 ft : 14. P. Mw:100kipft.mU f0. we obtain P.m * M. M.=400kips.:0.. (H12). where [according to Eq. Mt.0025) 180 kips d 1. we obtain P. (Hl5)] t':.18 The secondorder required flexural strength M.. Selecting a trial W12 shape with Eq.:a800kips.4 and U:1. "n = 400 + 118 x 2./L:0. The secondorder required flexural strength M.P" Use formula (H11a). Selecting a trial W12 shape with Eq.4 x 1. From Eq.9 tt). Q..: l.5. which.k. (H11a) or (H11b).y:0.o 9 397 kipft 0.e. Substitutine in the interaction formula: o.'m 1... From Eq. Given: 4.4 ft. Mr^=100kipft.0025.. if 4 :36 ksi and KL: t4. for P. * M. 84. A.'"n= P" where for a WIZ (KL = 14. Select the appropriate W12 section.n: P... Mn. i.0025. .26:0.18x 100kipft=118kipft. QoM* : QtMo = 397 kipft.. . * M. 8.100 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION ICHAP..:0. 8 (L"nlL) is afu.. 80 kips.96 can be determined from the Beam Selection Table on page 315 of the AISC LRFD Manual: because (Lo : 12 ft) < (Le : 12..:0. [8.4 ft. as a result of a total horizontal (unfactored) wind force of 80kips.2 732 kips M.4ft. we obtain O. [8. 8.55 + 0.4 is turned 90'.. XH: M*: BrM6.:1. XH: 80 kips. (H12).0025. M*. 224).ss+g*l18llpl =r.4ft). M.LH\rga L/ I _: 4800 kios (0. KL = 1.. M. where 82:1. M.18 as in Prob. m:2.81 < 1..2].P" *9 M"' 9 QoM* =1. and U : P.5.'..0 o.
From Eq. (for minoraxis bending) regardless of the unbraced length Lr. 84 Since M"o : Mn. see Fig. for M.000kips for bending about eastwest axes. reduces to P" *9 M. Mn.:100 kipft. K. firstorder moments M.o Q. For all columns in the story. Z": 85.P" 9 QuMTo determine QoM.88 < 1. _4oo kips:0. L P. Mur:100 kipft.ID P".4 in'. and X P.43 + 0.... 84' Column to be designed N Fig. Eq.u= 0.=30. The story height is 12ft. 8] BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION 101 By interpolation in the Column Load Tables (p. Selecting the appropriate beamcolumn interaction formula. 5 of this text. I EI _uzv rDP.. (H12) becomes M..:Ky:1. which.P" 920 kiPs Use formula (H11a).. refer to Chap.: 920 kips (>P". For a W12 x 120.0 o.:0.6.y:0.: factored Mn.=r.CHAP.000kips for Select a W12 section (A36 steel) loads: P.90 x 256 Substitution in the interaction formula yields 256 kipft kiPft: 231 kiPft 0.45 :0...lE P".. : 36 ksi and p.y:0. and 36tips/in' : l< r.6]. XP. O. : bending about northsouth axes. 223 in the AISC LRFD Manual). E. [5.: 3000kips. Q. (H16)l 82"M1. EP"=60. for a beamcolumn in a symmetric unbraced frame with the 150 kips. we obtain {. 1 .2. (the design flexural strength).P.85'4 inlt2inlft QrM. Mn.43 > 0.4ft."r: 825 kips) for a W12x 120.43+qr 118kiPrt 231 kipft 9 :0.. B2'M1''' D "x .2 : Mr: ZrF.. if KL: l4.k." .: M"'= where [according to Eq.
05 x 100 kipft : M. The design flexural strengths for a W12 x 106 can be determined as follows.000kips. 8. : I. (KL:l. Mno: Mnty:50 kipft..r:80 kipft (reverse curvature bending with equal end moments in the same direction in all cases.M".7... we obtain 105 11 kipft I kipft P.=60. Because (Lo:l2tt)< as tabulated in the Load Factor Design Selection Table for Beams (on p. 224 in the AISC LRFD Manual). 84).: Ly: 14ft.I x2. 1. [8.5 + 105 x 2. we obtain 9l!* 2 * I I I kiPft)I = t. QoM. { :36 1t1 p. it follows that Q.Mr:443kipft.21..0020.4 P".24 + 0. Mm: I20 kipft..0tr). Given: K..05 o ":" ..2x12ft=14.000kips.m: 150 and U:1. QrM.*= P. (L.4ft.. 315 of the AISC LRFD Manual). Try a W12 x 106.90 x 75.000 kips : 1.. . = K.. no transverse loads along the spin).7. and EPu=30..18 < 0. we obtain Bz': 1  3000 kips/60.2 *1 + 4. L..mU. Thastory height is 14 ft. The allowable story drift index is $. K'L.1 in3 for a W12x 106.u: 802 kips) for a W12 x 106.09 + 0. Use interaction formula @11b): _ 150 kips 811 kiPs O.I1 x 100 kipft : Selecting a trial W12 shape with F.P" .: K. The total factored gravity load above this level E P":6000kiPs.55 :0.r02 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION ICHAP. 1 in3 12inlft kipft 1 36 kips/in'z : 203 kip_ft Substituting in interaction formula (H11b). QhM*:Qt. it can be shown that a W12 x 96 is also adequate.q.811 kips (>P.. Q.4 + I1.. Df.L.r: QuMr: QrZrFr'..87 < 1. For all values of Lo.2 M.=3000kips. \= r. 8 From the statement of the problem. Substitutins. rt kips ''' ' The secondorder required flexural strengths are M. EP. 2Q. u.'. Select a W14 section (436 steel) for a beamcolumn in an unbraced frame with the factored loads: & : 300 kips.4ft).k.5. Zt = 75. Select the appropriate beamcolumn interaction formula. : l'2 x 14 ft : 16'8 ft .lb) . ( 105 t443 By a similar solution of interaction formula (H 1.. m:2. : L.P" : 0.4 x : 802 kips By interpolation in the Column Load Tables (on p. or 0. \ QnM"..r kipft 203 kipft 0.2. Mr." =0. K": Kr: 1..t. if and KL: l4.0 o.t M^m * where for aW1.I  I 3000 kips/30. due to total horizontal (unfactored) wind forces of 100 kips in the northsouth direction and 70kips in the eastwest direction (see Fig.P.000 .=l3.:1.
m =2. Q. 1.0 " r .. 8] BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION 103 The secondorder required flexural strengths [from Eq.44 kips (>P".ir: 300 + 187 x 2.0 + 147 x 2. (By contrast.o:1115kips) for a W14x145.60.0020) ::I..P. Ffr:= 1 B':.1. (and hence. and Btr) are unknown.0020) l. From Eq.(K"/.P":11.0 :1. D P.\ L Before the selection 81.p. 219 of the AISC LRFD Manual). and .0. [8.O x 50 kipft + 1. IntheequationforB. = 36 ksi and KL=16. and U:1.. B. = 1. Let 1 p u\ :  I  (6000 kips/100 kips)(0.B. in Eq.m where * M.2] yields P. K.lP".:86M.".=0.^: M. For reverse curvature bending with equal end MrlMr: +1. )' '' I n2 x29.0. (H 16) for B.0 R v :> 'v I = 1.5.4(MlMz):0..341 kips > 1. (Hl3). for a W14x145 moments.14 x 120 50 kipft: 187 kipft kipft + 1.isbasedonK/intheplaneof bendingwithK:1.0 .0 x I (6000 kips/70 kips)(0.. . (H13). (H14).rmU for aW1'4 (KL:16. : 1710 ina ^ ( n'EI. where + Bz'Mtu M.5 : 1115 kips By interpolation in the Column Load Tables (on p.* M."n: P. if {. Try a W14x145. P". First.8ft.EElr. ^ _____i '' .o x 14 ft x 12 in/ft)'z 0.^r 'tH..0 x 1. P.A t+{+} / DH.14 :l21 n ":' . is based on the actual K/ of each column in its plane of bending)..60'4(+1. t't) Bn: t c..I M. (H12)] are M^: BuM. and P". Referring to P.0):0.2. determine 8.2 300 kips/6865 krps 1.CHAP.0 0. C*: C^.341kips I.0 x 14 ft x 12 in/ft : 17.0..2 B. &. of a trial section. )' n2 x 29 .8ft).21x 80 kipft : 147 kipft Selecting a trial W14 shape with Eq.2.: n 6'77 ino ' n'EI.. C^:0. Br.._:  300 kips/17.=4>1. in Eq..000 kips/in'z ( 1 x 1710 ina )2 . : B1" : 1.." + B2yMrryc*.\ t / u:t \.000 kips/in'z x 677 ina : 6865 kips ( l.0.
Q.: QuMr: QrZ'F. [5.0) + 0.P" To determine the design flexural strengths Q6M."/ 9 \QnM.. Also.2. : 14 ft) <(L..0)'? < 2.90 x Substituting in interaction formula (H11a): 0.o 9 t702 kipft 359 kipft/ = R 0.q. For reverse curvature bending with equal end moments.1 with a W14x145.*: 187 kipft and M. Ans.e.26+ i Q.or a W14x 145 C.0 o. f..y: 147 kipft.86< 1.9.r04 BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION [CHAP. according to E. For Prob. 5. and Q6M.26 + QoZrF.6ft) < L^.75 + 1.41):0. the selection of a W14x145 as the trial section is valid. QtM. i.26>0.. Supplementary Problems E. (F14) in Chap.3(+1. Repeat Prob. 4')=r.27 + 0.05(+1.90 x 260 in3 x 36 kips/in'z A'. 133 i_n] 72 = 702 kipft xJ6 kips/in'z:359 inlft kip_ft q 187 kipft 147 kipf. . 8. the resulting secondorder required flexural strengths are M.o '" *9( '^ +QoM.E. Selecting the appropriate beamcolumn interaction formula.tlft QoM: QoMo: _ 0.P" 1144 kips Use formula (H11a).3 :2..: 16. 8. 0. Since (L.::$:_i:q'l : 16. It is satisfactorv.0 as originally estimated.6 rt x 12 in/ft " F" V V36 for a W14x145.k. correct. we obtain P.' *(#) +o t(ff)' =z t MrlMr: +1.\ 1 * r. Wl2x2l0 .0. Ans. (H11a) or (H11b). 8.3 u:309J.2 O. find the most economical W12.10]. Ct : I. _ 3ookips :0. 8 Since Bt. according to Eq.. (Lt: t4tt) =1 75.Brr:1.
W14x90. E. (a) Satisfactory.11. find the most Ans. 8l BEAMCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION 105 8. For Prob. Ans. economical Wl4. (. 8. 8.b) Unsatisfactory.7 with (a) AW14x132. tt. . 8.13. For Prob.14. (b) A W14x120. 8. (a) Satisfactory.3 with (a) A W14x145 (b) A w14x132 Ans. 8. find the most economical W14.5. Ans.CHAP. find the most economical Wl4. (b) Unsatisfactory. Ans.10.4. W14x82. Repeat Prob.12. For Prob. Repeat Prob. W14x99.6. 8. 8.
or twisting of cross sections. Such a calculation is unnecessary in most cases because the following rules (illustrated in Fig. kipin /: distributed torsional moment. In symmetric members (such as Ishaped beams). : required axial strength. ksi G : shear modulus of elasticity of steel : 11. or buckling. 106 .Chapter Torsion NOTATION of the web. which is also the center of rotation. and/or bending. in2 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers torsion. stress. For W and other doubly symmetric shapes. ksi total normal stress under factored loads. I : A. tension or compression. in M. in2 eccentricity with respect to the shear center. : required shear strength. can be located by equilibrium of the internal torsional shear stresses with the external torsional forces.7 : f. Venant torsion.. ksi normal stress due to (warping) torsion./ : torsional constant. acti:rg alone or in combination with tension. radians @: aPProPriate resistance factor zre?.200 ksi .. kipin P.: e: 4.. those most commonly used in construction. : f. kipin Mur: required flexural strength for yaxis bending.": required flexural strength for xaxis bending. compression. ksi total shear stress under factored loads. kips S. kips I : angle of rotation. Torsion. : 4. 91) are applicable. in3 S" : elastic section modulus for yaxis bending.: f. ina / : distance from the support. in critical. kipin/linear in V. in3 Z: concentrated torsional moment. ksi specified minimum yield stress. will result from the bending of unsymmetric members. : A crosssectional area of member. torsion will occur when the line of action of a lateral load does not pass through the shear center. ksi fuwr: shear stress due to warping torsion. SHEAR CENTER The shear center of a cross section. : elastic section modulus for xaxis bending. ksi fusr: shear stress due to St. The emphasis in this chapter is on torsion of symmetric shapes. the shear center is located at the centroid.
T or t. The following are suggestions for eliminating or reducing this kind of torsion. In the case of spandrel members supporting building facade elements. Torsion from the panels would be resisted by forces originating from structrrral elements other than the spandrel beams. the use of diagonal steel "kickers" may be possible. have their shear centers on the axis of symmetry.n. Guide to Load and Resistance Factor !)esign Structural Steel Buildings.tonur . of 2. Heavy exterior masonry walls and stone panels can impose severe torsional loads on spandrel beams. T: P. story height below the floor line. such as C shapes.ijli. 92. It is best to avoid torsion by detailing the loads and reactions to act through the shear center of the r. Y t"r+ "IT _l_ T: P.re" CHAP.) Fig. American Institute of Steel Contruction (AISC). equals the magnitude of the force multiplied by its distance from the shear center e. Chicago. . are very inefficient in resisting torsion. (The shear center locations for C sections are given in the Properties Tables in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual. TA TI y _l_ F? T: P..91 Shear center locations As shown in Fig. 1986. "l As is demonstrated later in this chapterl open sections. 1. the torsional moment.. but not at the centroid. this may not be possible. The moment due to the eccentricity of the wall with respect to the edge beams can be resisted by lateral forces acting through the floor diaphragms. Fig. No torsion would be imposed on the spandrel beams. These light members would provide lateral support to the wall panels. l'l LI t I' F1f T_D l _l_v l_ e2 ro. If facade panels extend only a partial *This section is reprinted with permission from the author's earlier work. torsional rotations can be large and torsional stresses relatively high. Wall elements may span between floors. AVOIDING OR MINIMIZING TORSION* 'l*. such as W and C shapes.rember. el TORSION 107 Singly symmetric cross sections. thus.
Mr. (2) For the limit state of yielding under shear stress.. Closed sections provide considerably better resistance to torsion than do open sections. [9.wr I'L For the limit state of buckling f. [9.3] [e.. as applicable. These stresses may result from torsion alone or from torsion combined with other effects. respectively' The terms in Expressions.85.4] P. in3 The teims St. The expressions given therein [Formulas (H21) to (H23)] limit the total normal and shear stresses occurring at any point. in2 A. tension or compression. e . [e. ( I ) For the limit state of yielding under normal stress (i.1l le. e a +_ torsion must be resisted by the edge members.:0... For members subjected to torsion.. d.. S" : elastic section moduli for x. is obtained from the appropriate buckling formula [e. H2 of the AISC LRFD Specification must be applied. providing intermediate torsional supports can be helpful. ksi 4. the provisions in Sec. f..90 and where d (3) f. AISC formulas (H21) to (H23) may be rewritten as follows.108 TORSION lcHAP.90 f"= and QF' le....wr: shear stress due to warping torsion.. . Even if DESIGN CRITERIA When torsion is present. torsional rotations and stresses are much lower for box beams than for wideflange members.stlf.4].n s Q.2) and [9. If there are secondary beams framing into a spandrel girder.'(nZ21 or (E23) in Chap. are the compressive normal and shear from Eqs. Venant torsion and warping torsion are explained below. g. kipin 14.' 3 Q. .g. Reducing the span over which the torsion acts will reduce torsional stresses.F. ksi fuu:total shear stress under factored loads' ksi fnr: normal stress due to torsion' ksi f. : required axial load strength. '< 0'6QFv :0.sr: shear stress due to St' Venant torsion' ksi f. ]l to [9' 6) ate defined as follows.. f.6l fu. where @. it may be advisable to use box sections or to simulate a box shape by welding one or two side plates to a W shape. Mur: required flexural strengths for x. = w€b area' in2 S. stresses resulting ' lti' .q.. fun:total axial (or normal) stress under factored loads.2l [e. : required shear strength' kiPs A : crosssectional area. Mut . By adding top and bottom moment plates to the connections of the beams with the girder.and yaxis bending.:+t[. 4] and f. kips Mu. axial tension or compression) where d :0.and yaxis bending.s] le.F. the beams can act as intermediate torsional supports for the girder.:i*.. the bending resistances of the beams can be mobilized to provide the required torsional reactions along the girder.n and f.*inr^.
This kind of "pure" torsion is called St.) n It l Ttl u Tt. when subjected to the same torsional moment. all cross reitionr would experience St... Venant torsion. Venant stresses stresses shapes.*:' T zbht.W Rectangular tube T t'l ll *l Fr t lLJl F4l Square tube t lrrl T 2n tlb tb3 Tt J = F__ b___nl Rectangular bar Open sections bt3 . Resistance to torsion is provided by shear stresses in the crosssectional plane. each cross section rotates in its own plane without warping. el TORSION t09 ST. that is. In addition to the shear of St. " pp. J . tend to warp. . 1133l161) . torsion only. Tr J nRo 2 j Round tube Tr or'^:. noncircular cross sections are also subjecied to the normal and shear of warping torsion. fusr. Venant Torsion Shear Stress Torsional Constant "/ (ina) /""(ksi) Closed sections . VENANT TORSION When a torsional moment is applied to a circular bar or tube. Venant torsion. if warping were totally unrestrained. end conditions and geometry restrain warping. In Table 91. Venant torsion. see AISC LRFD Manual. 2t rtrb2 h' btr+ ht. Noncircular cross sections. However. for exact values. plane sections do not remain planar. is given for various crosssectional Table 91 St.CHAP. T (aPprox. Round bar R. Theoretically.6r: (approx. the shear stress due to St.
Final design of beams subjected to torsion should be verified with the tables and charts contained therein. This is in contrast to closed sections. refer to Fig. the formulas for in Table 91 may "I be used. kipin distance from the support.4. Determine The maximum shear stress The maximum normal stress The maximum angle of rotation A twisting moment of 10 kipft is applied to the end of a 5ft . The normal and shear stresses due to warping torsion are assumed equal to the corresponding stresses resulting from the bending of each flange acting as a separate beam and subjected to the lateral force Tld'. _ :][_. inl (Values of "/ for common structural shapes are given in a special section. specifically. in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual. As shown in Fig. 94.71 where Z: applied torsional moment.) Solved Problems For Probs. 9. The subject of torsion for such commonly used open sections as W and C shapes is covered in detail in the AISC publication Torsional Analysis of Steel Members (1983). in shear modulus of elasticity of steel /: G: . Fig. Venant torsion predominates. in radians. the simplified procedure presented here may be used for preliminary design.1 . shaft in Fig.110 TORSION lcHAP. the effects of warping torsion on I beams can be approximated by converting the torsional moment T into an equivalent force couple acting on the flanges./ : : 11. However.9a@).+=t P'na' t 93 Warping torsion: approximation for W shapes DEFORMATION The angle of rotation. shapes rolled or fabricated as a of planes.I to 9. where St. 93. For cross sections not tabulated.200 ksi torsional constant. e WARPING TORSION Warping torsion is most significant for open sections. P' : T/d' . series ): 'lr. Torsion Properties. for all types of cross sections TI 0:GJ rs [e.
