Data Flow Diagram (DFD


Logical model verses Physical model
A Logical model shows what the system must do , regardless of how it will be accomplished physically. This model is also called a Business Model, which is to solve a business problem and meet the needs of the managers and users  A Physical model, which is done in the model, design phase, describes how the system will function, including hardware, software, data storage and other operational details 

. not how it does it. DFDs represent a logical model that shows what the system does.What is the Data Flow Diagram? A data flow diagram (DFD) shows how data moves through an information system.

The Data Flow Diagram Symbols  The Data flow diagrams are drawn using four basic symbols and they are as follows:  Processes  Data flows  Data stores  External entities .


. the process for calculating pay uses two inputs (pay rate and hours worked) to produce one output (total cost) Processes can be very simple or complex. For instance.APPLY PAYMENT The Process Symbol A process receives input data and produces output that has a different content or form or both.

A data flow in a DFD represents one or more pieces data. For example. a data flow could represent a single data item such as a µstudent ID number¶ or a data flow could represent a set of data.BANK DEPOSIT The Data Flow Symbol A data flow is a path for data to move from one part of the information system to another. . such as a class rooster with student ID numbers and name for a specific class.

is used repository. . in a data flow diagram to represent a situation when the system must retain data because one or more processes need to use stored data at a later time. or data repository. For instance. instructors need to store student scores on tests and assignments during the semester so they can assign final grades at the end of the term.STUDENTS The Data Store Symbol  A data store .

department. For example. .CUSTOMER The External Entities  An external entity is a person. or other information system that provides data to the system or receives output from the system. External entities show the boundaries of the information system and how the information system interacts with the outside world. outside organization. a customer submitting an order is an external entity because the customer supplies data to the system.

The External Entities (cont¶d)  Other examples of external entities include: patient who supplies medical data  a homeowner who receives a property tax bill  A warehouse that supplies a list of items in stock  An accounts payable system that receives data from the company¶s purchasing system.  .

Rules of DFD  Incorrect usage of data flow and process symbols .

Rules of DFD (cont¶d)  Correct combination of data flow and process symbol .

Rules of DFD (cont¶d)  Examples of incorrect uses of data store symbols: two data stores cannot be connected by a data flow without an intervening process. and each data store should have an outgoing and incoming data flow. .

Rules of DFD (cont¶d)  Correct usage of data store symbols: .

Rules of DFD (cont¶d)  Examples of incorrect uses of external entity symbols: An external entity must be connected by a data flow to a process. and not directly to a data store or to another external entity. .

Rules of DFD (cont¶d)  Examples of correct uses of external entities in a data flow diagram .

What is wrong with this DFD? in related rules we have discussed .

.What is a Context Diagram? A Context Diagram is a data flow diagram that shows the boundaries or scope of the particular system. The context diagram is a top-level view of topthe information system.

You do not show any data stores in a context diagram because data stores are internal to the system.How to draw the Context Diagram?  To draw a context diagram. you place one process symbol representing the entire information system in the center of the page. . Then you draw all the external entities around the perimeter of the page and use data flows to connect the entities properly to central process.

Context diagram DFD for the order system .

Context diagram DFD for the GRADING SYSTEM .

Context diagram and diagram 0 for the grading system .


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