· . : '.

. : I

J '.,

I .

.. ; ' .

. .1.' .

" :

1 .

. ....

, '

r ; i. ';" .:'

.:":

" ' .: . ..... . i-

~ tl .:.RitW~tl()nln Dose .: , ..... " .. ". . .. -. ..... =>, • •. ' I

· .... ·.··Four:M.~·f:l~dgeInBti5¥~qiGn~ and.EduqfllllJPMQnth~·:·,

•• '::;..' '._.:<_ ·:";"'RO~130xilZ Oak Rjdge~TN37831"Oltj->··: '" .:.'. "

' .....

> Df.,+;,. ·· .. Ar. ·.·[~Tki' ,_J..',:o,. ··.S(."u.··(erus~kidtlP1}S) +. t',Jj,l" ,S{Utet1J;S~bli1dder\,:

" .te.~s '. ' t, unt?FS .. ' '. . . . ""(J' Ol-Guuer ,. .' J

• ~ -. ' '. '. :' ,""","..t·if' '., .. , : .,......; . :', .' . '.' ..'. z , :" • ..,.:. ' •. '~.' " .: -. -' .

. '. . .. ' . >."C. ·"d'S('uterus~remainder)]

'; ' .. '. '. remam er . . . . .' . . .

. ,.,,- " ."

'~ .. :

. ..... GRISE 97-0961 .: . June16, 1997

..

. '.'

. ..

. .

"1

'. :"

]J

":

rr·

t.

FETAL DOSE CALCULATION WORKBOOK

M. G. Stabin

Radiation Internal Dose Information Center Oak Ridge Institute forScience andEducation . P.O. Box 1l7. Oak Ridge. TN 37.831-0117

ORISE 97-0961

June 16. 1997

r
.. !
r
r ~\ .'
r
r r

1

......

J. 1;

·1

... ~

1~

. . .. ~ ,~

1;

1

_. ~

._,

.. <. ,.:

, l

,d

. ~ .. ~

,i

"; 1:

". ?

1.'

r' r::

r':::

~ .• ".--1

(i

r

r; :

;

?

~. .

r,:,',

.......

. ~ .... ~

, "

r,"

r"

r"

:!~: '.~: ~:-:-~

r:'

"

r r r r

FETAL DOSE CALCULATION WORKBOOK

I. Introduction " '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

II. Basic MIRD method for dose calculation : 2

A. Dose formula 2

BS le calculati ','

. amp e cu anons ',' ' 4

III. Fetal Dose Models . ' , . ~ 6

IV. Applications - Nuclear Medicine : , 9

.A S-value tables for selected nuclides 9

B. Discussion of biological data ' 31

C. Residence times used to produce the dose estimates in this study 31

D. Absorbed Dose Estimates to the EmbryolFetusPer Unit Activity of

Radiopharmaceutical Administered to the Mother . 45

E. Fetal Dose Estimates from Various Nuclear Medicine Procedures ~ 48

Sample calculations ..............,.:............................ 56

F. Special models , ' ' 58 '

1. The hyperthyroid patient 58

2. The athyroid patient ; 59

3. Post administration conception ofI-I31 NaI .. ' ' 60

4. Fetal thyroid .' '.' .. ' 61

5. Sample calculations .....................................'....... 61

V. Applications - Occupational Exposures : ,62

Samplecalculations : : '. '66

VI Radiation Effects ',' ',' ~ . 67

VII. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,.. . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

-",/

.. :.

'. .

..

• • : .. OM 0 • • 0 '

. .

..

1:';

.

"

.

·

]

. ~~ ·if

1

·1f

~ ,.~~ .

. : l'

1 i

, (.

· .t

. . ~

" .

. r

· '.!

. . '11'

. ; \

. ,

.. ':J

f'

.,

: 'J

. ~j

-;:-

';~

::.~~

. i-::·~····:

.. < ..

1

~'i' •

.

. ,~",.;

?

.1 ,

. I

r

r

r

" --:

r:-"~

!i- :

~"-il

".

r

t .

(~

:- ;

(I

rf)"

".-

.' ",

J.': ,

j: -,

l.ii .;-.

" .

t. l I

r.O ;

. ~ .;

" .. '

r

r'

r

I. Introduction

The issue of radiation dose to the embryo/fetus is of particular concern because of the particular sensitivity of the embryo/fetus to ionizing radiation. From the point of conception, rapid cell division and often low cellular differentiation suggest enhanced radiosenitivity of this member of the population .. The following figure briefly summarizes the growth of the embryo/fetus throughout its development, with allusion to the periods in which particular . radiosensitivity to the induction of different effects is highest (the issue of radiation effects will be revisited at the end of this document):

'ittet't 1-14 ~ic ~inn"" h ~ ... critical rcrin<k;,,""_ oIc III. 0..;..,1foc n __ Mdt, 1k~.1foc ctnht)'O Is ....... y _ sUs.

~ ~."...."......c ~( IIIiaI;.",~.~c~f\tf~"" _ ........ cdk ........ ~ "";.,iIs ....... Ofil~....rj.kw

cdk. lfoccaohrfto ... rcc'W¥n ~oIcfcct<.IlH.._ ......... r~~:,... .. ~~ _ ~~ ... ~""_

Souiw:ItLu-. .... .,,;..,..,...,-c:Hooo\'--~~ ... ~ WII._Co..~ m? .. " .

I..

The formulation proposed for calculating internal doses by the Medical Internal RadiationDose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of NucIear Medicine (Loevinger et al, 1988) has been used widely for the calculation of internal doses in nuclear medicine. Its popularity stems perhaps from its simplicity and ease of use as well as the breadth of supporting material that has been published for use within its parameter definitions. Established in the late 1960's and early 1970's through a series of documents called MIRD Pamphlets, the MIRD method continues to be used heavily today for calculations of dose to internal organs of adults, children. and pregnant women. to tumors, to cells, and in many other applications .. The MIRD Committee continues to publish various documents which are useful in calculating absorbed dose estimates, and the Radiation Internal Dose Information Center in Oak Ridge, TN) has made several-other helpful tools (such as the MIRDOSE software (Stabin 1996), the pregnant female phantom series (Stabin et al, 1996), and a compendium of S-values (Stabin 1997» available .

. II. Basic MIRD method for dose calculation

A. Dose formula

The basic equation used in the MIRD system is:

Dr~ = the dose to target region rk (Gy)

A,. = the cumulated activity in source region r,. (l!.q-s) S(rk-rh) = the "S-va/ue"jQr T,. .irradiating.rt (GyIBq-s)

The "S-value is defined as

II,. =. the abundance of emissions with mean. energy E;

~;(rk -Tit) = the fraction of energy emitted from. rlt that is ~bsOrbed in rk

K = a conversion factor

1

In the equation for S, the units chosen for the energy and mass will determine the units on K F instance, if the energy is given in MeV and the mass in kg, K must be l.6 x 10-13 to obtain an' S- or value in Gy/Bq-s. Alternatively; if the energy is in MeV and the mass is in grams, K must be 2.13

to give an S-value in radl Jl Ci-hr. .

You may also see the MIRD equation expressed as:

r = the "residence time" in source region rh (sec)

Ah

't =-

h A o

~r.l

')

Ao = the' activity administered to thesubject . (Bq)

.; .~

These two formulations are completely equivalent, as should be evident from the equations. The . concept of residence time, however, has been a source of no small confusion. First, the quantity cumulated activity (A) gives the area under a time-activity curve:

!. .

Activity.

: ...

, ,

Time

::.' .

" . ~

If activity is in units of Bq and time is in units of seconds, A will have units of Bq-sec. This is a measure of the number of disintegrations that have occurred in a source region over time - Bq is a

number of disintegrations per second, thus A has units of disintegrations. If activity is in units of flCi and time is in hours, the principle is the same; 1 flCi-hr is equivalent to 1.33 x 108 disintegrations.

Now. if we take the cumulated activity, A, and divide by the amount of activity administered,~, we obtain the residence time, r, which has units of time (e.g. Bq-sec/Bq == sec). However.rr is NOT a measure of time at all, it is simply the cumulated activity normalized to the amount of activity administered - it is another way to express the number of disintegrations that occurred in a source region. I think it is unfortunate that the name "residence time" was chosen to describe this quantity, because it implies an expression of "mean time", and it really does not express that at all.

B. Sample calculations

l

After administration of 50 MBq ofa Tc-.99m pharmaceutical, 500/0 of the administered activity is assumed to be taken up by the liver, 25% by the spleen, and 2~% by the marrow. In each of these organs, the activity is removed only by physical decay (half-life 6 hours). What is the dose to each of these organs and to the ovaries and uterus ofa standard adult female (57 kg)?

First, we calculate the values of A:

~= f 0,5 x 50x 106 Bq x exp(-lt}.dt

l = 0.693/6 hr= 0.1155 hr" = 3.2 x 10'5 sec-I'

. D"ver = 41,~r S(liver-liver) + Asplem S(/iver-sp/een) +. Amarrow S(liver-marrqw)

If this integral is carried out to infinity, the integral is just

J s; exp(-lt) dt = Ao/l

Awe.. = (0.5 x 50 x 106 Bq)/ 3.2 x 10'5 sec" = 7.8 x 1011 Bq-sec A.-=(OSx 50 x 106 Bq)/3.2 x 10'5 sec" = 7.8 x ]Oil Bq-sec .J..- = (0.25 x 50 x 10<i Bq)/3.2 x 10'5 seC" = 3~9 x 1011 Bq-sec

~~' .

To obtain the dose to any organ, we need·tomultiply·the values of A by the appropriate Svalues and add up the contributions, For example, for the liver:

. ,

~

I

4

r r r

r r ..

r ,~, roo'

r i:o•

r.

~. ~

Dliver = 7.8xlOlI Bq-s x 4.13xIO-ISGyIBq-s + 7.8xIOII Bq-s x 1.09xI0-16GyIBq_s + 3.9x 1011 Bq-s x l.00x 10-16GyIBq-s

Dbver = 0.0033 Gy

We could work the same problem in terms of residence time and obtain the same result:

'tapleca = 7.8 X 1011 Bq-secl50 X 106 Bq= 1.56 x.J.O" sec

00'

't_=3.9x 10~J Bq-sed50x 106Bq=7.8x l<Ysec

Dliver = Ao [ 'tliver S(liver-liver) + Tspleen S(liver-spleen) + 't~ow S(liver-marrow)]-

r··':

> .,

r~" :

r~;

liver = ·5.0xlO'Bq[1.56xlO"· sec x 4.l3xIO-lSGyIBq-s+ LS6xl04 sec x L09xl0-16GyIBq +7.8xlol sec x 1:00rlO-16GyIBq.-s]

Dliver = 0.0033 Gy

For the other organs. the procedure is the same. Omitting the grisly details, the results are:

. i

r ";' r:. r :' r r r r

D~=0.022Gy D_ = 0.00091 Gy Dovarics = 0.00018 Gy DUIcnIs = 0.00014 Gy

These doses .( as well as th~· S-values in the above equations) were taken from output of the MIRDOSE program (Stabin 1995). I just entered the appropriate residence times and obtained doses for all organs -. Here is the program output:

~.

MIRDOSE (IBM PC VERSION 3.1 - AUGUST 1995)

---------------------------------------------~

Radiation pose Estimates for the ADOLT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43

TARGET ORGAN·

1) Adrenals

2) Brain'·

3) Breasts

4 .. ) Gallbladder Wall

5) LLI Wall

6) Small Intestine

7) Stomach

8) ULI Wall . 9) . Heart Wall

10) Kidneys

11) Liver

12) Lungs

13) Muscle

14) Ovaries

15) Pancreas 16) . Red Marrow

17) Bone Surface·s

18) Skin

19) Spleen

21) Thymus

22) Thyroid

23) Urin Bladde~ Wall

24) Uterus

27) . Total Body

28) ·EFF DOSE EQUIV

TOTAL DOSE P~IMARY

mGy/MBq rad/mCi CONTRIBUTOR

2.04E-02 7.57E-02 Spleen 9.25E-04 3.42E-03 Red Marrow 2.63E.:03 9.74E-03 Liver· 2.01E-02 7.43E-02 Liver 3.41E-03 1.26E-02 Red Marrow 6.181;:.-03 2.29E-02 Liver 1.73E-02 6.39E-02 Spleen 7.27E-03 2.69E-02 Liver 8.92E-03 3.30E-02 Liver 1.98E-02 7.31E-02 Spleen 6.69E-02 2 .48E-()1 Live~ 8.79E-03 3.25E-02 Liver 4.41E-03 1.63E-02 Spleen 3.67E-03 1.36E-02 Red Marrow 3.33E-02 1.23E-01 Spleen 1.82E-02 6.72E-02Red Marrow 1.40E·-02 S.18E-02 Red Marrow 1.76E-03 6.S2E-03 Liver 4.3sE-01 1.61E+00 Spleen 2.63E-03 9.72E-03 Liver 1.09E-03·4.03E-03 Red Marrow 1.32E-03 4.89E-03 Red Marrow 2.81E-03 1.04E~02 Red Marrow 7.80E-03 2.89E-02 Spleen

.3.9SE-02 1.46E-01 Remainder

29) EFF DOSE 2.27E-02 8.39E-02 Liver

Units of EDE and ED· are mSv/MBq or rem/mCi .

. RESIDENCE TlMES:

_,.,tiver

Red Marrow Spleen

4.33E+OO hr 2.16E+00 hr 4 .. 33E+00 hr

49.5% 96.6% S2.4%' 79.6% 59.0% 37.9% 76.3% 50.9% 54.9% 64.5% 96.3% 49.3% 46_4% 55.9% 73.5% 82.8% 63.S%" 39.1%" 99.·4% 46.0%" 6S.2%: 61.S%" S3.S%" 40.8%" 87.3% 14.7%"

SECONDARY CONTRIBUTO~

Liver Liver Spleen - Spleen Spleen Spleen Liver Spleen Spleen Liver Spleen Spleen Liver Liver Liver Spleen Spleen Spleen Liver Spleen Liver Liver Liver Liver

Red Marrow Red Marrow

39.9% 1. 8%" 30.·5'% 16.3% 30·.6% 34.7% 19.7% 29.1% 35.4% 27.s%" 2.5% 3~.1%" 34.0%" 23.0% 22.9t· 8.9% 18.4% 37.st 0.4%" 27.St 19.7% 20.8% 26.0% 40.2t 5.5% 9.6t

The output gives the dose in mGy/MBq administered; these values need to be multiplied by the value 50 MBq and divided by a factor of 1000 to .convert mGy to Gy.

III. Fetal Dose Models

For manyyears, the dose to the uterus (mass= 80 g) was used for all fetal dose calculations. One model was published in 1973 (Cloutier et a1. 1973) that tried to account for the changing size and

6

l~

r

r
r
,
:
r (" -,
r r :.:-~

.' s •

r ..... :.

r

r ·r ~

r ) .. .\

. r~. -.

r

r .:-: ..

1

~ ~;1

~ ; r':·;

r

r v . ,

r

shape of the fetus during pregnancy in estimating the dose from the urinary bladder to the fetus. Otherwise. however. people relied mostly on the dose to the uterus (or perhaps the ovaries) to estimate the fetal dose from internal emitters,

In 1995, a set of complete anthropomorphic phantoms was proposed which attempted to model the nonpregnant adult female and the adult female at three different stages of gestation (3, 6, and 9 months) (Stabin et a1.1995). The growth and position of the fetus was studied, and the model of the nonpregnant female was modified to accommodate the growth of the uterus, through displacement.of the various abdominal organs and forward extension of the trunk. Through Monte Carlo based radiation transport studies, estimates of the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) (the absorbed fraction divided by the mass of the target region) for an source and target combinations were obtained. These SAFs were put into the MiRDOSE software (Stabin 1995)

. so that S-values could be calculated at any time, and that dose to the fetus (as well as the maternal organs) could be more reliably estimated. Tables ofS-values for all of the nuclides in the MIRDOSE software are now also available as an ORISE publication (Stabin 1997). A few of the results for the SAFs calculated in the report on the pregnant female phantoms are shown here:

· ...... .

· · ·

-e- 'Iloadl

-ee- 'lloada .•

~, .....

·

&ro~~--~~~--~~~~~~ 10.2

10"

Iff 101

E(MeV)

Fig. U .(fc:t1u .. !ha) w. iaitial photoo eucrgy.

E(MeV)

7 .. ·

-'til)

o

'2 10.1

-

§

is:

~ 10"

.,

~

-

e

e

10~L---~~~--~~~~--~~

10.2

.10.,·L-_ ............ "'-_ ...... -.....L_-i...-....., 10.2

10~1

E(McV)

E(MeV) .

Fig.. 4.4. .(fetus- fetus) vs, initial photon energy.

8 ..

l

r-

1.

!

!

j

1

?

1

i

. I:i ";

I

I ,I;

~ .

. I

r

r

IV. Applications- Nuclear Medicine

r _'

:t

;~ .!

r ~ ,<

r .

r ..

.:

r":

r ::' r '~

These models have been applied to estimate radiation dose estimates for the embryo and fetus for a number of situations in nuclear medicine. In this section, this information will be discussed briefly and summarized. Much of the pertinent information will be included here, so that this document can be a handy reference for calculating fetal dose in a number of different circumstances.

A. S-value tables for selected nuclides

As mentioned before, a compendium ofS-values for all of the phantoms. included in the MIRDOSE software has been 'published (Stabin 1997). This material is voluminous; reproduced here are complete S-value tables for the two most common radionuclides encountered in nuclear medicine, Tc-99m and 1-131, for aU four phantoms representing the adult female.

r ..

,

r .'·..~l

~ j.

r ~.,,;

r r r

~.,

S-values for t.he ADULT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wal,J. K~dneys

.L~ver

Lungs

. Muscle OVaries Pancreas

Red MarrQw Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

. Thymus

Thyroid Ur~n·Bladder Wall Uterus

Total Body

Adrenals Brain

2.19E-04 7.l7E-IO 6.0IE-OB 4.6SE-07 2.40E-OB 1.07E-07 3.44E-07 1.23E-07 3.12E-07 9.S9E-07 S.23E-07 3.13E-07 1.4IE-07 3.04E~OB 1. 26E-06 2._79E ... 07 3.3BE-07 4.0BE-OB 6.49E-07 S.71E-OB 1.12E-OB 1.32E-OB 3.30t-OB 2.20E:'07

7.17E-IO 4.BBE-06 3.26E-09 3.94E-IO 3.00E-ll B.40E-ll 6.76E-IO 1. OIE-IO 2.63E-09 3.11E-IO I.OBE-09 7.S2E-09 2.19E-OB 3.7SE-ll 6.60E~10 1. 36E-07 3.SBE-07 4.B3E-OB 9-.HE-IO B.17E-09 S.6BE-OS l.SIE-11 3.22E-ll I.S3E-07

SOURCE ORGANS Breasts Gall Bl

6.0IE-OS 3.26E-09 1.16E:"OS 4.43E-OB 3.6lE-09 9.74E-09 7.94E-OB I.SIE-OB 3.33E-07 2.46E-OB S.SSE-OB 2.SIE-07 S.3SE-OB 3.SSE-09 7.47E-OB

.S.90E-OS 9.46E-OB S.S9E-OB S.ISE-OB 3.17E~07 3.90E-OB 2.SIE-09 3.B6E-09 1.33E-07

4.06E-07 4.24E-IO 4.23E-OB 3.9IE~OS 9.0SE-OB S.62E-07 4.06E-07 9.64E-07 1.49E-07 4.S3E-07 I.OOE-06 9.70S-0B_ 1.40E-07 1. 70E-07 a.66E~07 1.11E-07 1.42E-07 3.6SE-OB I.S7E-07 3.f4E-OS 4.7SE-09 f.19E-OB 1.62E-07· 1.64E-07

S-values for the ADULT FEMALE for 99.m-Tc~43~ (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals Brain

. Breasts

Gallbladder Wall LLI-Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall !<idneys

_..t1:..iver

Lungs

Muscle ovaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Borie Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus Thyroid.

Urin Bladder Wall Uterus

Total Body

stomach

3.34E-07 S.96E-IO 7.26E-OB 4.34E-07 1.14E-07 2. 64E":07 1.03E-OS 3.36E-07 3.IBE-07 2.9SE-07 2. I BE.:.. 07 1. 57E-07 1.2SE-07 B.7SE-OB 1.47E-06 8.6IE-OB 1.:nE-07

-4.24E-OB B.67E-07 S.IBE-OB 7.SSE-09 2.29E-08 7.S6E-OB l.S0E-07

ULI .Cont

1. 23E-07 I.OIE-IO 1.2SE-OB 9.49E-07 3.07E-07 1.S3E,...06 3.83E-07 1.00E-OS 4.07E-08 2.SSE-07 2. 43E':'07 2.97E-OB 1.33E-07 9.47E-07 2.3SE-07 1.69E-07 I.S9E-07 3.7SE-08 1.37E-07 7.9IE-09 I.SSE-09 2.17E-07 S.2BE-07 1.77E-07

SOURCE ORGANS

Heart Co

Heart Wa

2.B6E-07 3.12E-07 3.08E-09 2.63E-09 3.13E-07 3.33E-07 1.4SE~07 I~S7E-07 6.76E-09 B.S3E-09 2.64E-OB 3.00E-08 2.3SE-07 3.SSE-07 3.23E-OB 3.84E-~8 6.S7E-06 I.S8E-OS 8.97E-OB 9.97E-OS 2.9BE~07 3.14E-07 6.19E-07 S.BIE-07 1.13E-07·1.17E-07 9.0IE-09 I.08E-08 3.33E-07 4.24E·07 1.12E-07 1.07S-07 1.89E-07 1.79E-07 4.33E-08 4.49£-08 1.5BE-07 2.03E-07 9.24E-07 7.BIE-0? 7.4BE-OB S.62E-OB 4.34E-09 4.BSE-09 9.19E-09· 1.19t-08 1.49E-07 1.9IE-07

10

LLI Cont Sml Int.

3.S2E-OB 3. 72E-ll 4.19E-09 1. llE-07 1.4IE-OS S.6SE-07 1. 75E-07 3.86E-07 I.HE-OB 9.09E-08 2.79E-Oa B.SOE-09 I.SOE-07 1.64E-06 7.9BE-OB 2.6IE-07 2.23E-07 4.42E-OB a.30E-OB 3.3SE-:-09 S.SIE--IO 6.07E-07 6.94E-07 I.S6E-07

Kidneys

9.59E-07 3.11E-IO 2.46E-OB 4.S7E-07 7.lDE-OB 2.74E-07 2.B7E-07 2.60E-07 9.97E-08 1.49E-OS 3.4BE-07 9.72E-OB

·1.2IE-07 9.84E-OB 6.0SE-07 1.99E-07 2.0BE-07 4.62E-OB 8.lSE-07 2.2SE-OB 4.37E-09· 3.93E-OB 8.42E-08 2.01E-07

1.07E-07

. B.40E-ll 9.74E-09 S.44E-07 7.S3E-07 S.4SE-06 2.77E-07 1.7IE-06 3.00E-08 2474E-07 l.SlE-Q7 2.36E-OS 1.39E-07 1. I4E-06 1.9SE-07 2.l1E-07 1.8SE-07 3.73E-OB 1. 38E-07 7.S3E-09 1.33E-09 2.9BE'-07 1. 02E-06 1.9SE-07

J

i

.~

~

I

l

l

l

, J

i

Liver

S.23E-07 1.0BE:....09 S.BSE-OB ·1.03E-06 2.27E-OB 1.SIE-07 2.18E-07 2.37E-07 3.14E-07 3.4BE-07 4.13E-06 2.78E-07 9.62E-OB S.40E-OB 4.-B9E-07 9.66E-OB 1.63E-07 4.42E-OB 1.09E-07 7.7SE-OB 1.3BE-OB 1. 76E-OB 4.69E-OB 2.0IE-07

1

:f:?

r ..

r

r

S-values for the ADULT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (rnGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrena·ls

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall~ Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall uterus

Total B~dy

Lungs

3.IOE-07 7.43E-09 2. 49E-;07 I.03E-07 7.69E-09· 2.3SE-OS 1.63E-07 2.7SE-OS S.67E-07 9.6SE-OS 2.7lE-07 4.7SE-06 1. 22E-07 7.6SE-09 2.40E-07 1.27E-07

. 2~12E-07 4.S6E-OS 2.ISE-07 3.SIE-07 1.16E-07 3.0SE-09 7.7SE-09 I.S7E-07

Muscle

1.41E-07 2.l9E-OS S.38E-OB 1.40E~07 1.6SE-07 1.39E-07 1.33E-07 1.23E-07 :!..17E-07 1.21E-07 9. 62E-OB 1.23E-07 2.7SE-07 1. 73E-07 1. S7E-07 1.11E:"07 2.l9B-07 6.80E-OB 1.3lE-07 1.33E-07 1.13E-07 1.99E-07 1.73E-07 1. 49E-07

Ovaries

SOURCE ORGANS

Pancreas Red Mar. CrtBonSf

3.04E-OS 3.7SE-ll 3.SSE-09 i , S3E-07 1.47E-06 l.l4E-06 S.69E-OS I.07E-06 1.OBE-OS 9.B4E-OS S.40E-OS 7.69E-09 1. 73E-O~ 2.78E-04 6.77E-OS 2.60E-07 2.l3E-07

.3.6SE-OB 4.9SE-OS 3.l7E.-09 3.62E-IO 6.6SE-07 2.00E-06 2.27E-07

1.26E-06 6.60E-IO 7.47E-OB 1.04E-06 6.l0E-OB 1.9SE-07 1.SOE-06 2. 32E-07 4.24E-07 6.0SE-07 4.S9E-O? 2.42E-07 .. 1.S7E-07 6. 77E-:-OS 4.3lE-OS 1.S0E-07

.2.09E-07 3.67E-OB 1.S7E-06 7.l0E-OB 1 •. OlE-OB 1. 93E-OB S.77E-OB 2. 32E-·07

S-values for the .ADULT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (inGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals.