Venant torsion with no warping. 94(b) does not warp. 94 9.00065radian :0. 7].200 kips/in2 in/ft) x (5 ft x 12 in/ft) x 982 ina :0.038.2.' LL The maximum shear stress (10 where x (5 in)a t:+ r: R : 10 The maximum shear stresses are at the outer edge. . Normal stresses ate zero throughout. In radians Tt H= GJ _ (10 kips/in.CHAP. recall that a full circle: 360': 2n radians.. the maximum angle of rotation occurs at the free end (where /: 5 ft).sr:7=ffi:0.1. The torsional behavior of a hollow circular shaft is similar to that of a round bar: St. The only active force in Fig.61ksi x 5 in According to Eq. Fig. 9.:? l : +:. 5ftOin Solid l0 in diameter (a) (b) J I Outer diameter Inner diameter (c) = l0 in = 8 in l. or 1g0": .' ' l0in (d) All plates I in thick I TF V/l rvrlr1 ll l0in ' l. For a round bar f". where inl2:5in. [9. no normal stresses. Venant torsion. olans _ x0. 9a@). : e82 ina TR kipft x 12 in/ft) " I. For the cross section in Fig.pure" St. there are no axial forces or bending moments. 94(a) is the torsional moment.zr radians: ^ 0 : lg0. Torsional shear stresses can be determined from Table 91. Because the round bar in Fig. For the cross section in Fig. this is a case of . 9l TORSION 111 .e) 1.00065 radian To convert angles from radians to degrees.. 94(b). 1 1 x 12 ..
=?. Venant torsional shear stresses are f'"':#.n :u'/4KSr According to Eq. warping is minor. Jusr.t:1in. e From Table 91.nYr 1..r< n?l t :iXsin)4  (4 in)al : 5ss : 1n+ The maximum shear stresses are at the outer edge. . where r + TR. the torsional shear stresses f". When a square tube is twisted. for a square tube the St.00088 radian a:  180' z radians x 0.200 kips/inz 729 in3 = 0. the normal and shear stresses due to warping are small and are generallY neglected.00088 radian = 0.064' 9.04 ksi = The angle of rotation. in radians ^ Tl ( 10 kipft x 12 11.71.J (10 kipft R" :5 in.200 kips/in2 in/ft)(5 ft x x 580 12 in/ft) ina :0.001L radian In degrees I .b:10in1in:9in. Referring to Table 91.t12 TORSION lcHAP. the maximum angle of rotation is at the free end. wherebisthedistancebetweenthecenterlinesoftheoppositesides. Tl 0:GJ From Table 91 I : tb3: 1 in x (9 in)3 : 729 in3 In radians ^ In degrees (10 kipft x 12inlft)(5 ft x x 12 in/ft) I I .3.051" 'rqF" .7[ R0" raorans x 0.l0 kipft x l2inlft /'sr: r. 19.001 I radians : 0. 94(d). [9. x 12 in/ft) x 5 in 580 ino 1. where t =i. For the cross section in Fig.
Each flange is assumed to act as an independent (1 inxl0in) rectangular beam resisting its 13.YKsl The St. the approximation in Fig.t'sr:ffi:rz. For the cross section in Fig. the torsional moment of 10kipft can be resolved into a force couple of 13.33ina .3kips (equal and opposite forces) on each flange.7 in3 " 66.3 kips = 66.t6.4. Venant torsion Shear stresses due to warping torsion Normal stresses due to warping torsion The St. .3kipsx9in Fig.r3 9.3kips and miximum moment (at the support) M : I3.7 kipft. Venant shear stresses To determine the stresses due to warping torsion.+l 5. we obtain the values shown in Fig. such as the I shape in Fig.: *.3 kips : t Z: 13.3 kips x 5. 9l TORSION 1. 94(e). 95. In open sections. O Combining stresses.0 ft : 66.(10 kipft x 12 ini ft) x 1 in . the maximum shear stress f.wr: The maximum normal stress t.3 kips 13. M : 13. the torsional stresses are Shear stresses due to St. is the thickness of the element under consideration and I:>J! 3 In this case. For a rectangular member.3 kips 10 kipft = 120 kipin=l3.J where I. Venant shear stresses can be determined from Table 91. 95 .0 ft 13.CHAP.7 kipft x 12inlft :48.0 ksi 1".0 ksi where t J+ _ 1 in x 6 (the section modulus of the flange) (10 in).2 kipft lr= lin I I + 13. 96. :.3kip load. The shear V=13. 93 can be used. l. 1 : \[2x 10in x (1 in)3 *8in x (1 in)3] :9. :r'' f. 9a@). ti:tin for the web and both flanges.3 kips x 5.=M '"r_ S :2.0ft As shown in Fig.vs?'.
: f "t. is f "wr: (I2. the maximum shear stress is in the flanges: f^. The maximum normal stress is also in the flanges: f. 97(a).". from Eq.1.: A I ROo comparison of the solutions to Probs.8.069 radians:3. The stresses and rotations of the I shape are at least an order of magnitude greater than those of the closed sections under the same torsional loading.9' For the beams in Probs.0ksi. J : . 9. 9 )vJt/J rSI '_T\llJ. Venant torsion (flanges and web) warping torsion (flanges only)  Fig. 9.9 + 2. li). S+48okips.. 97 .^:f"r:48.5 to 9. F +ue r tl" il (b) lll ll' # It2 (c) tf rll 1. J\W Shear stressesShear stresses ril.71. 19.9ksi. Normal stresseswarping torsion (flanges only) St.in.rIl2 (d) rl" Fig.33 ina.1 to 9. plot the variation along the span of Flexural shear I/ Bending moment M Torsional moment T 9.oou.069 radian In degrees . ^ (10 c:@kipft x 12 inltt)(5 ft x 12 inlft) :0.0) ksi : 0= where . 41_\.5.96 * As is shown in Fig. 96.L4 TORSION lcHAP.4 indicates that open sections are poor in torsional resistance.l is as determined above: In radians TI cJ I :9.0**^".. " *a^ x 0. The maximum angle of rotation. 14. The cantilever beam in Fig.
CHAP. 9l TORSION 115 The procedure for drawing the shear 7.H Fig. Fig.H Fig.99 . "H wl212 f. Plot the appropriate lefthanded reaction on the diagram. . and torsion T diagrams is essentially the same: (o) (b) (c) {d) See Determine the support reactions by statics. See Fig. 98. moment M..t \ =_=___ . 9E 9. 97(b). Ascertain closure at the right side of the diagram. 99. Obtain additional points on the diagram by cutting sections along the beam and solving for the required forces by statics. The cantilever beam in Fig.6.
The wall panel weighs 1501b/ft3. 912. See Fig. 9 9.7. See Fie. Fig. In .E. The beam is simply supported and has a span of 20 ft.116 TORSION lcHAP. M Fig. The simply supported beam in Fig.{36 steel.97(d). select a W shape with side plates to support the wall panel shown in Fig. 910. 910 9. 97(c). The simply supported beam in Fig. ilt .9. 911. 911 9.
lbft t=we=900^ x_6j5'. w. for a W10x22. QoM": QoMr.l' 1.:.0 kips/ft : 1. Try a W10x22. From p.675 kipft/ft = 0.36 in ^c rol \:: a =€ o9l rr I Elo. the flexural normal stresses by the flanges. Flexure is resisted by the W shape.4 x 1. Formula (A41) in Chap.4t:1..= !i 13 . by the web. . hence. thefactored loads are w.4 kips/ft t.zs ll I ln ira N. 9l TORSION tr7 w10 x 22 0. Fig.0 : = 100 lb/ft lb/ft 1000 1000 lb/ft 9 kips/ft As a result of an eccentricity of in for the wall panel. QrM.tt lzl. The problem of designing this beam for flexure combined with torsion can be divided into the following components. the maximum flexural normal stresses) is at midspan.:___8:70 Because a box shape kip_ft will not experience lateral torsional buckling.ffi CHAP.945 kipft/ft A W shape with side plates is a box section with negligible warping torsion. 97(d)] appear in Fig. the torsional moment lb 9 in .: l. moment. The torsion (which in this case involves mainly St. The location of the maximum moment (and. 911.2 kipft > 70 kipft required.: l.e. Design for flexure.4 kips/ft x (20 ft)'z M.:70.nlft n :0. 91ll 9in The vertical load on the beam consists of the weights of the wall panel and the beam: w (wall panel): 150ftr x lb 4x 6in 12tt :9001b/ft w (beam w (total) w: assumed) : 1.4 x 0. and the flexural shear. Flexural and torsional shear are maximum at the end supports. and torsion diagrams for this case [corresponding to Fig.675 kipft/ft For the case of dead load only [i.. Venant shear stresses) is resisted by a "box" consisting of the flanges and side plates.4w: 1. 2]. The shear. 316 of the AISC LRFD Manual.
25 in) 9. 9.. Q"V^:47.118 TORSION lcHAP. The in side plates. _ 9. (Both are maximum at the supports. approximates the effects of warping torsion on the WL4x99 beam. .4 kiDs/ft x 20 ft .6 x 0.: Wl0x22 is okay." = 0.on The torsional shear stresses for a rectangular tube (from Table 91) are f"rr:# For the side plates (where t :0.36 in in/ft : 2.10.2 ksi For the flanges (where I :0. For the beam in Prob.9) is resolved into equalandopposite uniform loads on the flanges.90 x 36 ksi : 19. which corresponds to Fig. the later are primarily in the web. while the latter occur in the web as well.25 in :4. 9 Check flexural shear. the former occur only in the flanges. select a W The major differences between a box section and a W shape acting as beams are in the resistance to torsion.4kips>14kips required. Unlike the box beam in Prob.81 x 0.. Venant torsion add to the flexural shear stresses.) Also. As a result (1) (2) (3) Normal stresses due to warping torsion are superimposed on the flexural normal stresses.9.36) . 9. The uniformly distributed factored torque /. 7 :'"1 =A "22ft2 t 29 ft: s.8L in x 0.50 x 9. for aWt0x22. the maximum flexural shear is w'l v":. =14kiPs From p. :0. Regarding torsional shear. 911.3l: f. 93. the web shear stresses from St. The maximum torsional moment = u. 9.4 ksi lin side plates.6QF Use a W10x22 beam with : 0.50 in x 9. Venant torsion. From the shear diagram in Fig. . a W section will experience significant warping torsion.notkiPft (as shown in Fig. the torsional shear stresses are within the limits set by Formulal9.9 ksi In both cases. (Both are maximum at the supports.45 kipft J uST x 12inlft 2 x 5 .) Warping Torsion Figure 913.45 kipft x 12 2 x 5. shape without side plates. try 911) is 1.+s n.) Shear stresses due to warping torsion are superimposed on the shear stresses from St. Each flange is assumed to be a laterally loaded beam spanning between the end supports. 9.9. 333 of the AISC LRFD Manual. (Both types of normal stresses are maximum in the flanges at midspan of the member.945 kipft/ft (obtained in the solution to Prob.
9.565 in .20ft.9.n+ 537 ksi From Prob. as a result of flexure: maximum M*:7}kipft and maximum V.: 8.6 in3 " f". the equivalent uniform lateral flange load is 0.  .78 in x (14. as determined in Prob.9.:l8. respectively.2 . el TORSION 119 5 € r o tl d':(d_tt) 4= 14. and V"lA. For a W14x99.45kipft.. The maximum warping normal stress is Jnr .4s kipft x OlsSi.lL For a W14x99.. Y:0. as tabulated under Torsional Properties in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual. tt=0. : 1.Lt2=0.1ksi x 0. Venant torsion are f.485in.5 ksi In the web . t:5. Maximum T"=9.f"sr: Flexure .78in and t*:0. 9.tfl int'ol!'.37 ina x L2inlft : 16.45 kipft x 0.565 St.:fi.84 kip/ft r.=l4kips.llt"lrt:10.5 v'" f"*r:fi (for shear on a rectangular shape) :.*+"# Fig.XSff 8. 913.84 kip/n wi.78 in ' 5. Venant Torsion As given in Table 91 for open sections. the shear stresses due to St.37 ina.3ksi The maximum warping shear stress is kipft x l2inltt ^ 1.CHAP. In the flanges JUST c 9. \ol I rl l ill \l trl _rL F+l \l I I =T l Esl 1 fl.* = _L I J+ d : +: W14 x 99 =O. 9.:42kipft. The corresponding flexural normai and shear stresses are M*lS.4 kip + "ry 0.4 kips and Mi.78 in 14.rr: Tt.913 From Fig.84 kip/ft and the resulting maximum shear and moment are V'.s' where S' :T cA2 (section modulus of flange) in)'z _ 0.sl . ML . I = t ffiHt = 0.565 6 42 = 27 .
2ksi 19.4] becomes :2.5 f0 From this ratio.4 ksi + 0 + 18.6QF.k.5ksi.M^.51 f""= 0. lateraltorsional buckling should be checked using Formula 19.2] t""=7. Eq.4 ksi) o.0 ksi io in'z Combining Stresses (1) Normal stresses (maximum in the flanges at midspan).2 ksi) < (0.4 ksi) (3) v. u" 157 irrt ksi A* : 6.*.4 ksi : 19. : 16.. use the ratios OoM" Fv QuMo For a simply supported member (C. f*:23.87 in2 M^ :70 lipft x 12inlft :5'4 J.4 ksi (as above) (f^: not be considered. [9.5] becomes fun30. the W14x99 . : 19.5 ksi + 1.4] reduces to f. f*:iA* tf"'.3 ksi :23.L ksi = 17. Web shear stresses (maximum at the supports): Warping shear stresses are zero in the web of a W section.120 TORSION lcHAP. :0.16 in x 0.7 ksi 36 ksi P".1 ksi<29.M".. the beam graphs (in Part 3 of the AISC LRFD Manual) kipft QtMo:467 kipft QoM" :450 (Lt : 20 ft) (Lo< Lo: 15.85x34. 9 From Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual.4.4 ksi (f*: 17.'r*f.85. _450 kipft ksi 467 kipft 4.0 0.:0.5ksi. it follows that 36 4. 4.k..6@{.6 x 32.6 ksi 0. r2. (2) Flange shear stresses (maximum at the supports).4'36 steel.0).. Because beam is satisfactory. local buckling need if the 20ft member is not laterally braced. : 19. Because flexural shear is negligible in the flanges of a W shape. where @." '1"' :0 + 5. o. Regarding the limit state of buckling.4 ksi) o.7 ksi Formula [9.90 x 32. From Eq. : 32. To determine d. Equation [9.2 ksi : I2.485 in : & Then 6. [9.k. because a W14x99 is compact in .87\io: :2.:34.":f. the required properties of a W14x99 are : 157 in3 A*: dt: L4.: QFy:0.6QFy: ksi + 10..4 ksi (f"":23.6@j!.0 ksi) < (0.7ksi:29. However.7 ksi) < ({. indicate for a W14x99 : 1.
. 6ft0in Fig. 10 in x 10 in x I in. Standard pipe. W14 x 90. 20 ft long) to carry the 150 lb/ft3 wall panel shown Determine the magnitudes and locations of the maximum normal and shear stresses. l. 914.CHAP. 9.s7= 13. 9. Ans.Lsr: 19. 9.4'36 steel. If { :59 ksi.f. 3in diameter.9 ksi.0 ksi.il!. .8 ksi f^=i*fusr=l4. 912. Square tube.13 to 9. . Ans. f"":=: J 'M 18. Round bar.11.6 ksi. 3 in x 3 in x I in thick. 9l TORSION tzl Supplementary Problems 9. Ans.14. in Fig. f"sr:20. select a W shape to carry the wall panel in Fig.15. /" : 6. Ans. Ans. Design a box beam (. 3in diameter.15. 9. a uniform torque of 1.0 kipfl/ft . Determine the maximum shear and normal stresses. 914 f. In Probs.t2.0 kipft/ft is applied to the shaft shown in Fig. .0ksi A. = g. 912. f : g.
ksi 4.E : modulus of elasticity of steel: 29. kips 122 .7 for concreteencased sections [Eq. : number of studs in one rib at a beam intersection.: nominal steel deck rib height (Fig. in2 width of a rectangular steel tube.. in2 : /. in2 crosssectional area of structural steel. : critical compressive stress. : . ksi : 4. in Mn: nominal flexural strength of member.85 for concretefilled pipes and tubing. ft Lp : limiting unbraced length for full plastic bending capacity (Ca : 1. : nominal axial strength of member.fi : specified compressive strength of the concrete. in K: effective length factor for columns La : unbraced length of beam. 0..: modified modulus of elasticity for the design of composite compression members. : specified minimum yield stress of the structural steel shape. [5.2for concreteencased sections[Eq.1]). ksi 4 : minimum specified tensile strength of a stud shear connector.: elastic buckling load.: length of channel shear connector. in Ca:bending coefficient. defined in Eq. in ft. (121)] cz:0. kips P.:stud length (Fig. 102). kips Pn.: limiting unbraced length for full plastic bending capacity (Cb > 1. 0.0). 102). specified minimum yield stress of the longitudinal reinforcing bars. (122)l D : outer diameter of pipe sections. in2 crosSsectional area of a shear stud. in y'r. ksi 4.Chapter 10 Composite Members NOTATION Aa:bearing area of concrete. (121)] cz:0.000 ksi E. kipin or kipft N. but not to exceed (h. ksi . ksi 1/. defined in Eq.+3).0).4 for concretefilled pipe and tubing.6 for concreteencased sections [Eq.0 for concretefilled pipe and tubing. ft L.10] cr:1. 0. [10. in . in2 crosssectional area of longitudinal reinforcing bars. ksi E. 52.: the part of P" resisted by the concrete. ft / : unbraced length of the member. in l.9]. ksi Fy : modified yield stress for the design of composite compression members. but not to exceed 3 r : number of shear connectors required between a section of maximum moment and the nearest section of zero moment P. : modulus of elasticity of concrete [Eq.: steel beam web dimension defined in Fig.4" : Asc : b: '4. crosssectional area of concrete. F0.
The equations for composite design (Eqs..": ''' .f 'L .5. and beamcolumns discussed in this chapter are from Chap. which considers only the strength of the steel. in flange thickness. in sections V^:total horizontal shear transferred between kips of maximum and zero moments. A (r22) u0. (c) concreteencased steel beams. + c.11 . composite design assumes that the steel and concrete work together in resisting loads.: modified radius of gyation for composite columns. A. (r21) where E=Etra'. 1ol COMPOSITE MEMBERS r23 : required axial strength.60 QoMn: @a: Q"Pn: Q. beams.: summation of Q. resistance factor for axial compression: 0.Pn. F. Examples concreteencased steel columns. in thickness of steel. as the required quantity of steel can be reduced. lb/ftr wr: as defined in Fig.:'t '\/f '. zero moment.. .q. in /: t7 : /. kips the portion of the design compressive strength of a composite column resisted by the resistance factor concrete.. kips : @. 101 (p. in i.'4.6]. F. l02. A.2] to 110. : column slenderness parameter @r : resistance factor for bearing on concrete:0. 125) include (c) AISC LRFD Manual. Design aids are provided in Part 4 of the of composite members shown in Fig.L + . The provisions for the design of composite columns. In contrast with classical structural steel design. (E21) to (E24) in Chap. between the point of maximum P.85 INTRODUCTION Composite members consist of rolled or builtup structural steel shapes and concrete.CHAP.: design flexural strength. : unit weight of concrete. 4. kips LQ. The inclusion of the contribution of the concrete results in more economical designs.. I of the AISC LRFD Specification. (b) concretefilled steel columns. E. below) are the same as F. COLUMNS AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS The design of composite compression members is similar to that of noncomposite columns. kipin or kipft for bending design strength of compression member. a modified yield stress F^rand a modified modulus of elasticity E^are used to account for the contributions of the concrete and the longitudinal reinforcing bars.: F. kips Qn: shear capacity of one connector. ". with the following exceptions: in the design of the structural steel section in a composite member. [10. and (d) steel beams interactive with and supporting concrete slabs. kips moment and the nearest point of r.: w web thickness.
