Group Behavior and Group Dynamics

Unit- 5


Group Dynamics
‡ Group Dynamics= Group + Dynamics ‡ Group- a collectivity of two or more persons ‡ Dynamics-( derived from a Greek word meaning force) ‡ GD refers to the interaction of forces between group members in a social situation. ‡ ³ The social process by which people interact face to face in small groups is called group dynamics.´

Concept of Group
‡ Different people tend to define group differently. Shaw has summarized various definitions of groups into four categories. ‡ First group is defined as consisting of individuals who perceive the existence of a group and their membership in it. ‡ Second group is defined on the basis of a common motivation or goal. ‡ Third, this class of definitions looks to the structure of the group² the relationships and ties among group members which bind them together into a group. ‡ Fourth, this definition perceives the central element of a group to be interacting among its members. ‡ Shaw defines group as 'two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other1

2. Each member of the group must believe that he is a member of. Two or More Persons. 4. across a computer network. over the telephone. Members of the group should subscribe to the attainment of some common objectives. Shared Goal Interest. there should be at least two persons because a single individual cannot interact. However.Key Features of the Group 1. Collective Identity. it is not necessary that each member subscribes to or agrees with all the objectives of the group. However. To form a group. each member of the group must share at least one of the group's concerns. or meaningful interaction among the members in the case of informal groups. Members of the group interact among themselves. Interaction. Interaction means that each member shares his ideas with others through communication and this communication can take place face to face. 3. The shared goal interest binds 4 the group members together. If a group has a variety of objectives or interests. is a participant in. or in any other manner which allows communication among group members. Members of the group must be aware about their membership of the group. some specific group. . in writing. there cannot be any specific limit on the maximum number of persons in a group but the size of the group will be determined by rules and regulations of the organization in this context.

Group Classification ‡ Group. Group Formal Informal Command Gp. Friendship Gp. interacting and interdependent. Task Gp. Interest Gp.Two or more individuals. 5 . who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

Three employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together are an example of an informal group.. In contrast ‡ Informal group A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined.Group Classification ‡ Formal Group-A designated work group defined by the organization's structure. In formal groups. Eg. 6 .The six members making up an airline flight crew is an example of a formal group. appears in response to the need for social contact. the behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by and direct toward organizational goals.

Formal Groups
‡ A command group is determined by the organization chart. It is composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. An elementary sell principal and her 18 teachers form a command group. ‡ Task groups, also organizationally determined, represent those working together to complete a job task. However, a task group's boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. It can cross command relations. ‡ For eg., if a college student is accused of a campus crime, it may require communication and coordination among the dean of academic affairs, the| dean of students, the registrar, the director of security, and the student's advisor.

Informal Groups
‡ Interest group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Employees who band together to have their vacation schedules altered, to support a peer who has been fired, or to seek improved working conditions represent the formation of a united body to further their common interest. ‡ Friendship group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. . Social alliances, which frequently extend outside the work situation, can be based on similar age or ethnic heritage, interest for outdoor games, or the holding of similar political views etc...

Stages of Group Development

Stage 1 Forming

Stage 2 Storming

Stage 3 Norming

Stage 4 Performing

Stage 5 Adjourning


Performing. Norming. Storming. characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness 10 .Five-stage group-development model Groups go through five distinct stages: ‡ Forming. ‡ Storming stage The second stage in group development. ‡ Norming stage The third stags in group development. and Adjourning ‡ Forming Stage The first stage in group development is characterized by much uncertainty. characterized by intra-group conflict.

Five-stage group-development model ‡ Performing stage The fourth stage in group development. when the group is ‡ Adjourning stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups. 11 . characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.

Group Conflict ‡ Group exist in every organization and they affect the behavior of their members. They not only affect the behavior of their members. they have impact on other group and the organization as a whole. 12 . In this interaction process. rather. there may be two types of conflict:‡ Intragroup Conflict (within the group itself) ‡ Intergroup Conflict (between groups).

