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CONTENTS 1.Introduction 2.History 3.Definition of Solar Updraft Tower 4.Parts of Solar Updraft Tower 5.Working Principle of Solar Updraft Tower 6.Enery storage in collector 7. Typical dimensions and electricity output

INTRODUCTION In many parts of the world there is a growing awareness that some alternative energy sources could have an important role to play in the production of electricity. Solar solar energy inverted funnel, However, only theTowers are like anrepresents with a wide skirt to collect air to then turn a turbine totally nonpolluting energy resource that can in the tower. be utilized economically to supply Man¶s Greenhouse effects heat the air energy needs for all time

underneath, pushing it faster and faster toward the chimney where turbines converted the air flow to electricity.

HISTORY a) In 1903 Colonel of the Spanish army Isidoro Cabanyes first proposed a solar chimney power plant in the magazine La energía eléctrica. b) One of the earliest descriptions of a solar chimney power plant was written in 1931 by a German author Hanns Gunther. c) In 1975, Robert E. Lucier applied for patents on a solar chimney electric power generator d) Between 1978 and 1981 these patents were granted in Australia, Canada, Israel and the USA

WHAT IS SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER The solar updraft tower is renewable type power plant. Solar updraft towers are like an inverted funnel, with a wide skirt to collect air to then turn a turbine in the tower.

figure-1 solar updraft tower in Australia

PARTS OF SOLAR UPDRAFT TOWER 1. Collector 2. Chimney or Tower 3. Turbine

figure-2 solar updraft tower in Australia

1. Collector a) Collector is the part, which is used to produce hot air by green-house effect. It is usually 5-6 meters high and covers a very large area about thousands of m² as seen in figure. b)There is no limitation for the surface area. The larger the area, the more energy generated from the chimney.

Figure-3 Solar chimney in Spain

c) Covering materials may be different, such as; glass, plastic film or glazed collector. The most efficient one is glazed collector. It can convert up to 70% of irradiated solar energy into heat . Also with proper maintenance, its life span can easily be 60 years or more.

figure-4 Inside view of collector area

2. Chimney or Tower a) The most important part of the plant is the chimney. The efficiency is proportional to the height of the chimney. b) There are two types of different chimneys using for the plant. Free standing chimney and guyed chimney. The life span of a free standing chimney is longer than that of the guyed chimney. It lasts about a hundred years, while the guyed chimney is much shorter.

Figure- FreeFigure-5 Free-standing tower

FigureFigure-6 Guyed tower

3. Turbine a) Turbines are used to convert kinetic energy of air into the mechanical energy. b) Turbines are placed horizontally in chimney, vertically in the collector. c) In order to obtain maximum energy from the warmed air, turbines blades should cover all the cross-sectional area of the chimney. To do this, one big turbine or a few small turbines should be used in chimney, as can be seen from the figure-7 and figure-8.

Figure -7 Turbine with large diameter

figure-8 Small turbines

Principle of operation

Ambient air

Hot air

figure-9 simple diagram of solar updraft tower

Energy storage in collector a) Since collectors produce hot air by green house effect, to produce electric during the night, tight water-filled black tubes are placed under the roof as seen in figure. b) The water heats up during the daytime and emits its heat at night.

Figure-10 Principal of thermal Energy storage with water filled black tubes

Effect of water filled black tubes

Figure-10 electric power output vs. time of day of a 200 MW solar updraft tower with 25% of collector area covered by water-filled bags

Typical dimensions and electricity output 1.Capacity MW 5 550 45 1250 30 750 70 2900 99 100 1000 110 4300 320 200 1000 150 7000 680

2.Tower height m 3.Tower diameter 4.Collector diameter 5.Electricity output m m

GWH/A 14

At a site with annual global radiation of 2300kwh/(m²a)

Main dimensions and technical data of the Manzanares prototype (Spain) 1. Tower height 2. Tower radius 3. Collector radius 4. Roof height 5 . No. of turbine 6. No. of turbine blade 7. Output 0f plant 194.6meter 5.08meter 122meter 1.85meter 1 4 50KW

Main dimensions and technical data of the Mildura solar power plant (Australia) 1. Location 2. Tower diameter 3. Tower height 4. Thickness of tower 5. Collector diameter 6. Output of plant 7.Company 8. No. of turbine Midura (New south wales) 150meter 1000meter 25cm 7000 200MW Enviro Mission Limied 32 each of 6.25MW