The minimum crosssectional area of all reinforcement (lateral and longitudinal) shall be 0. 4 unbraced length of the member. : A.: . in2 in2 For concretefilled pipe and tubing: cr:1.85. ksi modified modulus of elasticity for the design of composite columns. : A": modified yield stress for the design of composite columns. Otherwise. but not less than 0.E : E: w: A. ^ KIF. Maximum spacing of lateral ties shall be twothirds of the least dimension of the composite cross section.r24 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP. A clear concrete cover of at least 1.. : d.5 (inelastic column buckling) or where F.. : crosssectional area of structural steel. . exp(x): g' 1.0.4r91?)1F..2l If L.6.:(Y)o^.3 timeS the overall thickness of the composite cross section in the plane of buckling. where @. lb/ftr crosssectional area of concrete. '< 1. in In Sec.u'l E^ A" K u0.007 in2 per inch of bar spacing. : 4. ksi unit weight of concrete.s) 110. design as a reinforced concrete column. Minimum design /l is 3 ksi for normalweight concrete. 10 and F.: . For concreteencased shapes ct:0. and ca:0. c2=0.4. cz:0. design 4" = S5 ksi.. and E^ as defined above. in2 crosssectional area of longitudinal reinforcing bars.0. the design strength of axially loaded composite columns is Q. Uttlizing Fo.l. Concrete encasement of steel shall be reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties. : [e*p(. and 4 ksi for lightweight concrete.5 (elastic column buckling) [10.the AISC LRFD Specification places the following restrictions on composite columns.: (0.Pn.658^:)F__" 4. in radius of gyration of the steel shape.5 in must be provided outside all reinforcement at the perimeter. ksi modulus of elasticity of steel : 29. and cr:0. ksi specified minimum yield stress of the longitudinal reinforcing bars.:0..7. 12. crosssectional area of structural steel. discussed in Chap. in' effective length factor..85 and Pn: A"Fu l10.3\ [10. ksi specified minimum yield stress of the structural steel shape.6) and : : /: r.f l : E. ksi specified compressive strength of the concrete. Maximum design /i is 8 ksi' For both structural and reinforcing steel.2. (a) (b) (c) (d) The crosssectional area of structural steel A" > 4 percent of the total area of the composite cross section.4] If L"> where '. n': .000 ksi modulus of elasticity of concrete.
design compressive strength resisted by the concrete @. In either case. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS t25 (e) The wall thicknesses of structural steel members filled with concrete . The slab can be either a solid reinforced concrete slab or a concrete slab on a corrugated metal deck.=b\E '= for each face of width b in rectangular tubes. The design of composite columns can be accomplished through the Composite Column Tables in Part 4 of the AISC LRFD Manual for the cross sections tabulated therein. for pipes of outside diameter D rr DV# (f) If a composite cross section includes two or more steel shapes.l 2 rn mlnlmum cover (typical) \d) Fig.) +l+ . or (c) the distance to the edge of the slab. A steel deck is designated as a composite deck when it contains embossments on its upper surfaces to bond it to the concrete slab. (When designed in accordance with this section.60:the resistance factor in bearing on concrete and A6:the bearing area. as shown in Fig.. or the above equations for all cross sections. tie plates. or lacing to prevent buckling of each shape before hardening of the concrete. the beams supporting it may or may not be composite in this case. the shapes shall be connected with batten plates.P*.7 Quf (S) The part of the Au 110. . must be developed by direct bearing at connections' Q. stud or channel shear connectors are essential to ensure composite action.P. (b) onehalf of the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beam.CHAP. On either side of the beam centerline. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS The most common case of a composite flexural member is a steel beam interacting with a concrete slab.    lj in minimum clear cover (b) l] in minimum 2 in mrnimum tl (c. the effective width of concrete slab cannot exceed (a) oneeighth of the beam spin.71 where Qs:0. 10l Examples of composite members Three criteria determine the effectiue width of a concrete slab acting compositely with a steel beam. 101(d). in2.S t. a beam is composite regardless of the type of deck.
. (b) steel stress.36 For negatiue moments the design flexural strength QoM. (the maximum possible tensile force in the reinforcement) and (5) X O" (the capacity of the shear connectors). equals strain times E. but cannot exceed 0. and Mn is calculated from the plastic stress distribution on the composite section.2. (b) a uniform steel stress of {. The assumptions are (a) a tensile stress of d.e. are as follows.. (the maximum possible tensile force in the steel).4. if the steel beam is compact and adequately braced (i.. DESIGN FLEXURAL STRENGTH For positiue moment. simply supported beam).90.lt=6a0ll/1(i..{. and Mn is calculated from the plastic stress distribution on the composite section. If temporary shores are used during construction to help the steel beams support the newly poured "wet" concrete. @a:0. L6'< Lo for Cu:1. the bare steel beam must also be checked for adequacy to support the wet concrete and other construction loads (properly factored) in accordance with the requirements of Chap. If shoring is not anticipated. (the maximum possible compressive force in the concrete). neglecting composite action. If h. .85/a4. When sufficient shear connectors are provided (in accordance with the section on shear connectors below) to allow condition 1. 10 The horizontal shear forces between the steel beam and concrete slab.85/l. In regions of negatiue moment. between the points of zero and maximum positive moments (e. the result is partial composite action. the design flexural strength Q7.. and (3) X O" (the capacity of the shear connectors).g.. the web of the steel beam is not compact). to be transferred by the shear connectors.. or 4 above to govern. tension or compression. fot Cb > 1.e. in the tension area and compression area (if any) of the steel section. with the composite section resisting the total factored load. is determined as follows. Qo:0. between the free end and the support on a cantilever beam).0) and the slab reinforcement is properly developed.{. or L6< L.g. is calculated from the elastic stress distribution. the negative flexural design strength may be determined as follows: @6:0. in . but cannot exceed {. However. The assumptions are (a) a uniform compressive stress of 0.e.0. However.. between a support point and midspan on a uniformly loaded.85.126 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP. if the number of shear connectors is reduced and condition 3 or 5 governs. in all adequately developed longitudinal reinforcing bars within the effective width of the concrete slab (b) no tensile strength in the concrete (c) a uniform stress of d in the tension and compression areas of the steel section and (d) that the net compressive force in the steel section equals the total tensile force in the reinforcement The issue of shoring is important in composite design. which is true for all rolled W steel). and (c) that the net tensile force in the steel section equals the compressive force in the concrete slab. between the points of zero and maximum negative moments (e..85. design is as outlined above.85/f and zero tensile strength in the concrete. there is full composite action.. (2) A. and M. 5. dead plus live. the web of the steel beam is compact. considering the effects of shoring. and (d) tensile strength is zero in the concrete. (c) concrete compressive stress equals strain times E. In regions of positiue moment. shapes If h. the smallest of (1) 0. The assumptions are (a) the strains in the steel and concrete are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. the smaller of (4) A. is determined by most engineers according to the provisions in Chap. 5.lt*>6401\/4 (i.M.
ksi. the diameter of the shear studs must not exceed I in. The nominal strength of a single stud shear connector in a solid concrete slab is : 0.).85/"4. in The number of shear connectors required between a section of maximum moment and the nearest section of zero moment is vh 110.cation. As discussed above. laterally.:the minimum of (0.\/ f :E. AISC LRFD Specification: where Qn: the shear capacity of one connector [as determined from Eq. if an elsstic stress distribution is required. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 127 of beam stress redistribution under full plastification. and (2) only the subsequent loads can be resisted by composite action. The following restrictions on the placement and spacing of shear connectors are imposed by the (a) Minimum 1in lateral concrete cover. enough connectors must be placed between the point of concentrated load and the point of zero moment to adequately develop the moment capacity required at the concentrated load. kips and Vn: the total horizontal shear force to be transferred. and E Q). is the minimum specified tensile strength of the stud. except when installed in a steel deck (b) Diameter of studs =2. 5t *) L.81 Q. in2.1/ffi (rs2) flange thickness of the channel. the total factored load for unshored construction can still be assumed to act on the composite section. in length of the channel. Because SHEAR CONNECTORS Acceptable as shear connectors are headed steel studs of minimum four stud diameters in length and rolled steel channels. A"F. (c) (d) they are located over the web Minimum centertocenter spacing of studs. = A.re:CHAP.3(t. Shear connectors may be uniformly distributed between the points of maximum and zero moment. the total flexural stress at any point in the steel beam is a superposition of the two effects. whenever design with a plastic stress distribution is allowed by the AISC LRFD Specif. (A. 5A. In the latter case. (rs1) " where 24". kips. in regions of positive moment.. The nominal strength of a single channel shear connector in a solid concrete slab is Q Q where : /*: L.F. six diameters in solid slabs and four diameters in decks. F. while in regions of negative moment.. in web thickness of the channel. (1) the unshored loads applied prior to curing of the concrete (defined as attaining 75 percent of/f) must be taken by the steel beam alone.5 times the thickness of the flange to which they are welded. and {. V1. and I Q. tne studs may be welded to the steel beam either through the deck (which is the usual practice) or through holei . However. longitudinally along the supporting beam. However. is the crosssectional area of the stud. when a concentrated load is present.. + 0. four diameters in all cases Maximum centertocenter spacing of shear connectors of eight times the total slab thickness unless SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR STEEL DECKS When a metal deck is used.: ty ^ : 0. Vn: the minimum of. (151) or (152)].
abovel is multiplied by the reduction factor .:2inminimum Fig. the middle term in Expression (151). 13.e.128 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP.r o)= r o (r31) .^:qq ff) (f. 1G2 Special provision for steel decks When the deck ribs are perpendicular to the steel beam (c) The (b) (c) concrete below the top of the steel deck is ignored in calculating A. 102. and other section properties. The nominal strength of each shear stud [i. which is reproduced (with permission) from the Commentary on the AISC LRFD Specification. The longitudinal spacing of shear studs <32 in. 2 in minimum lj 2 in minimum in minimum 2 in minimum w.. 10 punched in the deck.. Additional restrictions affecting the studs and deck (from Sec.5 of the AISC LRFD Specification) are shown in Fig.
See Eqs. (b) The top of the beam is at least 1l in below and 2 in above the bottom of the slab.85 and M^ is the nominal flexural strength calculated from the plastic stress distribution on the composite cross section. 102. F^r.CHAP. However. in inches. where @a : 0. even if more than three studs are present) and w. (H13) and (H16) P": where A'4 L.. considering the effects of shoring.el A".51). 101(c)].<1. When the deck ribs are parallel to the steel beam (a) The (b) concrete below the top of the steel deck is included in calculating 1.6l.5. CONCRETE. The deck may be cut longitudinally at a rib and separated to form a concrete haunch over the supporting steel beam. M^: Mn: ZFr). is calculated from either (a) the elastic stress distribution on the composite section. the middle term in Expression (/.8 for ordinary beamcolumns [including Interaction Formulas (H11a) and (H11b).P")<0. Welded studs or arc spot (puddle) welds are satisfactory for this purpose. A beam totally encased in concrete cast with the slab may be assumed bonded to the concrete if (a) Concrete cover of the sides and soffit of the beam is at least 2 in. 102. transverse direction plus (c) When h.lh. \n. are as defined in this chapter. above] must be multiplied by the reduction factor o6?(+to)=to / n. four stud (d) When w.e. there is no need to consider local buckling or lateraltorsional buckling of the steel beam because such buckling is inhibited by the encasement. if (P"lO. (H11a) and (H11b). h. H.>2in for the first stud in the diameters for each additional stud. or (b) the plastic stress distribution on the bare steel section (i. : the number of studs in one rib at a beam intersection (<3 in this formula. =(h.g.Pn):0.90 and M. In Eqs. ... a concreteencased beam) at P.+ 3) must be used. and i. (121) andl10. M^ is determined by linear interpolation between M" (calculated from the plastic stress distribution on the composite cross section) at (P"lQ.. (d) The steel deck must be anchored to all supporting members at a spacing <16in. (c) The concrete encasement has sufficient welded wire mesh or bar reinforcing steel to prevent spalling of the concrete. In Eqs. Ilo. and simplified SecondOrder Analysis Equations (H12) to (H16)1. the nominal strength of each shear stud [i. as shown at the bottom of Fig. Either way. The design flexural strength of concreteencased beams is Q6Mn.ENCASED BEAMS (r32) The special case of a concreteencased beam [shown in Fig. w.e.Pn is as defined in this chapter for composite columns. and other section properties. where 0b:0. where shear connectors are not required for composite action. but with the following exceptions.3. is as follows.:0.MCOLUMNS: COMBINED FLEXURE AND COMPRESSION Doubly and singly symmetric composite beamcolumns are designed by the method presented in Chap. In calculations. and H" are as defined in Fig. BE^A. Q. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS r29 where N. similarly QuMn.3 and Mn for the appropriate composite beam (e..sin.>I.
: A.n: nRl O:: =IA'A { ++ 5.1I. The equations for shear strength in Chaps. normal weight (145 lb/ft3) concrete.P") <0.: Z. See prob. they must be provided for for composite columns.9 in.:o'16>4% o'k' .065 in)'?:28. that member whenever (P"lQ.065 in inside diameter D.0ft.6 . 4.ozs in)r (6.1. Solved Problems 10. where KL:10.625 in outside diameter D Check minimum wall thickness of pipe: t:0. valid for composite flexural members. 5 and 6 are.rt. to (g) earlier in this chapter. Try a 6in standardweight concretefilled pipe. (See Fig.3. Fr:36 ksi. +zeg't. 4. 4. under the heading Columns and Other Compression If shear connectors are required for a beam (i. :0). a noncomposite 6in extrastrong pipe was required for the same conditions. In Prob.k.083 in o.R): ito' o1 :1 A. + A. l03. therefore. listed as DESIGN SHEAR STRENGTH The design shear strength for composite beams is taken as the shear strength of the steel web. [to.e. 10 Beamcolumns must conform with the minimum requirements items (a) Members. as for noncomposite beams. when P.: ssi. f '.S ksi. Select a 6in concretefilled pipe column for a required axial compressive strength of 200 kips. Check minimum crosssectional area of steel pipe: A": n(R2 .6 in'? x (6...280 in > 0..06s in)':] : 5.130 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP.) 6. 6.
658^7)F^" 0. (121) and (122) become Fr: F.) The 6in standardweight concretefilled pipecolumn is satisfactory.99 in) :2.744ksi The radius of gyration of a hollow circular shape r =i: t/o'+ ol (See AISC LRFD Manual.625 in: 1. and No.4 x 3267 ksi. The modified radius of gyration for composite design r^: r>0.36 steel) encased in a 16 in x 16 in normalweight concrete column in Fig.7 (Grade 60) bars longitudinally.) ffi=2.45r s\85:3267 ksi 3.85 x 5.. 104. :0.n.. 4100 of the AISC LRFD Manual.25inx n 3s74 ksi : 0'64 n. .CHAP.4.85 x x 28. p.0ft.4 ksi = 432 ksi O. ' rrfl+ E= cz:0.5 10.= Q.721.4 ksi The modified modulus of elasticity for composite design is : 29.6 in' = 35.25 in The slenderness parameter ^'= ^ Kl\'ltF^" '^" E^ _ Because 1. + '"'4. Reinforcement is four No. 10. Determine the design compressive strength of a W8 x 40 (.P": O"A"F.000ksi + 0.2 kips/in'z :205 kips > 2fi) kips required (Q. The modulus of elasticitv of the concrete E+ r.658(0 6a)'z The design compressive strength x 51. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 131 In the absence of reinforcing bars..5 ksi The modified yield stress for composite design is F^r:36ksi +0. where E :*"{fi.6 in'z x 43.85. Eqs.2.5ksi) .! " '4" E.:3.: KuLu:15. 3 ties at 10in horizontallyl K.3 x 6. : E^ 51.25 in > (0. cz:0.9 in" . 2=8'r9.<1.0 ft x 12 inlft 2.1 :205 kips for this case is also tabulated on p.3D (the overall dimension) :2. (f'.4.: 1.25in 4 for the bare steel pipe.i1' 5.L.
5 13 ksi ^ (145 lb/ft3) concrete .Z i. (d) Use {.3 ksi . : crosssectional area of W8x40 = 11.6 in2:2. t.r32 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP.6 x 3. 3 bars: 16 in outer dimension in o.: the crosssectional area of four No.4 in'):242inz For concreteencased shapes.000 ksi + 0.7 in'z A. 104 Checking minimum requirements (o) (b) For a W8x40 . A where ct=0.08 o.: 16 in x 16 in .007 in2 x 10 in spacing:0.t' inz 0..rr7 E= E + c"E.(11.+ '" "'4.2 for concreteencased shapes E.^. 10 . >0. :60 ksi for Grade 60 bars. F^y ct:0.5 Horizontal No.. total area 1.4in2 A. A.7 in2.ffi.+ rrf:+ where .67o > 4Vo minimum : 10.k. Lateral tie spacing: 10in = 4.7 and c2:0. 7 bars: A. Vertical No.60 in2 per bar >0.0 ksi < (/l: :. (c) 3.k.:w"lf i= 145' '\65 :3267 ksi for 3. = 55 ksi for reinforcement in calculations. and E^: F^r: F. o.6.k.7 in'? : 42.4 in spacing: 0. 36 ksi + 0.I1.k.S ksi) < 8. 16 in Fig.07 in'? in'z o.: ll. o.Fy.4 tt.007 in'z x 11.7 <J x Minimum clear cover = 1. 256.t 2. Determine F^. even though actual {.k. 7 longitudinal bars:4 x 0.4.0 ksi for normal weight concrete o.:0.7 x 55 ksi = 87. + c.5ksi normalweight E : 29. A. = 0.L7 in2 : 16 in x 16 in : 256 in.ffi .7.k. in in2 per bar A.5 ksi x + 242in2 .7 in2 + 2.2 x 3267 ksi x 242 in2 I lr.
2.85 x I1.2.9 ksi wt 51fJl:145' E + csE.) a noncomposite W8x40 column under the same conditions.6. cz:0.658^f4.=2. 10.A"4.7.80 in The slenderness parameter .Zkst Q.L+r.o ft lF^ E^ f405. 4':f. A.CHAP. A.(W8x40) > 0.P":768 kips for this case is also tabulated on p. Determine the design compressive strength of the composite column in Prob.fl:5'0 ksi' As in Prob.n. ct:0. E_ The critical stress 15.80 in xz ksi: o'54 F.80 in :4. KI 4= r^"\ tE.: : The design compressive strength (0.0 ft x 12 in/ft 42Jt3 4. The 768kip design strength is considerably more than the 238kip design strength of 473 of the AISC LRFD Manual.7" A 5\m:3904 = 29.1 in2.' +c. 10.0 ksi x H : E.2.9 = +goin". I0.3 ksi = 77 . 10.80 in as in Prob..2 x 39M ksi x #l :45.7 x 55 ksi x #+ ksi 0.?kipslin2 :768 kips (Q.: E= 105. cr:0.658(0 s4)'? x 87. : 0. See Prob.4in2.3.150*:u':u x t2inlft kri .12. A":Lt.:242in'z. \a5.150 ksi r : 4.riL '''4" "'A" :36 ksi + 0.000 ksi + 0. 0. 4.7 in2 x 77 .4:0. the minimum requirements for a composite column are satisfied..6 x 5. ..3 x 16 in (overall dimension) :2.04in > 4.2 if . 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 133 The modified radius of gyration r : r. Kt 4: r^"\ l5.
