Group Behavior and Group Dynamics

Unit- 5

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Group Dynamics
‡ Group Dynamics= Group + Dynamics ‡ Group- a collectivity of two or more persons ‡ Dynamics-( derived from a Greek word meaning force) ‡ GD refers to the interaction of forces between group members in a social situation. ‡ ³ The social process by which people interact face to face in small groups is called group dynamics.´
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Concept of Group
‡ Different people tend to define group differently. Shaw has summarized various definitions of groups into four categories. ‡ First group is defined as consisting of individuals who perceive the existence of a group and their membership in it. ‡ Second group is defined on the basis of a common motivation or goal. ‡ Third, this class of definitions looks to the structure of the group² the relationships and ties among group members which bind them together into a group. ‡ Fourth, this definition perceives the central element of a group to be interacting among its members. ‡ Shaw defines group as 'two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other1
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However. Shared Goal Interest. is a participant in. Each member of the group must believe that he is a member of. The shared goal interest binds 4 the group members together. . Collective Identity. Interaction. However. Interaction means that each member shares his ideas with others through communication and this communication can take place face to face. To form a group. 3. Members of the group should subscribe to the attainment of some common objectives. it is not necessary that each member subscribes to or agrees with all the objectives of the group. Two or More Persons. some specific group. 4. or meaningful interaction among the members in the case of informal groups. across a computer network. 2. each member of the group must share at least one of the group's concerns. or in any other manner which allows communication among group members. Members of the group must be aware about their membership of the group.Key Features of the Group 1. there should be at least two persons because a single individual cannot interact. there cannot be any specific limit on the maximum number of persons in a group but the size of the group will be determined by rules and regulations of the organization in this context. If a group has a variety of objectives or interests. over the telephone. in writing. Members of the group interact among themselves.

interacting and interdependent. who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Group Formal Informal Command Gp. 5 .Group Classification ‡ Group. Friendship Gp.Two or more individuals. Task Gp. Interest Gp.

Group Classification ‡ Formal Group-A designated work group defined by the organization's structure.. 6 .The six members making up an airline flight crew is an example of a formal group. appears in response to the need for social contact. In formal groups. In contrast ‡ Informal group A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. Eg. Three employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together are an example of an informal group. the behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by and direct toward organizational goals.

Formal Groups
‡ A command group is determined by the organization chart. It is composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. An elementary sell principal and her 18 teachers form a command group. ‡ Task groups, also organizationally determined, represent those working together to complete a job task. However, a task group's boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. It can cross command relations. ‡ For eg., if a college student is accused of a campus crime, it may require communication and coordination among the dean of academic affairs, the| dean of students, the registrar, the director of security, and the student's advisor.
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Informal Groups
‡ Interest group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Employees who band together to have their vacation schedules altered, to support a peer who has been fired, or to seek improved working conditions represent the formation of a united body to further their common interest. ‡ Friendship group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. . Social alliances, which frequently extend outside the work situation, can be based on similar age or ethnic heritage, interest for outdoor games, or the holding of similar political views etc...
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Stages of Group Development

Stage 1 Forming

Stage 2 Storming

Stage 3 Norming

Stage 4 Performing

Stage 5 Adjourning

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Storming. Performing. characterized by intra-group conflict. ‡ Norming stage The third stags in group development.Five-stage group-development model Groups go through five distinct stages: ‡ Forming. ‡ Storming stage The second stage in group development. and Adjourning ‡ Forming Stage The first stage in group development is characterized by much uncertainty. Norming. characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness 10 .

11 . when the group is ‡ Adjourning stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups. characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.Five-stage group-development model ‡ Performing stage The fourth stage in group development.

they have impact on other group and the organization as a whole. 12 . there may be two types of conflict:‡ Intragroup Conflict (within the group itself) ‡ Intergroup Conflict (between groups). They not only affect the behavior of their members. In this interaction process. rather.Group Conflict ‡ Group exist in every organization and they affect the behavior of their members.