~rain

Br~asts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart W.all

. Kidneys ~ver .

Lungs

. Mus~le OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces S·kin

SpJ,.een

Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterus

Total Body

TrbBonsf

1.3SE-07 1.4lE-07 3.BlE-OB S.44E-OS

.9.02E-OS 7.l6E-OS S.3SE-OS 6.04E-OB 6. 94E-OS S.4SE-OS 6.20E-OS S.49E-OS 9.·03E-OS S.17E-OS S.13E-OS 8.47E-07 3.72E-06 S.94E-OS 6.SSE-OS S.9lE-O·S 8.64E-08 S.39E...,08 G.28E-OS 1. 7SE-07

CrtBonVl

1.3SE;-07 1. 41E-07 3~SlE-08· S.44E-OS S.02E-OS 7.·16E-OS S.3SE-OS 6.04E-OS 6.94E-OS 8.4SE-OS 6.20E-OB 8.49E-OB 9.03E-OS S.17E-OB B.13E...,OS 2.42E-07 7.23E-07 5.94E-08 6.SSE-OS S.91E-OS B.64E-OB

·S.39E-OB 6.2BE-O~ 1.7SE-07

SOURCE ORGANS TrbBonVI Spleen

1.3SE-07 6. 49E-07 1~41E-07 9.11E-I0 3.B1E-OB S.ISE-OB S.44E-OB 2.10E-07 9.02E-QB 6.70E-OB 7.1GE-OB 1.3BE-07 S.3BE-OB B.46E-07 6.04E-OS ·1.36E-07 6.94E-OB . 2.03E-07 B.4SE-OB B.1BE-07 6.20E-OB 1.09E-07 B.49E-OS 2.21E-07 9.03E-OS ~.31E-07 S.17E-OS 4.9SE-OB S.13E-OS I.S7E-06 4.B9E-07 1.03E-07 1.26E-06 1.66E-07 S.94E-OB 4.24E-OB 6.SSE-OS 2.77E-OS S.9IE-OB 4.64E-OB B.64E-OB ~.OSE-OB S.39E-OB 1.S0E-OS 6.2BE-OB 3.70E-OB

·I.7SE-07 2.04E-07

11

2.BOE-07 I.ISE-07 5. BlE-OB I.04E-07 2.S9E-07 2.l7E-07 B.79E-OB 1. B7E~07· 1.l0E-07 2.04E-07. 1. OOE-07 I.32E-07 1.11E-07 2. 63E-07 1.S4E-07 1.94E-06 1.14E-06 S.30E-OB 1.07E':"O? B.9SE-OB 9.14E-OB 1.OSE-07 1.93E-07 1.90E-07

Thymus

5.71E~OB B.17E-09 3.17E-07 3.30E-OB 2.71E-09 7.S3E-09 5.9BE-OB 1.OlE-OB 7.BlE-07 2.2SE-OS· 7.7SE-OB 3.S9E-07 1. 33E-07 3.l7E-09 7.l0E-OB B.73E-08 1.S0E-07 5.4BE-08 4.64E-OB 1.66E-04 2.66E-07 1.49E-09 2.99E-09 1.B4E-O?

1.3SE-07 1. HE-07 3. BlE-OS S.44E-OB 9.02E-OS 7.16E-OB S.38E-OB 6.04E-OB 6.94E-OS B.4BE-OB 6.20E-OB B.49E-OB 9.03E-OS B.17E-OB B.I3E-OB 2.42E-07. 3.21E-06· S.94E-OB G.SSE-OB S.9lE-OB B.64E-OS S.39E-OB 6.2BE-OS 1. 7SE-07

Thyroid

1.I2E-OB 5.6SE-OB 3.90E-OB 4.93E-09 4.42E-IO 1.33E-09 B.44E-09 1.5SE-09 5. 62E-OB 4.37E-09 I.3BE-OB 1.16E-07 1.13E-07 3.62E-IO 1.0lE-OB B.92E-OB 2. 19E-07 1.03E-07 1.OSE-OB 2.66E-07 1.90E-04 2.14E-10 4.S1E-IO 1.67E-07

S-values for the ADULT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

SOURCE ORGANS

Urine Bl Uterus Total Bd

Adrenals 1.09E-OS 3.30E-OS 2. 11,E-07
Brain 1.00E-11 3.22E-11· 1. 55E-07
Breasts 2.21E-09 3.S6E-09 1. 31E-07
Gallbladder Wall 5.79E-OS 1. 79E-07 . 2.23E-07
LLI Wall 7.11E-07 6.45E-07 2.16E-07
Small Intestine 2.79E-07 1.02E-06 2.06E-07
Stomach 2.4SE-OS· 7.96E-OB· 2.01E-07
ULI Wall 2.20E-07 5.57E-07 2. 16B-07
Heart Wall .4. 13E-09 1.l9E-OB 2.04E-07
Kidneys 2.B7E-OS 8.42E-OB 1.93E-07
Liver 1.84E-OS 4.69E-OB 1.96E-07
Lungs 2.7~E-09 7.79E-09 1. 88E-07
Muscle 1. 58E-07 1.73E-07 1. 62E-07
Ovaries 6.8SE-07 2.00E-06 2.20E-07
Pancreas 1.12E-OS 5.77E-08 2.24E-07
Red Marrow 1. 05E-07 1.93E-07 1. 74E-07
Bone surfaces 1. 31E-07 1. 65E-07 3.04E-07
Skin 4.84E-OS 3.84E-08 1.12E-07
Spleen 1. 43E-0·8 3.70E-08 . 1.95E-07
. Thymus· 1. 46E-09 ·2.99E-09 1. 84E-:07
Thyroid ·2.10E-10 4.81E-10 1.60E-07
Urin Bladder Wall 1.65E-05 1. 46E-06 2.18E-07
Uterus 1. 48E-06 4.81E-05 2.17E-07
. Total Body 1.54E-07 ·2.29E-07 1.73E-07
s-values for the 3-MONTHPREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s) T~GET ORGANS

Adrenals Brain

souRCE ORGANS Breasts GallBI

LLI Cont .Sm! ·Int.

Adrenals 2. 19E..;.04 7.17E-10 6.01E-OS 4.06E-07 3.52E-08 1.07E-07
Brain 7.17E-I0 4.88E-06 3.26E-09 4.24E-10 3! 72E-11 1.25E-10
. Breasts 6.01E-OS· 3.26E-Q9 1. 16E-05 4.23E-08 4 •. 19E-09 1.13E-OS
. Gallbladd~r Wall 4·. 65E-07 3.94E-10 4.43E-OS 3. 91E-05 1. llE-07 5.97E-07
'LLI Wall 2.40E-OS 3.00E-11 3.61E-09 9.0.5E-08 1.41E-05 7.53E-07
Small Intestine 1.07E-Q7 1. 25E-10 1.13E-OS ", 6 .14E~07 8.65E-07 5.30E-06
Stomach 3.44E-07 6.76E-I0 7. 941:-0S 4.06E-07 1. 75E-07 3; 13E-07
ULI Wall 1.23E-07 1. 01E-I0 1.51E-OS 9.64E-07 3.86E-07 1. 79E~06
Heart Wall 3.12E-07 2.63E-09 3.33E-07 1.38E-07 1.11E-08 3.29E-08.
K,idneys 9. 59E-.07 3.11E-10 2.46E-OS 4.53E-07 9.09E-08 2. 64E-07
.Jtiver 5.23E-07 1.0SE-09 . 8~85E-OS 1.QOE-06 2.79E-08 1.66E-07
Lungs 3.13E-07 7.82E-09 2.51E-07 9.6~E-08 8.50E-09 2.~9E-08
Muscle 1.41E-07 2.19E-08 .5.3BE-OS 1.40E-07 1.40E-07 1. 23E-07
OVaries 3.04E-OS 3.75E-ll 3. 55E-09 1.70E-07 1..64E-06 ·9.86E-07
Pancreas 1. 26E-06 6.60E-I0 7.47E-OS S.66E-07 7.98E-OB 2.04E-07.
Red Marrow 2.79E-07 1. 36E-07 5.90E-08 1. lIE";' 07 2.61E-01 2.00E-07
Bone Surfaces 3.38E-07 3.~8E-07 9.46E-:-OS 1.42E-07 2.23E-07 1. 76E-07
Skin 4.08E-OS· 4.83E-OS· 8.89E~08 3.65E-08 4.42E:"'08. 3·. 79E-08
Spleen 6.49E-07 9. 11E-I0 5. 15E-OS 1.B7E-07 8.30E-08 1.43E-07
Thymus 5. 71E":'OS 8.17E-09 . 3. 17E-07 3.38E-OB 3.35E-09 6.6BE~09
Thyroid 1.12E-08 5.68E-OS 3.90E-08 4.7BE-09 5.51E-10 1.29E-09
Urin Bladder Wall 9.52E-09 1. 51E-ll 2.06E-09 4.70E-08 6. 92E-07 1. 88E-07
Uterine Wall . 3. 13E-OS 3. 46E-11 3.·86E-09 1. 75E-07 7.13E-07 8. 67E-07
. Fetus 2.95E-OS 3.39E-11 4.91E-09 1.73E-07 6.74E-07 7.74E-07
Total Body 2.20E-Ol 1.54E-07 1. 33E-07 1.65E-07 1. 82E-07 1.85E-07 12

~, I

\

I.

1

I

,

:.1 . I

l

T

l

j"

~

,

,.,

,J

~~

.~

~

...; I

. ~

r

r

r

f:j r

r ..

r· '>' ':r'

r ....

! , .

r:'

l 1

; 1

r r

r '.-~" r .. ~ r.' .

~~ t:

r r

S-values for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall Kidrieys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Total Body

Stomach

3.34E-07 5.96E-10 7.26E-08 4.34E-07 L14E-07 2.89E-07 1.03E-05 3.36E-07 3.18E-07 2.95E-07 2.1BE-07 1. 57E-07 1. 25E-07 8.75E-OB 1.47E-06 B;61E-08 1. 37E-07 4.24E-08 8. 67E-07

. 5.18E-08 7.55E-09 . 2.49E-08 8.03E-08. 7.74E-OB 1.50E-07.

SOURCE ORGANS

ULI Cont Heart Co, Heart Wa Kidneys

1.23E-07 1. 01E-I0 1. 28E-OB 9.49E-07

.3.07E-07 1. 63E-06 3.B3E-07 1.00E-05 4.07E-OB 2.55E-07 2.43E-07 2.97E-08 1. 21E-07 B.11E-07 2. 35E-07 1. 69E-07 1. 59E-07 3 • .75E-08 1. 37E-07 7 .91E-09 . 1.55E-09 1. 62E-07 5. 66E-07 5.33E-07 1. 71E-07

2. 86E-07 3.0BE-09 3.13E-07 L45E-07 6.76E-09 2.97E-OB 2.35E-07 3.23E-.OB 6.57E-06 B~97E-OB 2.9BE-07· 6. 19E-07 1.13E~07 9.01E-09 3.33E-07 i.12E-07 1. 89E"'07 ·4.33E-08 1.5BE-07 9.24E-·07 7.48E-OB 2.40E-09 9.36E-09 7.71E-09 1. 49E-07

3.12E-07 2. 63E-09 3.33E-07 1. 57E-07 B.53E-09 3.29E-:OB 3.55E-07 3.84E-08 1. 58E-05 9.97E:"'08· 3. 14E-07 5.81E-07 1. 17E-07 1.08E:"'08 4.24E-07 1.07E-07 1. 79E-07 4~49E-08 2.03E-07 7.81E-07 5. 62E-08 3.68E-09 1.03E-08 9.72E-09 1.9lE-07

9.59E-07 3.11E-10 2.46E-08 4.57E-07 7.10E-08 2.64E-07 2.B7E-07 2.60E-07

9. 97E-08 1.49E-05 3.48E-07

" 9.72E-OB 1. 21E-07 9.B4E-08 6.05E-07 1.99E-07

.2.0BE-07 4.62E-OB· 8.18E-07 2.25E-08 4.37E-09 2.46E-08 7.7BE-08 7.83E-08 2.01E-07

S-va1ues for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 9~Tc-43, (mGy/HBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

.Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heatt Wall Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

'OVaries Pancreas

Red Mar·row

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterl.ne Wall Fetus

Total Body

Lungs

3.10E-07 7.43E-09

. 2.49E-07 1.0BE-07 7. 69E-09 2.47E-08 1. 63E-07 2.82E-08 5. 67E-07 9.65E-08 2.71E-07 4.74E-06 1. 22E-07 7.65E-09 2.40E-07 1.27E-07 2.12E-07 4.56E-OB 2.18E-07 .3.51E-07 1. 16E-07 .2.47E-09 8.11E-09 7.65E-09 1. 87E-07

. Muscle

1. 41E-07

2. 19E-:-08 5.3BE-08 1.40E-07 1. 51E-:-07 1.23E-07 1.33E-07 1. 23E-07 1. 17E-07 1.21E-07 9. 62E-08' 1.23E-07 2.78E-07 1 .• 50E-07 1. 57E-07. 1.11E-07 2.19E-01 6.80E-08 1.·31E-07 1.33E-07 1. 13E-07 1.51E-01 1.25E-07 1. 14E-07 1.49E-07

SOURCE ORGANS

OVaries

3.04E-08 3.75E-ll 3.55E-09 1.83E-07 1. 47E-06 9.86E-07· 8. 69E-08 8. 82E-07 1.00E-00 9~04E-08 5.40E-OB 1~69E-09 1.50E-07 2.70E-04 6.77E-00 2.60E-07 2.13E-07 3. 65E-08 4.9BE-00 3. 17E;"09 3.62E-I0 5. 42E-01 1. 78E-06 1.56E-06 2.16E-07

J3

Pancreas

1. 26E-06 6.60E-I0 7.47·E-08 1.04E-06 6.10E-OB 2.04E-07 1.50E-06 2.32E-07 4.24E-07 6.05E;"07 4. 89E-01 2. 42E-07 1. 57E-07 6.77E-08 4. 31E-05 1.50E-01 . 2.0·9E-07 3. 67E-00 1.57E-06 7.10E-OB

.1.01E-08 1.81E-08 5.90E-OB 5.40E-08 2.32E-07

Red Mar.

2.80E-01 1.15E-07 5.B1E-OB 1.13E-07 2.59E-07 2.00E-07 8.79E-OB 1.76E-07 1.10E-07 2.04E-07 1.00E-07. i.32E-07 1.11E-07 2.63E-07 1.54E-07 1.94E-06 1. 14E-06

·5.30E-OB 1.07E-07 8. 95E-OB 9.14E-OB

. 1.10E-07 1.43E-07 1.3BE-07 1. 91E-07

Liver

5.23E-07 1 .. 08E-09 8.85E-08 1.03E-06 2.27E-08 1.66E-07 2.18E-07 2.37E-07 3. 14E-07 3.4BE-07 4.13E-06 2.7BE-07 9.62E-08 5.40E-08 4.89E-07 9.66E-08 1. 63E-07 4.42E-OB 1.09E-07 7.75E-08

·1.3BE-08 1.57E-08 .4.94E-08 5.06E-08 2.02E-07

CrtBonSf

1.35E-07 1. 41E-07 3.81E-OB 5.44E-OB 9.02E-08 6.7'7E-OB 5.3BE-OB 6.04E-OB 6.94E-08 8.48£-08 6.20E-OB 8.4.9E-OB 9.03E-OB 8.17E";OB B.13E-OB 2. 42E-07 3.21E-06 5.94E-08 6.55E-08 5. 91E-OB 8.64E-OB 5.39E-OB 5.24E-08 5.16E-08 1. 75E-07

s-values for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99rn-Tc-43, (mGy/MEq-s)
SOURCE ORGANS
TARGET ORGANS TrbBonSf CrtBonVI TrbBonVI Spleen Thymus Thyroid
Adrenals 1.35E-07 1. 35E-07 1.35E-07 6.49E-07 5.71E-08 1.12E-08
Brain 1.41E-07 1. 41E-07 1. 41E-07 9.11E-10 8.17E-09 5. 68E";'08
Breasts 3.81E-08 3.81E-08 3.81E-08 5.15E-08 3.17E-07 3.90E-08
Gallbladder Wall 5.44E-08 5.44E-08 5.44E-08 2.10E-07 2.54E-·08 4.93E-09
LLI Wall 9.02E-08 9.02E-08 9.02E-08 6.70E-08 2.71E-09 4.42E-10
Small Intestine 6.77E-08 6.77E-08 6.77E";'08· 1.43E-07 . 6. 68E..;.09 1.29E-09
. Stomach 5.38E-08 5.38E-08 5.38E-08 8.46E-07 5.98E-'08 8.44E-09
ULI Wall .~ 6.04E-08 6.04E-08 6.04E-08· 1. 36E-07 1.01E-08 1. 55E-09
Heart Wall 6.94E-08 6. 94E-08 6.94E-08 2.03E-07 7.81E-07 - 5.62E-08
Kidneys 8. 48E-'08 8.48E-06 . 8.48E-08 8.18E-07 2.25E-06 4.37E-09
Liver 6.20E-08 6.20E-08 6.20E-08 1.09E-07 - 7.75E-06 1.~8E-06
Lungs 8.49E~08 8.49E-08 8. 49E-0'8 2.21E-07 3.59E-07 1.16E-07
Muscle 9~03E-08 9.03E-08 9.03E-08 1.31E-07 1. 33E-07 1.13E-07
Ovaries 8.17E-08 8. 17E-08 8.17E-08 4.98E-08 3.17E-09 3. 62E..-10
Pancreas 8.13E-08 8.13E-08 8. 13E-08 1.57E-06 ' 7.10E-08 1.01E-08
Red Marrow 8.47E-07 2.42E-07 4. 89E-07 1.03E-07 8.73E-08 8.92E-08
Bone Surfaces 3.72E-06 1.2.3E-07 . 1. 26t-06 1. 66E-07 1.50E-07 2.19E-07
S~n 5.94E-08 5.94E-08 5.94E-08 4.24E-08 . 5.48E~08 1.03E-07
Spleen 6.55E-08 6.55E-08 6. 55E,"",08 2.77E-05 4.64E-08 1.05E-08
Thymus 5.91E-08 . 5.91E-08 5.91E-08 4.64E-08 1.66E-0·4 2.66E-07
Thyroid 8.64E-08 8.64E-08 8.64E-08 1.05E-:-08· 2. 66E-07' 1.90E-04
Urin Bladder Wall 5.39E-08 5.39E-08 5.39E-08 1. 49E-08 ·1.22E-09 .2.14E-IO
U.terine WaH 5.24E...;08. 5.24E-08 5.24E-08 4.24E-08 1.99E-09 5.30E-IO
Fetus 5.16E-08 5.16E-08 5.16E-08 4.40E-'o8 2.24E-09 5.22E-I0
TO.tal Body 1.75E-07 1.75E-07 1. 75E-07 2.04E-07 1.83E-07 1. 66E-07
S-va1ues for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMP.LE for 9~m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)
SOURCE ORGANS
TARGET ORGANS Urine Bl Utero WI Fetus Total Bd'
Acirenals 9.06E-09 3. 13E-08 2. 95E-08 2.09E-07
Brain 1..00E-11 3. 46E-11 3.39E-11 1. 56E-07
Breasts 1. 25E-09 3.86E-09 4. 91E-.o9 1. 31E-07
Gallbladder Wall 4.06E-08 1. 66E-07 1. 63E-07 2.02E-07
LLI Wall 7.64E-07 6. 67E-07 6. 11E-07 1. 93·E-07
Small Intestine 1. 83E-07 8.67E-07 7.'74E-07 1.98E-07
Stomach 2.26E-08 8.1~E-08 8.32E-08. 1.78E-07
~I Wall 1.60E-07 5. 84E-07 5.55E-01- 1.83E-07
art Wall 2. 91E-09 1.·03E-08 9. 72E-09 2.03E-07
Kidneys 2.19E-08· 7.78E-08 7.83E-0.8 1.89E-07
Liver 1.38E-08 4. 94E-'08 5.06E-08 1. 92E-07
Lungs 2.57E-09 8.14E-09 7.69E-.09 1 .. 88E-07
Muscle 1.40E-07 1. 25E-07 1. 14E-07 1.60E-07
Ovaries 5.40E-07 1.78E-06 1.56E-06 1. 94E-07
PC!.,ncreas 1.50E-08 5.90E-08 5.40E-08 2.16E-07
Red Marrow 1.01E-'07 1.43E-07 L38E-07 1.71E-07
Bone Surfaces 1.38E-07 1.38E-07 1.37E-07 3.00E-07
Skin 5.14E-08 4.50E-08 4.15E-08 1.12E-07
Spleen 1.13E-08 4.24E-08 4.40E-08 1.90E-07
Thymus 1.·19E-09 1.99E-09 2.24E-09 1. 85E-07
Thyroid 2.10E-10 5.30E-I0 5.22E-10 1.61E-07
Urin Bladder Wall 1.70E-05 1. 41E-06 1. 21E-06 1.82E-07
Uterine Wall 1. 28E-06 1.06E-Os 2.59E-06 1. 79E-07
Fetus 1. 12E-06 2.59E-06 1. 11E-05 1.23E-07
Total Body 2.00E-07 1.91E-07 1 .. 29E-07 1. 70E-07
14 . 1 1

1

. !

~

j

. t

1;

n

.

.

I

~l

1!

n

1: :.:

..

, l'

i

'.

4

~: '.~

; .0( I r.~

i,~

I;,

11

[15 :j: ~~1i

I I

r l

r

L

, " ". . ~

r

r r

......

: \

r

r r

. .:: ~''''': ~

:;'t~~;J

.. ~ ....

r

r

r

L

r

r

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall __

Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

Adrenals Brain

2.19E-04 7.17E-10 6.01E-08 1.00E-06 2.38E-08 1.42E-07 3.69E-07 5. 72E-08 2.77E-07 9.59E-07 5.27E-07 2. 62E-07 1. 41E-07 2.73E-08 1.26E-06 2.79E-07 3.38E-07 3;9IE_:08 6.49E-07 5.78E-08 1.12E-08 7.26E-09 4.72E-08 5.08E-08 5.24E-08 2. 13E-0_7

7.17E-I0 4.88E-06 3.26E-09 3.94E-10 3.00E-11 1. 38E-I0 6.76E-I0 2.50E-I0 2.63E-09 3. 11E-I0 1.08E-09 7.82E-09 2.19E-08 3.75E-11 6.60E7"10 1. 36E"'07 3.58E-07, 4.83E-08 9. 11E-10 8. 17E-09 5.68E-08 1. 51E-11 1. 39E-I0 1. 08E-10 2.49E-10 1. 49E-07

Breasts

SOURCE ORGANS

Gall Bl

6.01E-08 3.26E-09 1. 16E-05 4.87E-08 1. 14E-08 1.75E-08 9.99E-08 5.06E-08 3.68E-07 2.46E-08 1.05E-07 2.59E-07 5.43E-08 4.33E-09 7.47E-08 5.90E-08 9.46E-08 9.20E-08 5. 15E":08 2.80E-07 3.90E-08, 2.81E-09 2.03E-08 1. 83E-08 ,4.02E-08 1. 28E-07

LLI Cont Sm! Int.'