AB or For Probs. 105 (a) For an interior beam.7QBf .1 ksi : Q.00 ft t: z in.85 x Ll. The beams are to act compositely with a 5in normalweight concrete slab: fl : 5. s=lOftOin Fig. Steel is .3 enters the composite column at one level. In this case.. 105. 10.4.4  0"P^ In other words. 10 F.75 ft :45 in 88 s 10. to al2inxl2in The requiri:d concretebearing area of 133in'zcan be satisfied by applying the load bearing plate placed on the column. and beam spacing is 10ft 0in.5.0658^?)4") Q.P"__ 0.=l.4"4. beam span is 30ft 0in..0 fr :3.0 ft :5.: Q.\':238kips.9.j#**=133in. determine o"=#h:. .\ = 916kips and Q. the part of the design compressive strength resisted by the concrete equals the total design compresive strength of the composite column minus the portion resisted by the steel.:60 ksi 10.:916 kips According to formula [10. the required bearing area of concrete. the effective slab width on either side of the beam centerline is the minimum of l The effective slab width is 2 x 45 L 30.t34 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP. Q. Assume all the column load in Prob. = (0. (a) (b) (r) The effective width of concrete slab for composite action V1.P". I ksi kips :916 (as also tabulated on p. 0. Q.658(0 ss)'? x 105.1.436. Determine Au. 485 of the AISC LRFD Manual). 10. A W18x40 interior beam is shown in Fig.0 ksi. (the total horizontal shear force to be transferred) for full composite action The number of Jindiameter shear studs required if F.5 to 10. in:90 .Pn.9 ksi = 92.7] 238 kips : 678 kips Q. l s=lOftOin . Q. 10.7 in2 x 92.
:n\.85f : 1913 kips 4. and less rhan the eight slab thickness (or 8 x 5 in : 40 in) maximum spacing. The beam is to act compositely with a 4in lightweight concrete (1101b/ft3) slab.sA*\rfE < A.6.  z>.F.44in' u. (151)] is Q":o.: 0. 107. Steel is .0ft:12in.9 kips < 26. s:5ftOin ffi Fig.0ft18=4. This is greater than the sixstud diameter (or 6x iln:+. I nstuds I M^^. For a Jindiameter stud. which is satisfactory.CHAP. Vo for full composite action is the smaller of 0.44 in'\60 ksi x 39G4 ksi < 0. e".t inz x 36 ksi = 425 kips Vn:425kips :A.88ft: 10.Sin) minimum spacing.1 or 17 studs For the beam shown in Fig.1ft0in.')'G=14s"\6. 106.{36.85 x 5 ksi x (90 in x 5 in) (c) The nominal strength of a single shear stud [from Eq.5 x 0. : I t. nsruds .0ft.4 kips per stud The number of shear connectors between the points of zero and maximum moments ls Vh 425 kips O" 26.0ft/34:0.5 ksi. ):0. 106 Assuming a single line of shear studs (over the beam web). :2 x Ij :34.77 .4.75 in r: . [wz+ * oa ..4 kips = 26.0 = 3904 ksi 4 :60 ksi Q":0. the effective slab width on the exterior (or left) side of the beam centerline is the minimum of L/8:32. and the beam span is 32 ft 0 in. the required number of shear studs is 2n t. Fig. /j: 3. A W24x68 edge beam is shown in Fig. 107. or distance to edse of slab:1. 107 I 4in T (a) For the edge beam in Fig.6in. stud spacing=30.4 kips/stud = 16.44 in2 x 60 ksi : 30. 0. 10. .= . 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 135 (b) In positive moment regions.
where A.0. For the beam shown in Fig.85f '.4 kips stud :19.0ft :4. the 1:0. respectively. Because the slab is in tension.A.85 x 3.5 (b) ft = 3oin The effective slab width is (12 in + :O itl = +Z *. stud spacing = 32. Although n:VnlQ": stud:0. for full composite action is the smaller of 0. .40 in'z 60 ksi : 24 kips (c) The nominal strength 24k\ps126.0 ft l'utt g: g = s 10. the effective slab width on either side of the beam centerline is the minimum of L 8.0ft.Fn for full composite action.44in2 x 60 ksi < 26. studs 4 : 60 ksi A".4 kips per of a single shear stud is Q":26. = 0..{. (b) In negativemoment regions (such as cantilevers): V1.0 ft A.sA*\EL< A".20 in'z I ft ' bar x Vn:0. Assume the beams in Fig. In the positive moment regions.0ft width = 0.0tt54:0.F. For an effective slab width of 2. (15])l Q": o.44 in'\6j ksi x 2158 ksi = 0.1 kips per required number of shear studs is 2n :2 x 27 : 54.: w"rt= 110' s\6J :2158 ksi = 19.5in) minimum spacing.0 ft : \ iltt z2 The effective slab width is 2 x 1. Bars are Grade 60 steel. the actual number of "qFtF . and less than the eight slab thickness (or 8 x 4in:32in) maximum spacing.1kips per stud:26. (a) For an interior beam. 105 are cantilever beams: .0ft S= 8 ::+:2. V.4kips.5x 0. are the crosssectional area and minimum yield stress of the reinforcement.20in2 per bar) at 1ft 0in centertocenter.1 kips Q. Slab reinforcement is No.1in.59 ft: 7.) The nominal strength of a single shear stud [from Eq. with a cantilever span of 8ft 0in.:A.40inz x har x2.136 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP.0ft:2. This is greater than the six stud diameter (or 6xJin:4.9 would indicate that one stud is satisfactory. which is satisfactory.5 ksi x (42inx 4 in) :56911ot A"4 : 20.:0.4 bars (A.{36 steel.1 inz x 36 ksi : 724 kips % : 500 kips is (.:0.: 0. and . The number of shear connectors between the points of zero and maximum moments is n:VolQ":500kips/19.44 in' for lindiameter E. Assuming a single line of shear studs (over the beam web).7. 10 The effective slab width on the interior (or right) side of the beam centerline is the minimum of L 32. 106. the concrete cannot participate in composite action.1 or 27studs.
n e^:0. 10.5A". lft0in(typical) 'rltl I T w18 x40 2in 3in Fig.85 x 5 ksi x x (90 in x 2 A.f=A"..CHAP. See Fig.0 + 1.0 in > 2 in minimum deck:2 in minimum Average width of concrete rib 4 : (4.5 in) : (3.. the middle term of Expression (15i) is . = (h. (a) (b) The effective slab width is 90 in.5) is . 108 Verifying compliance with the special provisions for steel decks (Fig. 10.4 or 3 shear studs 10. the concrete below the top of the steel deck is ignored in calculating A.\/f :30. 105) consists of 2 in of concrete on a 3in steel deck.linlong Jindiameter shear studs. 102): Nominal deck rib height ft. % for full composite action is the smaller of 0.75 in maximum Height of shear stud 11.25) inl2: Shear stud diameter:0. Because the deck ribs are perpendicular to the steel beam.5 in Use 4.5) in :4. the nominal strength of a single shear stud (as determined in Prob. with ribs spanning perpendicular to the W18x40 steel beam.F. 108.5. as in Prob.85f :A": 0.1ry0""* 8'0 fj x 12 inlft 6X)rn = 2.8 in2 36 ksi = 425 kips Vn:425kips (c) For a solid slab. In regions of positive moment."r. : in) = 765 kips I I .75 + 7.7 kips = 26. and other section properties.5 with the following modification: The 5in normalweight concrete slab (shown in Fig.4 kips (151) When the deck ribs are perpendicular to the steel beam.8. Slab thickness above steel :3 in maximum 6. Repeat Prob. + 1. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 137 shear studs is governed by the maximum spacing of eight times the slab thickness: ':. 10.
connectors in one rib at a beam intersection \ . there are 30 ribs for the 30ft beam span. 10. Because the deck ribs are spaced at 1 ft 0 in centertocenter.85 6 in /4. with ribs spanning perpendicular to the W24x68 steel beam.5 kips < 26. the required minimum number of shear studs is 2n :2 x 23 :46.4x0. + 1.7 kips x 0. The reduction factor in expression (/3l) is 0.9.. 109.75in:3in) in any direction allows the two studs in each rib to be placed longitudinally or transversely in the case at hand (a W18x40 beam and a deck with a 4. 107) consists of 2 in of concrete on a 2in steel deck. 10 multiplied by the reduction factor ffiff)(f.75in rib width at the bottom).. (r31) w.1'o/:0'60 @" t^\ . 106. as shown in Fig. = (5 + 7) Shear stud diameter = 0. As indicated by Fig. See Fie.5 in Then Q":30.60 < 26.5 kips per stud : 23 studs. Assume the number of stud N. Slab thickness above steel :2in< 3 in maximum deck:2 in minimum Average width of concrete rib w.:2.5 kips 18. h.5) in : 3.75 in maximum inl2:6 in > 2 in minimum Height of shear s1:d H. 10.5 in Use 3jin long lindiameter shear studs . ]t 2in I 2in T Fig.'o)=ro From the solution to this problem.e.:3in. 108.5 in.5 in) : (2.  (h.6 with the following modification: The 4in lightweight concrete slab (shown in Fig. i02): Nominal deck rib height ft. for a total of 60 studs. 109 Verifying compliance with the special provisions for steel decks (Fig. It is advisable to place two shear studs per rib. Repeat Prob.138 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP. H":4.4 kips : : 18. The reader can verify that the minimum centertocenter spacing of shear studs in deck ribs of four diameters (i.:6in.0 + 1.4 kips per stud The maximum number of shear connectors between the points of zero and maximum moments is n : VolQ": +25 kips/18.
or 3). N.: A"Fy 0.85f '. as in Prob.1 kips per stud: 13. for a total of 32 studs.\. 10. 1010. 2. In Fig. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 139 \a) The effective slab width is 42 in. (.5 with full composite action.tfn=A".sA". the required minimurn number of shear studs is 2n:2x14=28.. C:0. w. with the plastic neutral axis (PNA) in the slab. 106.1 or 14 studs. 0. 1010.A.Ot : 20.5 ksi x (42in x 2 in) : 259 1.W. From the solution to Prob. {. Assume the beam is shored durins construction.85f1ba. As indicated by Fig. To satisfy equilibrium. the concrete below the top of the steel deck is ignored in calculating .0.6) is Q":0. . the middle term of expression (15l) 0."/\z* Q":19.85 and M. reduction factor equals 1.1 kips < 26.e.:2in. the : 19..:3.1 kips per stud The minimum number of shear connectors between the points of zero and maximum moments is n = VnlQ" = 250 kips/19.85 r wr r \ H. 10. 10.1 kips x 1. the nominal strength of a single shear stud (as determined in Prob.CHAP.85f Vo for full composite action is the smaller of 'A.4 kips (151) is to the steel beam. where @6 =0. The plastic stress distribution is as shown in Fig.5 1'o/<1'o \ W\z. it is necessary that C:T:425 kips.o. for W Shapes in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual. Because the deck ribs are spaced at 1 ft 0 in centertocenter. (r31) h.1 inz x 36 ksi : 724 kips % = 250 kips (c) For a solid slab. 10.85r6inrr3.0 0.\il From the solution to this problern. as shown in Fig. The reduction factor in expression (131) is t oJ= t o in. = 1913 kips. the maximum possible tensile force in the steel beam 7 : A"Fy:425 kips.7 ) stress The design flexural strength is QoM. =I. It is advisable to place one shear stud per rib.:6in.G: lt6: \ t06. 109. Because the deck ribs are perpendicular to the steel beam. for a Wl8x40 Because the beam is shored. where a is the depth of the compression block (in) and b is the effective slab width (in).F.6.5: the maximum possible compressive force in the concrete slab C =0. H.10. : If the deck ribs are perpendicular multiplied bv the reduction factor 19. (b) In regions of positive moment.1 r 1640 640 .4. the entire load acts on a composite member.5in Regardless of the number of shear studs in one rib at a beam intersection (i.85 x 3.. Determine the design flexural strength of the W18x40 beam in Prob. is calculated from the plastic distribution on the composite section. 10. From the Properties Tables rh^ (1 : st. there are 32 ribs for the 32ft beam span.
The solution to this problem is identical with that of Prob.8s x s. 1010 From Prob.u'6v '{D o.) 425 kips : : x (tu '20 in + 5 in  +J!) :425 kips x 5693 13. 108..t:2. only the upper 2in of concrete can be considered effective.5.) All the concrete below the PNA is assigned zero strength because it is in tension.8. the PNA was located at 1. Assume the beam is not shored during construction. 10. 10.11 in below the top of the slab.. spaced at 10. Assume the beam is shored during construction. the concrete below the top of the deck is neglected. i..{36 steel (assuming adequate lateral bracing. Lo < Lo).39 in 4 kipin : 47 kipft The design flexural strength for full composite action is QoM" =0. 105) is replaced with 2 in of solid concrete on a 3in steel deck with ribs perpendicular to the beam as shown in Fig. In Prob.10 and 10. 10. (See Fig.0 ksi. However. 10.85 x 474 kipft :403 kipft. When the deck ribs are perpendicular to the beam. (The composite beam is braced by the shear studs. the bare steel beam must be checked for adequacy to support all loads applied prior to the concrete attaining 75 percent of its specified strength /f.) is also valid for unshored construction. .11 (where the plastic stress distribution is used to determine M.rrrn x oo in l$ The nominal flexural strensth M": Te = . a slab on a steel deck is equivalent to a solid slab if the deck is entirely within the tension zone of the concrete. 10 PNA T . Repeat Prob.::.:.10. The solution to Probs.6in.(:. 10.11. 10. 1010.) 10.10. embedded in the concrete. l0. thus. b : 90 in C 425 kips u:.. This is nearly double the (Q6Mr: ) 212kipft design compressive strength of a noncomposite W18x40 beam of the same ..t40 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP.e. In the case at hand.10. Determine the design flexural strength of the Wi8x40 beam in Prob.i f I V I C = 0. Then. The 5inthick solid concrete slab (in Fig.o :r.85 <80" fl ba I dI T:AF <Io" I i" I Fig. /:: 5..
.lD/It oo) Construction Live Load (assumed) lh =20 tt' .6L: w. Assume the moment diagram in Fig.: t. 10. if Lrl6ft. Fig. 10. n:14 shear studs on each side of for full the midspan maximummoment section.10 (see Fig.12 kips/ft x (30.5(c) for full composite action.6 x 200P= II 18:= I.] . try (2n: ) 28 shear studs. p.5(c). Instead of the (2n =) 34 shear studs determined for Prob. Determine the distribution of shear studs along the span..Zx 66s++ fttrtt The required strength M.=350kipft throughout the span..l2kips/ft 8. 1011 In the solution to Prob. [The valte Q.10. 3@l0ft0in =30ft0in 3s0 kipft 300 kipfl 300 kipft l M.e.^ X 10. 10. Since the required flexural strength M.10 it was determined that the design flexural strength of this composite beam composite action is QuM":403kipft.k. (::t/vtn 28 studs 30. 37a. try partial composite action.Lt 1 1.4kips/stud=370kips.. 1011 represents the required flexural strength of the composite W18x40 beam in Probs.0 ft wide 5 in thick l2 tn/tl :40Ib/ft : 625lb lft .0 ft x 12inlft <(Al:8 x 5in=) 40in maximum spacing o.: x l0. (See AISC LRFD Manual. 10. 10. the hcrizontal shear transferred by the studs between the points of zero and maximum moments Vu:DQ":nQ":14 studsx26.13.5 and 10. __. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS l4t The construction loads on the noncomposite W18 x 40 beam in Prob.CHAP. For partial composite action. = w.) The unshored noncomposite W18x40 beam is adequate during construction if it is laterally supported at least at one point (midspan).0 ft)': : 126 kipft <QoM" for the W18x40 alone.0ft wide = 200 lb/ft The factored uniform load is 1. 105) are Dead Load Beam SlaD: . i. 10. MI': 1.2D + l.4kips per stud was determined in the solution to Prob..^ l)u tt lbX :=. Check spacing.: 26.
= re = Ce = r(:..85 x 5.4++: 317 kiPs w' .85f iba oMn= C ussf =L Q":370 d\ 't) kiPs 370kips 0. 1010 C = 0. Not adequate.85x299kipft: ZSlUiptt < 300 Tryn:12 kipft required.85 x 5. 4983 kipin : 415 kipft The design flexural strength for partial composite action is QuM._.a Ii{ : 264kips = t Q" : 264 kiPs o: C 264 kiPs o.97 in ^ ^ld 7": C": C\t+ :370 t prx\ 2 +)rn2 ki /r7 'eoin ogr)/ 13. 101ll At the points of concentrated load (partial composite action)' n = 10 and v.) =264kips'(11P+5inry) :264 kips x 13.8sf h= 0. (See Fig. 3@lOftOin=30ft0in Fig.85x415kipft:353kipft Try a uniform distribution of shear studs and check the design flexural strength at the concentrated loads. This is okay.69 in M. : nQ^: 1o studs * 26. 10 Referring to Fig.0 kips/in'? x 90 in :0.85f ba : E Q.:0.60 in :3592 kipin = 299kipft The design flexural strength for partial composite action is QtMn=0.0 kips/in'? x 90 in h: = 0.47 :370 kips x in : >350 kipft required. Referring to Fig.r42 COMPOSITE MEMBERS lcHAP.: 12 studs x 26. shear studs from the end supports to the points of concentrated load vn= nQ. 1010 C :0.) Proposed "uniform" shear stud distributions Full composite action Partial composite action . t0I2. where the required strength is 300 kipft.
10. where @6 = 0.585 in x 36 kips/in'z= tA9 kips]). is calculated from the plastic stress distribution on the composite section. the maximum possible tensile force in the steel beam Z = A.<(11#+5inry) = 317 kips x 13. we obtain 10.500) kips: 112 kipsl =[b/rF" = 8. lC.e. 10.85 and M. 1014.85f :b 0.83 in M"= /d c\r+ t 4\ 2/ =317kips. The solution is I : 6 = (500 + 724)kipsl2:612kips. 1010  n =: C 0.965 in x 0.L4. V36 Thus. whereas the concrete cannot be in tension. the plastic neutral axis (PNA) is located in the upper beam flange. 10. or in partial tension and compression. the maximum possible compressive force in the concrete slab C.(ry:#: roo z)/ / .85 317 kips x 5. However. the web is compact. (See Fig. From the solution to Prob. The steel can be either in tension only. (a) Design flexural strength (M") of the composite beam. From the Properties Tables for W shapes in Part 1 of the AISC LRFD Manual. .6.:0.85f IA.. 1013. I = C. for a W24x68 (L_ \r" sro\.: (612 . the design flexural strength is QoM".0 kips/in'z x 90 in = 0. Assume the beam is not shored durins construction.:500kips. To satisfy equilibrium. Because the net compressive force in the steel is less than the beam flange yield force (i. This is okay.) The correct shear stud distributions are Full composite action Partial composite action 3@l0ft0in= Fig.4:724kips. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 743 Referring to Fig. The plastic stress distribution is as shown in Fig.k.6 with full composite action. Accordingly.4 in = 4291 kipin = 358 kipft QuM.85 x 358 kipft = 304 kipft > 300 kipft required.CHAP.yF. Determine the design flexural strength of the W24x68 beam in Prob.0 ft x 12 4 studs inlft :30 in <8r:8x5in=40in o.:0. the absence of shoring necessitates that the noncomposite steel beam be checked for adequacy to support all loads applied before the concrete has reached 75 percent of its specified strength /f. 1013 Verifying that the four studs between the concentrated loads satisfy the limitation on manmum spaclng (of eight slab thicknesses).
144
COMPOSITE MEMBERS
lcHAP.
10
,1
T
"l
C, = 0.8s fibt C, : bpF,
:
=
500 kips 112 kips
btttF, =
bt(tt  a)F, = 77 kips (A,  zbtt)Ft: 346 kips
189 kips
I
T,
,T +
tr'
o
Fl
Fig. 1014
The distance from the top of the beam to the PNA
: C"
I 12
kips
bf,: tC5 '" tl6
ktptrrf
= u'r4l rn
The contribution to M, from each element of beam or slab: element (tensile or compressive) force x the distance of element force from the PNA.
Contributions to M, from Compression in the slab =
r,(;. t)
= 1174 kipin
= 5oo kips
. (T
+ o.:+7 in)
Compression in upper beam flange
: q3 :19
kipin
= 112kips
"ry!