Such differences may affect the choice of either goals or methods of ac goals. (it) where new values are imported from the social environment into the group. fairness and so on are interpreted. or moral considerations of assumptions. ‡ Intragroup conflict is visualized more when people come from different socio-economic backgrounds and have different political & religious views. and (iii) where a person's extra group role comes into conflict with his intragroup role.Intragroup Conflict ‡ Intragroup conflict may arise in three situations: (i) when group faces a novel problem of task. the way power exercised. justice. 13 . The disagreement may be over ethics.

There are many factors in the organization which determine the inter-group relationships. 14 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . These factors areGoal Incompatibility Resource Sharing Task Relations Uncertainty Absorption.Intergroup Conflict Intergroup conflict arises out of the interaction of various groups. and Attitudinal set. The can influence relations between two or more groups. If these factors are not positive they tend to create conflict among groups.

Intergroup Conflict Goal IncompatibilityThe goals of two groups can have a powerful impact on their relationship. The ideal state exists when each group perceive its goals as the goals of the organization as a whole and the goals of other groups as compatible with one another and mutually reinforcing. 15 .

Eg.‡ The conflict between marketing and production departments in business organization. ‡ Labour-Management conflict also arises because of incompatibility of goals.Intergroup Conflict Goal IncompatibilityGoal incompatibility means that goal attainment by one group may prevent or reduce the level of goal attainment by one or more other groups. 16 .

Thus.Intergroup Conflict Resource Sharing ± The relations between two groups can be affected by the degree to which the two groups draw from a common pool of resources. The conflicts between management and labour union are quite common in all types of organizations. working conditions. 17 . Such conflicts take place on the quantum of wages. amenities. and other related matters. and the degree to which this common pool of resources is adequate to meet the demands of both the group. Each party to the conflict has an interest to get total resources as large as possible. conflict of this nature arises because of the discrepancy between aggregated demand and available resources.

A dependent task relationship may result in one group having the ability to dictate or unilaterally determine the outcome of their interaction. if staff departments influence in the decision-making process well in excess of the advisory roles assigned to them. A dependent task relationship exists between two groups if one group is dependent upon the former for recourses. 18 . For example.Intergroup Conflict Task Relationship Collaboration occurs when two groups share joint responsibility for certain tasks. the conditions for conflict exist. The conflicts arise in these relations if a group exceeds its authority.

thereby avoiding the uncertain ‡ For example. Uncertainty is the gap between what is known and what needs to be known to make correct decisions. In order to manage uncertainty. they and their elements ² various groups ² face uncertainty. Thus. if marketing department finds the rules framed by the accounting department inadequate or inefficient. The conditions for conflicts exist if uncertainty absorption by one group is not in accordant with the expectations of other groups. 19 . Thus a group may absorb uncertainty of other groups. the marketing department may be relieved of the uncertainty of how the money should be spent on traveling. For example. The group may make decisions: set premises for decision-making for other groups. organizations assign certain groups or individuals to deal with it. the condition! conflict exists. the accounting department may prescribe the rules for traveling expenses: to be incurred by the marketing department.Intergroup Conflict Absorption of Uncertainty ± ‡ Since organizations are open systems.

more open communication. competitiveness. seen and closed communications. and so on. 20 . The alternative case.Intergroup Conflict Attitudinal SetsThe sets of the attitudes that members of various groups hold towards each other can be cause and a consequence of the nature of their relations If the group relations begin with the attitudes of distrust. greater willingness to avoid blaming each other. greater acceptance of responsibility for mutual problems. there is a possibility of various factors of group relationship being emphasized in a negative way. the group relationship may be cooperative characterized by mutual trust and respect. consequently leading to conflicts. greater consideration for others' points of view.

Group Decision Making ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Specific Objectives Identification of Problems Search for Alternatives Evaluation of Alternatives Choice of Alternative Action Feedback 21 .

22 .