8.66E-07 2.38E-08 1.42E-07 4.24E-10 3.72E-11 1.38E-10 4.61E-08 1.14E-08 1.75E-08 3.91E-05 6. 35E-08 6.16E-07 5.51E-08 1.37E-05 2.95E-07 6.44E-07 3.52E-07 5.40E-06 3.75E-07 1.66E-07 3.84E-07 2.51E-07 2.64E-07 4.97E-07 1. 56E-07 1. 09E-08 3.88E-08 8.94E-07. 5.12E-08- 3.45E-07 9.10E-07 2.61E-08 2.04E-07 1.21E-07 -7.56E-09, 2.80E-08 1.49E-07 1~31E-07 1.25E-07 1.06E-07 4.21E-07 7.05E-07 1.38E-06 6.77E-082.79E-07 1. 64E-07 1.00E-07 1.91E-07 1.98E-07 1.21E-07 1.78E-07 3.11E-08 3.83E-08 3.10E-08 2.35E-07 6. 35E-08 1.95E-07 3.55E-08 3.02E-09 8.87E-09 6.80E-09 3.98E-I0 1.54E-09 2.79E-08 3.~8E-07 1.01E-07 l,.87E-07 5. 06E-07 6.11E-07 2.03E~07 4.93E-07 6.03E-07 2. 01E- 07 3. 33E,-07 3.4 8E-07 1.75E-07 1.57E-07 1.82E-07

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43,' (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts' Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall,

Small Intestine Stomach ULI;wall

Heart Wall ~idneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wali Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

stomach

3. 65E-07 5.96E-I0 9.36E-08 3. 85E-07 1.20E-07 3. 53E-07 1.03E-05 1. 86E-07 3.18E-07 2.87E-07 2.18E-07 1. 57E-07

, 1.29E-07 6-. 41E-08 1.60E-06 8. 61E-08 1.37E":'07 3. 94E-08 9.06E-07 5.18E-08 8.89E-09 1.99E-08 1.42E-07 1.47E-07 2.03E-07 1.53E-07

ULI Cont

5.91E-08 2.15E-I0 5.01E-08 2.41E-07 2.14E-07 4.77E-07 1.83E-07 9.36E-06 3.92E-08 8.54E-08 1.96E-07 -2.34E-08

1.03E-07 ' 2.17E-07 1.23E-07 5.50E-08 6.84E-08 3.66E-00 5.49E-08 1. 45E-00 2.09E-09 8. 66E-08 5.35E-07 4.68E-07 0.14E-07 1.33E-07

SOURCE ORGANS Heart Co Heart Wa

2.52E-07 3.00E-09 3.28E-07 1. 56E-07 8.81E-09 3.21E-08 2.35E-07 3.29E-08 6. 57E-06 7.40E-08 2.98E-07 6. 19E-07 1.llE-07 6.89E-09 2.75E-07 1.12E-07 1.89E-07 4.53E-08 1.38E-07' 9.24E-07 7.51E-00 2.30E-09 1.73E-08 1. 68F;-08 2.66E-08 r~44E-07

15

2.77E-07 2.63E-09 3.60E-07 1. 73E-07 1. 09E-00

3.88E-08 3. 55E-07 3.94E-00 1.58E-05 8.46E-08 3.14E-07 5.81E-07 1.16E-07 8.20E-09 3.52E-07 1.07E-07 1. 79E-07 4.63E-00 1. 80E-07 7.81E-07

'6.24E-00 2.83E-09 2.08E-00 2.03E-08 3.34E-OB 1.B4E-07

Kidneys

9. 59E:-07 3.11E-I0 2.46E-00 8.88E-07 4.29E-08 3.45E-07 2.85E-07 8.70E-08 8.46E-08 1. 49E-05 3.18E-07 8.04E:-00 1.19E-07 8.10E-08

_6~05E-07 1.99E-07 2.08E-07 4.35E-08 8.18E-07 1.85E-:08 4.37E-09 1:64E-08 9.39E-08 1. 03E-07 7.10E-OB 1.93E-07

Liver

5.27E-07 1.0BE-09 1.05E-07 9.32E-07 2.18E-08 ' 2.04E-07 2.1BE-07 1.94E-07 3. 14E-07 3.18E-07 4'.13£-06 2.7BE-07 9.B5E-08 4.41E-00 4.'70E-07 9.66E-OB 1.63E-07 4.25E-08 1.08E-07 7.75E-08 1.50E-08 1.27E-08 B~31E-OB 8.58E-08 1.14E-07 1.97E-07

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99rn-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

.::;,.._

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall Kidneys

Liver

Lungs.

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone surfaces skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta·

Total Body.

Lungs

2.54E-07 7.43E-09 2.49E-07 1.27E-07 6.51E-09 2.79E-08 1. 63E-07 2.31E-08 5. 67E-07

. 7. S2E-08 2.71E-07 4.77E-06 1. 17E-07 6 e. 15E-P9 2.04E;-07 1. 27E-07 2~12E-07 5.03E-08 1. 75E-07 3.51E-07 1. 24E-07 1.S4E-09 1.28E-08 1.30E-08 1. 88E-PS 1. 77E-07

Muscle

1. 41E-07

2. 19E-08 5.43E-08 1.S5E-07 1. 44E-07 1.2SE-07 1. 38E-07 1.07E-07 1.16E-07 1.19E-07 9.8SE-08 1.19E-07 2.73E-07 1.4SE-07 1.S8E-07 1.05E-07 2.10E-07 6.6SE-:08 1.31E-07 1.25E~07 1.13E-07 1.20E-07 1.1SE..-07 1.02E-07 S.65E-08 1. 61E-07

Ovaries

SOURCE ORGANS

Pancreas Red Mar. CrtBonSf

2.73E-08 3.75E-11 4.33E-09 1.07E-07 4.11E-07 7.05E-07 6.51E-08 2.24E-07 S.20E':"09 B.10E-OS 4.41E-OB 6.32E-09 1.45E-07 2.7SE-04 5.29E-OB 3.73E-07 2.71E-07 3·.27E-08 4.51E-OS 1 .. 81E-09 3.62E-10 2.1SE-07 6.33E-07 5.35E-07 1.24E-07· 2.01E-07

1. 26E-06 6.60E-10 7.47E-OB 1.55E-06 S.33E-OS 2.79E-07 1.66E-06 1. 26E-07 3.52E-07 6.05E;-()7 4.70E-07 2. o BE .... 07 1.5BE-07 5.29E-OS 4.31E-05 1.50E-07 2.09E-07 3.37E-OS 1.57E-06 6.0BE-OS 1. OlE-OS 1.4SE-OS 1.01E-07· 1.07E-07 1.25E-07 2.27E-07

2.80E-07 1. 15E-07 5.B1E-OB 1. 75E-07 1.19E-07

.1.96E-07 8.79E-OS 5.BOE-OS 1.10E-07 2.04E-07 1.00E-07 1.32E-07 1. 05E-07 3.S1E-07 1. 54E-07

. 1.94E-06 1.14E-06 5.3SE-OS 1.07E-07 B.95E-OS 9. 14E-OB 5~20E-OS 1.20E-07 1. llE-07 3.S6E-OS 1. BOE-07

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s) SOURCE ORGANS

TrbBonSf crtBonVI· TrbBonVI Spleen

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

·Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

~mall Intestitle Stomach

ULl Wall

Heart Wall Kidneys

Liver

.Lungs

Muscle

Ovaries Paricreas

Red .Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall

Fetus

Placenta Total Body

1.32E-07 1.41E-07 3. SlE·-OS 7.S7E-OB 5. 61E-08 6 .• SSE-OS 5.3SE-OB 2.6SE-OS 6.94E-08 S.4SE-OS

. 6.50E-OB S.95E-OS S.5SE-OB 1.05E-07 S.13E-OB B.47E-07 3.72E-06 6.17E-OS 6.55E-OS 5.S3E-OS B.64E-OB 3.06E-OS 4.35E-OB 4.03E-OS 1.73E-OS 1.65E-07

1.32E-07 1.41E-07 3.SlE-OS 7.S7E-OB 5.61E-OS 6.BSE-OS 5.3SE-OS 2. 65E-OB 6.94E-OS 8.4SE-OB 6.S0E-08 S.95E-OS B.5SE-OB 1.05E-07 S.13E-OS 2.42E-07 7.23E-07 6.17~-OS 6.SSE-OS

5.S3E-OS B.64E-OB 3.06E-OS 4.35E-OS 4.03E-OS

. 1. 73E-OS 1. 65E-01

1.32E-07 1. 41E-07 3.S1E-OS 7.B7E-OS 5.61E-OS 6.SSE-OS 5.3SE-OS 2.65E-OB 6.94E-OB B.4SE-OS 6.50E-OS· S.95E-OS S.5SE-OS 1.05E-07 B.13E-OB 4.89E-07 1.26E-06

·6.17E-OS 6.55E-OS 5~B3E-OS S.64E-OB 3.06E-OS 4.3SE-OS 4.03E-OS 1. 73E-OS 1.6SE-07

16

6.49E-07 9.11E-10 5.15E-OS 2.49E-07 4.99E-OB 1. 95E-07 9.13E-07 5.63E-OS 1. SOE-07 B.1SE-07 1.0SE-07 1.71E-07

·1.31E-07 . 4.51E-OB 1. 57E-06 1.03E-07 1. 66E-07 4.07E-08 2.77E-OS 3.90E-08 1. OSE-;-08 1. 03E-08 5.9SE-08 6.44E-08 6. 17E-08 1.9SE-07

Thymus

5.7SE-OS 8. 17E-09 2.80E-07· 3.72E-OB 3.02E-09 8¥87E-09 5.9SE-OS 1.45E-OS 7.S1E-07 1. 85E-OS 7.75E-OS 3.59E-07 1.25E-07 1. SlE-09 6.0SE-OB S.73E-OS 1.50E-07 6.27E-OS 3.90E-OS 1. 66E-04 2.52E-07 S.56E-10 6.S9E-09 5.S3E-09 1.21E-OS 1.72E-07

1.32E-07 1.41E-07 3.81E-OS 7.S7E-08 5.61E-OS 6.88E-08 5.38E-08 2.6SE-08 6. 94E..;08 S.4BE-OS 6.50E-OS 8.9SE-OS 8.5BE-08 1.0SE-07 S.13E-OB 2.42E-07 3.21E-06 6.17E-08 6.5SE-OS· 5.B3E-OS S.64E-OB 3.06E-OB 4.3SE-OS 4.03E-08 1. 73E-OS 1. 65E-07

I ~

! I

·l.

,

I

... ~

Thyroid

1.12E-OS 5.68E-08 3.90E-08 7.37E-09 3.70E-10 1.54E-09 8.9SE-09 2.03E-09 6.24E-OB 4.37E-09 1.50E-OB 1.28E-07 1.13E-07 3.62E-10 1.01E-08 8.92E-OB 2.19E-07 1.03E-07 1.05E-OS 2.52E-07

.1.90E-04 1. 69E-10 1.10E-09 8.9.2E-10 2.09E-09 1.62E-07

j ..

. i: \~

..,'

1

'~~ •. '

i

i
l
r .'
.... ":- r: .

. .

.'

r:-

r····

~. !

~ ~

r ~~ ..

" !

.1. .. ;

r .. ~;

L

r

r

.. ~ .. :

r"

r r r

r

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99rn-Tc-43, (rnGy/Maq-S)

SOURCE ORGANS

TARGET ORGANS

Urine BI Utero WI Fetus

Placenta Total Bd

Adrenals 7.30E-09 4.72E-OB 4.64E-OB S.24E-OB 2.03E-07
Brain 1.OOE-ll 1. 39E-IO 1. OBE-IO 2.49E-IO 1.4·lE-07
Breasts 2.93E-09 2.03E-OB 1.60E-OB 4.02E-OS 1. 26E-07
Gallbladder Wall 2.76E-OS 1. 79E-07 1.77E-07 1. 96E-07 2.14E-07
LLI Wall 3.77E-07 4.6SE-07 4.09E-07 2.66E-07 1. 7'9E-07
Small Intestine 1. OIE-07 6.1lE-07 S.69E-07 3.4BE-07 1.93E-07
Stomach 2.07E-OS 1. 49E-07 1.44E-07 2.09E-07 1.S7E-:07
ULI Wall B.6BE-OB S.S2E-07 4.32E-p7 B.22E-07 l,5SE-07
Heart Wall·- 2.99E-09 2.08E-OB 1. B6E-08 3.34E-OB 1.9SE-07·
Kidneys 1. 6BE-OS 9.39E-OB 9.25E-08 7.l0E-OS 1. BSE-07 .
Liver 1.26E-08 B.3IE-OB 7.99E-OS 1.HE-07' 1.93E-07
Lungs 2.02E-09 1. 29E-OS l.l,BE-OB 1. B6E-OB 1. 77E-07
Muscle l.lSE-07 1.15E-07 9.6IE-OB 8.65E-OB 1.S2E-07
OVaries 2.l4E-07 6.33E-07 4.99E-07 1.24E-07 1.9SE-07
Pancreas 1.42E-OB 1.OlE-07 1.OlE-07 1.2SE-07 2.l5E-:-07
Red Marrow S.12E·-08 . 1.20E-O? 9.77E-OB 3. 66E-OB 1.6BE-07
Bone Surfaces ·7.84E-OB 1.14E-07 1.04E-07 4.B7E-OB 2.92E-07
Skin S.12E-OB· 3.37E-OB 2.76E-OB 3.20E-OB 1.09E-07
Spleen 9.87E-09. S.9SE-'OB. 5. BlE-OB' 6.17E-OB 1.90E-07
Thymus B.S6E-lO 6.89E-09 S.B3E-:-09 1. 2IE-OS 1.7SE-07
Thyroid 1. 62E-lO l.l0E-09 B.19E-lO 2.09E-09 l.S6E-07
Urin Bladder Wall 1.93E-OS 4.7SE-07 4.15E-07 1.34E-07 1. 49E-:-07
Uteri·ne Wall 4. 64E"'07 4.S4E-06 8.09E-07 1.OSE-06 1.6SE-07
Fetus 4.49E-07 B.S2E-07 3.99E-06 9. 66E-07 1.OSE-07
Placenta 1.34E-07 I.OSE-06 9.09E-07 1.23E-OS 1. 33E-07
Total Body 2.6BE-07 1.70E-07 1.04E-07 1.37E-07 1.64E-07
S-values for . the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)
SOURCE ORGANS
TARGET ORGANS Adrena1s Brain Breasts Gall BI . LLI Cont Sm! Int. Adrenals 2.l9E-04 7.17E-IO 6.0lE-OB B.66E-07 1.60E-OB 5. 62E-07
Brain 7.l7E-I0 4.B8E-06 3.26E-09 4.24E-IO 3.72E-ll 4.31E-IO
Breasts 6.01E-08 3.26E-09 1.16E-05 4.61E-OB· 1. 13E-OB ·5.86E-OB
Gallbladder Wall 1.00E-06 3.94E-IO 4.B7E-OB 3. 91E-OS 3.BBE-OB 2.43E-06:
LLI. Wall,' 1.60E-OB 3.00E-ll B'. 57E-09 3.39E-OB 1.3SE-OS 6.16E-OB.
Small Intestine S.62E-07 4.3lE-lO 5.B6E-OB 2.2BE-06 7 ~ 45E-OB 5.30E-06
'Stomach 3.69E-07 6.76E-IO 9.99E-OB 3.75E-07 9.S6E-OB 1.2SE-06 .
ULL.Wall '. 3. 64E-OB 6.3BE-IO S.67E-OB 1.27E-07 S.37E.-OB 1.5.0E-07
A1" •
~art Wall 2.77E-07 2.63E-09 3.6BE-07 l.S7E-07 7.39E-09 1.B4E-07
Kidneys 9.59E-07 3.11E-IO 2.46E-OB B.94E-07 3.09E-OB 6.l4E-07
Liver S.27E-07 1.OBE-09 1.05E-07 9.l0E-07 1.39E-OB . 6. 5 BE""; 07
Lungs 2 • 62E-07 - 7. B2E-09 2.59E·-07 1. 22E-07 S.9SE-09 1.09E-07
Muscle 1.33E-07 . 2 •. 19E-OB S.5BE-OB 9.9IE-OB 1.14E-07 1.04E-07
OVaries 3.24E-OB 3.75E-ll. 4.40E-09 1.13E-07 3. BBE-Cn l.l9B-07
Pancreas 1.26E-06 6.60E-10 7~47E-OI;I 1.3BE-06 4.53E-OB I.B7E-06
Red Marrow 2.79E-07 1.36E-07 5.90E-OB 1.64E-07 1.02E-OJ 1.33E-07.
Bone suifaces 3.3BE .. 07 3.5.BE-07 9. 46E-OB 1.9BE-07 l.lBE-07 1. 69E-07
Skin \' 3.B9E-OB 4.B3E-OB 9.3BE-OB 2.9BE-OB 4.30E-OB 3. 14E-OB
Spleen 6.49E-07 9.11E-I0 5.1SE-OB 2.35E-07 4.B4E-08 6.31E-07·
Thymus 5.7BE-OB B.17E-09 2~BOE-07 3.6lE-OS 2.49E-09 3.61E-OB
Thyroid 1 •. 12E-OB S.6BE-OB 3.90E-OB 6.BOE-09 3.9BE-IO 5.97E-09
Urin Bladder Wall 7.26E-09 1.51E-ll 2.57E-09 3.0BE-OB 2.61E-07 3.29E-OB
Uterine Wall 6.59E-OB 2.32E-IO 2.62E-OB 2.97E-07 2.99E-07 ·3.55E-07
Fetus 5.64E-OB . 1. 30E-I0 2.24E-OB 2.l9E-07 2.6SE-07 2.49E-07
Placenta 4.35E-08 4.79E-I0 4.97E-OB 1.43E-07 1.0lE-07 2.03E-07
Total Body 2.l2E-07 1.SIE-07 'i.30E-07 1.60E-07 1.36E-07 l.B1E-07
17 S-values for the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLIWal1

Small Iptestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart ~_all Kid_neys

L1ver

Lungs

Muscle

Ovaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

SOURCE ORGANS

Stomach ULI Cont Heart Co Heart Wa Kidneys

3.65E-07 5.96E-10 9.36E-08 3.85E-07 7.71E-08 1.16E-06 1.03E-05 1.24E-07 3.18E-07 2.87E-07 2.18E-07 1. 57E-07 1.0I?E-07 6. 61E-08 1. 60E-06 8.61E-08 1.37E-07 3.59E-08 9 .. 06E-07 5.HiE-08 8.89E-09 2.10E-08 2.48E-07 1~76E-07 1. 76E-07 1. 47E-07

3.87E-08 6.55E-10 6.18E-08 1.30E-07 4.74E-08 1. 61E-07 1. 30E-07 9.00E-06 4.27E-08 5. 22E-08 1. 26E':"07 2.37E-08 8.16E-08 1. 74E-07 8.05E-08 4.72E-08 6.06E-08 4.06E-08 3.83E:-08 2.48E-08 3.30E-09 6.57E-08 3. 64E-07 2.70E-07 6.51E-01 1.08E-07.

2.52E-07 3.08E-09 3.28E-07 1.56E-07 5. 86E-0"9 1. 47E-07 2.35E-07 3.32E-08 6.57E-06 7.40E-08 2.98E-07 6.19E-07 1.12E-07 7.33E-09 2.75E-07 1.12E-07 1.89E-07 4~58E-08 1. 38E-07 9.~4E-07 7.51E-08 2.90E-09 2. 68E-08 2.21E-08 3.·41E-08 1.4.6E-07

2.77E-07 2.63E-09 3.6BE-07 1. 73E-07 7.40E':"09 1. 84E-07 3.55E-07 3.96E-08 1.58E-05 8.46E-.o8 3.14E~.o7 5.81E-_.o7 1.16E-.o7 9.12E-.o9 3.52E-.o7 1.07E-07 1. 79E-07 4.74E-08 1.BOE-07 7.8.1E-07 6.24E-08 2.93E-09 3.28E-08 2.68E-08 4.07E-08 1.86E-.o7

9.59E-07 3.11E-10 2.46E-OB 8.8BE-07 3.09E-08 6.14E-07 2.85E-07 4.82E-08 8.46E-08 1. 49E_-05 3.18E-07 8.04E-08 1.10E-07 8.79E-08 6.05E-07 1.99E-07

. 2 • .oBE':"07 4.32E-08 8.1BE-07 1.85E-08 4.37E-09 1.80E-OS 1.08E-07 1.02£-07 4.79E-OS 1.90E-.o7

S-values for the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrena1.s

Brain

Breasts Gallbladqer Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall Kidneys

'Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

.Red Marrow' . Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

Lungs

Muscle

SOURCE ORGANS

ovaries

1

Liver

5.27E-07 1. 08E-09 1. 05E-07 9.32E-07 1. 39E-D8 6.58E-07 2.1SE-07 .1. 15E"':07 3.14E-07 3.18E-07 4.l3E-06 2.78E-07 S.75E-08 4.66E-08 4.70E-07 9.66E-08 1. 63E;_07 4.D9E-D8 1. DSE-07 7.7SE-D8 1.5DE-08 L37E-Oa 1.33E-D7 1.03E-07 1.D7E-07. 1.96E-07

Pancreas Red Mar. CrtBonSf

2.54E-07 1.33E-07 7.43E-09 2.19E-DS 2.49E-D7 5.5BE-DS 1.2BE-D7 1.02E-07 5.62E-D9 1.32E-07 1.D6E-07 1.04E-07 1.63E-D7 1.13E-07 2.13E-08 8.26E-08 5. 67E-D7 1.16E-07 7.82E-08 1.10E-07 2.71E~07 8.15E-D8 4.11E-06 1.2DE-07

. 1.18E-07 2.72E-07 6. 62E-09 1.52~-D7 ~.D4E-D7 1.21E-07. 1.27E-07 1.07E-07 2.12E-01 .2.12E-01 5. 11E-08 6.16E-08 1.75E-071.21E-01 3.51E-07 1.2SE-01 1.24E-07 1.13E-07 2.00E-09 1.18E-07 1~B9E-08 9.26E-08 1.63E-OS S.4BE-OB 2.05E-OB 5.4BE-OB 1.7BE-07 1.58E-0~~

3.24E-DB 1.26E-06 3.75E-11 6.60E;_10 4.4DE-09 1.41E~OB 1.12E-D7 1.55E-D6 3.94E-01 3.59E-DB 1.19E-D1 1.B1E-06 6.57E-OB 1.66E-06 1.56E-01 7.54E-OB 9. 12E-09' . 3.52E-01 ,.79E-08 6.05E-01 4.66E-OS 4.70E-01 6.80E-09 2.0BE-01 1.S2E-01 1.21E~01 2.78E-04 5.63E-OB 5.63E-08 4.31E-05 2.99E-D1 1.S0E-01 2.,34E-07· 2. 09E-01 3.09E-OB 3.24E-08 4.78E-OB 1.51E-06 2 • .19E-09 6.08E-OB

.3.62E;"10 1.0lE-OB 2.6BE-07 1.66E-OB 5.24E-07 1.56E-07 5.69E-07 1.25E-07 6.80E-08 1.0BE-07 1.95E-07 2.18E-07

18

2.8DE-01 1.32E-07 1.15E-07: 1.41E-07 5.81E-08 3.S1E-OB 1.14E-01 1.S7E-OB 1.21E-07 . 5.·46E-08 1.37E-01 6.31E-08 S.79E-OS . 5.39E-OS 4.43E-OS 2.12E~08 1.10E-07 6.94E-08 2.04E-07. S.4S~-OB 1.00E-07 6.50E-OB 1.32E-07 8. 95E-OB 1.06E-D7 8.73E-08 3.08E-07 9.09E-08 1.54E-07 8.13E-08 1.94E-D6 2.42E-D7 1.14E-D6 3.21E-06 5.38E-08 6.21E-D8 1.D7E-07 6.55E-D8 B.95E-DB 5.B3E-DB 9.14E-08 8.64E-08 5.3BE-08 3.D6E-08 9.0DE-OB 3.S1E-08 9.SSE-08 3.76E-08 2.62E-.o8 1.32E-.o8 1.S0E-07 1.66E-07

r'"

!