Such differences may affect the choice of either goals or methods of ac goals. or moral considerations of assumptions. fairness and so on are interpreted. the way power exercised. and (iii) where a person's extra group role comes into conflict with his intragroup role. justice. 13 . (it) where new values are imported from the social environment into the group. The disagreement may be over ethics.Intragroup Conflict ‡ Intragroup conflict may arise in three situations: (i) when group faces a novel problem of task. ‡ Intragroup conflict is visualized more when people come from different socio-economic backgrounds and have different political & religious views.

If these factors are not positive they tend to create conflict among groups. The can influence relations between two or more groups. 14 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . and Attitudinal set. There are many factors in the organization which determine the inter-group relationships. These factors areGoal Incompatibility Resource Sharing Task Relations Uncertainty Absorption.Intergroup Conflict Intergroup conflict arises out of the interaction of various groups.

15 . The ideal state exists when each group perceive its goals as the goals of the organization as a whole and the goals of other groups as compatible with one another and mutually reinforcing.Intergroup Conflict Goal IncompatibilityThe goals of two groups can have a powerful impact on their relationship.

Eg.Intergroup Conflict Goal IncompatibilityGoal incompatibility means that goal attainment by one group may prevent or reduce the level of goal attainment by one or more other groups.‡ The conflict between marketing and production departments in business organization. 16 . ‡ Labour-Management conflict also arises because of incompatibility of goals.

17 . and the degree to which this common pool of resources is adequate to meet the demands of both the group. working conditions. and other related matters. Each party to the conflict has an interest to get total resources as large as possible. Such conflicts take place on the quantum of wages.Intergroup Conflict Resource Sharing ± The relations between two groups can be affected by the degree to which the two groups draw from a common pool of resources. amenities. Thus. The conflicts between management and labour union are quite common in all types of organizations. conflict of this nature arises because of the discrepancy between aggregated demand and available resources.

For example.Intergroup Conflict Task Relationship Collaboration occurs when two groups share joint responsibility for certain tasks. A dependent task relationship exists between two groups if one group is dependent upon the former for recourses. The conflicts arise in these relations if a group exceeds its authority. if staff departments influence in the decision-making process well in excess of the advisory roles assigned to them. the conditions for conflict exist. 18 . A dependent task relationship may result in one group having the ability to dictate or unilaterally determine the outcome of their interaction.

if marketing department finds the rules framed by the accounting department inadequate or inefficient.Intergroup Conflict Absorption of Uncertainty ± ‡ Since organizations are open systems. For example. 19 . the marketing department may be relieved of the uncertainty of how the money should be spent on traveling. Thus a group may absorb uncertainty of other groups. the accounting department may prescribe the rules for traveling expenses: to be incurred by the marketing department. In order to manage uncertainty. Uncertainty is the gap between what is known and what needs to be known to make correct decisions. Thus. organizations assign certain groups or individuals to deal with it. the condition! conflict exists. they and their elements ² various groups ² face uncertainty. The conditions for conflicts exist if uncertainty absorption by one group is not in accordant with the expectations of other groups. The group may make decisions: set premises for decision-making for other groups. thereby avoiding the uncertain ‡ For example.

consequently leading to conflicts. and so on. the group relationship may be cooperative characterized by mutual trust and respect. seen and closed communications. competitiveness. greater willingness to avoid blaming each other. The alternative case. 20 . more open communication.Intergroup Conflict Attitudinal SetsThe sets of the attitudes that members of various groups hold towards each other can be cause and a consequence of the nature of their relations If the group relations begin with the attitudes of distrust. greater acceptance of responsibility for mutual problems. greater consideration for others' points of view. there is a possibility of various factors of group relationship being emphasized in a negative way.

Group Decision Making ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Specific Objectives Identification of Problems Search for Alternatives Evaluation of Alternatives Choice of Alternative Action Feedback 21 .

