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Unit 5 Group Behavior & Group Dynamics ,Team Effectiveness

Unit 5 Group Behavior & Group Dynamics ,Team Effectiveness

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01/20/2012

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Athoroughdiagnosisdefinesbothaspecificproblemandthe
situationinwhichtheproblemexists.Withthisdefinitionin

mind,adecision,makerseekspossiblesolutions.Aproblem
canbesolvedinseveralways,however,alltheways,cannot
beequallysatisfying.Further,ifthereisonlyonewayof

solvingaproblem,noquestionofdecisionarises.Therefore,
thedecisionmakermusttrytofindoutthevariousalternatives

availableinordertogetthemostsatisfactoryresult,ofa
decision.

Adecisionmakercanuseseveralsourcesforidentifying

alternatives:hisownpastexperience,practicesfollowedby
others,andusingcreativetechniques

27

Evaluation of Alternatives

‡Afterthevariousalternativesareidentified,thenextstepisto
evaluatethemandselecttheonethatwillmeetthechoicecriteria.

However,allalternativesavailablefordecisionmakingwillnotbe
takenfordetailedevaluationbecauseoftheobviouslimitationsof
managersinevaluatingallalternatives.Thedecisionmaker

developsalistoflimitsthatmustbemetbyasatisfactorysolution.
Hemaytreattheselimitsasconstraints,thatis,hemaycheck

proposedalternativesagainstlimits,andifanalternativedoesnot
meetthem,hecandiscardit.Evaluationofvariousalternatives
dissectsanalternativeintovarioustangibleandintangiblefactors.

Tangiblefactorsarethosewhichcanbequantifiedbecausetheyare
quiteobviouslikethecostperunit,investmentrequired,outputto

bereceived,etc.Suchfactorscanbemeasuredeasily,thoughtheir
happeningmaynotbemeasuredwithcertainty;forexample-

28

Evaluation of Alternatives

‡Demandprojectionatagivenpriceinaparticular

alternative.Asagainstthese,,intangiblefactorsare
mostlyqualitativeandcannotbemeasuredin
termsofquantity.

‡Forexample,inaplantlocation,variousnon-
economicfactorslikepsychologicalproblem
arisingoutofdisplacementofpersonsfromthe
plantsite,ecologicalbalance,etc.,havetobe

takenintoaccountwhichcannotbequantified.In
evaluatinganalternative,boththesefactorshave
tobetakenintoaccount

29

Choice of Alternative

‡The evaluation of various alternatives presents a
clear picture as to how each one of them
contributes to the objectives under question, A
comparison is made among the likely outcomes of
various alternatives and the best one is chosen.
Choice aspect of decision making is related to
deciding the most acceptable alternative which fits
with the organizational objectives.

(i) Experience.Managers can choose an alternative
based on their past experience if they have solved
similar problem earlier.

30

Choice of Alternative

(ii)Experimentation-Experimentationwhich

isgenerallyusedinscientificenquiry

involvesthataparticularalternativeisput

inpractice,resultisobserved,andthe

alternativegivingthebestresultisselected.

Forexample,manyorganizationsgofortest

marketingoftheirproductsbeforethe

productsarereallyintroducedinthemarket

31

Choice of Alternative

iii)ResearchandAnalysis-

ResearchandAnalysisisthemostcertainmethodofselectingan

alternative,speciallywhenmajordecisionsareinvolved.This
approachentailssolvingaproblemfirstbycomprehendingit.This

involvesasearchforrelationshipsbetweenthemorecritical
variables,constraints,andplanningpremisesthatbearthe
objectivessought.Inthesecondstage,thealternativeisbrokeninto

variouscomponents.Theirindividualimpactonobjectiveis
evaluatedandtheimpactofallfactorsofanalternativeis

combinedtofindoutthetotalimpactoftheparticularalternative.
Theonehavingthemostpositiveimpactischosen.Sincethis
requires.makinglotofcalculations,oftenthehelpofcomputeris

taken.Infact,variouscomputer-basedmodelshavebeen
developedtomakethechoiceofanalternativeeasier.'

32

Action

‡Oncethecreativeandanalyticalaspectsofdecision

makingthroughwhichanalternativehasbeen

chosenareover,themanagerialpriorityisoneof

convertingthedecisionintosomethingoperationally

effective.Thisistheactionaspectofdecision

making.Thebasicdifferencebetweendecision

makingasananalyticalprocessandactionisthatthe

formerrequirestheuseofconceptualskillssinceit

translatestheabstractideasintoreality.

33

Results

‡Whenthedecisionisputintoaction,itbrings

certainresults.Theseresultsmustcorrespondwith

objectives,thestartingpointofdecisionprocess,if

gooddecisionhasbeenmadeandimplemented

properly.Thusresultsprovideindicationwhether

decisionmakinganditsimplementationisproper.

Therefore,managersshouldtakeupafollow-up

actioninthelightoffeedbackreceivedfromthe

results

34

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