:ry;9
Tension in upper beam flange
:77 kips.
q$+!121l
*"b: r(: ")
:
e
kipin
Tension in beam
"("'':t"0.:+zin) Tension in lower beam flange : rt(O '; r)
:346kips
:3e85kipin
: 18e kips , (zz.tztn  o tlttn  o.:+z m)
M" = 9551kipin
:4364 kipin
9551
kipin
:
796
The design flexural strength QoM,:0.85 x 796 kipft:677 kipft. This compares with
beam.
kipft.
QoMr:478kipft for a noncomPosite W26x68
(b)
Unshored steel beam supporting construction loads.
{ffi
CHAP.
101
COMPOSITE MEMBERS
145
Dead Load Beam
Slab
:68 lb/ft
5.0 ^ lb in : l50i x 4j thick (rt.0 + I rI ft wide _175lblft x zl 243tbltt It tztnltl
'
Construction Live Load (assumed)
=20q'(r.o+1!)n*,0" ft \ 2/
The factored uniform load is 1.2D +1.6L:
w,,
:701b/ft
: 1.2 x 2$t:+ 1.6 x to
18.
f
= 404 lb/rr
:
The required strength is M,, = w,,Lt
0.40 kips/ft
MI':
0.40 kips/ft
x
(32.0
ft)r
= 52 kipft
<00M, for the W24x68 even if Ln:the full 32ft span. (See AISC LRFD Manual, p. 371.) The unshored noncomposite W24 x 68 beam is adequate during construction even if it is not laterally
braced.
10.L5. Determine the design flexural strength of the W24x68 beam in Prob. 10.9. The 4in solid concrete slab (in Fig. 107) is replaced with 2 in of solid concrete on a 2in steel deck with ribs
perpendicular to the beam, as shown in Fig. 109. In the solution to Prob. 10.14 it was determined that
(a) (b)
Because the web
of a W24x68 beam is compact, the design flexural strength is @rM,, where
da:0.85
and M,, is calculated from the plastic stress distribution on the composite section.
The unshored noncomposite W24x68 beam can adequately support the 4in solid concrete slab in
Fig. l07. (It can surely carry the lighter 2in solid slab on 2in deck.)
Regarding M,, from the solution to Prob. 10.9 the maximum possible compressive force in the concrete slab C. =0.85f :A,:250kips; the maximum possible tensile force in the steel beam T:A,Fy:724kips. To satisfy equilibrium, T:C:(250+724)kipsl2:487kips. The plastic stress distribution is as shown in Fig. 1015. Because the net compressive force in the steel is greater than the beam flange yield force (i.e., [C : @87  250) kips:237 kips] >fbfrF,:8.965 in x 0.585 in x 36 kips/in'?: 189 kipsl), the ptastic neutral axis (PNA) is located in the web. Ignoring the web fillets of the beam, the distance from the
,l
oR5f'
c,
:
0.8s
C1
: blttF, =
= t"aF, =
f:bt'
:
250 kips 189 kips 48 kips
I
,i
I
C,,
fr
= t"(.d
:
btttF, =

ztr
 a)F,:
298 kips
189 kips
I
Fig. 1015
t46
COMPOSITE MEMBERS
lcHAP.
10
bottom of the upper beam flange to the PNA is approximately
48 kips C* o=#,:o.o1st"
[iF/in,
=3'2in
The contribution to Mn from each element of beam or slab: element (tensile or compressive)
force x the distance of element force from the PNA.
Contributions to M, from Compression in the slab
: C.("* r, * ,  f ) \ z/ / 2.0\ : :250 kips x (3.2 + 0.s85 + 0.0 T )in 1696 kipin Compression in upper beam flange : rr(" *'i) :
r8e kips
(t.z ' , \ *9{Q) t" 2/ Cf,
: 660
kipin
Compression in beam weV=
:48
kips
"+
*ea:r4:4!
1'\
=
77
kipin
Tension in beam
:
=
tla
298 kips
"T
x
(23.73

2 x 0.585

3.2) in
:

2885 kipin
Tension in lower beam flange
189 kips
:

I x 0.5s5  3.2)in :3714 kipin 9032 kipin
T@

1+
o)
M":9032 kipin
The design flexural strength Q uM, :0.85 x 753 kipft : 640 kipft. In comparison with the 677 kipft design flexural strength in Prob. 10.14, the 640kipft determined herein represents a mere 5 percent reduction. The inability of the 2 in of concrete within the deck to participate in composite action is not very significant. 10.16. Assume the concreteencased W8x40in Prob. 10.2 and Fig. 104 is a beam. Determine the design flexural strengths QoM,, and Q6M,, for bending about the major and minor axes.
:
753
kipft.
As indicated in this chapter, in the section entitled ConcreteEncased Beams, concrete
encasement
satisfying the stated minimum requirements prevents both local and lateraltorsional buckling of the beam. Of the two methods given in the AISC LRFD Specification for determining QoM" fot concreteencased beams, the simpler one is based on the plastic stress distribution on the steel section
alone.
For iaxis bending (regardless of 16)
r'' * :f,
ru n r",,^' #',:r{ "??, 12inlft
, 107
kipft
w
A. it(P"lQ"P")<0. (cr4t) : web area of the encased steel shape. A*=(A"2 brtr) = (11. and M. 10.66ins 1 x:oYT = 2650 kipin : 221 kipft 188 QrM*:0.:60ksi. M"is determined by linear interpolation between M.85 x 2Zl kipft : l':1s M^.3 < (P. for composite beamcolumns where 0.0: M. Z.: zn +\..r.3.17.lO. 6175 in the AISC LRFD Manual) for the determination of M.66 inz. for a :0.:Ui + * + (.5in3.5 kips/in.0: . kilr _ 2.4in2.60in2 (for each No. for use in the interaction formulas.F". 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS t47 For yaxis bending (regardless of Lr) r' * "' l_! #'.(+..85 x 157 kipft = kipft ."?* ru u.:39. 7 bar) =2.:36ksi. to combined flexure and compression). For 0.3 in) x24inz'.:r{r'. 0 for concretefilled tubes 2 : plastic section modulus of the steel shape.. in2 reinforcing bars.2 and Fig.b. Determine the design flexural strengths QoM* and QoM". in cr:avetage distance from the tension and compression faces to the nearest longitudinal lrr : h.r#ffi#g.5ksi.e. : From Prob. F.2 x 8.3..3in.3 in) 16 in .P") < 1. kipft t6 in : t8. is calculated from the plastic stress distribution on the composite cross section.7 x 3.5in' x 36 I lll'* J t. Zr:18. composite beam at P. .p"):0. (calculated as just described) at (p"le.7 in'z..560 in) : 2. Also. kios M* :39.85.= 0. However.2 x 2. :o kilt inz : 1883 kipin : 157 kipft 134 QoM". in2.66 in'Z x 36 ksi x 2'4 tn' t ou \ in' * 1 2 l./j=3.8in3.0. A formula is given in the Commentary on the AISC LRFD Specification (p.070 in x 0.effi) or. Assume the concreteencased subjected W8x40 in Prob.tA.P") <1. 10. {. is determined as follows: da:0. Q6M.  2 x 2. in width of the composite cross section parallel to the plane of bending.8 in' x 36 . 104 is a beamcolumn (i.CHAP..where A 2c. and M.3 < (P"lQ. 12 inlft 50 kipft 10. c./2)l in=2. in width of the composite cross section perpendicular to the plane of bending.^.: M. For composite beamcolumns.:4 x 0..2 and Fig.66 in2. x 16 inli x2.) x 2.f * i " t tu in . 104: hr:hr:16in.
148
COMPOSITE MEMBERS
lcHAP.
10
For P"
:
0,
Mn: ZF,
(as in Prob. 10.16 for the same concreteencased member)
eoM* = g.gsz,Fy
0'85 x 39'8 in3 x 36 kips/in'z
12inlft
0.85
:
101 kip_ft
QoM"":0.85ZyFy
x
18.5 in3
x
36 kips/in'z
:47
The results are plotted in Fig. 1016.
kip_ft
188
kipft
134
kipft
e'
x
l0l kipft
g
s
0.3
0.3
1.0
(P,t6bP^)
(P"/4"P,)
Fig.
1G'16
10.1t. The builtup beam in Prob. 6.1 and Fig. 63 acts compositely with a solid normalweight concrete floor slab (/l: 5.0 ksi, effective width : 100 in, thickness = 4 in). Assuming full composite action and shored construction, determine the design flexural strength QuM*.
A review of the solution to Prob. 6.L indicates that the web of the beam is noncompact.
(&: trt.o)' (4= \r. /
) wh; roo.z)
Accordingly, the design flexural strength is determined as follows: Qr:0.90, and M^ is calculated from the superposition of elastic stresses, considering the effects of shoring. Corresponding elastic stress diagrams for the shored and unshored cases are shown in Fig. 1017, where
: So,a, So., :
S"
section modulus of the bare steel beam, in3 section moduli of the transformed section, in3
n=modular ratio:ElE,
M,r
:1stti..d
flexural strength due to the (factored) loads applied before the concrete
has attained 75 percent of
f
'c
M"z:
required flexural strength due to the (factored) loads applied after the concrete has achieved 75 percent of/:
M" = total required flexural strength
:
(M^
I
M,z)
If
construction is shored, all loads are resisted by composite action. The two limitations on flexural strength are the maximum stresses in the steel and concrete. From Fig. 1017, the limiting conditions are
M"<QuM": Q$",uF" M,= QbM,: Q6n5,,.,(0.85f
',)
CHAP.
101
COMPOSITE MEMBERS
149
Transformed area of slab
,l lI
ff
ENA (elastic neutral
axis of transformed section)
<d,(o 8s1l
ff
<d,(o'8sll
Composite beam
M,
( drF,
M,t S'
M",
S'.a
(*)*P1g6,p, '.)' Jr.tl
Shored construction Unshored construction
Fig.
1017
The modular
ration:ElE..
E,:
ra,t
slff
i:145's\6J:
3904 ksi
n: 29.000 ksi :7'a rnoo*
The transformed section for this composite beam is shown in Fig. 1018
6r,
I
I
:
b:l00in
minn.+:iz.s,il
A
13.5 in x (4 in)r I, _
=l3.5inx4in:54in2
T
7
d
:
A,
t2
72 ina
= 60.5 in: I, = 35.647 ino
A
Fig. 1018
Locating the elastic neutral axis (ENA), relative to the centroid of the steel beam
Y
_: y,A, (29+zlinx54in2 AJ A,= ,st+ 60tl; = 14'6 in
By the parallel axis theorem, the moment of inertia of the transformed section about the ENA
[,,:E(Iro+AD2)
:
I" + A"Dl + I" + A,D?
ino
:35,647
+ 60.5 in, x (14.6 in),
*
72 ina + 54 in'z
ina
x
(16.4 in)'z
:63,139
150
COMPOSITE MEMBERS
lcHAP.
10
The required section moduli are
ina J,.r: 63'139in : r,r4g in, "  436 * : IEZE: ",", rn.,.,: €J39ino  r4r I ,,
The design flexural strength of the composite section QuM": the minimum of
QuS,,.oF"
@uns,.,,(0.85/',
0.90
x
1448 in'r
x
36 kips/in2
.,tnlft
x 7'4 x kipft
3431 in3
= 3910 kip_ft
0'90
=
8093
x (0'85 x 5 kips/in'z)
12inlft
The design flexural strength QuM" Shear stud requirements for this noncompact composite member are the same as those for compact
members.
:3910 kipft.
Supplementary Problems
10.19. Select an
8 in x 8 in concretefilled structural steel tube for a required axial compressive strength of 500kips. Assume KL:I2.0ft, Fr:a6ksi,f',:3.5ksi, normalweight (145 lb/ft3) concrete.
Ans. TS8x8x+.
10.20. Determine the design compressive strength
(f::5.0ksi)
of a W14xL20 (A36 steel) encased in a 24inx24in column. Reinforcement is four No. 10 (Grade 60) bars normalweight concrete
16
longitudinally and No. 3 ties at
in horizontally. Assume
K,L': KrLr:13.0 ft.
Ans. Q.4:2500kiPs.
10.21. For the column in Prob. 10.20, select a bearing plate to transfer to the concrete the load it must resist.
Ans.
l8 in x
18
in.
For Probs. 10.22 and 10.23, determine
(a) (b) (c)
The effective slab width for composite action Vh (the total horizontal shear force to be transferred) for full composite action The number of Jindiameter shear studs required if
{ :69 L.1
10.?2. AW24x55 interior beam is shown in Fig. 1019. Steel is ,{36, beam span is 32 ft 0 in, and beam spacing is 12 ft 0 in. The beams are to act compositely with a 5in normalweight concrete slab, consisting of 2 in of solid concrete on a 3in steel deck, with ribs perpendicular to the beam; ,fj : 5 ksi, Q": L8.5 kips per stud. Ans. (a) b:96in. (b) Vh:583 kips. (c) 2n:64 shear studs.
10.23. A W24x55 edge beam is shown in Fig. 1019. Steel is ,4,36, and the beam span is 30 ft to act compositely with the concrete and deck described in Prob. 10.22.
0
in. The beam
is
Ans. (a) b = 51 in. (b) Vh:434 kips. (c) Zn :48
shear studs.
and QuM. It the concreteencased W14x120 in Prob. determine QoM. 10.CHAP.. QrM^".27. 10..623 kipft. .lQ. Determine the design flexural strength QrM" for the W24x55 edge composite beam in Prob.).20 is a beam (i.3.:275kipft. Ans.20 is a beamcolumnwith P. QuM":715 kipft. Ans. 10. P":0.25. QoM":781 kipft.P" >0.22..l l 9in s:t2ftOin s:l2ftOrn Fig. determine QoM* and QoM. Assuming the concreteencased W14x120 in Prob... 1019 10. Ans.23 Assume full composite action.e. 10. 10. 101 COMPOSITE MEMBERS 151 ^ ztn :3in r I .24.?6. Determine the design flexural strength QoM^for the W24x55 interior composite beam in Prob. QoM*:572kiptt. Assume full composite action. Ans. 10. 10. QoM*:920 kipft. QoM^" .
in2 as defined in Eq. ksi 4.A" : Aro : An:rret ret area subjected to tension.. ksi . in: depth of column section. 116. inz Aoo: Proiected bearing area. in /r : thickness of column flange. in c : as defined in Eq. in2 area subjected to shear. in2 An: . in r52 .4l. in C: distance between the centers of bolt holes. in P: force transmitted by one fastener to the critical connected part.101. in da : diameter of the standard size hole. inz A. in Fnu: nominal strength of the base material. kips Po : as defined in Eq. in2 and Az: rraximum area of supporting surface that is geometrically similar to concentric with the loaded area. in N: length of column base plate. ksi L: distance in the line of force from the center of a bolt hole to an edge. : specified minimum yield stress. in m: as defined in Fig. ksi Fnxx: nominal tensile strength of the weld metal.11]. kips P. [11.Chapter Connections NOTATION 11 Aau: crosssectional area of the base material. in2 Ar: B area of steel bearing on a concrete support. : required column axial strength.: gross area subjected to shear. 111. C: = tabulated values for use in Eqs. ksi F. : effective crosssectional area of the weld. kips /: thickness of the connected part. kips R. in2 : width of column base plate. in2 A.21to 111. in C' : clear distance between holes. Cz. [11. ksi 4 : specified minimum tensile strength. in Cr. in d : nominal bolt diameter.: nominal strength of the weld electrode. 116.9] Pp : nominal strength for bearing on concrete. in br : width of column flange. [11. inz gross area subjected to tension. in n : as defined in Fig.fi: the specified compressive strength of the concrete. : nominal strength.
and gas metal arc. However. 11'1 Structural welds: (a) completepenetration groove weld. The most common connectors for steel structures are welds and bolts. four are acceptable in structural work: shielded metal arc.CHAP. in d : resistance factor d. which contains nearly 200 pages of data on connections. submerged arc. Although there are a number of excellent books on structural steel connections. (e) plug or slot weld .1) specifies the electrode classes and welding processes that can be used to achieve "matching" weld til'7 +il + (a) rl . WELDS Of the various welding procedures. nearly all are based on allowable stress design (ASD). the heat of an electric arc simultaneously melts an electrode (or welding rod) and the adjacent steel in the parts being joined. All four involve fusion welding by an electric arc process.: r€sistance factor for bearing on concrete /p QFau: design strength of the base material. The joint is formed from the cooling and solidification of the fused material. kips QRn: design strength. that is. J in the AISC LRFD Specification are the basis for connection design in LRFD. For additional information. It is anticipated that similar books based on LRFD will be published in the next few years. 111 CONNECTIONS 153 : thickness of plate. (b) partialpenetration groove weld. kiPs INTRODUCTION The types of connections used in steel structures are too numerous to cover fully in a single chapter. The present chapter has a twofold purpose: (1) to outline the basic LRFD Specification requirements for connections and (2) to provide some common examples of connection design. fluxcore arc. the reader is referred to Part 5 of the AISC LRFD Manual._ Fig. (c) longitudinal fillet weld. ksi QF*: design strength of the weld electrode. the provisions of Chap. ksi @Po: design strength for bearing on concrete. (d) transverse fillet weld. which are discussed in the following sections. The American Welding Society Structural Welding CodeSteel (AWS D1.
"Matching" weld must be used Weld metal with strength level equal to or less a Base 0..60FFXX Fy Weld Electrode 0.90 0. As illustrated in Fig.t54 CONNECTIONS lcHAP.60FExx Fitlet Welds Stress on effective area Base Weld electrode Base 0.75 0.60FEXX Weld metal with a strength level equal to or less than "matching" weld metal may be used . fillet (longitudinal and transverse). and plug or slot welds. Weld metal with a strength level equal Tension or compression parallel to axis of weld Shear parallel to axis Base to or less than "matching" weld metal may be used of weld Tension normal to effective area Weld electrode Base 0. than "matching" may be used Weld electrode PartialPenetration Groove Welds Compression normal to effective area Base 0.90 E.80 0. 0.75 0. 11 metal. weld metal that has a nominal tensile strength F6y.90 r.A* Table 111 Design Strength of Welds Nominal Types of Weld and Stress Resistance Required Weld Strength Material Factor @ Strength Fs..60FEXX Base 0.80 0.75 0. that is.90 0. three types of structural welds are normally used in building construction: groove (complete and partial penetration).60FEXX Weld metal with a strength level equal to or less than Tension or compression parallel to axis of weld R "matching" weld metal may be used Plug or Slot Welds Shear parallel to faying Base surfaces (on effective area) Weld electrode 0. The design strength of welds is the lower value of QForAu. 111.604.90 n.similar to that of the base steel being connected.90 0. or F* Level CompletePenetration Groove Weld Tension normal to effective area Compression normal to effective area Tension or compression parallel to axis of weld Shear on effective area Base 0. and QF..