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A problem is a felt need. ‡ Problem Identification ± Since a particular decision is made in the context of certain given objectives.Group Decision Making ‡ Specific ObjectivesThe starting point in any analysis of decision making involves the determination of whether a decision need to be made. identification of problem is the real beginning of decision-making process. a question thrown forward for solution. It is just like the diagnosis of patient by the doctor 23 . It is the gap between present and desired state of affairs on the subject-matter of decision.

identifying the reasons for the gap. if an organization has high turnover of its employees. The symptom of high turnover may provide the clue to the real problem and managers can overcome the problem by taking appropriate action (decision making involves in taking action). Often managers fail to diagnose the problem correctly and sometimes they treat symptom as problem. The term diagnosis has come from Medical Science where it is used as the process of identifying a disease from its sign and symptoms. Diagnosing the real problem implies knowing the gap between what is and what ought to be. Therefore. Diagnosis & Analysis (i) Diagnosis. they should do this exercise very carefully. and understanding the problem in relation to higher objectives of the organization 24 . For example. A symptom is a condition or set of conditions that indicates the existence of a problem. it indicates that something is wrong with the organization.Problem Identification ‡ Problem Identification ± Methods .

analysis of problem takes it a step further. 25 . The analysis of the problem requires to find out who would make decision. and from where the information is available. what information would be needed.Problem Identification (ii) Analysis-While the diagnosis of problem gives the understanding of what should be done In terms of decision making. This analysis provide managers with revealing circumstances that help them to gain an insight into the problem.

if there is only one way of solving a problem. and using creative techniques 26 . A problem can be solved in several ways. a decision . With this definition in mind. Further. Adecision maker can use several sources for identifying alternatives: his own past experience. however.of a decision. Therefore. the decision maker must try to find out the various alternatives available in order to get the most satisfactory result . cannot be equally satisfying. practices followed by others.Search for Alternatives A thorough diagnosis defines both a specific problem and the situation in which the problem exists. maker seeks possible solutions. no question of decision arises. all the ways.

all alternatives available for decision making will not be taken for detailed evaluation because of the obvious limitations of managers in evaluating all alternatives. investment required. Tangible factors are those which can be quantified because they are quite obvious like the cost per unit. output to be received. etc. for example27 . he can discard it. he may check proposed alternatives against limits. He may treat these limits as constraints. though their happening may not be measured with certainty. and if an alternative does not meet them. that is.Evaluation of Alternatives ‡ After the various alternatives are identified. the next step is to evaluate them and select the one that will meet the choice criteria. Such factors can be measured easily. However. The decision maker develops a list of limits that must be met by a satisfactory solution. Evaluation of various alternatives dissects an alternative into various tangible and intangible factors.

have to be taken into account which cannot be quantified. ecological balance. In evaluating an alternative.Evaluation of Alternatives ‡ Demand projection at a given price in a particular alternative.. both these factors have to be taken into account 28 . various noneconomic factors like psychological problem arising out of displacement of persons from the plant site. intangible factors are mostly qualitative and cannot be measured in terms of quantity. in a plant location. As against these. etc. ‡ For example..

(i) Experience. A comparison is made among the likely outcomes of various alternatives and the best one is chosen. 29 . Choice aspect of decision making is related to deciding the most acceptable alternative which fits with the organizational objectives.Choice of Alternative ‡ The evaluation of various alternatives presents a clear picture as to how each one of them contributes to the objectives under question. Managers can choose an alternative based on their past experience if they have solved similar problem earlier.

Choice of Alternative (ii) Experimentation. For example. result is observed. and the alternative giving the best result is selected. many organizations go for test marketing of their products before the products are really introduced in the market 30 .Experimentation which is generally used in scientific enquiry involves that a particular alternative is put in practice.

various computer-based models have been developed to make the choice of an alternative easier. often the help of computer is taken. and planning premises that bear the objectives sought.' 31 . constraints. Since this requires . making lot of calculations. In the second stage. This involves a search for relationships between the more critical variables. Their individual impact on objective is evaluated and the impact of all factors of an alternative is combined to find out the total impact of the particular alternative. In fact. the alternative is broken into various components. The one having the most positive impact is chosen. This approach entails solving a problem first by comprehending it. specially when major decisions are involved.Choice of Alternative iii) Research and AnalysisResearch and Analysis is the most certain method of selecting an alternative.

The basic difference between decision making as an analytical process and action is that the former requires the use of conceptual skills since it translates the abstract ideas into reality. the managerial priority is one of converting the decision into something operationally effective. 32 .Action ‡ Once the creative and analytical aspects of decision making through which an alternative has been chosen are over. This is the action aspect of decision making.

managers should take up a follow-up action in the light of feedback received from the results 33 . These results must correspond with objectives. if good decision has been made and implemented properly. it brings certain results. Thus results provide indication whether decision making and its implementation is proper. the starting point of decision process. Therefore.Results ‡ When the decision is put into action.