J

r

.' .

r L

r ::: r~

r'

r

.;

r:

r. r.

r

S-values for the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLIWal1

Small Intest1ne Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall.. Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

Ovaries Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

ThYinus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

SOURCE ORGANS TrbBonsfCrtBonVl TrbBonvl Spleen

1.32E-07 1.41E-07 3.81.E-08 7.87E-08 5.46E-08 6.31E-08 5.38E-08

. 2.12E-08 6.94E-08 8.48E-08 6.50E-08 8.95E-08 B.73E-08 9.09E-08 8.13E-08 8.47E-07 3. 72E-06 6.21E-08 6.55E-08 5. 83E-'08 8.64E-08 3.06E~0-8 3.51E-08 3.76E-08 1.32E-08· 1.66E-07

1.32E-07 1. 41E-07 3.81E-08 7.87E-08 5.46E-08 6.31E-08 5.38E-08 2.12E-08 6.94E-08 8.48E-08 6.50E-08 8.95E-08 8.73E-08 9.09E-08 8.13E-08 2.42E-07 7.23E-01 6.21E-08 6.55E-08 5.83E-08 8.64E-08 3.06E-08 3'.51E-08 3.76E-08 1. 32E-08. 1. 66E-07

1.32E-07 1. 41E-01 3.81E-08

·7.87E-08 5.46E-08 6.31E-08 5.38E-08 2. 12E-08 6.94E-08 8.48E-08 6.50E-08 8.95E-08 8.73E-08 9.09E-08 8. 13E-08 4.89E-07

. 1.26E-06 . 6.2;1.E-08 6.55E-08 5. 83E;-08 8.64E-08 3.06E-08 3.51E-08 3.76E-08 1.32E-08 1. 66E-07

6.49E-07 9~ 11E-10 5.15E-08 2.49E-07 4.00E-08 6. 31E-07 9.13E-07 3.60E-08 1.80E-07 8.18E-07 1.08E-01 1.77E-07_ 1. 21E-07 4.78E-08 1. 57E-06 1.03E-07

.1.66E-07 4.01E-08 2.77E-05 3.90E-08 ·1.05E-08 1. 18E-08 8.13E-08 6.97E-08 5.00E-08 1. 95E-07

Thymus

5.78E-08 8.17E-09 2.80E-07 3.86E-08 2.04E-09 3.61E-08 5.98E-08 2.25E-08 7.81E-07 1.85E-08 7.75E-08 3.59E-07 1.28E-07 2.19E-09 6.08E-08 8.73E-08 1. 50E-07 6.43E-08 3.90E-08 1.66E-04 2.52E-07 9.51E-10

·1.02E";'08 7 .. 87E-09 1. 85E-08 1. 74E-07

S-va1ues for the 9-HONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 99m-Tc-43, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Br~asts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine. Stomach

ULJ .Wall

Ht'fart Wall Kidneys

.Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries

. Pancreas

Red Harrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Sp'leen

Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall

Fetus

Placenta Total Body

SOURCE ORGANS

Urine Bl Utero WI Fetus Placenta Total Bd

7.30E-09 1".OOE-11 2.58E-09 2.99E-08 3'. 17E,-07 3.36E-08 2.01E-08 6.22E-08 3.36E-09 1. 76E-08 1.40E-08 2.18E-09 1.14E-07 2.68E-07 1.63E-08 5·.42E-08 8.03E-08 5.33E-08 ·1.13E-08

8. 36E-·10 1.62E-10 4.22E-05 3.89E-07 4.23E-07 7.13E-08 6.29E-07

6.59E-08 2.32E-10 2.62E-08 2.89E-07 2.75E-07 3.55E-07 ·2.36E-07

3.98E-07 3.28E-08 1.08E-07 1.33E-07 1. 93E-08 9.26E-08 5.24E-07 1.56E-07 9.00E-08 9.31E-08 3 •• 8E-08 8.13E-08 1.02.E-08 1.59E-09 3.90E-07 3.32E-06 5.12E-07 5.70E-07 1.47E-07

5. 14E-08 4.35E-08 1.30E-10 4.79E-10 1.96E-08 4.97E-08 1 ~ 94E-07 1.39E-07· 2.27E-07 8.13E-08 2.28E-072~03E-07

1. 55E-07 1. 70E-'07

2. 58E-07 '.03E-07 2.46E-08 4.07E-08 &.75t-08 4.79E-08 9.45E-08 1.07E-07 1.51E-08 2.12E-08 7.52E-08 5.48E-08 4~99E-07 6.80E-08 1_17E-07 1.08E-07 8.36E~OB . 2.49E-08 9.18E-08· 3.70E-08 2.-70E-08 3.01E-08 6. 37E-08 5.00E-08 7.87E-09 1.85E-08 1.13E-09 2.85E-09 3.85E-07 7.17E-08 4.67E-07 5.70E-07 2.50E-06 7.38E-07 6.95E-07 9.96E-06 ~.01E-08 1.04E,-07

19

2.02E-07 1.42E-07 1. 26E-07 1. 91E-07 1.63E-07 1.93E-07 1. 78E-07 1.30E-07 . 1.97E-07 1. 80E-07 1. 92E-07 1. 78E-07

.1.49£-07 1. 88E-07 2.08E-07 1. 68E-O,7 2.94E-07 1.08E-07 1.8BE-07 1. 74E-07 1.55E-07 1. 44E-07 1.42E-07 8.40E-08 1.03E-07 1. 59E-07

Thyroid

1.12E-08 5.68E-08 3.90E-08 7.37£-09 3.70E-10 5.97E-09 8.95E-09 3.54E-09 6.24E-OB 4.37E-09 1.50E-08 1.28E-07 1. 13E-07 3.62E-IO 1.0IE-08 8.92E-OB 2.19E-07 1.03E-07 1.05E-08 2. 52E.-07 1.90E-04 1. 69E-10 1.59E-09 1.23E-09 2.B5E~09 1.60E-07

S-values for the ADULT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall ._

Heart Wall Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

. Thymus .

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterus

Total Body

Adrenals

2.27E-03 4.44E-09 1.97E-07 1.13E-06

.8.72E-08 3.03E-07

.9.08E-07 3.47E-07 8.3SE-07 2.71E-06 1. 44E-06 8.S0E-07 4.12E-07 1. 21E-07 3.36E-06 8.36E-07 6.07E-07 1. 39E-07 1. 74E-06 1. 16E-07 4.S1E-08 S.21E-08 1.11E-07 1.01E-06

Brain

4.44E-09 3.32E-OS 1. 76E-08 2.98E-09 4.1SE-10 9.31E-10 4.49E-09 1.08E-09 1.37E-08 2.62E-09 6.99E-09 3.40E-08 7.07E-08. 4.42E-10 4.S3E-·09. 3.84E-07 6.59E~07 1.~4E-07 . 6.33E-09 3.81E-08 2.08E-07

. 2.21E-10. 4.61E-10 8.2BE-07

SOURCE ORGANS Breasts Gall Bl

1.97E-07 1. 76E-08 9.77E-OS 1.4SE-07 1.89E'-OB 4.41E-08 2.54E-07 5. '70E-OB 1.02E-06 9.02E-08 2.7SE-07 7.S1E-07

1. 72E-07

2. 11E-OB 2. 34E .... 07 1.94E-07 1. 8Bt-07 2.92E-07 . 1.67E-:-07 9.51E-07 1.39E-07 1.47E-08 2.11E-OB 7.99E-07

1.12E-06 2.67E-09 1. 38E-07 3.42E-04 2.31E-07 1. 47E-06 . 1.07E-06 2.S3E-06 4.08E-07 1. 19E-06' 2.73E-06. 2. 74E-07 3.97£-07 4. 61E-07 2.24E-06 3.33E-07

.2.38E-07 1.21E-07 5~03E-07

1. 33E-07.

2. 51E-08 Z.00E-07 3.97E-07 4. 81E-.07

S-va1ues for' the ~ULT FEMALE for 131-1-S3, (mGy/MBq-s) SOURCE ORGANS

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LL1 Wall

Small 1nte~tine Stomach

UL1 Wall

Heart Wall ~dneys

Live.I:

Lungs

Muscle OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterus

Total Body

Stomach

8.96E-07 3. 92E-09 2.40E-07 1.1).E-06 3.2SE-07 7.18E-07 '7.9SE-OS 9.1SE-07 B.SSE-07 8.02E-07 ~.89E-07 4.2BE-07 3. 57E-07 2.34E-07 3.97E-06 2. 61E-07 2.38t-07 1.43E-07 2.22E-06 1.68E-07 3.21E-08 9.44E-08 2.31E-07 S.3BE-07

ULI cont

Heart Co Heart Wa

LL.I Cont

1.23E-07 4.93E-10 2.01E-08 2.70E-07 1.26E-04 2.39E-06 4.S8E-07 1.08E-06 4.41E-OB. 2.61E-07 9.45E-08 3.07E-08 4.27E-07 4.S3E-06

·2.10E-07 7.4SE-07 3. SOE-07 1. 38E-07 2.12E-07 1. 76E-OS 4~37E-09 1. 49E-06 1.80E-06 7.51E-07

Kidneys

3.47E-07 1.08E-09. S.02E-OB 2.S7E-06 8.22E-07. 4.16E-06 1.0SE-06 8.34E-OS 1~29E-07 6. 91E-07 6.76E-07 9. 66E-08 3.7SE-07 2.S7E-06 5.96E-07 4.94E-07 2 •. 68E-07 .1.2SE-07 3.68E-07 3.47E-08 1.01E-08 S.76E~07 1;33E-06 6.77E-07

7.95E-07 8.35E-07 1.S6E~OS 1.37E-08 9 •. 23E-07 1.02E-06 3.93E-07 4.1SE-07. 3.26E-08 3.9SE-08 9.09E-OB 9~8SE-OS 6. 35E-07 9~65E-07 1.11E-07 1.23E-07 4.67E-pS 1.41E-04 2.68E-07 2; 88E:"'07

. 7. 95E-07 8.S4E-07 1.63E-06 1.S5E-06 3.18E-07 3.3SE-07 3.9SE-OS 4.83E-OS 8.8SE-07 1.12E-06 3.3SE-07 ~.21E-07 3.20E-07 3.07E-07 1.44E-07 1.S0E-07 •• 23E-07 S.SOE-07

. 2.S4E-06 2.16E-06 1.99E-07 1. 69E-07 2.42E-08 ·2.4SE-08 4.22E-OB 4.49E-08 S.22E-07 9.3SE-07

2.71E-06 2.62E-09 9.02E-08 1.1SE-06· 2.04E-07 7.66E-07 7.SSE-07 7.03E-07 2.S8E-07 1. 27E-04 9. 62E-07 2.81E-07 3.S5E-07 2.92E-07 1. 63E-06 6.00E-07 3.72E-07 1.S6E-07 2.27E-06 S.06E-08 1.S3E-08 i.12E-07 2.34E-07 9.70E-07

S-values for the ADULT FEMALE for 131-I~53, (mGy/MBq-s)

20

Sml Int.

3.03E-07 9.31E-I0 4.41E-08 1.52E-06 2.07E-06 4.61E-05 7.31E-07 4.63E-06 9.85E-08 7.66E-07 4.11E-07 7.48E-08 3.90E-07 3.05E-06 5.04E-07 6.06E-07 3.0SE-07· 1.23E-07 3.92E-07 3.22E-08

.6.34E-09 7.77E-07 2.69E-06 8.S6E-07

Liver

1. 44E-06 6.99E-09 2.7SE-07 2.7SE-06 . S.22E-08 4. llE-07 5.99E-07 6.51E-07 . 8.54E-07 9.62E-07 2.82E-05 7.44E-07 2.80E-'07 1. 57E-07 1.29E-06 2.9SE-07 2.88E-07 1. 48E-07 3.17E-07 2.29E-07 4.99E-OS 7.49E-OS 1.SSE-07 9. 69E-07

~

I

I ~;-1

~.

. ~'.

:,

!

.. 'i'~: . l:

.~

I

. i

0z-

:.z_

r
i
r-
l
(
i ·1
r ~~~J
....
l .. '
r
l
r
l
;
\
r : r t. r ,.

!: ;

:' ~

r

.<

r -~

r ... r:.

_.,,; .

rA i

L

r ".

.... :

~+,{

r -".

r

l

r r

SOURCE ORGANS
TARGET ORGANS Lungs Muscle Ovaries Pancreas Red Mar. CrtBonSf
Adrenals 8.49E-07 4.12E-07 1. 21E-07 3.36E-06 8.36E-07 4.27E-07
Brain 3.40E-08 7.07E-08 4.42E-10 4.53E-09 3.83E-07 4.28E-07
Breasts 7.50E-07 1. 72£-07 2.11E-08 2.34E-07 1.94E-07 1.26E-07
Gallbladde·r Wall 2.73E-07 3.91E-07 4.26E-07 2.66E-06 3.20E-07 1. 63E-07
LLI Wall 3.04E-08 4.14E-07 4.18E-06 1.80E-07 7.45E-07 2.69E-07
Small Int.estine 7.48E-08 3.90E-07 3.05E-06 5.04E-07 6.16E-07 2.09E-07
Stomach 4.53E-07 3.02E-07 2.59E-07 4.10E-06 2.60E-07 1.50E-07
ULI Wall B.91E-00 3.49E-07 2.90E-06 5.77E-07 4.95E-07 1. 77E-07
Heart Wall 1.55E-06 3.35E-07 4.B3E-00 1.12E-06 3.21E-07 2.04E-07
Kidneys 2.B1E-07 3.55E-07 2.92E·-07 1.63E-06 6.00E-07 2.55E-07
Liver 7.43E-07 2.00E-07 1'. 57E-07 1.29E-06 2.96E-07. 1.91E-07
Lungs 4.22E-05 3.51E-07 3.34E-OS 6.40E-07, 3. SOE-07- 2.60E-07
Muscle 3.50E-07 2.16E-06 4.07E-07 4.43E-07 3.36E-07 2.S0E-07
OVaries 3.35E~00 4.B7E-07 2.B9E-03 2.09E-07. 7.22E-07 2.34E-07
Pancreas 6.40E-07 4.43E-07 2.09E·-07 3. 95E-.04 4.45E-07 2.35E-07
Red Marrow 3.80E-07 3. 36E-07 7.22E-07 4.43E-07 1.65E-05 7.53E-07
Bone Surfaces 3.75E-07 3.9SE-07 3.46E-07 3.5~E-07 S.31E-06 9.94E-06
Skin 1. 59E-07 2.22E-07 1.22E-07 1. 21E-07 1. 70E-07 2.05E-07
Spleen 6.10E-07 3.79E-07 1. 65~-O7 4.26E-06 3.15E-07 1. 92E-07
Thymus 9.63E-07 3.04E-07 '.1. 7BE-OB 2.08E-07 2.71E-07 1.S7E-07
Thyroid 3.22E-07 3:39E-07 3.06E-09 3.94E-OS 2.7SE-07 2.73E-07
Urin Bladder Wall 1.67E-00 4.56E-07 1. 87E=-06 7.76E-OB 3.12E-07 1. 51E-07
uterus 3.13E-00 4.B5E-07 5.34E-06 1. 73E-07 5.21E.,.07 1.80E-01:
Total Body 9.22E-07 0.41E-07 1.03E-06 1.04E-06 9. 33E-07 8.B9E-07
S-values for the ADULT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)
-SOURCE ORGANS
TARGET ORGANS . TrbBonSf crt~onVl TrbBonVI Spleen Thymus Thyroid
Adrenals 4.27E-07 4.27E-07 4.27E-07 1. 74E-06 1. 76E~07 4.51E-OS
Brain 4.2SE-07 4.20E-07 4.2SE-07 6.33E-09 3.S1E-OS 2.0SE-07
Breasts 1. 26E-07 1. 26E-07 1.26E-07 1. 67E-07 9.51£-07 1. 39E-07
Gallbladder Wall, 1.63E-07 1. 63E.,..07 1. 63E-07 5.09E-07 1.21E-07 2.52E-OS
LLI Wall 2.69E-07 2. 69E-07 2. 69E-07 1.96E-07 1. 49E-OS 3.63E-09
Small Intestine 2.09E-07 2.09E-07 2.09E-07 3.92E-07 3.22E-OS 6.34E-09
Stomach 1.5SE-07 1.5SE-07 1.50E-07 2.29E-06 1.77E-07 3.68E-OB
ULI Wall 1.77E-07 1.77E-07 1.77E-07 3.74E-07 4.23E-OS 9.9SE-09
Heart Wall 2.04E-07 2.·04E-07 2.04E-07 . 5.50E-07 2.16E-06 1.69E-07
Kidneys 2. 55E-0·7 2.~5E-07 2.55E-07 2.27E-06 8.06E-08 1 .• e3E-08
Ll.ver 1. 91E-07 1. 91E-07 1.~lE..:07 3.17E-07 2.29E-07 4 •. 99E-OS
~s 2.60E-07 2.60~-07 2.60E-07 6. 11.E-07 9.64E-07 3.22E~07
s Ie 2.80E-07 2.80E-07 - 2.80E-07 3.79E-07 3.84E-07 3.39E-07
OVaries 2.34E-07 2.34E-07 2.34E-07 1.65E-07 1.7SE-08 3~06E-09
Pancreas 2.35E-07 2.35E-07 2.35E-07 41. 26E-06 2.08E-07 3.94E-08
Red Marrow 9.69E-06 7.53E-07 7.43E-06 3. 15E:"07 2. 71E-07 2.78E-07
Bone Surfaces. ·1.77E-05 . 2.21E-06 9.37E-06 2.92E-07 2.72E.,..07 4.08E-07.
Skin 2.05E-:-07 2.05E-07 2.05E-07 1.43E-07 1.86E-07 3.30E-07
Spleen 1.92E-07 1.92E-07 1.92E-07 2.33E-04 1.34E-07 4.26E~08
T·hymus 1.87E-07 1. 87E-07 1. 87E-07 1. 34E-07 1. 63E-Oa 6. 69E-07
Thyroid 2.73E-01 2.73E-07 2.73·E-07 4.26E-08 6. 69E-07 1.90E-03
Urin Bladder Wall 1.51E-07 ·i.51E-07 1. 51E-07 6.51E-08 9.77E-09 2.21E-09
Uterus 1.8.0E-07 1.80E-07 1.80E-01 1.41E-07 1. 69E-00 4.11E-09
Total Body 8.89E-07 8.89E-07 8.89E-07 9.19E-07 9.23E-07 8.78E-07 21

s-values for the ADULT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

UL1 Wall

Heart walJ.

. Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle Ovaries Panc~eas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterus

Total Body

SOURCE ORGANS

Urine Bl Uterus Total Bd

5.32E-08 1. 79E-10 1.43E-08 1. 80E-07 1. 96E-06 7.77E-07 8. 63E-08 6.00E-07 1. 75E-08 1.09E-07 6. 42E-08 1.59E-08 4.47E-07 1.82E-06 6.53E-08 3.12E-07 2.19E-07 1. 51,E-07 6.46E-08 9. 65E-09 2.18E-09 1. 19E-04' 3.87E-06 5.28E-07

1. 11E-07 4.61E-I0 2. 11E-08 4.64E-07 1. 56E-06 2.69E-06 2.07E-07 1.41E-06 4. 49E":'08 2.34E-07 1.55E-07 3.13E-08 4.85E-07 5.34E-06 1. 73E-07

. 5.21E-07 2.66E-07 1.28E-07, 1.4~E-07 1.,69E-08 4. 11E-09 3.94E-06 4.26E-04 1.03E-06

1.00E-06 8.44E-07 8.01E-07 1.00E-06 1.02E':"06 9.69E-07 9.83E-07 1.02E-06 9.81E-07 9.61E-07 9.67E-07 9.22E-07 8.83E-07 1.03E-06· 1.03E-06 9.29E-07 1.01E-06 7.56E-07,' 9. 67E-.07 9.36E-07 8.73E-07 9.29E-07 1.02E-06 8.89E-07

S-va1ues for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET, ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder wall LL1 Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall

~dneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall 'Uterine wall Fetus

Total Body

Adrenals Bz;ain

2.27E-03 4.44E-09 4. 44E-09 3. 32E-OS i.97E-07 1.76E-08 1.13E-06' 2.98E-09

8.72E-08 3.07E-07 9.08E-07 3.47E-07 8. 3 SE:"" 07 2.71E-06 1. 44E-06 8.S0E-07 4.12E-07 1.21E-07 3.36E-06 8. 36E.,...07 6.07E-07 1. 39£-07 1. 74E-06 1. 76E-07 4.51E-08 3.78E-08 1.12E-07 1.06E-07 1.01E-06

4.1SE"':10 1.20E-09, 4.49E-09

.1.08E-09 1 .. 37E-08 2.62E-09 6. 99E-09 3.40E-08 7.01E-08 4.42E-I0 4.S3E-09 3.84E-07 6.S9E-07 1.64E~07 6.33E-09 3.81E-08 2.08E-07' 2.21E-I0 4.82E-I0 4.17E-10 8.29E-07

SOURCE ORGANS Breasts G~ll Bl

1.97E-07 1.76E-08 9.77E-OS 1.4SE-07 1. 89E-08 4.74E-08 2.S4E-07 S.70E-08 1.02E-06 9.02E-08 2.7SE-07 7.S1E-07

1. 72E-07

2. llE-08 2.34E-07 1.94E-07 1. 88E-07 2.92E-07 1.67E-07 9.S1E-07 1.39E-07 1.27E-08 2.llE-08 2.43E-08 7.99E-07

22

1.12E-06 2.67E-09 1.38E-07 3. 42E-04, 2. 31E:""07 1~64E-06 1.07E-06 2.S3E-06 4.0SE-07 1.19E-06 2. 73E.,...06' 2.66£-07 3.97E-07 4. 61E-07 2.24E-06 ,3. 33E-07 2.38E-07 1.21E-07 5.03E-07 1. 34E-07 2.51E-08 1.53E-07 4.6SE-07 4.51E-07 4.84E-07

LLI Cont

1.23E-07 .4.93E-I0 2.01E-08 2.70E-07 1. 26E-04 2.39E-06 4.58E-07 1.08E-06 . 4. 41E"""08 . 2.61E-07 9.4SE-08 3.07E-08 3. 99E-07 4.83E-06 2.10E-07 7.'4SE-07 3.80E-07 1. 38E-0=7 2.12E-07 1. 76E-08 4.37E-09 1.84E-06 1.90E-06 1. 76E-06 7.39E-07'

Sml' Int.

3.07E-07 1.20E-09 4.74E-08 I.S8E-06 2.07E~06 4.S7E-OS 8.42E-07' 4.96E-06 1.10E-07 7.S1£-07 4.58E-07 7.99E-08 3.52E-07 2. 65E-06 5.32E-07 5.75E-07 3.02E-07 1. 24E-07 4.0SE-07 3.33E-08 8.04E-09 S.32E-07 2. 33E-06 2.06E-06 8.36E-07

'I

• I

, ,

\~

,

j '--l

1

I

. l~

1,

1

l'.'

:;

l:'-

;

'.?

l~

l' ~!

. ~:

~!'

I

r

r

r

l

r

r

(

r ;

r

r ..

' ..

r':

r~~

i

r .

r

l :'

r

r

S-values for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (rnGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Bra1n

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall._ Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

Ova rie's Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

'l'hymus

.Thyroid·

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Total Body

Stomach

B.96E-07 3.92E-09 2.40E-07 1. 11E-06 3.2SE-07 7.79E-07 7.9SE-OS 9.1SE-07 B.SSE-07 B.02E-07 S.B9E-07 4.2BE-07 3.S7E-07 2.34E-07

. 3.97E-06 Z.61E-07 2. 3 BE,.... 07 1.43E-01 2.22E-06 ·i.6BE-07 .3.21E-OB B.nE-OB 2.42E-07 2.2BE-07 S.39E-0? .

SOURCE ORGANS

UL1 Cont Heart Co Heart Wa Kidneys

3.47E-07 7.95E-07 1.0BE-09 1.56E-OB S.02E-OB 9.23E~07 2.57E-06.3.93E-07 B.22E-07 3.26E-OB 4.55E-06 9.74E-OB 1.05E-06 6.3SE-07 B.34E-OS 1.11E-07 1.29E-07 4.67E-OS 6. 91E-07 2.6BE-07 6.76E-07 7.9SE-07 9. 66E-OB 1.63E-06 3.~3E-07 3.1BE-07 2.17E-06 3.95E70B 5.96E-07 B.B5E-07 4.94E-07 3.35E-07 2.6BE-07 3.20E-07 1.2SE-07 1.44E~07 3.6BE-07. 4.23E-07 3.47E-OB 2.S4E~06 1.01E-OB· 1.99E-07 4.SSE-07 1.11E-OB 1.4BE-06 4.05E-OB 1.41E-06 3.92E-OB 6.65E-07· 5.21E-07

B.35E-07 1.37E-08 1.02E-06 4. 15E-07 3.95E-OB 1.10E-07 9~6SE-07 1.23E-07 1. 41E-04 2.8BE-07 B.S4E-07' 1.S5E-06 3.35E-07 4.83E-08 1.12E-06 3.21E-07 3.07E-07 1.S0E-07 S.50E-07 2.16E-06 1.69E-07 1.S5E-OB 4.S0E-08 4. 45E.,.08 9.34E-07

2.71E-06 2.62E-09 9.02E-OB 1.lBE-06 2.04E-07 7.S1E-07 7.S5E-07 7.03E-07 2.SBE-07 1.27E-04 9.62E-07 2.BIE-07 3.55E-07

. 2.92E-07 1. 63E-06 6.00E .... 07. 3.72E-07 1.56E-07 2.27E-06 8.06E-OB 1.83E-OB 1.04E-07 2.27E-07 2.22E-07 9. 69E-07

S-values for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (rnGylMBq-s)

. TARGET ORGANS .