A problem is a felt need. identification of problem is the real beginning of decision-making process. It is just like the diagnosis of patient by the doctor 23 . It is the gap between present and desired state of affairs on the subject-matter of decision.Group Decision Making ‡ Specific ObjectivesThe starting point in any analysis of decision making involves the determination of whether a decision need to be made. a question thrown forward for solution. ‡ Problem Identification ± Since a particular decision is made in the context of certain given objectives.

if an organization has high turnover of its employees. identifying the reasons for the gap. and understanding the problem in relation to higher objectives of the organization 24 . For example. The term diagnosis has come from Medical Science where it is used as the process of identifying a disease from its sign and symptoms. Diagnosing the real problem implies knowing the gap between what is and what ought to be. Diagnosis & Analysis (i) Diagnosis. Therefore. The symptom of high turnover may provide the clue to the real problem and managers can overcome the problem by taking appropriate action (decision making involves in taking action). it indicates that something is wrong with the organization. they should do this exercise very carefully.Problem Identification ‡ Problem Identification ± Methods . A symptom is a condition or set of conditions that indicates the existence of a problem. Often managers fail to diagnose the problem correctly and sometimes they treat symptom as problem.

what information would be needed. and from where the information is available. analysis of problem takes it a step further. 25 . This analysis provide managers with revealing circumstances that help them to gain an insight into the problem.Problem Identification (ii) Analysis-While the diagnosis of problem gives the understanding of what should be done In terms of decision making. The analysis of the problem requires to find out who would make decision.

the decision maker must try to find out the various alternatives available in order to get the most satisfactory result . Adecision maker can use several sources for identifying alternatives: his own past experience. With this definition in mind. cannot be equally satisfying. all the ways. Therefore. however.Search for Alternatives A thorough diagnosis defines both a specific problem and the situation in which the problem exists. practices followed by others. maker seeks possible solutions. A problem can be solved in several ways. a decision . Further. and using creative techniques 26 . no question of decision arises. if there is only one way of solving a problem.of a decision.

However. he can discard it. all alternatives available for decision making will not be taken for detailed evaluation because of the obvious limitations of managers in evaluating all alternatives. and if an alternative does not meet them. that is. the next step is to evaluate them and select the one that will meet the choice criteria. etc. He may treat these limits as constraints. The decision maker develops a list of limits that must be met by a satisfactory solution.Evaluation of Alternatives ‡ After the various alternatives are identified. for example27 . output to be received. investment required. Evaluation of various alternatives dissects an alternative into various tangible and intangible factors. Tangible factors are those which can be quantified because they are quite obvious like the cost per unit. though their happening may not be measured with certainty. Such factors can be measured easily. he may check proposed alternatives against limits.

. In evaluating an alternative. have to be taken into account which cannot be quantified. both these factors have to be taken into account 28 . ecological balance. As against these. etc. various noneconomic factors like psychological problem arising out of displacement of persons from the plant site.Evaluation of Alternatives ‡ Demand projection at a given price in a particular alternative. intangible factors are mostly qualitative and cannot be measured in terms of quantity.. ‡ For example. in a plant location.

Choice of Alternative ‡ The evaluation of various alternatives presents a clear picture as to how each one of them contributes to the objectives under question. Choice aspect of decision making is related to deciding the most acceptable alternative which fits with the organizational objectives. (i) Experience. 29 . A comparison is made among the likely outcomes of various alternatives and the best one is chosen. Managers can choose an alternative based on their past experience if they have solved similar problem earlier.

For example. result is observed. and the alternative giving the best result is selected.Choice of Alternative (ii) Experimentation. many organizations go for test marketing of their products before the products are really introduced in the market 30 .Experimentation which is generally used in scientific enquiry involves that a particular alternative is put in practice.

constraints. Their individual impact on objective is evaluated and the impact of all factors of an alternative is combined to find out the total impact of the particular alternative. In the second stage. various computer-based models have been developed to make the choice of an alternative easier.' 31 . specially when major decisions are involved. often the help of computer is taken. and planning premises that bear the objectives sought. In fact. The one having the most positive impact is chosen. Since this requires . This involves a search for relationships between the more critical variables. making lot of calculations.Choice of Alternative iii) Research and AnalysisResearch and Analysis is the most certain method of selecting an alternative. the alternative is broken into various components. This approach entails solving a problem first by comprehending it.

the managerial priority is one of converting the decision into something operationally effective. The basic difference between decision making as an analytical process and action is that the former requires the use of conceptual skills since it translates the abstract ideas into reality.Action ‡ Once the creative and analytical aspects of decision making through which an alternative has been chosen are over. 32 . This is the action aspect of decision making.