Group Decision Making Techniques ‡ Brainstorming ‡ Nominal Technique ‡ Delphi Technique 34 .

Brainstorming is useful for all types of decisions. It encourages enthusiasm and a competitive spirit among members in generating ideas. it also prevents group members from feeling hopeless regarding the range of possibilities in a given situation.Brainstorming It is a technique to stimulate idea generation for decisionmaking. well-defined problems.For this group should have 10 to 15 persons. It is a conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously contributed by its members . Though brainstorming can result in many shallow and useless ideas. it is more useful for simple. it can spur members to offer new ideas as well 35 .

and relaxed one to general maximum number of ideas irrespective of qualities.Process 1.Brainstorming. Here the emphasis is on quantity of ideas and quality may follow later. The basic theme behind idea generation that though a big chunk of ideas collected during the session may not I worth while. Factors inhibiting the idea generation are pushed back. The problem on which decision is required is given to the group. 2 Each member is asked to give ideas through which the problem can be solved. yet a small percentage of it may provide sufficient useful list to work upon. Problem i stated clearly and precisely so that members of the group can focus their direct attention on it. The brainstorming session is meant to be a free. 36 . frank.

Such limitations only act as deterrent to fn flow of ideas because the participants will limit themselves in these limitation. legs organizational or otherwise. 37 . Idea-evaluation is deferred to a later stage because it does not flow in the direction of idea generation.Process 3.Brainstorming. procedural. 4. The members are expected to put their ideas for problem solution without taking into consideration any limitations²financial.

This technique encourages creativity. encourages continued exploration of the issues. If the group does not reach agreement. prevents strong personality types from dominating the group. The group leader outlines the problem requiring decision. It is meant to resolve differences in group opinion by having individuals generate and then rank a series of ideas in the problem exploration. and gives individuals some time to think about the issues before offering solutions^ 38 .Nominal Group Technique Nominal group technique (NOT) is a structured group meeting which restricts verbal communication among members during the decisionmaking process. provides a forum for the expression of the minority viewpoints. these are presented for discussion and evaluation before the group members. The process 1. When all the members write their ideas. it repeats the ranking and voting procedure until the group reaches some agreement and makes a decision. or choice-making states of group decision-making. The members are asked to rank the various ideas for decision-making and the decision is arrived at on the basis of this ranking. 3. Each member writes down his ideas silently and independently and presents his best single idea on the problem. 4. alternative generation. 2.

In Delphi technique of decision-making members do not have face. This procedure is repeated until the issues are narrowed. the decision can be arrived at through Delphi technique.to -face interaction for group decision. or consensus is reached. For example. The decision is arrived at through written communication in the form of filling up questionnaires often through mails.Delphi Technique ‡ The name Delphi indicates a shrine at which the ancient Greeks used to pray for information about the future. The results of the original polling are fed back to the respondent group to use in subsequent responses. responses are focused. In the conventional Delphi. ‡ Delphi technique is quite useful where the problem does not lend itself to precise analytical techniques but can benefit from subjective judgments on a collective basis and members who may be experts in the area of the problem may not be able to have face-to-face interaction. a small group designs a questionnaire which is completed by a larger respondent group. what will be the trend of fashion in next year. The results are then tabulated and used in developing a revised questionnaire which is completed by the larger group. 39 .

Team Effectiveness 40 .

Their individual efforts results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs 41 . So their performance is merely the summation of each group member's individual contribution. ‡ A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. There is no positive synergy that would create an overall level of performance that is greater than the sum of the inputs. ‡ Work groups have no need or opportunity to engage in collective work that requires joint effort.Difference b/w Work Group & Team ‡ A work group is a group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility.

Difference b/w Work Group & Team Work Group Team Share Information Neutral 42 .

who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable. 43 .  Teams are one of the major forces behind revolutionary changes in contemporary organizations.High Performance Team«and Teamwork  A team is a small group of people with complementary skills.