Adrena1s

Bra1n

. Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Hei}rt Wall *i'dneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

Ovaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

:Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wali Uterine Wall Fetus

.Total Body

Lungs

B.49E-07.· 4.12E-07

Muscle.

3.40E-OB 7 -, 50E-07 2.9BE-07 3.04E-08 7. 99E .... OB 4.S3E-07 9.3BE-OB 1. 55E-06 2.81E-07 7.43E-Q7 4·.·21E-05 3.50E-07 3.35E-08 6 •. 40E-07 3.80E-07 3.75E-07 1.59E-07 6~10E-07 9~63E-07 3.22E-07 1.30E-08 3.60E-OB 3.31E-08

. 9.20E-07

7 .• 07E-08 1.72E-07 3.91E-07 4.31E-07 3.52E-07

. 3. 82E-07 3.49E-07 3.35E~07 3.55E-07 2.BOE-07 3.51E-07 2.16E-06 4.27E-07 4.43E-07 3.36E-07 3.9BE-07 2.22E-07 3.79E-07 3.B4E-07 3.39E-07 4.27E-07' 3.54E-07 3.21E-07 8.40E-07

SOURCE ORGANS

Ovaries

Pancreas Red Mar.

1-.21E-07 3. 36E-06 4. 42E-·10· 4.53E-09 2.11E-OB 2.34E-07 4.26E-07 2.66E-06 4.18E-06 1.BOE-07 2.65E-06 5.32E-07 ~.59E-07 4.10E-06 2.41E-06 5.77E-07 4.B3E-OB 1.12E-06 2. 92E-07 1.63E-06 1.57E-07 1.29E-06 ~.34E-OB 6.40E-07 4.27E-07 4.43E-07 2.B9E-03 2.09E-07 2.09~-07 3.95E-04 7.22E-07· 4.43E-07

. ,

3.46E-07 3.51E-07

1.22E-07 1.21E-07 1.65E-07 4.26E-06 1.78E-OB 2.08E-07 3.06E~09 3.94E-OB 1.35E-06 .6.96E-OB 4.89E-06 1.75E-07 4.21E-06 1.66E-07 9.99E-07 1.04E-06

23

~.36E-07 3.83E-07 1.94E-07 3'. 29E-07 7.45E-07 5.75E-07 2.6BE-07 5.04E-07 3~21E-Ol 6.00E-07 2.96E-07 3.B.OE-07 3.36E-07 1.22E-07 4.45E-07 1.65E-05 8 e . 31E-0~ 1.78E-07 3.15E-07 2.71E-07 2.78E-07 3.04E-Ol 4.08E-07 3.90E-07 9.34E-07

Liver

1. 44E-06 6.99E-09 2.7SE-07 2. 75E-:-06 B.22E-OB 4. 5BE-07 . 5.99E'-07 6.S1E,....07 B.54E-07 9.62E-07 2.B2E-05 7.44E-07 2. BOE""'07 1.57E-07 1.29E-06 2.95E-07 2.BBE-07 1.4BE-07 3.17E-07

·2.29E-07 4.99E-08 5.63E-OB 1.SBE-07 1.54E-Ol

. 9.10E-07

CrtBonSf

4.27E-07 4.2BE-07 1.26E-07 ' 1 •. 63E-07 2.69E-07 2.02E-07 1.S8E-07 1.17E-07 2.·Q4E-:07 2.55E-Ol 1.91E-Ol 2.60E-07 2.BOE-07 2.34E-07 2.35E-07 7~53E-07 9.9.4E-06 2.0SE-07 1.92E-07 1. 87E-07 2.73E-Ol 1. 51E-Ol 1. 54E-Ol 1.51E-01 B.B9E-01

s-values for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGY/MBq~s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LL1 Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart W~ll Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

Ovaries PanCreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Total Body

SOURCE ORGANS TrbBonsf CrtBonVl TrbBonVI Spleen

4.27E-07 4.27E-07. 4.28E~07 4.28E-07 1.26E-07 1.26E-07 1.63E-07 1. 63E-07 2.69E-07 2.69E-07 2.02E-07 2.02E-07 1.58E-07 1.58E-07 1.77E-07 1.77E-07 2.04E-07 2.04E-07 2.5SE-07 ·2.55E-07 1.9iE-07 1.91E~07 2.60E-07 2.60E-07 2.BOE-07 2.80E-07 2.34E-07 2.34E-07 2.3SE-07 2.35E-07 9.69E-06 7.53E-07 1. 77E-OS 2.21E-06 2.0SE-07 2.0SE-07 1.92E-07· ~.92E-O~ 1.B7E-07 1.B7E-07 2·.73E-07 2.73£-07 1.S1E-07 1.51E-07 1.54E-07 .1.54E-07 1.51E-07· 1.51E-07 8.89E-07 8 .• 9E-07

4.27E-07 4.28E-07 1.26E-07 1.63E-07 2.69E-07 2.02E-07 1.58E-07 1. 77E-07 2.04E-07 2.S5E-07 1.91E-07 2.60E-07 2.80E-07 2.34E-07 2.35E-07 7.43E-06 9.37E-06 2.0SE-07 1. 92E:-07

·1. B1E-07 2~73E-07 1.51E-07 1.54E-07 1.51E-07 8. 89E-07

1. 74E-06 6.33E-09 1.67E-07 5.09E-07 1.96E-07 4.0SE-01 2.29E-06 3.14E-07 S.SOE-07 2.27E-06 3.17E-b7 6.11E-07· 3.79E-07 1.65E-07 4.26E-06 3.1SE-07 2.92E-07 1. 43E-07 2.3~E-04 1.34E-07 4.26E-08 6.20E-08 1.34E-07 1.31E-07 9.78E-07

Thymus

1.76E-07 3.B1E-08 9.51E-07 9.33E-08 1. 49E-08 3.33E-08 1.77E-07 4.23E-OB 2 •. 16E-06 B.06E-.OB 2.29E-07 9.64E-07 3~B4E-07 1. 7BE-OB 2.0BE-:-07 2.71E-07 2.72E-07 1.86E-07 1.34E-07 1.63E-03 6. 69E-07 B.3BE-09 1.15E-OB 1.17E-OB 9.22E-07

S-values for the 3-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

,Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LL1 Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

UL1 Wall

I Heart Wall

...ri Kidneys Liver

. Lungs Muscle· Ovaries

. Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen. Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder W~ll Uterine Wall Fetus

Total Body

SOURCE ORGANS Urine Bl Utero WI Fetus

4.69E-OB 1. 79E-IO 9. 41E-09 1. 54E-01 2.11E-06 4.83E-07 8.22E-08 4.41E-07 1.49E-OB B~BOE-OB 5.6SE-08 1.42E-OB 4.00E-07 1. 37E-06 5.7SE-08 2.83E-07 2.33E-07 1.63E-07 4.56E-08 B.22E-09 2.18E-09 1.39E-04 3.S2E-06 3.02E-06 1.15E-06

1. 12E-07 .. 1.06E-07 4.82E-104.77E-10 2.11E-08 2.43E-08 4. 46E-07 4.44E-07 1.77E-06 1.62E-06 2.33E-06 2.06E-06 2.47E-07 2.S0E-07 1.S5E-06 1.44E-06 4.50E-08 4.4SE-08

·2.27E~07 2.22E-07 1.58E-07 1.54E-07 3.59E-08 3.32E-08 3.54E-07 3.21E-07 4.89E-06 4.21E-06 1.75E-07 1.66E-07 4.08E-07 3.90E-07 2.34E-07 2. 30E-07 1~47E-07 1.38E-07 1. 34E:-07 1.31E-07 1.15E-08 1.l7E-08 4. 12E-09 4.3SE-09 3.99E-06 3.30E~06 9.17E-OS 7.25E-06 7.25E-06 B.19E-OS 9.36E-01 3.S2E-07

24

To.tal Bd

9.97E-07 8.47E-07 8.0lE-07 9.45E-07 9.55E-07 9.54E-07 9.19E-07 9.2BE-07 9.B5E-07 9.49E-07 9.S8E-07 9.22E-07

. B. 76E-07 9.S5E-07 1 •. 0IE-06 9.19E-07· 1.01E-06

.7.55E-·07 9.55E-07

9.3BE-07 8.76E-07 9.26E-07 9.18E-07 3.38E-07 8.B3E-:-07

Thyroid

4.51E-08 2.0BE-07 1.39E-07 2.52E-08 3.63E-09 8.04E-09 3.68E-OB 9.98E-09· 1.69E-07 1.83E-OB 4.99E-08 3.22E-07 3.39£-07 3.06E-09 3.94E-08 2.78E-07 4.08E-07 3.30E-07 4.26E-08 6.69E-07 1.90E-03 2.21E-09 ·4. 12E-09 4.35E-09 B.77E-07

I

j ~l I

I

1

~ ~

.,.;J.

r

J

'lSI ;;~

'"'i I

I

~l "1.

•• I

!

i

,.

L """i-

I

l

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

, . ,.

:::

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart. Wall-~ Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas'

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

:.'

..

,

-

c :

, .

::. ! . ~ ~

.; ~ .. ,

> •.

;:~. j

Adrenals Brain

2.27E-03 4.44E-09 1. 97E-07 2.77E-06 8.35E-08 4.01E-07 9.74E-07 1. 82E-07 7.46E-07 2.71E-06 1.42E-06 7.14E-07 4.10E-07 1. 04E-07 3.36E-06 8.36E-07 6.07E-07 1.31E-07 1. 74E-D6 1. 75E-D7 4. 51E-.o8 3.50E-D8 1. 48E-D7 1.54E-D7 1. 62E-D7 9.59E-D7

4.44E-09 3.32E-05 1. 76E-D8

.2.98E-09 4.15E-1D 1.23E-D9 4.49E-09 1.66E-09 1. 37E-08 2.62E-09 6.99E-09 3.40E-08 7.07E-08 4.42E-1D 4 .. 53E-09 3.84E-D7 6. 59E-:-D7 1. 64E-D7 6.33E-D9 3.81E-D8 2.08E-07 2. 21E:"'lD 1.17E-09 8.24E-I0 1.92E-D9 7.82E-D7

SOURCE ORGANS Breasts Gall Bl

1. 97E-07 1. 76E-08 9.77E-05 1. 56E-07 4.27E-08 6.43E-OB 3.D8E-D7 1.62E-D7 1.1DE-06 9.D2E-D8 3.22E-07 7.55E-07 1.72E-07 2.06E-08 2.34E-07 1.94E-07 1.8BE-D7

.2.98E-D7 1.67E-07 8.74E:-,07 1.39E-D7 1.42E-D8 7.D1E-D8 6.D9E-OB 1. 31E-D7 7.53E-D7

2.30E-06 2.67E-09 1.49E-07 3.42E-04 1.64E-07 1. 6!?E-D6 9.63E-07 6.6BE-.o7 4.27E-07 2.39E-06 2.38E-06' 3.32E-07 4.17E-07 2.96E-07 3.71E-06 4.80E-07 3.36E-D7 1.05E-D7 6.29E-D7 1.15E-07 2.54E-08 9.26E-D8 5.D3E-07 5. 16E-07 5.37E-D7 4.97E-07

LL1 Cont Sm! Int.

8.35E-08 4.93E-IO 4.27E-OB 1.87E-07 1.24E-04 9.35E-.o7 4.50E-07 7.55E-.o7 4.21E-.o8 1. 62E-07- 8.73E-08 3.03E-08 3.77t-07 1. 14E-06 .

·2.01E-07 2.94E-07 2.·12E-07 1. 26E-D7 1. 89E-D7 1.36E-08 2.93E-D9 9.7DE-D7 1.36E-06 1.23E-06 8.96E-D7 6.61E-D7

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

UI,l Wall

treart Wall Kidneys

~ver

Lungs

Muscle

Ovaries Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces S.kin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

SOURCE ORGANS

Stomach ULI Cont Heart Co Heart Wa Kidneys

9.68E-07 3.92E-D9 2.84E.-07 9.79E-D7 3.35E-07 ·9.25E-D7 7.95E-05 5.19E-D7 8.~5E-D7 7. 66E-07 5~89E-D7 4.2BE-07 3.65E-07 1.91E-07 4.26E-D6 2.61E-07 2.3BE-D7 1. 26E-07 2.37E-0.6 1.68E-D7 3.3DE-D8 7.DBE-08 3.91E-D7 3.88E-07 5.57E-07 5.33E-07

1.87E-D7 1. 66E-D9 1.64E-D7 6 .• 36E-D7 6.14E-D7 1.26E-D6. 5.18E-D7 8.16E-D5 1.2BE-D7 2.6DE-D7 5.51E-D7 8.DOE-DB 3.02E":"D7 5.95E-D7 3.53E-D7 1. 75E-D7 1. 29E-07 1.2ZE-D7 . 1.72E-07 5.22E-08 1.D6E-OB 2.56E-D7 1.4BE-D6 1.1BE-D6 2.23E-06 5.57E-D7

6.76E-D7 1. 56E-:D8 9.73E-D7 4. 19E-0'7 3.30E-D8 1.D6E-07 .6.35E-D7 1. 11E-D7 4. 67E-D5 2.26E-07 7.95E-D7 1.63E-D6 3.12E-07 3.DDE-08 7.23E-07 3.35E-07 3.2DE-07 1. 48E-D7 3.82E-D7 2.54E-06 2.28E-D7. 1.21E-DB 6.13E-D8 5.88E-D8 9.D6E-08 -5.00E-07

25

7.46E-07 1. 37E-D8 1.1DE-.o6 4. 66E-07 4.21E-D8 1. 24E-07 9. 65E-07 1. 28E-07 1.41E-D4 2.49E-D7 8.54E-07 1.55E-D6 3.28E-07 3. 39E-.o8 9.26E-07 3.21E-07 3.D7E-07 1.52E-07 4.92E-07 2.16E-D6 1. 95E-07 1.50E-08 7.16E-D8 7~D9E-08 1. 11E-07 8.81E-07

2.71E·-06 2. 62E-09 9.D2E-08 2.39E-D6 1. 38E-D7 9.22E-07 7.73E-07 2.57E-07 2.49E-07 1.27E-D4 8.66E-07 2.39E-D7 3.49E-D7 2.53E-07 1.63E-06 6. DOE-OJ 3.72E-07 1. 46E-07 2.27E-06 6.86E-D8 1. 83E-08 6.49E-08 2.73E-D7 2.87E-07 2.14E-07 9. 15E-07

4.D1E-07 1.23E-D9 6.43E-D8 1.60E-06 7.86E-D7 4.60E-05 1.01E-06 1.34E-06 1.24E-07 9.22E-D7 5.46E-D7 9.32E-D8 3.51E-D7 1.91E-06 7.27E-07 5.49E-07 3.06E-07 1.D2E-07 5.33E-07 3.67E-08 8.62E-09 2.91E-07 1. 64E-06

·1.5.oE-.o6 9.22E-07 7.94E-D7

Liver

1.42E-06 6. 99E-D9 3.22E-07 2.45E-06 7.45E-08 5.46E-D7 5.99E-D7 5.47E-D7· 8.54E-D7

·8.66E-D7 2.82E-05 7.44E-07 2 .. 84E-07 1.4DE-D7 1.24£-.06

.2. 95E-D7. 2.88E-p7 1.40E-D7 3.1DE-D7 2.29E-D7 5.52E-D8 4.94E-D8 2. 41E-'D7 2.40E-D7 3.25E-D7 9.22E-D7

S-values for the 6~MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, emGy/MEq-sl

TARGET. ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wal_l Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

ovaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

Lungs

Muscle

7.14E-07 4.10E-07 3.40E-08 7.07E-08 7.54E-07 1.72E-07 3.57E-07 4.36E-07 2.88E-08 4.14E-07 9.32E-08 3.51E-07 4.53E-07 3.92E-07 8.03E-08 3.14E-07 1.55E-06 3.28E-07 2.39E~07 3.49E-07' 7.43E-07 2.84E-07 4.22E-05 3.35E-07 3.34E~07 2.15E-06 2.77E-08, 4.17E-07 5.49E-07 4.43E~07, 3.80E-07 3.18E-07 3.75E-07 3.93E-07 1. 66E-07 2.17E-07 4.88E-07 3.76E-07 9. 63E-07 3.64E-07 3.72E-07 3.39E-07 1.06E~08 3.56E-07 4.76E-08 3.29E-07 4.79E-08 2.73E-07 6.37E-08 ~.53E-07 8.,61E-07 ,8. 31E-07,

SOURCE ORGANS

Ovaries

1.04E-07 4.42E-10 2.06E-08 2.96E-07 1.07E-06 1. 91E-06 1.95E-07 6.12E-07 3.39E-08 2.53E-07 1.40E-07 2.77E-08 4. 17E-07 2.89E-03 1.68E-07 1.07E-06 4.76E-07 1.08E~07 1. 51E-07 1. 34E.-08 3.06E:-09 5. 77E-o.7 1.72E-06 1.33E-06 3.51E-07 9.26E-07

Pancreas Red Mar. CrtBonSf

3.36E-06 4.53E-09 2.34E-07 4.19E-06 1.63E-07 7.27E-D7 4.51E-06 3.49E-:07 9.26E-D7 1. 63E-D6 1.24E-D6 5.50E-D~, 4.43E-D7 1~68E-D7 3.95E-04 4.43E-07 3.51E-07 1. 13E-D7 4'. 26E-o.6 1.80E-D7 3.94E-08 5.49E-D8 2. 82E-D7 2.88E-D7 3.46E-D7 9.93E-D7

8.36E-07 3.8~E-D7 1.94E-D7 4.95E-D7 3.49E-07 5.50E-D7 2.68E-D7 1. 76E-D7' 3.21E-07 6. DOE-O? 2.96E-D7 3.80E-07 3.18E-07, 1.08E-06 4.45E-D7 1.65E-D5 8.31E:-06 1.87E-07 3.15E-07, 2. 71E-07 2.78E-D7 1.62E-07' 3.36E-07 2.95E-07 1. 21E-o.7 8.72E-o.7

S-values for the 6-MONTH P~GNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/HBq-s)

rARGET OR~

Adrenals

'Brain

Breasts Gallbladder ,Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

U).I Wall

-ffeart Wall JUdneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

Ovaries

Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid Urin,Bladder~all Uterine Wall Fetus

Placenta

Total Body

TrbBonsf CrtBonVl

4.o.1E-o.7' 4 .. 28E-o.7 1.'26E-o.7 2.25E-o.7 1. 64E-o.7 1.99E-,o.7 1.58E-o.7 8.33E-08 '2.o.4E-o.7

2.'55E-07 1.93E-07 2.61E-07 2.67E-o.7 3.13E-07 2.35E-07 9.69E-o.6 1.77E-05 2.o.9t-o.7 1.92E-07 1.79E-o.7 ~.73E-o.7 9.58E,-08 1.28E-o.7 1.14E-D7 5.9o.E-08 ' 8.31E-07

4.01E-D7 4.28E-07 1. 26E-:07 2.25E-07 1.64E-07 1. 99E-:07, 1.58E-07 8.33E-08 2.04E-07 2.55E-07 1.93E-07 2~61E-07 2.67£-0.7 3.13E-07 2.35E-07 7.53E-07 2.,21E-06 2.09E-07 1.92E-07 1. 79E-07 2.73E-07 9.58E-08 1.28E-D7 1.14E-07 5.90E-08 8.31E-07

SOURCE ORGANS TrbBonVl Spleen

4.01E-07 4.28E-07 1.2.6E-07 2.25E-07 1.64E-07 1. 99E-07 1.58E-07 8.33E-08 2.04E-o.7 2.55E-07 1. 93E-07 2.61E-o.7 2. (;7E-07 3.13E-o.7 2.35E-07 7.43E-06 9.37E-06 2.09E-07 1.92E-07 1. 79E~07 2.73E-07 9.58E-08 1.28E-07 1. 14E-07 5.90E-08 -8.31E-07

26

1. 74E-06 6.33E-D9 1. 67E-07 6.59E-07 1. 58E-07 5.33E-07 2.4DE-06 1.73E-07 4.92E-D7 2.27E-06 3.10E-07 4.88E-D7 3.,76E-D7 1.51E-D7 4.26E-o.6 3.i5E-o.7 2.92E-07 1.37E-o.7 2.33E-04 1.22E-D7 4.26E-08 4.29E-08 1. 81E-D7 1.87E-o.7 1.87E-07 9.26E-D7

, Thymus

1.75E-07 3.81E-08 8.74E-07 1. 24E-07 1. ;36E-08 3. 67E":08 1. 77E-07 5.62E-08 2.l6E-06 6. 86E-08 2.29E-07 9.64E~07 3. 64E-D7 1.34E-08 1.8DE-D7 2.71E-0.7 2.72E-07 2.06E-07 1.22E-07 1.63E-03 7.60E-o.7, 4.49E-09 2,. 85E-08 2.39E-08 4.74E-08 8.61E-07

4.01E-07 4.28E-D7 1.26E-07 2.25E-07 1.64E-D7 1.99E-D7 1.58E-07 8.33E-D8 2.D4E-D7' 2.55E-D7 1.93E-'D7 2.61E-D7 2. 67E-D7 3.l3E-D7 2.35E-07 7.53E-07 9.94E-06 2.09E-07 1. 92E-D7 1. 79E-07' 2,. 73E-07 9.58E-D8 1.28E-D7 1. 14E-07 5.90E-D8 8.31E-07

, Thyroid

4.51E-08 2.08E-07 1.39E-07 3.60E-08 2. 62E-09 8.62E-09 3.73E-08 l.09E-08 1.95E-07 1.83E-08 '5.52E-08 ,3.72E-07

3.39E-07 3.06E-09 3.94E-08

'2.78E-07 4.08E-07 3.30E-07 4.26E-08 7.60E-07 1.90E-03 1.13E-09 6.23E-09 4.94E-09 9.25E-09 8.35E-07

l li

I

1:

!

1~

, ~ ~, J

;. 0'

f

r

r

rL r' .

- ~-

c

r! .

,

: !

r· d

..

r ·oJ r

r J3

._ .

i ~ . :

r ''-}

\

r

r

r" . r

r

r

S-values for the 6-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

SOURCE ORGANS

Urine Bl Utero WI Fetus Placenta Total Bd

Adrenals

3.46E-08 1~79E-I0 1.55E-08 9.52E-08 1. 02E-06 2.91E-07 7-.18E-08 2.61E-07 1. 50E-08 6.39E-08 4.94E-08 1.04E-08 3.39E-07 5.90E-07 5.51E-08 1.60E-07 1. 47E-07 1. 68E-07 4.11E-08 4 •. 49E-09 9.61E-10 1. 63E-04 . 1.28E-06 1. 15E-06 3.91E-07 2.22E-06

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intes·tine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall·· Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces SkI.n

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid .

Urin Bladder Wall

. Uterine Wall Fetus Placenta Total Body

1.48E-07 1.17E-09 7.01E-08 4.83E-07 1.27E-06 1.64E-06 4.08E-07 1.53E-06 7.16E-08 2.73E-07 2.41E-07 4.76E-08 3.29E-07 1.72E-06 2.82E-07 3.36E-07 2.01E-07 1. 12E-07- 1. 81E-07 2.85E-08 6. 23E:"'09 1.31E-06 4'.05E-05 2.18E-06 ~.94E-06 8.49E-07

1. 49E-07 8.24E-10 5.65E-08 4.82E-07 1.07E-06 1. 47E-06 4.03E-0.7 1. 14.E-06 6.84E-08 2.73E-07 2.32E-07 4. 41E-08 2. 69E-07 1. 29E-06 2.72E-07 2.83E-07 1.8.1E-07 9.25E-08 1.81E-07, 2.39E-08 4.81E-09

1. 11E-06

2. 15E-O,6 2.,50E-05 2.48E-06 2.80E-07

1.62E-07 1.92E-09 1. 31E-0?' 5.18E-07 7.22E-07- 9.22E-07 5.7-0E-07 2.27E-06 1. 11E-07

. 2 .14E~07 3.25E-07 6.37E-08

'2.53E-07 3.51E-07 3.46E-07 1. 21E-07 9.61E-08· 1.08E-07 1.87E-07 4.74E-08 9.25E-09 3. 92E-07 2. 94E:"06 2.53E-06 1.,09E-04 7:62E-07

9.56E-07 7.90E-07 7.58E-07, 9.66E-07 8.87E-07 9.00E-07 9.04E-07 8.24E-07 9.37E-07 9. 13E-07 9.26E-07 8.67E-07 8.23E-07 9.23E-07 9.75E-07' 8.77E-07 9.70E-07 7.11E-07 9.17E-07 8.80E-07 8.30E-07 8.14E-07 8.43E-07' 2.80E-07 7.58E-07 8.35E-07

S-values for the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE. for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals Brain

SOURCE ORGANS Breasts Gall Bl

LL1 Cont

Sm! Int.

Aqrenals 2.27E-03 4.44E-09 i.97E-07 2.30E-06 6.21E-08 1.49E-06
. Brain 4. 44E-09 3.32E-05 1. 76E-08 2. 67E-09 4.93E-10 2.92E-09'
__ Breasts 1.97E-07 1. 76E-08 9.77E-05 1. 49E-07 4.33E-08 1.84E-07
Gallbladder Wall 2.77E-06. 2.98E-09 1. 56E-07 . 3.42E-04 1.23E-07 6.74E-06.
LLI wall 6.21E-08 4.15E-10 3.44E-08 1. 12E-07 1.24E-04 1. 89E-07
Small Intestine 1. 49E-06 2.92E-09 1.84£"-07 6.29E-06 2.21E-07 4.57E-05
Stomach 9.74£-07 4.49E-09 3.08E-07 9.63E-07 2.87E-07 3. 39E.-06
ULJ; Wall 1.22E-07 4.03E-09 1.82E-07 3.60E-07 1.77E-07 . 4.25E-07
Iie"'art Wall 7.46E-07 1.37E-08 1.10E-06 4.36E-07 3.07E-08 4.98E-07
Kidneys 2.71E-06 2. 62E-09· 9.02E-08 2.39E-06 1.08E-07 1. 64E-06
Liver 1. 42E-:06 6.99E-09 3.22E-07 2.38E-06 5.42E-08 1. 76E-06
Lungs 7.14E-07 3.40E-08 7.55E-07 3.~lE-07 2.54E-08 3.01E-07
Mu~cle 3.88E-07 7'.07E-08 1.77E-07 2",80E-07 3.35E-07 2.94E-07
OVaries 1.18E-07 4.42E-I0 2.'08E-08 3.27E-07 1.07E-06 3.34E-07
Pancreas 3.36E-06 4.53E-09 2.34E-07 3.71E-06 1.49E-07 5. 12E-06
Red Marrow 8.36E-07 3.84E-07 1.94£-07 4.80E-07 3.02E-07 3.93E-07
Bone Surfaces 6.07E-07 6.~9E-07 1. 88E-07 3.36E-07 2. 11E-07 2.90E-07
Skin 1.31E-07 1. 64E-07 3.05E-07 1.00E-07 1 .• 42E-07- 1.04E-'07
Spleen 1. 74E-06 6.33E-09 1. 67E:"'07 6.29E-07 1.57E-07 1.69E-06
Thymus 1.75,E-07 3.-81E-08 8.74E-07 1.12E-07 1.26E-08 1. 17E-07
Thyroid 4.51E-08 2.08E-07 1.39E-07 2.54E-08 2.,93E-:09 2.49E-08
'Urin Bladder Wall 3.50E-08 2.21E-10 1.40E-08 1.05~-07 7.41E-07 1.10E-07
Uterine Wall 1.94E-07 1. 61E-09 8.88E-08 8.08E-07 8.56E-07 9'. 73E-07
Fetus 1.66~-07 1.12E-09 7.57£-08 5.53E-07 6.75E-07 6.24E-07
Placenta 1.38E-07 3.16E-09 1. 62E-07. 3.90E-07 3.03E-07 5. 42E':"07
Total Body 9.43E-07 7.76E-07 1'. 48E-07 4.56E-07- 6.05E-07 7.83E-07
27 S-values for the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBg-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LL1 Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

UL1 Wall. Heart WaJ..I Kidneys·

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone·Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall

Fetus

Placenta Total Body

stomach

9.68E-07 3.92E-09 2. 84E...,07 9.79E-07 2.35E-07 3.11E-06 7.95E-05 3.59E-07 8.55E-07 7.66E-07 5.89E-07 4.28E-07 3.01E-07 1~97E-07 4.26E-06 2~61E-07 2.·38E-07 1.19E-07 2.37E-06 1.68E-07 3.30E-08 7.53E~08 6.81E-07 4.54E-.07 4.86E-07 5. 13E.';'07

SOURCE ORGANS

UL1 Cont Heart Co Heart Wa . Kidneys

1.34E-07 3.91E-09 1. 96E-07 3.6SE-07 1.53E-07 4.53E-07 3.80E-07 8.07E-05 1.39E-07 1. 68E-07 3.72E-07 8.16E-OS 2.49E-07 4. S6E-07 2.4SE-07

.1.52E-07 1. 18E";'07 1.37E-07 1.29E-07 8.45E-08 1. 79E-OS 2.08E-07 1.04E-06 7.03E_:_07 1. 82E-06 4. 92E-07

6.76E-07 1.56E-08 9.73E-07 4. 19E-07 2.58E-OS 4.07E-07 6.3.5E-07 1.14E-07 4.67E-05 2.26E-07 7.95E-07 1~63E-06 3.14E-07 3.23E-08 7.23E-07 3.35E-07 3.20E-07 1.50E-0; 3. 82E-07 2.54E-06 2.28E-07 1.43E-08 8.77E-08 7.33E-08 1.10E-07 5.01E-07

7.46E-07 1. 37E-08 1.10E-06 4.66E-07 3.07E-08 4~98E-07 9.65E-07 1.29E-07 1.41E-04 2.49E-07 B.54E';'07 1~55E-06 3.29E-07 3.75E-OB 9.26E-07 3.21E-07 3.07E-07 1.57E-07 4.92E-07 2.16E-06 1.95E-07 1.62E-OB 1.04E-07 B.61E-08 1. 29E-07 8.75E-07

2.71E-06 2.62E-09 9.02E-08 2.39E-06 1. 08E-07 1. 64E-06 7.73E-07

1. 56E-07

2. 49E-07 1.27E-Q4 8. 66E-07 2.39E-07 3.26E-07 2.70E-07 1.. 63E-06 6.00E-07 3.72E-07 1.46E-07 2.27E-06 6.86E-OB 1. 83E-OB 7.31E-OS· 3.07E-07 2.81E-07 1.51E-07 8. 95E-07

S-values for the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMAL~ for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s) SOURCE ORGANS

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall

. LLI Wall

Small Intestine . Stomach ULIWall heart Wall Kidneys

. Liver

Lungs

Muscle ·ovaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skj,n

Spleen

Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall

. Fetus

Placenta Total B.ody

Lungs

7.14E-07 3.40E-08 7.54E-07 3.59E-07 2.40E-.08 3.01E-07 4.53E-07 7.76E-08 1.55E-06 2.39E;"07 7.43E-:07 4.22E-05 3.3BE-07 2.86E-OB 5.49E-07 3.~OE"07 3.75E-07 i.70E-07 4.88E-07 9.63E-07 3.72E-07 1. 09E-08 6.42E-08 5.67E-08 7.12E-08 8.53E-07

Muscle

oVaries Panc~easRed Mar.

3.88E-07 7.07E-08 1. 77E-07 2.90E-07 3.S4E-07 2.94E-07 3.23E-07 2.53E-07 3.29E-07 3.26E-07 2.54£-07 3.38E-07 2.15E-06 4.33E-07 3·. 42E-07 3.22E.-07 3. 96E-07 2.21E-07 3.51E-07 3.72E-07· 3.39E-07 3.48E-07

. 2.72E-07 2.26E-07 1. 66E-07 B.14E-07

1.18E-07 3. 36E-.06 4.42E-19 4.53E-09· 2~08E-08 2.34E-07 3.41E-07 4.19E~06

1.06E-06 1.21E-07 3.34E-075.l2E-06 1.93E-07 4.51E-06 4.39E-07 2.31E-07 3.75E-08 9.26E-07 2.70E-07·1.63E-06 1. 47E-07 1.24E-06 2.86E-08 5.50E-07 4.33E-07. 3.42E-07 2.B9E~03 ·1.80E-07 1.80E-07 3.95E-04 8.48E-07 4.43E~07 4.01E-07 3.51E-07 1.05E-07 1.08E-07 1~49E-07 4.26E-06 1.38E-08 1.80E-07 3.06E-09 3~94E-08 7.30E-07 6.67E-08

1.46E-06 4.23E-07 1.40E-06 3.26E-07 2.04E~07 3.08E-07 '9.00E-07 9.59E-07

28

8.36E-07 3.83E-07 1.94E-07 4.94E-07 3.57E-07 3.93E-07 2. 68E-07 1.39E-07 3.21E-07 6.00E-07 2 -. 96E-07 3.80E-07· 3.22E-07 8.49E-07 4.45E-07 1.65E-05 8.31E-06 1.85E-07 3.15E-07 2.71E-07 2.78E-07 1.68E-07

·2.59E-07 2.62E-07 8.68E-08 S.61E-07

LiVer

1.42E-06 6.99E-09 3.22E-07 2.45E-06 5.42E-08 1. 76E-06 5.99E-07 3.43E-07 8.54E-07 8.66E-07 2.82E-05 7.44E-07 2.54E-07 1. 47E-07 1.24E-06 2.95E-07 2.88E-07 1. 35E-07 3.10E-07 2.29E-0? . 5.52E-08 5.29E-08 3.72E-07 2.78E-07 3.05E-07 9.09E-07

CrtBonsf

4.01E-07 4.28E-07 1.26E-07 2.25E-07 1. 65E-07 1.85E-07 1.58E-07 7.07E-08 2.04E-07 2.55E-07 1. 93E-07 2.61E-07 2~71E-07 2.61E-07 2. 35E-07 7.53E-07 9.94E-06 2.11E-07 1. 92E-07 1. 79E-07 ·2.73E-07

9.58E-08·. 1.06E-07 1.05E-07 4.49E-08 8.22E-07

l l·

r

Plit r

l

l l1

·i l!

~.

l:

..

...,:

I'"

1

J

~

I .~

r

r r

., ;

r·:

r r:

r~ r·'· r:..:.

I

rJ

.

r:

r.y r';

.;

r

r

S-values for the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LL1 Wall

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI Wall

Heart Wall Kidneys

Liver

. Lungs

Muscle OVaries Pancreas

Red Marrow Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus Thyroid

Urin Bladder Wall .

Uterine Wall

Fetus Placenta Total Body

TrbBonSf

4.01E-07 4.28E-07 1.26E-07 2.25E-07 1.65E-07 1.85E-07 1. 58E-07 7.07E-08 2.04E-07 2.55E-07 1. 93E-07 2.61E-07. 2.71E-07 2.61E-07 2.35E-07 9.69E-06 1.77E-05 2. l1E-'07 1.92E-07 1. 79E-07 2.73E-07 9.58E-08 1.06E-07 1.05E-07 4.49E-08 8.22E-07

CrtBonVl

4.01E-07 4.28E-07 1. 26E-07 2.25E-07 1. 65E-07 1. 85E-07 1.58E-07 7.07E-08 2.04E-07 2.55E-07 1. 93E-07 2.61E-07 2.71E-07 2.61E-07 2.35E-07 7.53E-07. 2.21E-06 2. 11E-07 1.92E-07 1. 79E-07 2.73E-07 9.58E-08 1.06E-07 1.05E-07 4.49E-08 8.22E-07

TrbBonVI

SOURCE ORGANS

Spleen

4.01E-07 4.28E-07 1.26E-07 2.25E-07 1.65E-07 1.85E-07 1.58E-07 7.07E-08 2.04E-07 2.55E-07 1.93E-07 2.61E-07 2.71E-07 2. 61E':"'07 2.35E-07 7.43E-06 9.37E-06 2. 11E-07 1.92E-07 1. 79E-:-07 2.73E-07 9. 58E:"'08 1.06E-07 1. 05E-07 4.49E-08 8.22E-07

1. 74E-:-06 6.33E-09 1.67E-07 6.59E-07 1.32E-07 1.69E-06

.2.40E-06 1. 18E-07 4.92E-07 2.27E-06 3.10E-07 4.88E-07 3.51E-07 1. 49E-07 4.26E-06 3.15E-07 2.92E-07 1.36E-07 2.33E-04 1.22E-07 4.26E-08 4.87E-08 2.34E-07 1.97E-07 1. 57E-07 9.10E-07

Thymus

1. 75E-07 3.81E-08 8.74E-07 1.26E-07 1. 16E-08 1.17E-07 1. 77E-07 8.22E-08 2.16E-06 6.86E-08 2.29E-07 9.64E-07 3.72E-07 1.38E-08 1. 80E-07 2.71E-07 2.72E-07 2.12E-07 1. 22E-07 1. 63E-03 7.60E-07 6.15E-09 3.88E-08 3.08E-08 6.88E-08 8.54E-07

S-valuesfor the 9-MONTH PREGNANT FEMALE for 131-1-53, (mGy/MBq-s)

TARGET ORGANS

Adrenals

Brain

Breasts Gallbladder Wall LLI Wall

Small Intestine St0ptClch

Ufi:t'" Wall

Heart Wall Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Muscle

OVarl.es Pancreas

Red Marrow

Bone Surfaces Skin

Spleen

Thymus

Thyroid. .

Urin Bladder Wall Uterine Wall

Fetus

Placenta Total· Body

SOURCE ORGANS

Urin. Bl Utero WI Fetus Placenta Total Bd

3.46E-08 1. 79E-10 1. 44E-08 9.81E-08 8.75E-07 1.12E-07 7.33E-08 . 2.08E-·07 1.52E-08 6.96E-08 5.32E-08 1.llE-08 3.38E-07 7.33E-07 5.79E-08 1.69E-07 1.51E-07 1.73E-07 4.48E-08 5.97E-09 9.61E-10 3.~3E-04 1.12E-06 1.07E-06 . 2.24E-07 6.48E-06

1.94E-07 1.61E-09 8.88E-08 7.91E-07 7.77E-07 9.73E-07 6.47E-07 1. 15E-06 1.04E-07 3.07E-07 3.72E-07 6.42E-08 2.72E-07 1. 46E-06 4.23E-07 2.59E-07 1. 67E-07 1. 16E-07 2.34E-07 3.88E-08 8.59E-09 1.12E-06 3.05E-05 1.30E-06 1.60E-06 7.79E-07

1.60E-07 1.12E-09 7.10E-08 5.15E-07 6. 19E-07

. 6.04E-07 .

4.11E-07 7.09E-07 8. 13E-08 2. 62E-07 2.68E-07 5.39E-08 2.17E-07 1.33E-06 3.23E-07 2.48E-07 1.64E-07 9.09E-08 1.90E-07 3.08E-08 6.24E-09 1.06E-06 1.27E-06 1. 46E,""05 1.90E-06 2.22E-07

29

1.38E-07 3.16E-09 1. 62E-07 3. 82E--07 2.46E-07 5.42E-07 4.72E-07 1. 98E-06 1. 29E-07 1. 51E-07 3.05E-07 7.12E-08 1.66E-07 2.04E-07 3.08E-07 8. 68E-tl8 7.60E-08 1.02E-07 1.57E-07 6.88E-08 1.34E-08 2.25E-07 1.60E-06 1. 92E-06 7.78E-05 6.64E-07

9.31E-07 7.79E-07 7.48E-07 8.95E-07

··8.34E-07 8.90E-07 8.63E-07 7.44E-07 9.24E-07 8.85E-07 9.06E-07 8.57E-07 8.05E-07 8.93E-07 9.40E-07 8.64E-01 9.62E-07 7.00E-07 8.99E-07 8.68E-07 8.17E-07 7.89E-07 7.73E-07 2.25E-07 6.62E-07 8.14E-07

Thyroid

4.51E-08 2.08E-07 1. 39E-07 3.60E-08 2.62E-09 2.49E-08 3.73E-08 1.59E-08 1.95E-07 1. 83E-08 5.52E-08 3. 72E-07 3.39E-07 3.06E-09 3.94E-08 2.78E-07 4.08E-07 3.30E-07 4.26E-08 7.60E-07 1.90E-03 1. 13E-09 8.59E-09 6.40E-09 1.34E-08 8.21E-07

Abbreviations used in tables:

LLI = Lower Large Intestine ULI = Upper Large Intestine Ur~n = Urinary

Gall Bl = Gall. Bladder Cont·= Contents

Sml Int. Small Intestine Heart Contents Heart Wall

Red Marrow

Cortical Bone Surfaces Trabecular Bone Surfaces Cortical Bone Volume Trabecular Bone Volume Urinary Bladder

Total Body

Heart Co =
Heart Wa =
Red Mar. =
CrtBonSf =
TrbBonSf =
crtBonVl =
TrbBonVl =
Urin. Bl =
Total Bd = l

l

l·~ li;

l:

l··

l

J

\

·30

r·.

r··

..

j

. .:. .

r:

~ .;"

r··

~ ; .. l- .y

c~ -

! . ~

r~

~ .:

r~'

... .6 •

r;

:;

r; r~ r;

r~:

.:;.

r'~"

)

r

r

B. Discussion of biological data

Of course, it's very nice to have all of these dose conversion factors, but they are not much good . without some reasonably valid biological data to use them with. Unfortunately, very little is known about the placental crossover of many radionuclides, much less labeled' . radiopharmaceuticals. In 1995, a fairly thorough literature review was performed in order to determine what was known about the placental crossover of any radiopharmaceuticals (Russell 1995, Russell et al, 1 997a). Most of what is known came from animal studies. But this information was pulled together and combined with the best available kinetic data for many radiopharmaceuticals, to provide dose estimates at all stages of pregnancy for many radiopharmaceuticals. This information contains numerous uncertainties. As noted, for many cases, nothing is known about the placental crossover of the compound. In these cases, only the dose from the maternal organs was calculated, and thus the doses will certainly be underestimates if there is significant placental crossover. Even in the cases in which placental crossover is included, being based on animal data it certainly is open to improvement. Another factor ~h has hardly been studied at all are the changes in maternal distribution of the pharmaceutical that .may occur as a result of pregnancy (e.g. slowed digestion). Nonetheless, these estimates

represent the best available data currently for estimating fetal doses during pregnancy.

Listed below are the residence times and dose estimates compiled by Russell et at for these many compounds (the data in' the following three tables were reproduced from the Journal Health Physics (Russell et alI997b) with permission from the Health Physics Society):

C. Residence times used to produce the dose estimates in this study

"Co Vitamin B-12, Normal-Flushing

LLI 7.17xI0°hr

Small Intestine I.2Ox 1 0° hr

Stomach LOOxIOo hr

ULI 3.89xl00 hr

Kidneys 3. 90x 1 0° hr

Liver l.7lxlcr hr

_..;/ Urinary BI Contents 1.21xl00 hr

Remainder of the Body 8.56xl02 hr

"Co Vitamin B-12, Normal-No Flushing

LLI 7.17x10o hr

Small Intestine 1.20xl00 hr

Stomach l.OOxIOo hr

ULI 3.89xIOo hr

Liver 2.56x103 hr

Remainder of the Body 1.29x103 hr

S7Co Vitamin B-12, Pernicious Anemia-Flushing

LLI 2.18xlOl hr

Small Intestine 3.64xlO° hr

Stomach l.00xl00 hr

ULI 1.18xl01 hr

Kidneys 4. 90x 10-1 hr

Liver 2.·20x 102 hr

\

31

Urinary 'HI Contents 1.52xl0-1 hr

Remainder of the Body 1 ~ 06x I 02 hr

S7eo Vitamin B-12, Pernicious Anemia-No Flushing

LLI 2.18x 1 Olhr

Small Intestine 3.64xIOo hr

Stomach 1.00x10o hr

ULI 1.18xl01 hr

Liver 3.23xl& hr

Remainder of the Body : 1.66xl02 hr

SICo Vitamin B-12, Normal-Flushing

LLI 7.09x10o hr

Small Intestine 1.2OxIOo hr

Stomach 1.00xlOO hr

ULI 3.88xlOO hr

Kidneys 1.4OxlOo hr

Liver 6.03xl&·hr

Urinary BI Contents 9.79x10-1 hi

Remainder of the Body 3.03x102 hi-

SICo Vitamin B-12, Normal-No Flushing

· LLI 7.09x10o hr

Small Intestine 1.2OxIOo hr

Stomachl.OOxlOO hr

ULI 3.88xlOo hr

Liver . 9.04xl& hr

Remainder of the Body 4.55xl& hr

$leo Vitamin B-12, Pernicious Anemia-Flushing

LLI 2.15xlOI hr.