Therefore. if good decision has been made and implemented properly. Thus results provide indication whether decision making and its implementation is proper. it brings certain results.Results ‡ When the decision is put into action. the starting point of decision process. These results must correspond with objectives. managers should take up a follow-up action in the light of feedback received from the results 33 .

Group Decision Making Techniques ‡ Brainstorming ‡ Nominal Technique ‡ Delphi Technique 34 .

It is a conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously contributed by its members . Though brainstorming can result in many shallow and useless ideas. it is more useful for simple.Brainstorming It is a technique to stimulate idea generation for decisionmaking.For this group should have 10 to 15 persons. It encourages enthusiasm and a competitive spirit among members in generating ideas. Brainstorming is useful for all types of decisions. it can spur members to offer new ideas as well 35 . it also prevents group members from feeling hopeless regarding the range of possibilities in a given situation. well-defined problems.

2 Each member is asked to give ideas through which the problem can be solved. Here the emphasis is on quantity of ideas and quality may follow later. Problem i stated clearly and precisely so that members of the group can focus their direct attention on it.Brainstorming.Process 1. yet a small percentage of it may provide sufficient useful list to work upon. The brainstorming session is meant to be a free. Factors inhibiting the idea generation are pushed back. frank. and relaxed one to general maximum number of ideas irrespective of qualities. The basic theme behind idea generation that though a big chunk of ideas collected during the session may not I worth while. The problem on which decision is required is given to the group. 36 .

procedural. 37 . legs organizational or otherwise.Brainstorming. Idea-evaluation is deferred to a later stage because it does not flow in the direction of idea generation. Such limitations only act as deterrent to fn flow of ideas because the participants will limit themselves in these limitation.Process 3. The members are expected to put their ideas for problem solution without taking into consideration any limitations²financial. 4.

This technique encourages creativity. If the group does not reach agreement. provides a forum for the expression of the minority viewpoints. Each member writes down his ideas silently and independently and presents his best single idea on the problem. 2.Nominal Group Technique Nominal group technique (NOT) is a structured group meeting which restricts verbal communication among members during the decisionmaking process. 3. alternative generation. it repeats the ranking and voting procedure until the group reaches some agreement and makes a decision. The group leader outlines the problem requiring decision. prevents strong personality types from dominating the group. The members are asked to rank the various ideas for decision-making and the decision is arrived at on the basis of this ranking. or choice-making states of group decision-making. and gives individuals some time to think about the issues before offering solutions^ 38 . It is meant to resolve differences in group opinion by having individuals generate and then rank a series of ideas in the problem exploration. these are presented for discussion and evaluation before the group members. When all the members write their ideas. 4. encourages continued exploration of the issues. The process 1.

the decision can be arrived at through Delphi technique. a small group designs a questionnaire which is completed by a larger respondent group. For example. The decision is arrived at through written communication in the form of filling up questionnaires often through mails. This procedure is repeated until the issues are narrowed. In Delphi technique of decision-making members do not have face. 39 . The results of the original polling are fed back to the respondent group to use in subsequent responses. The results are then tabulated and used in developing a revised questionnaire which is completed by the larger -face interaction for group decision. responses are focused. what will be the trend of fashion in next year. or consensus is reached.Delphi Technique ‡ The name Delphi indicates a shrine at which the ancient Greeks used to pray for information about the future. In the conventional Delphi. ‡ Delphi technique is quite useful where the problem does not lend itself to precise analytical techniques but can benefit from subjective judgments on a collective basis and members who may be experts in the area of the problem may not be able to have face-to-face interaction.

Team Effectiveness 40 .

‡ Work groups have no need or opportunity to engage in collective work that requires joint effort. So their performance is merely the summation of each group member's individual contribution. ‡ A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. There is no positive synergy that would create an overall level of performance that is greater than the sum of the inputs. Their individual efforts results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs 41 .Difference b/w Work Group & Team ‡ A work group is a group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility.

Difference b/w Work Group & Team Work Group Team Share Information Neutral 42 .

 Teams are one of the major forces behind revolutionary changes in contemporary organizations.High Performance Team«and Teamwork  A team is a small group of people with complementary skills. 43 . who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable.