‡ Have formal responsibility for leading other groups. ± Teams that make or do things. ± Teams that run things. ± Teams that recommend things.High Performance Team«and Teamwork  Types of teams. 44 . ‡ Established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them. ‡ Functional groups that perform ongoing tasks.

± Teamwork is the central foundation of any high performance team. 45 . ± Team members actively work together in such a way that all of their respective skills are utilized to achieve a common purpose.High Performance Team«and Teamwork  The nature of teamwork.

High Performance Team«and Teamwork  Characteristics of high performance teams. ± High performance teams: ‡ Have strong core values ‡ Turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives ‡ Have the right mix of skills ‡ Possess creativity 46 .

± Diverse teams: ‡ Improve problem solving and increase creativity ‡ May struggle in the short term. ‡ Have strong long-term performance potential 47 . ± To create and maintain high performance teams. the elements of group effectiveness must be addressed and successfully managed.High Performance Team«and Teamwork  Diversity and team performance.

48 .  Team building helps in achieving teamwork.What is team building?  Team members and leaders must work hard to achieve teamwork.  Team building. ± A sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase group effectiveness.

‡ Actions to improve team functioning. ‡ Problem or opportunity in team effectiveness. ‡ Evaluation of results. ± Five step process. ‡ Data gathering and analysis.What is team building?  How team building works. ‡ Planning for team improvements. 49 .

Types of Teams Problem Solving Self-managed Cross-functional Virtual 50 .

51 . and the work environment. efficiency.Problem Solving Teams ‡ Groups of 5-12 employees from the sane department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality.

‡ The condition in which team has been formed.Self-Managed Teams ‡ Groups of 10 to 15 people take on responsibilities of their former supervisors. 52 . the type of tasks team undertakes and the reward structure all this affects the team performance.

Cross-Functional Teams ‡ Employees from about the same hierarchical level. who come together to accomplish a task. 53 . but from different work areas.

Virtual Teams ‡ Virtual teams use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Eg.Video-Conferencing 54 .

Team Effectiveness 55 .

Context ‡ Adequate resources ‡ Leadership and structure ‡Climate of trust! ‡ Performance evaluation and reward systems Composition ‡Abilities of members ‡Personality ‡ Allocating roles ‡ Diversity ‡ Size of teams ‡Member flexibility ‡Member preference Team Effectiveness Work Design ‡Autonomy ‡Skill Variety ‡Task Identity ‡Task Significance Process ‡Common Purpose ‡Specific Goals ‡Team efficacy ‡Conflict Levels ‡Social loafing 56 .

‡ Team meets periodically to address problems relating to quality. ‡ A special type of employee involvement team. or cost. ± Employee involvements teams include a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues. ± Quality circle. productivity.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Problem-solving teams. 57 .

58 . ± Used to overcome functional silos problem. ± Consist of members representing different functional departments or work units. ± Used to solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative systems thinking.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Cross-functional teams.

How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Virtual teams. ± Groupware facilitates virtual meetings and group decision making. 59 . ± Members meet at least part of the time electronically and with computer support.

 Key disadvantage of virtual teams. ± Brings computer power to information processing and decision making. ± Direct personal contact among members suffers. 60 . ± Brings cost effectiveness and speed to teamwork.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Key advantages of virtual teams.

61 . ± Small groups are empowered to make the decisions needed to manage themselves on a daily basis. ‡ Evaluating performance. ‡ Controlling quality of work. ‡ Allocating tasks. ‡ Selecting new team members. ± Teams make decisions on: ‡ Scheduling work. ‡ Training in job skills.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Self-managing teams.

62 . ± Members rely on multiskilling. ± Team members assume duties otherwise performed by the manager or first-line supervisor.How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  How self-managing teams work. ± Are permanent and formal elements of the organizational structure. ± The team should include between 5 and 15 members.

How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Benefits of self-managing teams. ± Reduced absenteeism and turnover. ± Faster response to technological change. 63 . ± Improved work attitudes. ± Productivity and quality improvements. ± Improved quality of work life. ± Production flexibility.

How do teams contribute to the high performance workplace?  Operational difficulties for self-managing teams. ± Impact on supervisors and others accustomed to a more traditional way of working. ± Self-managing teams are not appropriate for all organizations. 64 .

Key Roles of Team 65 .

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The End 67 .

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