Normal throat sizc \ ^t=j 't1€i{+ ff (lr) Spacer bar 11 tr Root* wp Groove angle Bevel angle Backing bar Root face t\9.lL I . in2 effective crosssectional area of the weld. ksi nominal strength of the weld electrode. in2 resistance factor. sl Root face / r]' I > FRoot openlng lH Preparation Weldface Penetration (fusion zone) Reinforcement Weld size Effective throat slze I Root I Weld throat Weld size Root face Groove angle Fillet size : Backing beai Full penetration Partial penetration Partial penetration (when reinforcing fillet is specified) (bl Fig. where Fnu: F. ksi crosssectional area of the base material. A*: 4: Weld face Throat area (shaded) il(>s{ .\J\ Throat \ 'it l /' Throat Convex Concave Deeppenetration throat \y srze \. 112 Weld nomenclature: (a) fillet weld." CHAP.r.: Aaru: nominal strength of the base material. 1U CONNECTIONS 155 when applicable. (b) groove weld .
and the nominal crosssectional area of the hole or slot. in t=I t>1 i<t ) \<t 1 * Leg dimension of fillet welds. r. BOLTS Bolts consist of a cylindrical shank (partially threaded to receive a nut) with an attached head.* A*.5 in the AISC LRFD Specification. li<t 16 1 r 2 8 : 8 Table l13 Minimum Size of Fillet Welds Minimum Size of Fillet Weld. for groove and fillet welds. J2 of the AISC LRFD Specification. which is Table J2. for plug welds. F6p. the effective crosssectional areas of weld to be used in conjunction with Fn are the effective length times the effective throat thickness. they must be sufficientlylightened to achieve the minimum bolt tension values listed in Table 114 (which is Table J3.156 CONNECTIONS lcHAP. which are Tables J2. reprinted from the AISC publication Engineering for Steel Construction (1984). . are required in most structural applications. that is. type A325 or 4490. Additional restrictions on welds are given in Sec..9 of the AISC * Reproduced with the permission of AISC. beginning on page 5177. Examples of prequalified welded joints and standard welding symbols are given in the AISC LRFD Manual. 1L2. the tabulated minimum weld size is determined by the thicker of the two parts joined. Minimum sizes of groove and fillet welds are given in Tables Il2 and 1. However.4 and J2. 11 Values for Q. exempt from tests and qualification if they have been properly designed and detailed.1 in the AISC LRFD Specification*). Highstrength bolts.* For both groove and fillet welds. The nomenclature for fillet and groove welds is shown in Fig. and Fn are given in Table 111. J1.13. in of Partial Minimum Effective Throat Thickness. l6 1 l6 Most common welded connections used in buildings have been designated by AISC and AWS as prequalified. t. Teble 112 Minimum Efiective Throet Thickness Penetration Groove VYelds Material Thickness of Thicker Part Joined.* in 1 a 3 r<1 1<t L L<t =1 J<t < ll l6 r t>6 21 21<t=6 * Leg dimension.* in 1 8 3 4 5 Material Thickness of Thicker Part Joined.3 in the AISC LRFD Specification. For those cases not included in Sec. the weld size should not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined.
CHAP.
111
CONNECTIONS
r57
LRFD Specification, ordinary ,4.307 machine bolts may be used; they are tightened to a "snugtight" condition only. Highstrength bolts must comply with the Research Council on Structural Connections Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM 4325 or A490 Bolts, which appears in Part 6 of the AISC LRFD Manual.
Table
114 Minimum Bolt Tension, kips*
,4325 Bolts
12
T9
Bolt Size, in
! 2 I 8 I 4
7 8
4'490 Bolts
15
1A
28 39
51
1
1i
1.i
13
56
35 49 64 80
7l
85
103
r02
rS
11 L2
l2l
148
* Equal to 0.70 of minimum tensile strength of bolts, rounded off to nearest kip, as specified in ASTM specifications for 4325 and ,4'490 bolts with UNC threads.
Bolts may be loaded in tension (i.e., parallel to their axes), shear (i.e., perpendicular to their or a combination of shear and tension. The strengths of ,4,307, A325 , and 4.490 bolts are given in the accompanying tables as follows.
axes) ,
AISC LRFD
This Chapter Table 115 Table 116 Table 117
Specification Ref.* Subjecl Design tensile strength; design shear strength Tensile stress limit for combined shear and tension
Table J3.2 Table J3.3 Table J3.4
Nominal slipcritical
shear strength of highstrength bolts
* Reproduced with the permission of AISC.
For bolts loaded in tension only, the design tensile strength is equal to 4 multiplied by the nominal tensile strength, as given in Table 115. For bolts loaded in shear only, the design shear strength is equal to @ multiplied by the nominal shear strength, given in Table 115. If a combination of tension and shear acts on a bolt, the maximum tensile stress is determined from Table 116 and the maximum shear stress, from Table 115. In all cases, stresses (in ksi) are converted to forces by multiplying by the nominal crosssectional area of the bolt (ignoring the threads). A special category of slipcriticcl joints is recognized by the AISC LRFD Specification. Where joint slippage is undesirable (e.g., if there are frequent load reversals, leading to the possibility of fatigue), the designer may specify "slipcritical" highstrength bolts. Because this is a serviceability criterion, the (unfactored) service loads are used in conjunction with Table I17. If the load combination includes either wind or seismic load together with live load, the total service load may be multiplied by 0.75. To determine the design shear strength, the nominal values in Table 717 are multiplied by Q:1.0 (except O:0.85 for longslotted holes if the load is parallel to the slot). If a bolt in a slipcritical connection is subjected to a service tensile force I, the nominal shear strensth
158
CONNECTIONS
lcHAP.
11
Table
ll5
Design Strength of Fasteners
Shear Strength in
Tensile Streneth
BearingType Connections
Nominal
Resistance
Nominal
Resistance
Strength,
ksi 45.0
Description of Fasteners ,{307 bolts ,{325 bolts, when threads are not excluded from shear olanes
,4325 bolts, when threads are excluded from shear planes
,4,490 bolts, when threads are not excluded from shear planes
Factor
0.75
@
Factor
0.60
@
Strength ksi
27.0
90.0
0.65
54.0
90.0
72.0
1.L2.5
67.5
4'490 bolts, when threads are excluded from the shear planes Threaded parts meeting the requirements of Sec. ,A'3, when threads are not excluded from the shear planes Threaded parts meeting the requirements of Sec. ,{3, when threads are excluded from the shear planes
r12.5
90.0
0.75F"
0.4sn
0.7sn
45.0
0.604
36.0
4502, Grade L, hotdriven
rivets
,4.502, Grades 2 and 3, hotdriven
rivets
60.0
48.0
Table 116 Tension Stress Limit (ifl), ksi, for Fasteners in BearingType Connections
Threads Included in the Shear Plane Threads Excluded
Description of Fasteners
.4307 bolts
from the Shear Plane
391.8I,<30 8s1.8r,<68
1061.8I s84
0.73F"1.8f,,
,{325 bolts ,{490 bolts Threaded parts ,4.449 bolts over 1lin diameter ,{502 Grade 1 rivets
,4'502
851.4t<68
1061.4f"<84 O.nn
=0.564
44
 1.4f"'0.56n

t.3f" <34
Grade 2 rivets
591..3f"<45
re..
CHAP.
111
CONNECTIONS
159
in Table 117 is multiplied by the reduction factor (1 TlTo), where Io is the minimum pretension force for that bolt in Table 114.
Table
117 Nominal SlipCritical
Shear Strength of HighStrength Bolts*
Nominal Shear Strength, ksi Type of
StandardSize
Bolt
4325 A490
Holes
17
Oversized and ShortSlotted Holes
15
LongSlotted
Holest
12 15
2I
18
* Class A (slip coefficient 0.33). Clean mill scale and blast cleaned surfaces with class A coatings. For design strengths with other coatings, see RCSC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM 4325 or 4190 Bolts. t Tabulated values are for the case of load application transverse to the slot. When the load is parallel to the slot, multiply tabulated values by 0.85.
Bolt bearing strength, minimum spacing, and minimum edge distance depend on the dimensions of the bolt holes. Nominal dimensions for standard, oversize, shortslotted, and longslotted holes are given in Table 118 (Table J3.5 in the AISC LRFD Specification*). Unlike standard holes, use of the other types of holes requires approval of the designer and is subject to the restrictions in Sec. J3.7 of the AISC LRFD Specification.
Table
118 Nominal Hole Dimensions. in
Hole Dimensions. in
Bolt Diameter, in I 2 I 8 l 4
z
8
Standard
Oversize
ShortSlot
LongSlot
(Dia.)
a
16
(Dia.)
8
(Width x Length)
(Width x Length)
lr l6
1l l5 t6
i3 t6
15
*x*t
t6
l?xt
*Ex1*
i*xi
*ax1*
15 16
*xti ,ii x ii ., r l
1
1l
11
>l1
d+'2
qrh
(d+*)x(al)
1frx1fr
1+x2i
'\ Lt6
(d+*1)x(2.5xd)
Two boltspacing schemes are possible.
(1) In the preferred
where C:
L
scheme, C :
3d
and
L > l.5d
distance between the centers of bolt holes, in distance in the line of force, from the center of a bolt hole to an edge, in nominal diameter of the bolt, in.
: d:
The design bearing strength QR" for each of two or more bolts in the line of force must be checked (even if the connection is slipcritical); Q:0.75. For standard or shortslotted
* Reproduced with the permission of AISC.
ksi.6 in the AISC : dn: diameter LRFD Specification*) Table l19 Values of Spacing Increment C. L> 1QF"t L c3 + c2 [r1.sd. in. in C' : clear distance between holes.0 dtF" (J31b) If deformation of the bolt hole need not be considered. c>1 P du l+IC. then.41 The design bearing strength must be checked (regardless of whether the connection is slipcritical). * Reproduced with the permission of AISC.: LtFu In the preceding equations P Q31c) force transmitted by one fastener to the critical connected part.. r is the thickness of the connected part. otherwise use the value in Table 119 (Table J3.:2.4 dtF. I : +C.:3. In these equations. kips of the standard size hole. and strength of the connected part. in Cr:0 for standard holes.. (J31d') {. is the specified tensile (2) In the alternate scheme.3] 111. . For longslotted holes perpendicular to the load (131a) R":2.75 and R.21 (p .0 dtF. the design bearing strength (for each of one or more bolts in the line of force) is @R. 2 lQF. 11 holes. where d :0.ota tl 111. R. C1 may be reduced by the difference between the maximum and actual slot lengths.t c'> d z. in Slotted Holes Parallel to Line of Force Short Slots t6 3 Nominal Diameter of Fastener <Z x 1 Perpendicular Oversize Holes 1 8 3 to Line of Force 0 Long Slots* l6 1 4 0 0 l Lid+ 4 5 =1i 16 rid+ i7 a l6 * When length of slot is less than maximum allowed in Table 118. ( I the distance between the centers of bolt holes U r. in all cases R.160 CONNECTIONS lcHAP. Where L<t.
the following limit states should be examined for applicability to connecting elements and the adjacent parts of main * Reproduced with the permission of AISC.CHAP. . C. Shapes or Bars or Gas Cut Edges l Z 8 At Sheared Edges 7 8 I 11 ra L4 1 7 t 1l 8 tl L2 rl z 11 ra rl La 1L L2 rI >ri a1 L7 1t r8 1] x diameter 1] x diameter Regardless of which bolt spacing scheme is selected. to Edge of Connected Part) Nominal Rivet or Bolt Diameter. brackets. Perpendicular to Edge Oversized Holes L r in <7 1 Short Slots 1 8 Long Slots* Parallel to Edge 8 1 8 3 ia 0 =li slot leneths. ln Ib ( CONNECTING ELEMENTS AND MAIN MEMBERS AT CONNECTIONS Connecting elements include stiffeners. gusset plates. may be reduced by onehalf the difference between the maximum and actual C3: the value in Table 1111 (Table J3. the maximum edge distance is lzt L=\. 111 CONNECTIONS 161 Cz:0 for standard holes. I 8 l6 * When length of slot is less than maximum allowable (see Table 118).8 in the AISC LRFD Specification*) Table 1110 Values of Edge Distance Increment C1 in Slotted Holes Nominal Diameter of Fastener.: Minimum Edge Distance. angles. Considering the possible modes of failure. and the panel zones of beamtocolumn connections. otherwise use the value in Table 1110 (Table J3. in 1 2 T 8 in (Center of Standard Hole At Rolled Edges of Plates.7 in the AISC LRFD Specification*) Table 1111 C.
113) and in similar situations.4.6A"8Fy A"n L0sA^n+ ArF.162 CONNECTIONS lcHAP. in2 n€t area subjected to shear. = the greater value of [0.4. (Js1) (2) For tensile fracture Q:0'75 R..6AurF.= AnF* where A. 113 Block shear rupture . Fig. The design strength is based on the largercapacity failure mode. (141) (5) For block shear rupture Q :0.90 Rn= ArF. (c141) (c142) In the preceding equations: . At beam end connections where the top flange is coped (as in Fig. (CJa4]. (CJa1)]. in2 gross area subjected to shear.6A^F. or fracture of the (net) section in shear accompanied by yielding of the (gross) section in tension lEq. (Js3) (4) For shear fracture Q =0'75 R":0.85.75 + R.=0. in2 An explanation of block shear rupture follows. which governs. where (1) For tensile yielding d :0. (Js2) (3) For shear yielding 0 :0'90 Rn:0." : /^ : An:tret area subjected to tension. The design strength is @R. Failure can occur in one of two ways: fracture of the (net) section in tension accompanied by yielding of the (gross) section in shear lBq. 11 members. in2 A. : gross area subjected to tension. one plane is subjected to shear while a perpendicular plane is subjected to tension.
a@) develops the full strength of the beam and transfers the full moment and shear. 111 CONNECTIONS 163 TYPICAL CONNECTIONS The discussion in the earlier sections of this chapter concerned the design strengths of the components of connections: the connectors (i. Unless otherwise specified on the design drawings.5 Beamtocolumn connections: (c) simple (shear) connections.CHAP. beamtobeam and beamtocolumn connections are assumed to be simple shear connections. Regarding beam end connections. for example. l14 Beam splices: (a) groovewelded moment splice. the simple connections in Fig. Use of a type of connection not intended in the analysis and design will cause a redistribution of internal forces in the structure. In connections combining bolts with welds. 11. (b) bolted shear splice Fig.). Whichever assumption was made by the engineer must be communicated to the contractor. 11. 115(b). Where eccentricities are unavoidable.. they should be specified together with their required flexural strengths. etc. design. the additional moments they cause must be included in the design of the members and the connections. their centroidal axes should preferably intersect at one point. when three or more axially loaded members meet at a joint. welds and bolts) and the connecting elements (stiffeners. . Analysis. splices are groovewelded with fullpenetration welds. 11a(b) is not capable of transferring any significant moment. To transfer moment requires moment connections similar to the ones shown in Fig. However. The required strength of a connection is determined from an analysis of the entire structure with the factored loads acting on it. (b) moment connections Groups of welds or bolts that transmit axial force into a member should preferably be proportioned so that the center of gravity of the group coincides with the centroidal axis of the member. Likewise. 114 and 115. may or may not transfer moment. Connections. 115(a) will only transmit shear. the welds alone must resist all connection forces. The groovewelded splice in Fig.e. the shear splice in Fig. only highstrength bolts designed as slipcritical can share the load with the welds. When not indicated otherwise. Examples of shear and moment connections for beams are shown in Figs. and construction must follow consistent assumptions. Fig. A detailed analysis of the connection produces required strengths for its components. Where moment connections are required. leading to overstress and possible failure. gusset plates. Otherwise.
tp:n 0.75 (181) Rn:Z.6(1. the design bearing strength is Q"Po. Ib .0.l.81 Ar:L= pf 6(0. an appropriate plate area Al can be determined.g. base plate thickness ro (in inches) is the largest value obtained from the following three formulas. where Q"=O. and n (all in inches) are as defined in Fig.':. The thickness of base plates is not covered in the AISC LRFD Specification.0FrAoo and Aoa: the projected bearing area. (for bearing on the full area of concrete) r^ 111. For steel bearing on concrete (e. where Q:0. 11 BEARING ON STEEL AND CONCRETE The design bearing strength for steel bearing on steel is @R. (for bearing on less than the full area of concrete) [11. 8sv.. 111. b1. fit.Po> P..71 where N. B.. ) . The bearing plate dimensions N and B are selected to make N x B >. according to the Column Base Plates Design Procedure in Part 2 of the AISC LRFD Manual. in2..4.Ar The determination of its thickness tp. in2 /z = Irloximum area of supporting surface that is geometrically similar with the loaded area.9FyBN' tp: c 2P" 0. n" aesign of a column base plate involves (a) The determination of its length N and width B. I . ksi Ar= &tea of steel bearing on a concrete support. and .6] "fl = specified compressive strength of the concrete.sl f o.ffi 'r ) where o ( O. However. in2 to and concentric and IE !ri<2.gS f A. d.":try o.btl ul. tp:ffitffi. 116 Column base plate .the required strength (or factored column load). By setting the design bearing strength (b) Q..101 { *mf 1l Irl lq ml I ll lN ll VI I T ' 8'1 Fig.IU CONNECTIONS lcHAP. 116.e] The design of bearing plates for beams is covered in the next chapter.7 f ") [11.S5 t'^rr.9FvAH 111. column base plates bearing on footings).
In Fig.2.60 x = 25. the design tensile strength is 25. @fl.60FEX)A.'.2 kips. less than the matching E70 weld metal) may also be used.9kips kins t. for tension normal to the effective area of a partial penetratlon sroove *. or rt in.60FEXX) f 0. matching E. The effective throat thickness for a completepenetration groove weld is the thickness of the thinner plate joined. a matching E70 electrode must be used.2 kips ' r in = 72 e kips 70 kips/in'z) x 3 in x J in if an E70 electrode is used. for which the matching weld is E70 (Fnxx:70ksi).80(0.6 ksi for E70 28.1 for plates of unequal thickness: iin and frin. The base material is .6 kips if an E60 electrode is used.' *l#:T . QF*A*= Q(0.l'. Determine the design shear strength of the web splice.90 x 36 ksi = 32'4 ksi QP": QF. in x 0'75 in (Note: As indicated in Table 111.yAeu = 32. The design tensile strength is LFurA".2 kips 11. According to Table 111. for shear on the effective area of a completepenetration groove weld.4# :72. A vertical completepenetration groove weld is used to join the two halves of a W24xl76 beam (.{36 steel in this case. If the weld is E60. :0.80(0. As indicated in Table 111.4. 111 CONNECTIONS 165 Solved Problems 11.L. 11. an E60 electrode (with strength Fr:xx=60ksi. the plates are 3 in wide and J in ttrick.80(0. the design strength is the lower value of QF"u:0.8 [ o.':. 111(a) and (b).604. where Frxx 21.90(0./". 11. as in Fig' i11(b)' (a) For tension normal to a complete penetration groove weld (according to Table 11L).) :0'9 x 0'6 x 36 ksi : 70 19'4 ksi d4": _ 0. For tension normal to the effective area of a complete penetration groove weld. = OFA* again controls: QF*A: 0.3.60 F'**) x 3 in x ] in. For an E70 electrode.70 weld must be used with .6 x ksi: 33.{36 steel. 111(a)' (b) The minimum partial penetration groove weld."j. Determine the design tensile strengths (kips) for (c) The complete penetration groove weld in Fig..6 x x 0.J. the design strength of the weld :60 ksi. According to Table 111. Repeat Prob.s  x 0.) (b) The minimum effect throat thickness of partialpenetration groove welds (as given in Table 112) is I in for ]in plates. = 0.36 steel).904.8 ksi for E6o 6o ksi : . : : Q4'Aur= 0'90 x 36kips/in'z x 3 in x ft in 18. the design strength In kiPs QFnu = 0.CHAP.
331 of the AISC LRFD Manual) is. (/Sl)] 0R" :0.750 in) x :o Es ln_ :368 kips as in Prob.F. aW24x76 beam (on p.90(0. i in is the minimum size fillet weld for ]in plates. Determine the design shear strength of the web splice. According to Table 113.62in2:398 kips for E.4. QV": I9. Two vertical partialpenetration groove welds.7s(0.24 inx 0.5.70 In conclusion.60FEXX\ _ [0.45+ x25. the design shear strength at the splice 368 341 is kips (based on the limit state of shear yielding of the base material) for E70 electrodes kips (based on the limit state of shear yielding of the weld material) for E60 electrodes 11. 117. 11 Regardless of whether an E60 or E70 electrode is used.750 in :368 kips The tabulated design shear strength of. QAl)] 0R" :0. Determine the design tensile strength of the splice for the minimum size fillet weld: (a) E70.75 70 ksi 60 : 31.6 x 1.750 in) x sa !T :494 kips Shear yielding of the base material [Eq.25 in : t2. i. 111(c). The two fillet welds are each 3 in long.. As shown in Fig.62 in2 oR":oF*A_ 12.60 x 0. 11. are used to join the two halves of a W24x176 beam. a fillet weld is approximated .e.24 in x 2 x 0. the plates are 3 in and 4 in wide and I in ttrict.6 x ksi: The shear area for the two partialpenetration groove welds is dx2x f in.6A". 11.0.) : 0. for shear parallel to the axes of partialpenetration groove welds the following limit states should be considered: Shear fracture of the base material [Eq. A* = 25.166 CONNECTIONS lcHAP.4 ksi) governs. According to Table 111.75(0.5 ksi for E70 27. the strength of the base material in the web of the W24x176 beam (QFu.a: 19.. each with an effective throat thickness of * in. in fact.4 ksi x dt : 19. Shear yielding of the weld (Table 111) QF*:0.9 x 0. (b) E60.6A*n) : 0. 368 kips.24in x 0.75 x 0.75 x 0.6(25. The effective area of weld equals its length times the effective throat thickness.6(25.0 ksi for E.24in x 0.3. The base material is 436 steel. In Fig.