Small Intestine 3.64xlO° hr

Stomach. 1.00xlOo hr

ULI 1. 18xlOi hi

· Kidneys 1.70x 1 0-1 hr

Liver 7.8Ox101 hr

· Urinary BI Contents 1.23xlOI hr

_/

Remainder of the Body 3.7Ox101 hr

SICo Vitamin B- I 2, Pernicious Anemia-No Flushing

LLI 2.l5xl01 hr

Small Intestine 3.64xIOo hr

Stomach I ;OOxI 0° hr

ULI I.18xlOJ hr

Liver 1.14xI& hr

· Remainder of the Body 5 .86x 1 01 hr

~Co Vitamin B-12, Normal-Flushing

LLI 7.2OxlOo hr

Small Intestine i .2Ox 10° hr

Stomach 1.OOx I 0° hr

ULI 3.90xIOo hr

Kidneys 8.80x10o hr

Liver 3.85xl<Y hr

,
J
1
1
l
1:
)
.,
1
r J.
l
l
J
1
1

\.
l:
1:
l::
, 1

1

32

Urinary BI Contents 1.66xlOo hr
Remainder of the Body L93xl03 hr
6OCO Vitamin B-12, Normal-No Flushing
LLI 7.20x10o hr
Small Intestine 1.2OxlO° hr
Stomach 1.0OxlOo hr
r~ ULI 3.90x10o hr
t}t Liver 5.77x1Ql hr
Remainder of the Body . 2.89xI03 hr
6OCO Vitamin B-12, Pernicious Anemia-Flushing
LLI 2.19x101 hr
Small Intestine 3.64xlO°hr
Stomach l.OOxIOo hr
ULI 1.18x101 hr
Kidneys 1.1~IOo hr r
Liver 4.95x102 hr
Urinary BI Contents 2.09xIO-1 hr
Remainder of the Body 2:J9xl02 hr
6OCO VitaminB-I2, Pernicious Anemia-No Flushing·
LLI 2.19xIOl hr
Small Intestine 3.64xlOo hr
Stomach LOOxIOo hr
ULI 1.18xl01 hr
Liver 7.28xI~hr
; . Remainder of the Body 3.72xl~hr
... ~ IIFFDG
Brain 9.8OxIO-2hr
Heart Wall 9 .24x I 0-2 hr
Kidneys 2.I1xlO-2 hr
Liver 8.45xlO-2 hr
,~ Lungs 6.34xlo-2 hi-
Ovaries 2.6Oxl0-4 hr
;: -_'_.;il Pancreas 9.00xlO-3 hr
;. Spleen 2.9OxlO-2 hr
Urinary HI Contents 3.67xIO-1 hi'
~v
Remainder of the Body 1.85xlOo hr
J IIF Sodium Fluoride
'i Kidneys 2.5OxI0-2 hr
Cortical Bone . 5.60xlO-1 hr
Trabecular Bone 5.60xlO-1 hr \
~. Urinary BI Contents 4.99xIO-1 he
Remainder of the Body 3.36xlO-1 hr
!v' 67Ga Citrate (nonpregnant)
Adrenals 5.0OxlO-2 he
LLI 1.54xlOohr
r Small Intestine 3 .48x 10-1 hr
ULI 1.01xlO° he
Kidneys 7.4OxIO-1 hr
r 33 l
Liver 4.45x10o hr J
Red Marrow . 3.66x10o hr
Cortical Bone 5.75xlO° hr
Trabecular Bone . 5.75xlO° hr l
Urinary BI Contents 4.0IxlO-1 hr
Remainder of the Body 6.33x101 hr
61Ga Citrate (3 months) l:
AdrenaIs 5.0OxIO-2 hr !.
LLI I.54x10o hr
Small Intestine 3.48xIO-1 hr l··
ULI 1.0 1 xlO° hr ;.:.
__ J •..•
Kidneys 7.4OxIO~1 hr l:
Liver 3.58xHfhr
Red Marrow 3.66xlO°hr
Cortical Bone 4.78xI0°hr r
Trabecular Bone 4.78xlO°hr l:'
Urinary BI Contents 4.01xlO-1 hr .~- r
. Fetus 2.27xlO°hr ,.
Remainder of the Body 5.32xlOl br f
61Ga Citrate (6 and 9 months)
Adrenals 5.00x)0-2 hr 1
LLI 1.54xlOO br J
Small Intestine 3.48xlO-1 hr
ULI I.OlxlOO br l
Kidneys 7.4Ox1O-1 hr
.~
Liver 3.58xlO°br
Red Marrow . 3.66xlO°br l'
CorticalBone 4.78xI0°br
Trabecular Bone 4.78xlO°br
Urinary BI Contents 4.0IxI0-1 hr l·
Fetus 2.27xlO°he
Placenta 2.28xlOI he J
gfRemainder of the Body 5.32x101 he
I I Hippuran
Kidneys . 1.04xlO-1 br l
Urinary BI· Contents 4.02xlO°he
Remainder 2.23xlO-1 he
1231 IMP l:
Brain 6.00x10-1 he
Liver 1.65x10-1 hr \
Lungs 1.46xIOo hr '""'1.
Urinary BI Contents 6.5IxIO-1 hr .. f
,
Remainder of the Body Ll5xlOI hr
1231 mIBG
AdrenaIs 3.4OxIO-3 hr
Heart Wall 1.36x 1 0-1 hr
Liver 3.45xlO° hr
Spleen l.06xlO-1 hr
34 r~·
';
a .
r··~ Thyroid 9.40xI0-4 hr
Urinary BI Contents 1.2OxlOo hr
,
, Remainder of the Body 6.30xlO° hi-
r: 1231 Sodium Iodide
~ : Small Intestine 1.03xlOo hr
:; .~ 9. 07x 10-1 hr
ri' Stomach
Liver 1. 13xIO-1 hr
r~. Thyroid 3.28x10o hr
Urinary BI Contents 1.25x10o hr
r~·-. : Remainder of the Body 2.92xl<Yhr
:':1
n Fetus (3 month) 4.0OxIO-3 hr
Fetus (6 month) 1.37x10-1 hr .
r'·' Fetus (9 month) 2.71xlO-1 he
; ~
t! : 1241 Sodium Iodide
L;
r:·· Small Intestine 1.44xlOo. hr r
Stomach 1.27x10o hr
{ ~ Liver 5.75xlO-1 hr
r~·' Thyroid 3.26x101 hr
Urinary BI Contents 1.83x10o hr
.: Remainder of the Body 5.2OxIO°hr
r llSrnSA·
, .. ~ Brain 1.03xl01 hr
i Heart Wall 1.98xl01 hr
r· Kidneys 2.68xlO°hr
L . Liver r.uxro' hr
P: Lungs 2.07xlOI hr
Spleen 3.5OxIOo hr
.. Urinary Bl Contents 1.85xlOO hr
r'·: Remainder of the Body 4.16xl<Y hr
llS1 IMP
... Brain 1.34xlOO hr
Liver 3.49x1O-1 hr .
r·,· J'/ Lungs 3.45x10o hr
. ~ ..
'o_,.I Urinary BI Contents 2.38x10o hr
r·,·· Remainder of the Body 4.29xl01 hr
., IlSl mIBG
~ Adrenals 2.6OxIO-2 hr
r'~ Heart Wall 1.28xlOo hr
:_~ Liver l.66xlOI hr
~.;;~
~J Spleen 1.37xlOo·hr
\
r··· Thyroid 5.0Ox 10-2 hr
":;:
Urinary BI Contents 2.52x10o hr
.... ~
Remainder of the Body 3.23xlOI hr
r~: llSI Sodium Iodide
Small Intestine 1.72xlOo hr
~ ..
r' Stomach 1.53xlOo hr
Liver 6.39xIOo hr
Thyroid 2.74xl02 hr
r·: 35
;: Urinary Bl Contents Remainder of the Body

1261 Sodium Iodide SmaIl Intestine Stomach

Liver

Thyroid

Urinary BI Contents Remainder of the Body

IlOJ Sodium Iodide SmaIl Intestine Stomach Liver

Thyroid

Urinary BI Contents . Remainder of the Body

1311 Hippuran Kidneys

Urinary BI Contents Remainder of the Body

1311 HSA Brain

Heart Contents Kidneys

Liver

Lungs

Spleen

Urinary BI Contents Remainder of the Body

131IMAA

Kidneys Liver Lungs

., .... ;.rl

Urinary BI Contents

. Remainder of the Body

1311 mIBG· .

AdrenaIs Liver Spleen Thyroid

Urinary BI Contents Remainder of the Body

1311 Sodium Iodide Small Intestine Stomach Liver

Thyroid

Urinary BI Contents

2.21x100 hr 1.54xlOJ hr

J

1.55xlOO hr 1.37xlOo hi 1. 90x 1 0° hr 9.39x101 hr 1.98xlOo hr 7.70xlOo hr

1.01xlOo hr 8.88xI0-1 hr l.09xlo-l hr 3.01x10o hr l.22xlOo hr 2.85xIOo hr

r

l ].

J l

L04xlO-1 hr 4.53x10o hr 2.3 Ox 1 0-1 hr

9.45x10o hr 1.8lxlOI hr

2.46xlOo hr l.02x101 be 1.89xlOI hr 3.22xlOohr 7.77xlO-1 be 1.27xlff be

l.08xlO-1 be 2.6OxlOI hr 1.85xlOi be 1.48xIOo hr 7.78x10o be

1. 9Ox1 0-2 be 9.98x100 hr 8.0OxIO-1 hr 1.2Ox 10-2 hr 2.3IxlO° hr l.9OxIOI be

J.

\

1.5OxlOO hr 1.33xlOo hr 1.16xlO° hr 6.1OxlOI hr 1.92xlOo hr

36

r'-~
a.
r-'" Remainder of the Body 6.4OxlO° hr
Fetus (3 month) 8.2OxI0-2 hr
L Fetus (6 month) 2_21xlO° hr
C': Fetus (9 month) 4.71x10o hr
1311 Rose Bengal
~ .~ Gall Bl Contents 4.83xlO-1 hr
nl LLI 1.98xl01 hr
l~~~ Small Intestine 3.75x10o hr
ULI 1.16xl01 hr
r~· - Kidneys 4 .2Ox 10-3 hr
~. '5
t~1 Liver 2.04xlOo hr .
Urinary BI Contents 1.65xlO-1 hr
rr~ - Remainder of the Body 1.8Ox10-1 hr
: 1:
f~ lllIilDTPA
r'~ Small Intestine 2.88xlO-2 hr r
Stomach 2.25x 1 0-2 hr
f .. ~ Kidneys 7.48xI0-2 hr
f ;;
Liver 6.22xlo-2 hr
r··
.! Muscle 2.23xI0-1 hr
~' 4.5OxI0-3 hr
, Spleen
r" Urinary BI Contents 3.6OxI0°hr
Remainder of the Body 2.23xI0°hr
'.' lIIIn Pentetreotide
r:··· G3Il BI Contents 1.95x10-2 hr
'- LLI 3.9IxI0-1 hr
;'.:.' Small Intestine 9.2OxI0-2 hr
r'" ULI 2.64xI0-1 hr
l Kidneys 4.66xI0°hr
.. -
Liver 1.2lxlOo hr
r:: Spleen 1.42xlOo hr
Thyroid 2.94x.1o-2 hr
;~
Urinary BI Contents 3.26xI0°hr
r-' -'/ Remainder of the Body 8.13x10o hr
.:
;.;; lIlIn Platelets
r~ Liver 1.43xl01 hr
Red Marrow 3.94xI0°hr
~ Spleen 2.18xlOl hr
Urinary Bl Contents 7,06xI0-1 hr
rA Remainder of the Body 5.7Ox101 hr
s$.
~ IllIn Red Blood Cells
2.78x10o hr \
r::; Liver
Red Marrow L39xlO° hr
, Spleen 2.78x10o hr
r: Remainder of the Body 9.07xlOl hr
lllIn White Blood Cells
Liver 2.45xlOl hr
r Red Marrow 3.92xlOl hr
Spleen 2.45x101 hr
r- 37 Remainder of the Body 9.80x10o hr . J.
IlmKrGas
Lungs 5.2Ox 10-1 hr
IlmKr Injection
Heart Contents 4.0OxIO-1 hr
. L 16x10-1 hr
Lungs
Remainder of the Body 7.9OxIO-7 hr ll.
IIIIlJ<.r Oral .,
- ;".
Stomach 5.2OxlO-1 hr
11N Ammonia l::
. Brain 1.65xl0-2 hr - _.
'.
Liver 1.7OxlO-2 hr ""l.
Urinary BI Contents 7. 17xlo-1 hr l'
Remainder of the Body L99xlO-1 hr '- c~:
.... _-
32p Phosphate 7.42xiOI hr r ]l~
CortBone
TrabBone 7.42xl0Ihr --
Remainder of the Body L3OxlQ2 hr
1'·
=re Albumin Microspheres ~: .
_ ,
LLI 1.22xl0-1 hr ~
Stomach 4.29xlO-1 hi l .
ULI . 2.00xlO-1 hr
Kidneys. 6.72xlO-1 hr
Lungs 4.28xlO°hr 1-·
Thyroid 2.00x1O-2 hr
Urinary Bl Contents .2.09xlo-Ihr
Remainder of the Body 2.4OxlOOhr 1._
99mTc Disofenin
Gall BI Contents 7:7Oxlo-1 hr
LLI L14xlO°hr 1'.
. Small Intestine 1.79xlOo hr
ULI 2.34xlO°hr
J Kidneys 1.2OxIO-2 hr ] ...
Liver 8.0OxlO-1 hr
Urinary Bl Contents 5.3OxlO-1 hr
Remainder of the Body . 1. 40x 10-1 hr
~cDMSA .. ;
Kidneys 3.81xlOo hr l-
Urinary BI Contents 3.16xIO-1 hr
Fetus 2.6 lx I 0-2 hr ,
Placenta 1.82x10-J hr 1:
Remainder of the Body 2.94xlO°hr
~c DTPA (nonpregnant)
Kidneys .9.2OxIO-2 hr
Urinary Bl Contents 1.84xlOo hr
Remainder of the Body 2.84xlOo hr
~c DTPA (3 month) ..,
'-
Kidneys 9 .20x) 0-2 hr
38 n~
t ;"
r"~ Urinary BI Contents I. 84xIOo hr
Fetus 6.05xI0-4 hr
; ': Remainder of the Body 2.84x10o hr
r< 99mTc DTPA (6 month)
Kidneys 9.20xIO-2 hr
..
... . " Urinary BI Contents 1.84xIOo hr
r~~ Fetus 2.00xl0-3 hr
~~ ~: Placenta 8.77xl~ hr
1 .
... ;.
Remainder of the Body 2.84x10o hr
Go ~c DTP A (9 month)
f~j .
F.Z Kidneys 9.2Oxl0-2 hr
U
Urinary BI Contents 1.84xlOo hr
n·: Fetus 1.2Ox 1 0-1 hr
l {
t :. Placenta 5.5OxIO-3 hr
r;·,_ Remainder of the Body 2.84x10o hr r
99mTc DTP A Aerosol (nonpregnant)
l ~
- i. LLI 5.6OxI0-2 hr
Small Intestine 8.79xl0-2 hr
rr-~ Stomach 3.2IxlO-2 hr
~ i.~i
ULI 1. 14xlO-·1 hr
n< Kidneys 4.00xlO-2 hr
Lungs 1.03xlO° hr
l Urinary BI Contents 7.48xlO-1 hr
n;· Remainder of the Body 1.41xlO° hr
99a!]" c DTP A Aerosol (3 month)
LLI . 5.6OxI0-1 hr
n° Small Intestine 8.79x10-1 hr
Stomach 3.21xlO-1 hr
l"
ULI 1.14x10-1 hr
r(_ Kidneys 4.0OxI0-2 hr
Lungs 1.03xHf hr
r;~ Urinary BI Contents 7.48xlO-1 hr
/ Fetus 6.05xlO-4 hr
__.'
Remainder of the Body 1.41xlOo hr
r·· ~c DTPA Aerosol (6 month)
t·;. LLI 5.6OxI0-i hr
~~ Small Intestine 8.79xlO-2 hr
r~~ Stomach 3.2lxI0-1 hr
ULI 1.14x10-1 hr
$;
~-::.: Kidneys 4.00xI0-1 hr
\.
r~;' Lungs I.03xlOo hr
UrinaryBI Contents 7.48xl0-1 hr
e . Fetus 2.0OxI0-3 hr
r~ Placenta 8.77xlO-4 hr
Remainder of the Body 1.41xlOo hr
,.
r' 99mTc DTPA Aerosol (9 month)
LLI 5.6OxlO-2 hr
Small Intestine 8.79xlO-2 hr
i'
r~ 39
" Stomach 3.21xlO·2 hr
ULI 1.14x1O·) hr
Kidneys 4 .00x 10-2 hr
Lungs 1.03xHf hr l
Urinary BI Contents 7.48xlO·1 hr
Fetus I .2OxI 0-1 hr
Placenta 5.50xlO·3 hr l
Remainder of the Body 1.41xlOo hr
99m-f c Glucoheptonate 1:
Kidneys 8.64xIO·1 hr
Liver 1.30xlO-1 hr
Urinary BI Contents 1. 77xl0° hr l-
Fetus 1.65xIO-2 hr
Placenta 2.0Ox1O-2 hr
Remainder of the Body _ 2.68xIOo hr f ]
~cHDP ,-
Kidneys 8.61xlo-2 hr.
CortBone 2.02xI0°hr l-
TrabBone 2.02xlO°hr
Urinary BI Contents 4.83xIO-1 hr ' '.:
Fetus 4.34xlO-2 hr l
Placenta 4.34xIO·2 hr
Remainder of the Body 2.14x10o hr
~cHEDP
Kidneys 1. 64x I 0-1 hr
CortBone 7.3OXlO-· hr
TrabBone 7.3OxIO-· hr l
Urinary BI Contents 9.54xlo-J hr
Remainder of the Body 2.22xIO°hr
99mTcHMPAO looo
Brain 4. 16xIO-· hr
Gall BI Contents 3.4~xlO·1 hr
oJ LLI 2.44xIO-· hr l--
_~f Small Intestine 3.83xIO-· hr
, ....•
ULI 4.98xlO-· hr l::
Kidneys 6.42x 1 0-· hr _
Liver 9.38xIO-1 hr
Lungs 7.l3xlO-· hr 1::
Thyroid 4.6OxlO-2 hr
Urinary BI Contents 6.I7xlO-· hr \
Remainder of the Body 2.44xIOo hr """'l_-
~c Human. Serum Albumin (-
Brain 4.24xIO-· hr
Heart Contents 8.13xlO-1 hr
Kidneys 1. IOx I 0-· hr
Liver 4.57xIO-· hr
Lungs 8.47xI0-) hr
Spleen I.44x10-1 hr
40 rr
.~ .
. ~ .:
~ :
rr Urinary BI Contents 5.53xIO-2 hr
Remainder of the Body 5.67xlOo hr
i 3 99nl-[cMAA
r~· Kidneys 1. 78x 10-2 hr
Liver 1.04xlOo hr
~ , Lungs 4.89xl0~ hr
r~;; . Urinary Bl Contents 2.17xI0-1 hr
i::~ Fetus 5.2OxI0-2 hr
Placenta 7.89x1O-1 hr
rtf Remainder of the Body 1.68xlOo hr
,:·1 =re MAG3
'1" •
.e
rr Kidneys 7.57xIO-2 hr
Urinary BJ Contents 3.33x10o hr
; ~ Remainder of the Body 2.30xI0-1 hr
~cMDP 1""'"
r~:· Kidneys 1.48xlO-1 hr
iT
CortBone 1.36xIOO hr
TrabBone 1.36xlO°hr
rr Urinary BI Contents 7.82xHrl hr
L Fetus 2.34xlO-2 hr
r; . Placenta . 2.08xlO-2 hr
L Remainder of the Body 1.64xIOOhr
99mTc MIBI-Rest
rn Gall Bl Contents 7.35xHr2 hr
r LLI 6.44xl 0-1 hr
.. , Small Intestine 1.01xlOo hr
rn 1.31xlOOhr ..
ULI
Heart Wall 5.30xIO-2 hr .
Kidneys 2.9OxIO-1 hr
ir Liver 1.86xlO-J hr .
l ~ Lungs 4.9Ox1O-2 hr
l:io
Spleen 2.4OxI0-2 hr
re. . i Urinary BI Contents 7.8OxIO-1 hr
.......
k·l Remainder of the Body 3.86xlOo hr .
99mTc MIBI-Stress
r~"': Gall BI Contents 1.48xlO-1 hr
, 5.08xlO-1 hr
~ LLI
Small Intestine 7.97xI0-1 hr
r~ l.04xlOo hr
:!'" ULI
~~ Heart Wall 6.60xlO-2 hr
,
r~ Kidneys 2.35xlO-1 hr
Liver 7 .20x 10-2 hr
i .. Lungs 4.5OxIO-2 hr .
r'" Spleen 1. 40x 10-2 hr
"
Urinary BI Contents 5.5Oxlo-1 hr
~'"
Remainder of the Body 3.89xlOo hr
r' 99mTc Pertechnetate
LLI 4.9OxIO-1 hr
~
r 41 Stomach 3.03xI0-1 hr l
ULI 7.90xI0-1 hr
Thyroid 3.80xIO-2 hr
Urinary BI Contents 7.95xI0-1 hr l
Fetus 3.34xI0-1 hr
Placenta 9.54xlO-1 hr
Remainder of the Body 5.02xlO° hr l.
99mTcPYP
. Kidneys 9.23xlO-2 hr
CortBone 1.5OxlOo br 1
TrabBone I.SOxIOO hr .
Urinary BI Contents 5.45xlO-J hr l"
Fetus 6.08xI0-2 hr
Placenta 6.95xW-2 hr
Remainder of the Body 3.00xIO°hr r l'
99mTc RBC - Heat Treated
Spleen 7.78x10o hr
Remainder of the Body 8.64xI0-1 hr 1·
99mTc RBC ~ in vitro Labeling
Heart Contents 5. 70xl 0-1 hr ~ :.~.
Kidneys 7.8OxIO-2 he .
Liver 3.22xlO-1 hr
Lungs 5.97xlO-J he
Spleen 1.01xl<r1 hr
Urinary BI Contents 4.5Oxl0-J hr
Fetus 8,67xI0-3 hr
Placenta 9.7OxI<r2 hr 1
Remainder of'the Body 5.38x10o hr
99mTc RBC.- in vivo Labeling
Heart Contents 8.64xI0-1 hr
Kidneys 8.00XIO-2 hr .
Liver 3.34xI0-1 hr
.... ~~i Lungs 6.19xW-1 hr
Spleen 1.05xl 0-1 hr
Urinary BI Contents 2.8OxI0-1 hr l
Fetus 8.67xIO-3 hr
Placenta 9. 70xl 0-2 hr
Remainder of the Body 5.96x10o hr 1
99mTc Sulfur Colloid - Normal (nonpregnant)
r
Liver 7.37x10o hr \
Red Marrow 4.33xlO-1 hr
Spleen' 6.07xl<rl hr
Remainder of the Body 2.6Ox1O-1 hr
99mTc Sulfur Colloid - Normal (3 month)
Liver 7.37xl0o hr
Red Marrow 4.33xl0-1 hr
. Spleen 6.07xlO-1 hr
Fetus 7.7OxIO-3 hr
..,
42 I
, r:t··

~ :

[.

r .. -·

~ .

l.

nr "

: t..

rr.: l ~ L

r[,. rE· rt"" "

b.:

Remainder of the Body 2.52xlO-1 hr

99mTc Sulfur Colloid - Normal (6 months)

Liver 7.3 7x 10° hr

Red Marrow 4.33xI0-1 hr

Spleen 6.07xIO-1 hr

Fetus 2.5OxI0-2 hr

Placenta 6.90xlO-2 hr

Remainder of the Body 1.66xI0-1 hr

99mTc Sulfur Colloid - Normal (9 months)

Liver 7.37xlO° hr

Red Marrow 4.33xlO-1 hr

Spleen 6.07xIO-1 hr

Fetus 4 .4OxI 0-2 hi

Placenta 1.01xIO-1 hr

Remainder of the Body I. I 5x 10-1 hr

99mTc Sulfur Colloid - Liver Disease

Liver 2.78xIOo hr

Red Marrow 2.17xIOo hr

Spleen 2.6OxIOo hr

Urinary BI Contents I. 76xl 0-1 hi

Remainder of the Body LI3xlOO hr

99mTc Teboroxime

r:

Brain

Gall BI Contents LLI

Small Intestine ULI

Heart WaIl Liver Lungs

Urinary BI Contents Remainder of the Body

92,nITc White Blood Cells Liver

Red Marrow Spleen

Remainder of the" Body

20ITI Chloride Brain LLI

Small Intestine Stomach

ULI

Heart Wall Kidneys Liver Lungs Testes

1.7OxlO-1 hr 2.00xlO-1 hr 4_55xlO-1·hr " 7_14xlO-l hr 9.28xIO-1 hr 4.2OxlO-1 hr 1. 20x I 0° hr 3.7OxIO-1 hr 1. 76xlO-1 hr 2.65xIO°hr

2.17xIOO hr 3.47xlOo hr 2.17x10Q hr 8.67xIO-1hr

1.86xIOo hr 2.70xIOo hr 1.IOxI01 hr 2.19xIOo hr 3.6OxIO°hr 2.53xHfhr 4.02xlO°hr 3.6IxIOo hr 8.0OxIO-1 hr 1.05x10o hr

\

43

Thyroid 4.3OxI0-1 hr

Urinary BI Contents 9.13xIO-2 hr

Remainder of the Body 5.15xI01 hr

127Xe, 5 Minute Rebreathing, 5 Liter Spirometer Volume

. Lungs 2.2OxIO-2 hr

Remainder of the Body 2.44xIO-1 hr

127Xe, 5 Minute Rebreathing, 7.5 Liter Spirometer Volume

Lungs I. 70x 1 0-2 hr

Remainder of the Body 1.34xI0-1 hr

127}f..e, 5 Minute Rebreathing, 10 Liter Spirometer Volume

- Lungs 1.3Ox10-2 hr

Remainder of the Body 1.47xIO-1 hr

I33Xe, 5 Minute Rebreathing, 5 Liter Spirometer Volume-

- Lungs 2.2OxHr2 hr

Remainder of the Body 2.44xl.O-1 hr

13-3Xe. 5 Minute Rebreathing, 7.5 Liter Spirometer Volume

Lungs 1.7OxIO-2 hI-

Remainder of the Body 1.34x10-1 hr

I33X~. ? Minute Rebreathing, 10 Liter Spirometer Volume

Lungs 1.3OxIO-2- hr

Remainder of the Body 1.47x10-1 be

I33Xe, Injection Heart Contents Lungs

Remainder of the Body

1.84xIO-2 hr 8.76xlo-2 hr 2.6OxIO-3 hr

44

1 l

l
1
-;-:::.
1
,
r- l
-_-
1-
l:
1
1
......
..,
I
l ,

"""1 : I

!

.." i

rr L

rn rp,

t.

rr·:1

Ai

rn

r t····

.'.:;,

t.:i

r ~[

~

r : .. :-: ..

...