± Teams that run things. ± Teams that make or do things. ‡ Have formal responsibility for leading other groups. ± Teams that recommend things. ‡ Functional groups that perform ongoing tasks. ‡ Established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them.High Performance Team«and Teamwork  Types of teams. 44 .

± Team members actively work together in such a way that all of their respective skills are utilized to achieve a common purpose. 45 .High Performance Team«and Teamwork  The nature of teamwork. ± Teamwork is the central foundation of any high performance team.

± High performance teams: ‡ Have strong core values ‡ Turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives ‡ Have the right mix of skills ‡ Possess creativity 46 .High Performance Team«and Teamwork  Characteristics of high performance teams.

the elements of group effectiveness must be addressed and successfully managed.High Performance Team«and Teamwork  Diversity and team performance. ± Diverse teams: ‡ Improve problem solving and increase creativity ‡ May struggle in the short term. ‡ Have strong long-term performance potential 47 . ± To create and maintain high performance teams.

What is team building?  Team members and leaders must work hard to achieve teamwork.  Team building. ± A sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase group effectiveness.  Team building helps in achieving teamwork. 48 .

± Five step process.What is team building?  How team building works. ‡ Problem or opportunity in team effectiveness. ‡ Planning for team improvements. ‡ Data gathering and analysis. ‡ Actions to improve team functioning. 49 . ‡ Evaluation of results.

Types of Teams Problem Solving Self-managed Cross-functional Virtual 50 .

efficiency.Problem Solving Teams ‡ Groups of 5-12 employees from the sane department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. 51 . and the work environment.

the type of tasks team undertakes and the reward structure all this affects the team performance.Self-Managed Teams ‡ Groups of 10 to 15 people take on responsibilities of their former supervisors. 52 . ‡ The condition in which team has been formed.

Cross-Functional Teams ‡ Employees from about the same hierarchical level. who come together to accomplish a task. but from different work areas. 53 .

Eg.Virtual Teams ‡ Virtual teams use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.Video-Conferencing 54 .

Team Effectiveness 55 .

Context ‡ Adequate resources ‡ Leadership and structure ‡Climate of trust! ‡ Performance evaluation and reward systems Composition ‡Abilities of members ‡Personality ‡ Allocating roles ‡ Diversity ‡ Size of teams ‡Member flexibility ‡Member preference Team Effectiveness Work Design ‡Autonomy ‡Skill Variety ‡Task Identity ‡Task Significance Process ‡Common Purpose ‡Specific Goals ‡Team efficacy ‡Conflict Levels ‡Social loafing 56 .

± Employee involvements teams include a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues. or cost. productivity. ± Quality circle. ‡ Team meets periodically to address problems relating to quality.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Problem-solving teams. ‡ A special type of employee involvement team. 57 .

58 . ± Consist of members representing different functional departments or work units.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Cross-functional teams. ± Used to solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative systems thinking. ± Used to overcome functional silos problem.

59 .How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Virtual teams. ± Members meet at least part of the time electronically and with computer support. ± Groupware facilitates virtual meetings and group decision making.

How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Key advantages of virtual teams.  Key disadvantage of virtual teams. 60 . ± Brings computer power to information processing and decision making. ± Brings cost effectiveness and speed to teamwork. ± Direct personal contact among members suffers.

How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Self-managing teams. ± Teams make decisions on: ‡ Scheduling work. 61 . ‡ Controlling quality of work. ‡ Selecting new team members. ‡ Evaluating performance. ± Small groups are empowered to make the decisions needed to manage themselves on a daily basis. ‡ Training in job skills. ‡ Allocating tasks.

± Members rely on multiskilling. ± The team should include between 5 and 15 members.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  How self-managing teams work. ± Are permanent and formal elements of the organizational structure. ± Team members assume duties otherwise performed by the manager or first-line supervisor. 62 .

How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Benefits of self-managing teams. ± Faster response to technological change. ± Improved quality of work life. ± Productivity and quality improvements. 63 . ± Reduced absenteeism and turnover. ± Improved work attitudes. ± Production flexibility.

± Impact on supervisors and others accustomed to a more traditional way of working. 64 .How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Operational difficulties for self-managing teams. ± Self-managing teams are not appropriate for all organizations.

Key Roles of Team 65 .

66 .

The End 67 .

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