06 in'? QF*A*= 27.ro CHAP. the design strength o. : o.25 in') = 72. eFau :o. AP. Since (@P" = 32. (b) E60. In Prob. the design tensile strength of the plates should also be checked.5f+ 1nlnIn kips.5. for a leg dimension of o1 in Throat :0. 111 CONNECTIONS 167 Fig.4sx oo 5T: 27. for tension parallel to the axis of the weld. : QF"*AB*)> F*A.: In kips. 117 as an equalleg right triangle. the maximum size of fillet welds Equals plate thickness.2(b) of the AISC LRFD Specification.25 in = 0. The throat thickness (which is the minimum distance from the root of the joint to the face of the fillet weld) is calculated as 0.06 in':= 33.9o ''' x'"" \ils: 32.QFBMABM where A".18 in The total effective area of weld A:2 Q x 3 in x 0. 45 Fzxx (a\ For E70 electrodes QF*:0. Aur: 3 in x ]in:2. J2.25 in'z . the design strength for fillet welds is F* : 0.0 !+ rnln1. as follows. if plate thickness >J in .9 kips tncase.18 in = 5(0.7 : 0.6 kips As indicated in Table 111.4 36 in2 "" !S in2 QP"_. the design strength QF*A* = 31.6. 11.0 !+ x : 28.60F'*") 1. In this case.4 kips (b) For E60 electrodes oF.707 times the leg dimension. the design tensile strengths of the plates are not critical in this 1L. determine the design tensile strength for the maximum size of fillet weld: (a) 870.707 x 0.45x 70!+= 31.06 in': According to Table 111.4ry x 2. According to Sec. is the crosssectional area of each plate.eo4.5 kios  x 1. For the narrower plate. Equals plate thickness if <l in { in.
5.:o. they may be doubled. Determine the design tensile strength of a fiindiameter bolt if it is (a) A325.3 kips 11. the design strength 31. the terms single and double shear refer to the number of planes across which shear is transferred through the bolts. Bolts may be utilized in single shear or double shear. For a leg (a) For 870 electrodes.75in0. the maximum fillet in:0.5.75 and d" is as listed in Table 11.9kips. (c) . 11 In this case. as determined in Prob. (b) 4490. it governs.o !T x 0.7s x r125!s in' (c) For a {indiameter . (o) For a {indiameter .6 kips in' x 0.4. As determined for Prob.307.7.168 CONNECTIONS lcHAP.92 in'z = 91. for double shear.5. Single shear is assumed in this exercise.69 0. the design tensile strength of the plate governs QP" = 72. as determined in Prob. (d) A490X. QF*:27. based on the limit state of yielding of the plate. 11. 118 .4325 bolt. /D\2:"\ llint'? 2 )=u.7 kips (b) For a Jindiameter .e2 in2: 78. In kips.60 in'z :20. In kips.9 kips.707 x 0. 118.1s x so !+ x 0. dimension of 0. throat :0.8 kips Again. The nominal crosssectional area of a 3indiameter bolt is A=.:0. the design strength enA: 27. the design tensile strength eP. QP^:72.307 bolt.0 ksi.60 in'z : 50.92 irf for a ]in plate.4.0 !ry x 2. = o.5ksi. Q\:31. since the design tensile strength of the narrower (3in) plate is less. The shear strength values in Table 115 are for single shear.4490 bolt.69 in. 1L. fF*A*: (b) For E'60 electrodes. (b) A325X. As shown in Fig.49 in : 2.E. 11. the design tensile strength QP. Determine the design shear strength of a frindiameter bolt if it is (c) A325N. the design tensile strength eP.60 in'z = 40.ourn'f. 11. Single shear Double shear Fig. The total effective area of weld A*:2 x 3 in x weld=(i*)ln:0.49 in. 5 ksi x 2.lsx +s.5. (c) A490N./ The design tensile strength of a bolt oP": on"A where @ :0.06in:0.9 kips.69in. However. (e) 4307.
2 kips For a fiindiameter . the design shear strength Qv.6sx 67.60 in'z: 16.s !+ !+ x 0.60 in2 = 28. X designates threads excluded from the shear plane.6 kips/in'z (o) According to Table 1.7 ksi .6sx s+.60 The shear stressf.1. : 10 kips/0.. = 68) ksi : (85 .4f.. = 0. The nominal crosssectional area of a lindiameter bolt is 0.t1i$ " 6.7). < 68) ksi = (85 .:0.: 26. the design tensile stress 4 ..o 5T x o.1. : 33.1 ksi The design tensile force F. = 0.6o in2 : 9. the design shear strength ev.: o. where N designates threads included in the shear plane. nonslipcritical) connection.60 in2 : 35.4 x 16.1.60 in2 (as calculated in Prob.6 < 68) ksi (8s : :55. in'z.. the design shear strength QV.8 x 16. The nominal crosssectional area of a lindiameter bolt is A : 0. (a) For a lindiameter A325N bolt.60 in.65x zz.e.0 kips (b) For A325X bolts (threads excluded from the shear plane).7 kips 11.60 in2 = 21.8f. for A325N bolts (threads included in the shear plane).1 kips (c) For a {indiameter A490N bolt.1.4'307 bolt.6ox ZZ.16. A {indiameter A325 bolt is subjected to combined shear and tension. CHAP.65x 90. Determine the design tensile force assuming the required shear force is 10 kips. The design shear strength of a bolt QV = Q*"A where d and 4" are as listed in Table 115.9.A:55.1 kips (b) For a lindiameter A325X bolt.o x 0.6s 1n. the design tensile stress 4 : (8s . the design shear strength Qv..0 tn' x 0. 11. the design shear strength QV:0.0 !T lnIS x 0.6 < 68) ksi : 61.4 kips (d) (e) For a lindiameter A490X bolt. 1U CONNECTIONS 169 The suffixes N and X refer to a bearingtype (i.
f.2kips). For shear yielding . because Qv"<(QR" = 34. and block shear rupture.63in). If tension is present.10.75 x 2.0in)=(3.1 kips 11. shear fracture. 119 for connection to a supporting member. Assume two or more bolts in the line of force connecting two $in plates of '4. 11.) Assuming standardsize holes.4 dt P". where T is the service tensile force and Ta is the minimum pretension load for the bolt in Table 114. where @:0.325 bolts.3 kips. QR" : 0.36 steel. centertocenter distance of 3 in. Higher shear strengths for highstrength bolts in slipcritical connections are available for class B (slip coefficient 0.2kips " (r .11.12.3 kips per bolt In Prob. (Please note'.3kips)<(QV"=:5. f"=17 ksi and the other shear strengths tabulated therein are for class A surfaces (with slip coefficient 0.): 10. 11 The design tensile force nA = 6r.33)..8. Shear strength f.0 kips maximum service load shear 11.2 kirs x 20 kips\ (r . The higher values are given in the Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts. for which (0R":34. Determine the shear strength of a fiindiameter A325 bolt in a slipcritical connection. Spacing (C:3. The applicable limit states are shear yielding.t70 CONNECTIONS lcHAP.0d=3.4 x I x f.oo in': = ro. Check the bearing strengths of the frindiameter bolts in Probs. Equation (!jla) is applicable and the design bearing strength is @R". Edge distance (L=t. 11. = 17 ksi for .40) surfaces. where the bolt is in a slipcritical connection.5in)=(1.31in).i ln.5x{in:1. The three holes are ll in diameter for frindiameter bolts.. ro.10. in x 58 kips/in'z = 34. The strengths of slipcritical connections are expressed as unfactored forces in Table 117.5d=1.10 for a service tensile force of 2Okips acting in combination with the shear.A = t7 !$ x o.2 Regarding Prob. All the other bolts are governed by shear strength./ : 5. 11.0x3in: 2.x !$ o. The end of a W12x87 beam (A36 steel) has been prepared as shown in Fig.4. 11.oo in'z= 37.TlTo).75 and R":2.10. Repeat Problem 11. 11. and edge distance of 1] in. the limiting service load shear kips obviously governs over the limiting factored load bearing value of 34.2kips. As noted in Table 117. the only bolt governed by bearing strength is the A490X in part (d). of 10.50) and class C (slip coefficient 0. standard holes.2 kips Maximum service load shear on the bolt is 10.8 and 11.13. the shear values in Table 117 are to be multiplied by (1 .3 kips). *. which appears in Part 6 of the AISC LRFD Manual. Determine the design shear strength of the beam web.
97 in2 x 58 ksi = L(X kips For block shear rupture [of section (2) in Fig. Design a base plate for a W14x90 column with a factored axial load r\36.86 in2 A^: (rLin * 2 x 3in2lx i:) x 0.6 x 5.] x if in.9 x 0. /i: 4 Lti' of 700 kips.6A^n+ ArF. 119 [of gross section (1) in Fig. x 0'515 in = 0. 111 CONNECTIONS 171 .515 in :2. 119] @R" :0. based on the governing limit state of block shear 11.=net area of the horizontal part of (2) 4. 36T + 0.=rr". gross area of the vertical part of (2) A*:net area of the vertical part of (2) A" = gross area of the horizontal part of (2) A.r: oR.53 in Q41) ZinQ: 3x ll in) x 0'515 in:3'97 in'z QR^= 0.90 x06A.515 in= 5. The base plate is on a footing 2 ft 0 in xZft 0 in.6 x 2.14.42in2 x 36 ksi = 105 kips For shear fracture [of net section (1) in Fig' 119] : A^: 0'75 x o'6A*F" (dcope3do)t =(12.": sFy+ A"n (cJ41) (cJ42) 0. : 0R.77 inz x 36 5 : ^kips R" kips : 120 kips 0R.{ wl2 x 89 o 6 I I I I o Fig. = 0.75 x 0'6 x 3.6 x 3. is the greater of x 0.75 and R' = the greater value of 0. (dcope)t: (12.6 where A.CHAP.tF (Is3) A.66 in'z kips .42in2 0. : llin + 2 x 3 in) x 0'515 in = 3. tt9) 0.515 in:0'77 inz (riin .53 IL2in in'z 0.53 in'z x 58T = 114 kips ^ kips 120 kios ^x 581 + 0.86 in' x 0.66in2 Ar= A^: R. The design shear strength is 90kips.75 x 120 kiPs = 90 kiPs rupture.53in  2 in) x 0. All steel is .
0 L4. Try a 16inx 16in base plate and use Eq'(11'7)' Az:24inx24in :576in' At:r6inx16in=256in2 /::+!$ The design bearing strength Q"P.: : P" o. x 14. and the latter for bearing on less than the full area.8] m = 1. [11.^ = *o*.80 14.95 d) o.85/3. 1 >.6).85 x : = Referring to Fig. (ff.02in rap  x 14.83 in  4.k. o 6(r.5(B  0.172 CONNECTIONS lcHAP. [.35 in.26 in 0.52  0.5(N 0. .7x4kips/in'z) : : L62in2>136in2 162 in2 .6x (l.71) in = 27.9 x 36 kips/in'z x 162 in2 .fl or (11.5(16 in :  0.95 x x 14 in) = 1.19 in c : 4. 11 The design bearing strength for steel bearing on concrete is determined from Eq.10] Pu . n:2.35 in in) 16.02 + 14.11.7f :) 556 kips 0.60 t4 0.52 in :556 kips 4.5(16 in :2. N: B 16. I o.52 0.52in. solve Eqs.26 in Referring to Eq.0in br = m : : : 0.52in n :0.02inxt4.80b/) 0. The dimensions of the W14x90 column d bf :l4.e4.19in To determine c.8] to [11. 116 +Is " in' > 256in2 r r[tgin' 256 Y 1306 kips 700 kips required 0.9F"AH @=o'41 zrssori* Y 0. = o:0..0 in.:\I@+br_t)_@ (d + br  tr) : c: c: (14. ss1/ e. the former for bearing on the full area of concrete. o1o. d: L4. : 700 kips t6 fi.BN ' 2P^  O. in.6 t.YA' r/0.83 in IlZ7.
10 and 11.t2.4. l:l. (a) 15. 11.23. (a) 19. In Fig.96 in). Ans.26 rn x 0. Ans. Repeat Prob. Repeat Probs.9 kips.70. = 1115 kipft. (2.3. centertocenter distance ofZtrin. (b) 28. determine the design tensile strength for the maximum size fillet weld: (a) 870. (a) QoM. Ans. 11. (c) 19. 11.6kips.41 = 0. Ans. 11. and Supplementary Problems 11. 19. the base material is .7 kips.90 in). Use a base olate 16 in x 2 in x 16 in. 11.20. 2.15. . Ans.17. (e) 7. 11.19.6kips. (b) matching E70.2 kips.6 kips.#retr CHAP.55 (4.36 steel) in Fig. 7. Ans. Determine (a) the design flexural strength at the splice and (b) the appropriate electrode. Determine the design shear strength of the web of the W21x. (a) 72. 11.1E. QoM" = a.11 for iindiameter bolts. (b) 20..6 kips. Determine the bearing strength of findiameter bolts connecting in plates of . The flanges of the two halves of the same W24xl76 beam are joined by lin partialpenetration groove welds.9 kips.16 kipft for E. 121 kips. (b) E60. 11. 11. QoM. (b) 23. 111 CONNECTIONS L73 Base plate thickness /o is the largest of (1.4. 1110.a kips.21. Ans. Ans.l4 beam (.9 for a iindiameter bolt. (b) E60. Repeat Prob.:383 kipft for 860. and edge distance of 11in. the plates are 3 in wide and ? in thick. The five holes are 1+indiameter for 1indiameter bolts.5 kips.5 kips.41 :0. 11.1 kips.8 kips. (b) 72. In Prob.{36 steel.a kips.17. Ans.I9in x 0. (d) 25.8 for a iindiameter bolt. 11. standard holes. 11. (a) T. 111(d). in). Complete penetration groove welds are used to join the flanges of the two halves of the W24x 176 beam (436 steel) in Prob.36 steel.35 in x 0. Determine (a) the design flexural strength at the splice and (b) the appropriate electrode. Determine the design tensile strength of the splice for the minimum size fillet weld: (a) E70.46 = 1.16.
11 I o o Lz t I I zrn f^. base plate will occupy the full area of concrete support.174 CONNECTIONS lcHAP.5 ksi. rn lo' W2l x t 44 I Fig. All steel is . /i:3. Base olate 14 in x II in x 14 in.436.u. The Ans. . Design a base plate for a W8x67 column with a factored axial load of 450kips. 1110 tt.
: required axial compressive strength of the column. kips R. (K16) and (K17) 1: porameter in Eqs.: web depth clear of fillets' in: d . kiPs ty : flange thickness' in /.2k 4 : sPecified minimum Yield stress K : effective length factor for columns k : distance from outer face of the flange to web toe of the fillet. in N: length of bearing. CONCENTRATED LOADS AND REACTIONS A concentrated force acting on a member introduces high stresses in its vicinity. kips R. kips P. For each limit state. is the nominal strength. in f.Chapter 12 Other Design Considerations NOTATION : flange width' in d: depth of the member.: design shear strength. @ is the resistance factor and R. (1) Local Web yielding. in d. in P. The design strength of the web at the toe of the fillet 175 . : nominal strength. Erection. kiPs QR. kiPs INTRODUCTION Additional provisions for steel structures are given in the final three chapters of the AISC LRFD Specification. as determined by the appropriate limit states. : required strength. in / : stiffener height. : parameter in Eqs.: web thickness. This limit state applies to all concentrated forces (tensile or compressive) in the plane of the web. MFabrication. and Quality Control The strength and stability provisions relating to concentrated forces are discussed herein. (kips). the required (or factorel) concentrated load or reaction R" (kips) must be checked against the design strength @R. kiPs & : nominal shear strength. Kstrength Design Considerations Chap. as follows: Chap. Lserviceability Design Considerations Chap. : nominal axial compressive strength of the column. (K16) and (K17) d : resistance factor bv QRn: design strength. To prevent failure.
= 68r'zl t I + 3(. For the loaded flange restrained against rotation lf Y <2.176 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS lcHAP.. in If a pair of stiffeners is provided on opposite sides of the web at the concentrated force. ut w_. covering at least half the member depth.l. in length of bearing. ksi web thickness. ) Ilr/fY 6ts) where d is the depth of the member. For a concentrated reaction (acting at or near the end of the member) R.: x(0. The design compressive strength of the web is @R. For the loaded flanse not restrained asainst rotation ti If 12. v. where Q:0. \d/\tf/ lr/:f_ L 6t4) b.0 and R. where no lateral bracing or (halfdepth) stiffeners are provided. and 1is flange thickness.5k + 613) : N: {. 12 is @R.7: this limit state need not be checked In the preceding expressions however. in.: /. The design compressive strength is @R. where d:0.4Y3) (Kt7) >I. depends on whether the concentrated force is a load or a reaction.85 and R. depends on whether the loaded flange is restrained against rotation.75 and R. a a. For a concentrated load (acting along a member at a distance from either end greater than d. Y R. depends on whether the concentrated force is a load or reaction. For a concentrated load (acting along a member at a distance from either end greater than dl2) R^:135i*l I rNrrr rr'st l+3{ . in specified minimum yield stress.. in. )(r \d'\lJ/ L rNr/r rr'sl E. if the web flexural stresses (due to the factored loads) < 4.4Y3) If Y >2. the depth of the member) R.tN)nh (K12) b.t. this limit state need not be considered.: X(l + 0. )(r} J ym. This limit state applies to all concentrated compressive forces in the plane of the web. where Q :1. For a concentrated reaction (acting at or near the end of the member) R": In the preceding equations (2.. If the concentrated force exceeds 4R. : (5k + N)4.3: R. This limit state relates to concentrated compressive force applied to one flange in the plane of the web. a pair of stiffeners must be provided in accordance with the Stiffener Requirements section later in this chapter. a.. (3) Sidesway Web Buckling.3: 616) this limit state need not be checked b. a.. (2) Web Crippling.000r'l * : T.: /c distance from outer face of the flanse to web toe of the fillet.qqcry .
. Column web shear can be determined as shown in Fig. the value of X may be doubled. where @:0. (s) Local Flange Bending. : wab depth clear of fillets.1 \ M2 shear strength I I Fig. a.7F"d. Q :0. (M' + Mr)ld' 121 Column web panel shear . This limit state applies to a concentrated tensile force acting on one flange.90 compressive and *. :o. This limit state relates to concentrated forces applied to both flanges.1. (6) Columns with Web Panels Subject to High Shear. The design strength is @R". (K19) or (K110)1. P..:!yP If the concentrated force exceeds (K18) a pair of stiffeners must be provided in accordance with the Stiffener Requirements section later in this chapter.lnd. in by : flange width.75P. in: d . this limit state need not be considered.)0.:0.re CHAP. (K11) If the length of loading perpendicular to the member web<0.75P. the nominal shear strength.<0..: 6.90 and R.2k. depends on the (factored) column axial load P".75bf (the member flange width) or if a pair of (halfdepth) web stiffeners is provided. (4) Compression Buckling of the Web.: rf R.. where u 4:0. If it exceeds the design shear strength [calculated from Eqs.t* (K1e) (K110) P. The design shear strength of the column web is @R. 12. .lt' d'bt /: maximum laterally unbraced length along either flange at the point of load. If b. and P" is the nominal axial compressive strength of the column.'. the column web must be reinforced with diagonal stiffeners or web doubler plates. This limit state applies to column webs at beamtocolumn moment connections. in d. kips. kips.25fiF.t*ltSt r(+)l " 'L \p"/ J where P" is the required axial compressive strength of the column. where 0R. The design compressive strength is @R. R. / *.90 and R. 121 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 171 the concentrated load.
