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2006.09.06

2006.09.06

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CS-495 - Computer Networking September 6, 2006

Erich Musick Notes 2006.09.06 - Introduction.doc ] 1 of 2
Introduction

Not a course in network protocols. Most of this course’s discussion will be in the physical layer.

Data Communications Model


• Source – Generates data
• Transmitting device – takes data and converts it into an electromagnetic signal that can
be transmitted. This might include a conversion from digital to analog form – modulation
of some sorts.
• Transmission medium – Varies in complexity. Could be anything from a single wire or
air (radio signals) to a network – either WAN or LAN.
• Receiving Device – Demodulates the signal. Might do some sort of error checking or
even error correction.

WAN (Wide Area Network)
Two methods used for transmission of data:

1. Circuit Switching
a. “Plain old telephone system” - physical circuit that is connected and remains
connected for the duration of the conversation – until one side terminates the
connection.
b. This is not advantageous when there are great lapses of time between
transmissions.
2. Packet Switching
a. The message (however large) is broken into smaller chunks of data called packets
which get sent and then received separately. Each can (but won’t necessarily) take
a different route in getting to its final destination.
b. Depending on the route taken, packets might be received in a different order than
they were sent. It is the job of the receiver, then, to reassemble the packets in the
proper order. Often packets will be assigned a sequence number used to facilitate
this behavior.

LAN (Local Area Network)
Topologies (ways the network is laid out) –

1. Star – Every device is connected to a central device.



Source


Transmitting
Device


Transmission
Nedium


Receiving
Device



Destination
CS-495 - Computer Networking September 6, 2006


Erich Musick Notes 2006.09.06 - Introduction.doc ] 2 of 2
2. Bus – all the nodes are connected to a bus
3. Ring – All the nodes are connected in a ring

The protocol used differs based on the topology. In a ring topology, a token is used. A device
cannot transmit unless it “has the token.” This guarantees that you will be able to transmit data
within a certain time frame.

Bus and Star use broadcast

CSMA/CD – Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection

Anyone that has information to send can send it at any time.

A device cannot transmit unless it “has the token. Bus and Star use broadcast CSMA/CD – Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection Anyone that has information to send can send it at any time. Ring – All the nodes are connected in a ring The protocol used differs based on the topology. Bus – all the nodes are connected to a bus 3.” This guarantees that you will be able to transmit data within a certain time frame.2. ! " " # % . a token is used. In a ring topology.

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