6 in. 122. as a parameter. the stiffeners must be welded to the loaded flange. (It is assumed that the beam is welded to the base plate and both are anchorbolted to the concrete support. If the force is compressive.75h. as in Chap. K1.: N>3.) Corresponding to the applicable limit states are Eqs.QR. as axially compressed members.) Assume the area of concrete support Az: 6 x .1.6 in The minimum length of bearing is N : 8.5 x 1l in + N) x 36 kips/in'z x 0. Solved Problems f. Rounding up to the next :9 in. .l 3f\d/\trt t\ t* r00 kips < 0. the stiffeners can either bear on or be welded to the loaded flange.8 of the AISC LRFD Specification. For all web stiffeners provided at concentrated loads and reactions: If the concentrated force is tensile.e.5 in (K13) '.2.178 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS lcHAP.40 in R"..fl: 3 ksi).5k + N)Fyt* 100 kips = 1.'f . Solving for N. (K13) and (Kl5).{36 steel rests on a concrete support (. part of the beam web can be considered as working with the pair of stiffeners. Design a bearing plate for the beam and its (factored) end reaction of 100 kips. let N N> 8. This should provide adequate lateral bracing to prevent sidesway web buckling. the length of bearing. As specified in Sec. the applicable limit states are (1) local web yielding and (2) web crippling. we obtain QQ. (See Fig.40 (K1s) inl'[r + r(^h)(*r4*)"] full inch. 4) with an effective length Kl:0. Laterally supported by floor deck N +2./4! R"eR^:e6\t.4t (the area of the bearing plate). each of which has N.5k Fig. They are to be designed as columns (i. r2'2 For the concentrated compressive reaction of L00kips acting on the bottom flange. * 9l/!\''1. they must satisfy the following additional provisions of the AISC LRFD Specification. 12 STIFFENER REQUIREMENTS When web stiffeners are required at a concentrated force because of (2) crippling of the web or (4) compression buckling of the web.0(2.75 x 6s(0. The unstiffened end of a W21x62 beam of .
let B:9in.: B =+:'4!= N 9in 3.0 in I B b.7 in2 . 11.A.24 in 1= B2k : 8. . Because B : br : 8. B cannot be less than the flange width of the W21x62 beam.x2 The area of the bearing plate Ar: 32.Vt where \/Arl At=2.:Vm=u.7 in2 required for bearing on concrete) :A. its bottom flange must be sufficiently thick to act as a bearing plate.1. 121 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 179 The area of the bearing plate is determined by the bearing strength of the concrete support.24in2x llin 2 =2. the bearing plate can be . in. A formula for bearing plate thickness is given on page 350 of the AISC LRFD Manual: whereR:100kips n= B2k : 9in2xliin :j.60 x 0. :36 ksi in)'z in2 [z. [11.85/.85 x 3 \in' x l. x0. Substituting in Eq. the design bearing strength is Q.2q. Using Eq.2. :723 in2: ''. t2.A. l)Ifl ffi t: V er :or*rli* At = I23 N ' in2 :u'br)rn (>32.61from Chap.Pn:0.6].n x tC[iips x (3. In Prob. t= v aa 2 lz.or)rn the flange thickness of the W21 x 62 beam.trln Z 2 At:BN:9inx9in=81 4. 8.24in 15 By increasing the length of bearing of the beam on the concrete to eliminated.5. Because the bearing plate dimensions are BN >A. we obtain 100 kips tr : 0. can the bearing Let plate be eliminated? For the W21x62 beam to bear directly on the concrete support.zznn' =u.CHAP.13 . br=8.Eorn Use a bearing plate 1 in x 9in x 9in.6 in However. Rounding up. 12. [11.
)"]C I 36 ksi (K14) L' .355 in1' 192 kips x orr.49 in (K17) in_:. Determine the maximum base plate rests on the top flange of a W18x50 beam (A36 steel). " =ry= 13'ooo(o'35l1)': . P. and (3) sidesway web buckling.8x50.25in+ 12in) *# x 0. The shear strensth of the web of the beam should always be checked.o x :o li?t x 17. All steel is .: d 21a: (t7.180 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS lcHAP.4(1.:ssin 15. the required shear strength 192 . For a W1.495 Since Y<1. 12 n3. / 12 in 170. (K17) must be checked.36)3 < 30 kips (b) The maximum (factored) column load is 30 kips based on the governing limit state of sidesway web buckling [Eq. (rl7)].skips)< (Q"v":124kips) o. "qf4ll P" < n= 0R^ = 0.4.k. Determine the maximum load that can be hung from a plate (12 in long x 7 in wide) welded to the bottom flange of a W18x50 beam. braced.4f) 1.99in2x It in) : 15. t2. 0..49in x7. d.6F. If. (K14)). Q"V:090 x 0. Eq. If the top flange is braced at the load point.. column load if the beam is (a) not stiffened or braced along its entire span and (b) not stiffened but braced at the load point. or restrained against rotation.dt* :0.t .355 in)'z . the applicable limit states are (1) local web yielding. for example. . and (K17) (assuming no restraint against rotation).050kips/ft x 20ft (V":96. with a design strength of 192 kips. (a) For a concentrated compressive force acting on the top flange of a beam. A column with a 12inlong 20 ft long. *'\rzsein/\oi?o'"/ sl .90 x o. = O.0(5k + N)Fyt: 1. r()(.7 (roo"rzfi)0. the limit state of sidesway web buckling does not apply.":2_2kips .4'36.75 x 13s".85 x X(0. The corresponding equations are (K12).= eR^: 0.25 )h y:T.SS x 35 x 0.0(5 x t.36<I.355in (K12) = 233 kips P. (K14).[1 :0. The governing limit state is web crippling [Eq. 1= P" QR": 1.355 in ln' Q"V^:124 kips. the concentrated column load P" : 192 kips acts at midspan and is the only load on the beam except for its own weight. (2) web crippling.75 x  135(0.7 : I.99 inx 0.7 and the loaded flange is not stiffened. ?6<.
3) it was determined that P"  233 kips.1'7 ft  0. the significant parameters are F. and P.tt) : (26.l5br(:I.12 in). (K12) for a Wl8x50 with a 12in load bearing (in Prob. V 150 kipft 100 kipft \ r\ 1) Dead load ) Live load Wind load (d2x4t2) = (d .i. Determine whether column web stiffeners are required. based on the limit state of local flange bending.5.495 in = t. f2.CHAP. the applicable limit states are (1) local web yielding and (5) local flange bending.01 in = 2.15 x 7. the beam flange forces (tension and compression). Because checked: the width of plate = 7 in > 0.640 in) Fig.4'36 steel). Eq. If stiffeners are provided or if the hanging load is confined to the central 0.lZin) of the beam flange. Two W27x84 beams are rigidly connected to a W14x145 column (all of .Zs4n = 0. 150 kipff V l'* kips kips lz+o . 1il3 In determining whether column web stiffeners are required. The forces due to the various loadings are shown in Fig.l5br (: 0. = 66 kiPS The maximum (factored) hanging load is 66 kips. the column shear.25(0. In solving Eq.90 x 6. the column axial load. 123.T?:46 V=0 P:240 kips kips .'ll in = 26. 233 kips can be hung.90 x 6. 12. The corresponding equations are (K12) and (K11). Utder dead load 'r = l50kipft :6e ktPs LrT ft v:0 P = 360 kips Under liue load ':'O. V. (lfl1) must be P"= QR" = 0. 121 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 181 For a concentrated tensile force acting on the bottom flange of a beam.570 in)': x 36 ksi 4.
V". 2 are t. V" : 174 kips. (5) local flange bending.2D+1. 4R" thickness of the W27x84 beam : 1.75in.75 in + 0. r(]X?)' : 0.r.Letthelengthof bearingN=0.t82 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS lcHAP.3 x P"= I.5 x 240 kips : 942 kips 0. The corresponding equations are Eqs.2 x 360 kips + 1.6 x 240 kips:816 kips (A44) L. * r(ffffiXffi)"] (K14) . and (6) columns with web panels subject to high shear.1.t:0. (4) compression buckling of the web.5 x 46 134 kips: 181 kips kips: 174 kips 300 kips 360 kips + 1.0(5k + N)Fyt* (K12) FortheWl4xl45column. all the significant required strengths (\.4 x 360 kips : 504 kips I. k:t.640 in) x :o 9T x 0.9 x 360 kips  1.3W + 0.640in._ 1. They are as follows: 4 = 181 kips.2 x V":1..75x l3sr'z. (K14).3w (446) 4 = 0.680 in :230 kips eR^:0.75 x 13s x (0.90p .[1 .5L. (K18).680 'ltf} i"l'[.: I. (2) web crippling.. and (K11).3 x 58 kips + 0.3W+0.!!. 12 Under wind load r ' V = 11s.3 x 58 kips: 13 kips V": 1. (K12).zD+1.2 x 58 kips : p: 300 kips The relevant load combinations from Chap.4D F" = I. ro kips.3 x + 0.90 "ry (K18) .2x F"= 1..4 x 69 kips (A41) = 97 kips V"=0 P. The applicable limit states are (1) local web yielding.3 x 134 kips : .t7 ft = 58 kips 134 kips :2fi kips .680in.ft 2..) are maximum under load combination (A44): 1.6L (442) 4: 1.0(s x 1.5L 69 kips + 1.theflange oR" : 1.3 x 300 kips : 66 kips Regarding stiffening the web of the W14x 145 column.6 x 46 kips = 156 kips Vu=0 1= I.9 x 69 kips . and P" : 942 kips.174 kips n:0.2D + t. and P.090in in'? ^ 0680 in :378 kips @R":0.2 x 69 kips + 1.
36 steel rests on a concrete support (f ::4 ksi). (K11) = 0.75 in : 11'28 in. 30ft long. [from Chap.90 x 0.78 in  2 x 1. : 14. Assume the area of concrete support equals the area of the bearing plate. The beam end reaction is 100 kips. (a) Beam bearing plate 1 in x 7 in x 7 in. V"> 0R". 4100(0. A W14x82 column rests directly on the top flange of aW27x146 beam. or (b) lf diagonal stiffeners in the column web panel to resist the portion of the shear beyond the capacity of the column web.90 x 0. if the length of bearing is increased from 7in to in. Eqs. For the W14x 145 column. 212 to 214 of the AISC LRFD Manual.'V:o 0R"=0. between beam flanges. Regarding the last limit state cited. (K19) or (K110) may apply. d. to increase r.2sfiF.ru CHAP. If the beam has no Ans.75P. = 0. the unbraced length /=0). Regarding horizontal stiffeners in column webs between beam flanges for moment connections.6. 121 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 183 where 4: d 2k. a stiffener design procedure and additional design aids are provided on pp. P" = 495 kips.90 x 6.. and P. it need not be reinforced.7 Fyd"t* 0. The unstiffened end of a W16x50 beam of . column web panels subject to high shear. are not required. 4.za in x 0. depending on P.7.25 x (1.090 in)2 x 36 ksi = 241kips (4 : 181 kips) < @R" for all the preceding limit states.75 x 1537 kips = 1153 kips). Assuming the column is laterally supported by beams in both perpendicular directions at the connection level (i. 11 Yes. in the panel to that required to make QR. (o) (b) (b) Design a bearing plate for the beam. P" :ArF. stiffeners. Eq.4.680 in kips QR": 174 kips. 12.e. . Can the bearing plate be eliminated? Ans. but is braced at the load point. For the W14x145 column Because P" = 42. Supplementary Problems 12. (K19) governs 0& : 0.7 174 : : Because V" = x 36\i!t ln " rr. horizontal stiffeners for the column web.90 x 6. the column web panel would require reinforcement by either (c) a vertical plate welded to the column web.7 in2 x 36 ksi : 1537 kips Since (P" :942kip) < (0. Eq..> V". the shear capacity of the web panel is sufficient. determine the maximum column load.e0"ffi tsr = 617 kips oR" :0.680 in. (E21) to (824)1.
If column web stiffeners are required. In Fig. In Fig.8. 12 12. Stiffeners not required.9. Determine the thickness of the web plate to be welded to the panel. assume the column web panel has a required shear strength of 300kips.184 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS lcHAP. The forces on the W27 beam and the W14x145 column are as shown. 12. L23. Ans. Ans. assume there is aW27x84 beam on the left side only. . design them. 1 : \in. 123.
64. 41 open. 67 Analysis: elastic. 156161 high strength. 2526 Buckling: net.24 Composite members. 28. 1081i0 compact. 6365. torsional.177 typical. 126 shear connectors.64 block shear rupture. 178179 "1. 123125 compressive strength. on steel. 1. 1. 24. 124 Beamcolumns. 162 Bolts. 15 gross. 108 Compact members: beams. 162 moment. 156157 slipcritical joints. 34 shoring.5 4'36 steel. 1.48 net. 129 flexural strength. 6366. 1415.3 compact. 126129 Area. 123125 Combined forces: flexure and compression. 157 design strength.1521& symmetric. 129130 beams. 28.62 .24.2330 composite. 15 4156. 107110 slender element.70 185 Definitions. 164 steel decks.41 (Arsc). 153156 Crosssectional area: effective net. 126127 shear strength. 66. 3. 41. 163.3.3950 composite. 9395 Beam formulas. 48 Bending: (see Beams and Plate girders) biaxial. 122130 beamcolumns. 162 bolts. 9195 composite. 129130 interaction formulas. 95 second order analysis. 175178 Connections.24. 125 full composite action. 154L56. 24 lateraltorsional.24.8889 Bending coefficient. 1.124 connections. 156161 high strength. 67 local. 8485 flexure and torsion. 93 plastic. 40. 130 Compressive strength. 41 column.67 AISC LRFD Manual. 46 Block shear rupture. 44 first order. 1415. 15 gross. 6365 Compression members (see Columns) Concentrated loads and reactions. 163 welds. 6365.40. 14. 56. 110 Design strength.4l flange. 44 second order. crosssectional: effective net. 41. 4041. 726t27 Base plates. 28. 41.48 Availability.48 Cross sections: closed. 9195 flexure and tension. 3 Deformation. 67 American Institute of Steel Construction. 125. 157 slipcritical joints. 8 compressive. 164 plates. 28 noncompact. 4447 ..2528 elastic. 24.67 AISC LRFD Specification. 126 partial composite action. 14. Inc Columns. 66 Bearing: on concrete. 127129 columns.ftrrffi' lndex Allowable stress design (ASD). L24 concreteencased beams. 28 inelastic. 157 Braced frames. 93 columns. 9293 preliminary design. 3. 67 web. I25I29 noncompact. 7 6L77 Builtup members. L25I29 effective slab width. 4950 Beams.
108 Rolled shapes. 68. L0 L0 Shoring. 123 details. 34 Euler. 4447.I78 requirements.I24 Gross section. mechanical. 6365 . 10 Mechanical properties. 8 Load and resistance factor design (LRFD).70 rolled. 1. 1. 2528 Slipcritical joints. 34 Modulus of elasticity. 16 torsion. 70 Shear center.28 First order analysis. 10 Residual stresses. 93 Flange bending. t26I29 Shear strength. 8 flexural.66. 8. 67 68. 44 Plastic hinge. 126127 Moment connections. I29 shear. t7 6178 Stiffness. 6365. 1416. Noncompact members: beams. 41.) flexural .8. L6 4t.0 Serviceability. 4849. 726.5 Stiffness reduction factors. (see Buckling) Second order: analysis. 44.516 Elastic analysis. 69. 30 130 Net section. 2526 Effective net section. 157 Stability (see Buckling) Stiffeners. 92. live.67 .67 Section modulus: elastic.8. 1. 48 Hangers.186 INDEX Design strength (Cont. 2627 . 85. 28. 1.48. 56. tensile. 8 Shapes. 810 compression. 43 plastic. 4t. 94 moments. 56. 4. 69. 93 effects. 2627 judgmental method. 10 rain. L0 Loads: dead. 163. 11 snow. 44 Pdelta secondary effects.4344 shear. 4447 . 40. 30.4849. 43 Sections (see Cross sections) LRFD Specification. 10 factored. 126127 Slender element members. 910 Properties. 6569 Probability theory.63. 130 tension. I77 Moment of inertia. 106107 Shear connectots. 67 Load combinations. 65. 16 Displacements: compressive. 14. 25 Effective length factor: analytical method. 10 service.24 Effective length. 4950 tensile.48 Nominal strength or resistance.9295 Limit states. 94 Plastic analysis. 56. 43 67 68. 8 Resistance factors. structural: builtup. 177 Flexural members (see Beams) Flexural strength. 67. Required strength. web: wind.3. 68. 70 Interaction formulas. 16. 811 LRFD Manual. 130 earthquake.6365 columns. 26. 8. t26127 Resistance. 14 flexure. 1011 Load factors. 43 Plate girders.68. t29 Instability. 24 Slenderness ratio. 30.
175176 Welds. 177 avoiding or minimizing. 106107 warping. 110 design criteria. 176lj7 crippling. 26. web) yielding. 4143 Structural steel. 41. 106110 buckling. 37 Sway forces. 153156 Widththickness ratios.2527 Yield point. 67 Tension members. Yield stress. 34.TNDEX 187 Strength. 107108 itiffeners (see Stiffeners.4447 Vibration of beams. 108 St. 16 Web: Torsion. 176 oanels. 24. 110 Unbraced frames. Venant.6365 shear center.4I. 4. 1416 Tensile strength. 4950 Tension field action. 4 123 . 8 Stressstrain diagrams. 3 Yield strength. 93 Unbraced length. 4. 109 deformation.
Study quickly and more effectively . tl0. Effective course: concepts. Other Desion Considerations McGrawHill . . they're perfect for preparing for graduate or professional exams. Compact Beams and Other Flexural Members .S. Plus. methods for preparing for class exams lf you want top grades and thorough understanding of structural steel design. tullllilululll illilltiltiltfil . Inside you will find: . and more.Master structural steel design with Schaum'sthe highperformance study guide. Introduction to LRFD . use this book to: . Compatible with any classroom text. Schaum's lets you study at your own pace and reminds you of all the important facts you need to rememberfastl And Schaum's are so complete. definitions. this powerful study tool is the best tutor you can have! Chapters include: Structural Steel . You get a complete overview of the subject. Clear explanations that help you understand the complete . Each year. 68 additional problems with answers. Use Schaum's! ovER 30 tilLHON 'OLD lf you don't have a lot of time but want to excel in class.A. you get plenty of practice exercises to test your skill. 112 solved problems with complete solutions . Get the big picture without spending hours poring over lengthy textbooks Schaum's Outlines give you the information your teachers expect you to know in a handy and succinct formatwithout overwhelming you with unnecessary details.\ ) ittisiort ol The McGraw. hone problemsolving skills. Brush up before tests . BeamColumns: Combined Flexure and Comoression . Members in Flexure and Tension .95 U. Tension Members .Hill I Companies $18.K. Comoosite Members . Connections . Find answers fast . lt will help you cut study time. Noncompact Beams and Plate Girders . Get the edge on your classmates. Torsion .99 U. Column Numbers and Other Compression Members . hundreds of thousands of students improve their test scores and final grades with these indispensable study guides. and achieve your personal best on exams! Students love Schaum's Outlines because they produce results.