~'-

:;,:.-

r ",

l .' ~

D. Absorbed Dose Estimates to the EmbryolFetus Per Unit Activity of Radiopharmaceutical
Administered to the Mother (shading indicates maternal and fetal self dose contributions)
Radiopharmaceutical Early 3 Month 6 Month 9Month
mGylMBg mGylMBg mGylMBg mGylMBg
S7Co Vitamin B-1, Normal-Flushing 1. Ox 10° . 6.8xIO-1 8.4xI0-1 8.8xI0-1
S7Co Vitamin B-12, Normal-No 1.5xlO° 1. Ox 100 1.2xlOo 1.3xlOo
Flushing
S7Co Vitamin B-12, PA- Flushing 2.1 X 10-1 1.7xlO-1 1.7xI0-1 1.5xHrl
S7Co Vitamin B-12, PA- No 2.8xI0-1 2.lxI0-1 2.2xI0-1 2.OxlO-~'"
Flushing
SICo Vitamin B-12, 2.5xl00 1.9xlOo 2.lxlOo 2;lxl00
Normal-Flushing
SICo Vitamin B-12, Normal-No 3.7xlOo 2.8xIOo 3.1xlOo 3.1xl00
Flushing
SlCo Vitamin B-12, PA-Flushing 8:3xlo-l 7.4xI0-1 6.4xI0-1 4.8xlo-l
SlCo Vitamin B-12, PA-No 9.8xl0-1 8.5xl0-1 7.6xlO-1 ·6.Oxl0-1
Flushing
6OCo·Vitamin B-12, 3.7xlOI 2.8xlOI 3.1xl01 3.2xl01
Normal-Flushing
6OCo Vitamin B-12, Normal-No 5.5xlOI 4.2xl01 4.7xlOI 4.7x101
Flushing
6OCo Vitamin B-12, PA~Flushing 5.9xl 0° 4.7xlOO 4.8xl00 4.5xlOo
6OCO Vitamin B-12, PA-No 8.3xIOo 6. 5x 10° 6.8xlOO 6.5xIOO
Flushing
I'FFDG . ·3.1xIO-2 l.9xl0-2 1. 8x 1 0-2

Sodium Iodide llSl HSA

12s1 IMP

12s1 MIBG

.12s1 Sodium Iodide 1261 Sodium Iodide I~ Sodium Iodide

1.4xl0-1 2.5xI0-1 3:2xHr2 2.6xl0-2 1.8xl0-2

·7.8xIO-2 1. 8x 10-1

5.9xl 3.8xlO-2 4.8xl0-3 4~lxl0-3 3.5xlO-3 3.2xlO-2 7.6xlO-2

4.6xlo-2 2.6xlO-2 3.6xlo-3 \ 3.4xlO-3 2.3xl0-3. 2.6xlO-2 5.7xlO-2

1.Oxl 7.8xlO-2 1.3xl0-2 l.lxl0-2 9.5xlO-3 5.lxlO-2 1.3xlO-1

45

Radiopharmaceutical Early 3 Month 6 Month 9Month

mGylMBg mGylMBg mGylMBg mGylMBg

1311 Hippuran 6.4xlO-2 5.OxlO-2 1.9xlO-2 1.8xlO-2

1311 HSA 5.2xlO-1 1.8x10-1 1.6xlO-1 1.3xlO-1

1311 MAA 6.7xIO-2 4.2xlO-2 4.0xlO~2 4.2xlO-2

1311 MIBG 1.lxlO-1 5.4xlO-2 3.8xlO-2 3.5xlO-2

~~ti.::~§{@'mI:!I~I~:::m;:~~:::!l:~f;:;;!:::!!::;:~;;::~:::::::::::!;:::::;;;~::::::!::::;!ii::l7*~:fPJr:::::!::::I::I:::!!::::!:;l:§'1i~lgtt::::::::l::!;::!!!:!::::::::::!~:g~@'~!J.:A1~:::~~::::::~::I:!I!::I~::tg;~U.*-!~1~i:ii~iIiiiiii!i!!;i;l!i!ii!i:

1311 Rose Bengal 2.2xIO-1 2.2xIO-1 1.6xIO-! 9.OxlO-2

lIlIn DTPA 6.5xlO-2 4.8xlO-2 2.OxlO-2 1. 8x 10-2

11IIn Pentetreotide 8.2xIO-2 6.0xlO-2 3.5xlO-2 3. lx 10-2

1Illn Platelets 1.7xlO-1 1.1x10·1 9.9x1O-2 8.9x1O-2

1Illn Red Blood Cells 2.2xlO-1 1.3xlO-1 1.1xlO-1 8.6xlO-2

111In White Blood Cells 1.3xlO-1 9.6xlO-2 9.6xlO-2 9.4xlO-2

99mTcAlbuminMicrospheres 4.1xlO-3 3.0xIO-3 2.5xIO-3 2.1xIO-3/--

99mTc . 1. 7xlO-2 1.5xlO-2 1.2xlO-2 6.7xlO-3

7.2xlO-3 5.2xlO-3 2.7xI0-3 2.4xl

8.7xl0-3 6.7xlO-3 4.8xlO-3 3.6xlO-3

99mTc Human Serum Albumin 5. 1 X 10-3 3.Oxlo-3 2.6xI0-3 2.2xl0-3

99mTc MAA 2.8xlO-3 4.0xlO-3 5.OxlO-3 4.Oxl0-3

99mTc MAG3 . 1.8x10-2 1.4xlO-2 5.5xlO-3. 5.2xlO-3

~mg!mll:;iiilli!!l::::~i!iiiiiI:i::::iiiii~i;i~iEi~~:iii~iiI;:~~iiIi~::i!i:f:li!gi~ii;i~i~l:ilii\14ig:!§rii!:ii:iii~:iiii!~~i:I!i~!ij~lillglliIIi:!::::iMli!IDligiIiiiifl!~lii:lt~ll.~llt~ii~~1:iii~~iii:i!

99mTc MIBI-rest . i.5xlO-2 I.2xlO-2· 8.4xl0-3 5.4xl0-3

99mTc MIBI-stress . 1.2xlO-2 9. 5x 10-3 6.9xl 0-3 4.4xI0-3

,>

... .-.:.::','.

~c Teboroxime . 99mT c White Blood Cells 20lTI Chloride

127Xe, 5 minute rebreathing, 5 liter spirometer volume

121Xe, 5 minute rebreathing, 7.5 liter spirometer volume

8.9x1O-3 3.8xlO-3 9.7xlO-2 4.3xIO"

7.lxlO-3 2.8xI0-3 5.8xI0-2 2.4xlO"

5.8xlO-3 2.9x1O-3 4.7xlO-2 1~10"

3.7xI0-3 2.8xlO-3 2.7xlO-2 1.5x10"

2.3xI0"

1.3xlO"

46

rf"

~

~ .'

r{" .

..

;

r~'

t

,.,

if'-.,

l I:

rr rr~

L

rn-

-. ....

rn

L

r ~t

~::

r

Radiopharmaceutical Early 3 Month 6 Month 9Month
mGylMBg mGylMBg mGylMBg mGylMBg
127Xe, 5 minute rebreathing, 10 liter 2.3xI0-4 1.4x10-4 1.1x10-4 9.2xI0-s
spirometer volume
J33Xe, 5 minute rebreathing, 5 liter 4.lxlO-4 4.8xlO-s 3.5xlO-s 2.6xlO-s
spirometer volume
I33Xe, 5 minute rebreathing, 7.5 2.2xlO-4 2.6xI0-s 1.9xIO-s I. 5x IO-s
liter spirometer volume
133Xe, 5 minute rebreathing, 10 liter 2.5xlO-4 2.9x10-s 2.1xlO-s 1.6xlO-s
spirometer volume
133Xe, injection 4.9x1O"' LOxIO~ l.4xlo"' L6x} 0"'
r . . ~

, ' ~.-.

,

47

E. Fetal Dose Estimates from Various Nuclear Medicine Procedures (shading indicates maternal and fetal self dose
kCDtribulicDS) .,.

Activity Early, 3 Month, 6 Month, 9 Month,
Admin. mGy mGy mGy mGy
Radiopharmaceutical Mag (mCi) (rad) (rad) (rad) (rad) .
S1CO Vitamin B-12 0.04 4.0xlO·2 2.7xlO·2 3.4x I 0.2 3.5xlO·2
Normal-Flushing (0.001) (4.0xlO·3) (2.7xl0·3) (3.4x 1 0.3) (3.5xlO·3)
S1CO Vitamin B-12 0.04 6.0xlO·2 4.0xI0·2 4.SxtO·2 5.2xlO·2
Normal-No Flushing (0.001) (6.0xlO·3) (4.0xlO·3) (4.SxlO·3) (5.2xlO·3)
S7CO Vitamin B-12
Pernicious 0.04 S.4xlO·3 6.SxlO·3 6.SxI0·3 6.0xI0·3
Anemia-Flushing (0.001) (S.4xlO-4) (6.SxI0·4) (6.SxlO"") (6.0xl~·4)
S7 CO Vitamin B-12
Pernicious Anemia-No 0.04 1. lxl0'2 S~4xl0·3 S.SxlO·3 S.OxlO·3
Flushing (0.001) (1. txl0'3) (S.4xlO·4) (S.SxtO"") (S.OxlO·4)
StlCo Vitamin B-12 0.03 7.5xlO·2 5.7xlO·2 6.3xI0·2 6.3xI0~2
Normal-Flushing (O.OOOS) (7.5xI0·3) (5.1xIO·3) (6.3xI0·3) (6.3xIO·3)
SRCO Vitamin B-12 0.03 1. txIO" S.4xl0·2 9.3xlO·2 9.3xl0·2
Normal-No Flushing (O.OOOS) (1. txl0·2) (S.4xt 0.3) (9.3x 1 0.3) . (9 .3x 10.3)
SICo Vitamin B- t 2 .
Pernicious 0.03 2.5xlO·2 2.2x10·2 1.9x 1 0.2 1.4xl O·~
. Anemia-Flushing (O.OOOS) (2.5xlO·3) (2.2x 1 0.3) (I. 9xl 0.3) (1.4xlO·3)
SICo Vitamin B-12
Pernicious Anemia-No 0.03
Flushing (O.OOOS)
I'FFDG 370 48

__ J

· ... ,. '.,":""

~W'J.J

,;\, • .;,,:, ...... ..;r~

Acti~y Early, . 3 Month, 6 Month, 9 Month,
Admin~ mGy mGy mGy mGy
Radiopharmaceutical MBg(mCi) (rad) (rad) (rad) (rad)
197Hg Chlormerodrin 4 4.4xl0·2 3.0xlO·2 2.7xl0·2 2.8xl0·2
(0.1) (4.4xl0·3) (3.0x I 0.3) (2.7xlo·3) (2.8xl0·3)
1231 Hippuran 75 . 2.3xl0o 1.8xlOo 6.3xI0·1 5.9xl0-1 .
(2) (2.3xIO·I) (l.8xlO·I) (6.3xlO·2) (5.9xlO·2)
1231 IMP 200 3.8xlOo 2.2xlOo tAxlOo 1.2xlOo
(5.5) . (3.8xlO·I) (2.2xlO·I) (1.4xlO·I) (1.2xlO·l)
1231 MIBG
phaeochromoeytoma 350
(9.5)
cecholamine tumor 80 2 '5.0xlo-l 1.6xl 7.6xl 5.2xlO·2
(0.05) (5.0xl0·2) (1 ;6xl 0.2) (7.6,,10.3) (5.2x 1 0.3)
1251 NaI 1 1.8xlO·2 9.5xlO·3 3.5xlO·3 2.3xl0·'
, (0.03) (1.8xlO-3) (9. 5xl 0.4) (3.5xl0-4) (2.3xlO-4)
131 I Hippuran
renal function 1.3 . 8.3xl0·2 6.5xlO·2 2.5xI0·2 2.3xl0·2
(0.035) (8.3xlO·3) (6.5xlO·3) (2.Sx 1 0.-3) (2.3xlO·3)
renal imaging 1.3 8.3xl0·2 6.SxlO·2 2.SxlO·2 2.3xlO·2
(0.015) (8.3xI0·') (6.5xlO·3) (2.5xlO·3) (2.3xI0·3)
1311 HSA 0.5· 2.6xlO·1 9.0xlO·2 8.0xl0·2 6.5xlO·2
!0.013} !2.6xlO·2} ~9.0xl0·3l (8.0xl0·3) ... (6.5xlO·3}
.'\
49 .d'

.-

c o

~

o

o

,-....

obb

..-..-..-

~ ~ ~ NN\O

C'iC'it--=

'-'

o

o

--

obo

-;(-;(-;(

f'l;N t"ic,c-4

,-.... .....

bb

..-

>( o

~

'-'

~- :r-' bbo

.............. _... ......

X X ~ X 0000\0\0

00 0\.0\

'-' '-'

,-.... ,-...

.....

bob

............... _... .......

x ~ x X 00 00 t"It"I

0000....;"";

'-' '-'

,-... ,-...

o • 0 • ,

00000

...... --' ~ ...............

x ~ x ~ ~ '<:t '<:to 0",

t"I ci t--= t::, 00

-- --

oOooe

_.. .- ........ ........

x x >( x ~ x oo~~o",,,,

t"I t"I co

'-'

o

o--o~a _t"It"I"""

- '-' N '-"-

ca
0 Cl)
'';:: ClI)
::J , :E 00 c.
11.) .....
0 0 c:: 'g>-
C<:J Cl) '50 <n
E '- ,5 .....
-c ... C<:J 11.)
'- 0 Cl) ,5 "i>
C<:J ~ p.. .....
..c c:o (-4 c:: (-4 ~
Cl) '- U
...... 0 p.. C<:J p::
0 ~ ~ c:: ~
~ c: c: C<:J p.. c:
...... - 0. -
C<:J ;::; = til =
c::z:: M o or)

/!i ~
:~ .
~~
~,
~
!-:.?-
e-:.::
~i~
- ,,-,.
0 ... '" 0
0 b b b 0
- -
X X X
0\ 0\ 0
- ~N
0\
!
- ,,-,.
0 ... '" 0
0 b b b 0
- - -
f: X X X X X
!!; 0\ 0\ \0 \0 N
~. - - :::'"<i
\0 '-'
e
~ - a>
e ...
0 b b b 0
0 0
- - - -
X X X X X
0<" 0\ 0\ 0 0 N

~ M - - - V)
, '-' ..._,
I.e
on
f . -
-.,. -
t~ 0 .,.. 0
I • b
0 00 0
- - -
X X X X X
\0 \0 - 0
N N - 0
..._, ..._,
~
.~ .:: -0 -0
+-' 0 ":0 ~on
~ N 8-\0 ..._,M
~-. V
::~ "@
0 U
~<: '';:: "'CI
:l 0
CI) 0 c
0 'c
::;~ ro CO
E ~
'- CI) 0
'" ro _. rn
.a ro rn
..c Q
~ 0
0 ... 0
;a C ~ f-
ro E ~
~ t::G c. - -

bob

....-~ ..........

x x x X MN\O\o'

o'er--:c

- - _ c _ 0

0000

........... ~ .....

x x x X (0'\·(0'\00

...;~...=...;

-- --

en en

~-

I

-

CQ.

~

o

r

1

,

I

l

1

J

l

J

1

v..

n

: )

n

;l

:. I

;""'l,

..,

I

L :

> (

p ,

--. --.

'bb'bb

-

~ ~ ~ ~

0000

~~MM

'-" '-"

--. --. 0--:0 ~ 0000

__. _.... ..- -

~ ~ ~ ~ OON~ r--:r--:v)trl

'-" '-"

--. --.

o • 0 •

0000

_.... .....................

~ ~ ~ ~ t-t-~~

oOoO'C>'C>

'-" '-"

--. --. _ 0 _ 0

000·0

....... ~ ...... ~

~ ~ ~ ~ trl trl .- -

--'-" '-"

o

o

-

~

N

.~

I~

"'.-" •.. j.

,~

6..;;< .• -.,;.

","I

' •.• ,,-,.j

'l''--'-'

:, .. \ .•. ~ ..... J

,/ ''':' .... ;t

I;,..·, ~ ..... J'~;;I

,.' ...... :.:,

..... '!.:.:,:.:,;.,.;

''I' ..::'

._." ... ~

Acti1ty Early, 3 Month, 6 Month, 9 Month,
Admtn... mGy mGy mGy mGy
Radioeharmaceutical MBg (mCi). . (rad) (rad) (rad) (rad)

thyroid imaging 80 7.8xl00 4.6xl00 3.8xl00. 2.2xl00
(2.2) (7.8xl0·1) (4.6xl0·1) (3.8xl0·1) (2.2xl0·1)
133Xe, injection .
muscle blood flow 20. 9.8xl0·' 2.0xl0·' 2.8x10·' 3.2xl0·5
(0.5) (9;8xl0-6) (2.0x 1 0.6) (2.8x 1 0.6) (3.2xl0-6)
pulmonary function with 1100 5.4xl0·3 1.1x I 0.3 1.5xl0·3 1.8xl0·)
imasins POl ~5.4xl<rl ~l.lxl 0-4) ~l.Sxl~-4) ~1.8xl0-4) ,

55

Looking at all of the pharmaceuticals in these tables. Russell sununarized the range of doses likely to be encountered:'

Pharmaceutical

All cobalt, .lmKr gas, 197Hg, 133Xe, 12s1 NaI, 131] hippuran, rose bengal

I8F FDG. 1231 hippuran, IMP. MIBG, NaI,

1311 HSA, MAA,MlBG, IIIIn DTPA, pentetreotide, platelets, WBC's, ~c disofenin, DMSA, DTPA (mjection and aerosol), glucoheptonate, HOP, MOP, HMPAO,

HSA, PYP, Tc04, RBC's. sulfur colloid, WBC

67Ga citrate, 1311 Nal (diagnostic), . 99mTc MAG3, MlBI, 20ITI chloride

1111 Nal (therapeutic)

Sample calculations

Fetal Dose

< 0.1 mGy (10 mrad)

0.1 mGy<D< IOmGy (10 mrad < D < I cad)

IOmGy<D<22mGy (Irad < D < 2.2 rad)

up to 500 mGy (50 rad)

With the tables complete, most dose calculations are just a matter oflookup and perhaps interpolation. Given the uncertainties in the nUmbers, careful interpolation may not be needed. In most cases, one can look at the dose on either side of the actual time of gestation, and just use

. what is felt to be the most appropriate, most conservative, etc. estimate. During the first, say, 3-6 weeks, the dose to the nongravid uterus (the "early pregnancy" dose) is probably a good estiniate of the dose to the fetus. Unfortunately, between this time and 3 months' gestation, when dose estimates are done on a month-by-month basis (as with the model of Cloutier et aI. (1973», one sees an increase of the dose and then a decline to the 3 month value, and usually a steady decline t.heteafter throughout pregnancy. This little peak is not available in these data. nit exists, and so it must be overlooked.

Example - A woman receives 1000 MBq ofTc-99m MIBI for a cardiac stress test. Later it is found out that she was about 1 week pregnant at the time of the scan. Here, the most appropriate fetal dose is 1000 MBq x 0.012 mGy/MBq = 12 mGy.

. .

Example - A woman receives 200 MBq ofTc-99m MAA for a lung stan at about 7· months' gestation (this is not unusual - some women have a tendency to form blood clots in later pregnancy, and lung scans' are often performed on patients known to be pregnant). The dose estimate at 6 months is 200 MBq x 0.005 mGy/MBq = 1 mGy, and the estimate at 9 months is 200 MBq x 0.004 mGy/MBq = 0.8 mGy. Given the uncertainty and the time, I would call the

56

l l l l.

l;;::

l,

l~ l~ l l.

l· l

1 l

"'"'I.

i'

.,

I

r~

s : s ~ .

Ilo_'

r··'·

r •

~', . f·

~,:

rr.:

: ~

:...._:.

r:;::

~~

r{§

" :.:.

t::

rr

~

r'··.·

'.

;.;.

r

dose estimate I mGy_

The lengthy table of residence times is given, in' case the user happens to know something about changes in residence times due to pregnancy, residence times in individual subjects, etc. In this case, a more careful dose calculation may be made using available Swalues.

Example: 750 MBq Tc-99m DTPAis administered to a woman in early pregnancy, but due to a kidney being blocked, the kidney residence time is thought to be much higher than in the standard model, around 2_5 hours. No estimate is made of the bladder or remainder of the body residence

. time. The standard dose estimate, as given in the tables is:

Dfot_s = Ao [tkit/neys S(uterus-kidneys) + "tblodder Stuterus-bladdery

+ "tremaim:kr S(uterus-remainder)]

r

D/et1lS = 750MBq [0.092hr x 3600sec/hr x 8.42xIO-smGyIMBq-s + 1.84hr

x 3600sec/hr x 1.48xlO-6mGYIMBq-s + 2.84hr i 3600seclhr x 2.17xlO-7mGyIMBq-:-sj D/ef1lS = 9.0 mGy

The new dose, modified for this subject is:

D/ef1lS = 750MBq [2_5hr x 3600seclhr x 8.42xI0-smGyIMBq-s+ I.84hr .

x 3600seclhr x 1.48xIO-6mGyIMBq-s + 2.84hr x 3600secJhr x 2.17xIO-7mGyIMBq-s] Dfotus = 9.6 mGy

ThiJds a very small change in the dose estimate, which is not surprising, given the small

. magnitude of the kidney to uterus S-value. Let's consider the situation in which the same woman was encouraged to void her bladder more frequently than in the standard dose estimate for Tc- 99m DTPA. and her bladder residence time decreased to 0.9 hr:

D/etus = 7$OMBq [2.5hr x 3600sec/hr x 8.42xI0-smGyIMBq-s + 0_9hr

x 3600seclhr x 1.48xIO-6mGyIMBq~s + 2.84hr x 3600sec/hr x 2.17xI0-7mGyIMBq-s] Dfotus = 5_8 mGy

57

F. Special models

There are several special models that have been published which allow the calculation of dose to

the fetus in more unusual circumstances. . .

1. The hyperthyroid patient

The first deals with the dose to the pregnant woman who also happens to be hyperthyroid. The standard model for 1-13] sodium iodide (NaI) assumes that the thyroid uptake is 25%; the remaining 75% is assumed to be quickly washed out of the body. In the hyperthyroid patient. the thyroid inay take up considerably more of the iodine, and the kinetics of wash-in and wash-out are also somewhat different. In an article in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine in ] 991 (Stabin et al .. 1991), the kinetics of these patients were studied, a general kinetic model was proposed, an~se estimates were worked out for the adult female in early pregnancy. and then throughout pregnancy. using the urinary bladder dosimetric model of Cloutier et aI. (1973), assuming that the bladder's contribution to fetal dose would be a constant fraction of the total fetal dose throughout pregnancy (as S values for the other organs were not available·at the time). Two different haJftimes for thyroid uptake were studied - the typical one (6.] hr) used in euthyroid individuals (those with normal thyroid function) and a faster one (2.9 br) to represent the faster kinetics of wash-in often observed in hyperthyroid patients. Here are the results:

TABLE 2
Radiation Dose Estimates for 1311 in the Hyperthyroid
Patient- as a FunCtion of Maximum Thyroid Uptake
Estimated radation·dose
(mGyJMBq)
Organ 20T 40' 601 801 100'
:l
Bladder l' 1.0 0.85 0.70 0.60 0.60 ---
2' 0.94 0.79 0.66 0.59 0.61 -_._-
. .,
Ovaries 1 0.032 0.030 0.028 0.027 0.026 I --~ I
2 0.047 0.045 0.044 0.043 0.043 g I
Red marrow 1 0.062 0·10 0.13 0.15 0.14 {0JIIl.. .;
I .. /~ J
2 0.076 0.12 0.14 0.16 0~15
Testes.!' 1 0.026 0.024 0.022 0.021 0.021 -V' .....
2 0.039 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.035 11 .~ I
Thyroid . 1 410 780. 1070. 1240 1150 ~ ' ...... i
2 400 760 1040 1200 1100 -- ~
!
Uterus 1 0.049 0.044 0.040 0.036 0.036 I
2 . 0.063 0.058 0.055 0.052 0.053 0
Total body 1 0.16 0.29 0.39 0.45 0.42 0 z • • • 10
2 0.17 0.30 0.39 0.45 0.42 ~ .......... FIGURE 2. Average.WhoIe-body dose to the fetus at aD stages of pregtl8lW:;Y for patient:; with maxinun thyroid uptakes of 20"10 • 60%, and 100% and a thyroid uptake haIf...time of 2.9 hr.

• Adult female (58 leg).

t Maximum thyroiduptaJee (Ok).

, 1 = thyroid uptaJee half-time 2.9 tv; and 2 = Ulyroid uptake halftime 6.1 hr.

58

1

l

1

If

,.

l::·:

l····

..

~ .

l~

,~ _ .

1

l l

r£1

~ ,.

rL.

rf·~

.. ~

... .;.

rE r~!

[':')

rG'~

.,.,

... ~.

rg tij.

I iii

r""·'.···

".

~;

rr

~: ~:

TABLE 3

Radiation Dose Estimates for the Fetus at All Stages of Pregnancy from Administration of 1311 to the Mother

Estimated radiation dose (mGY/MBq)"

Age 20%' 60%' 100"10'
(mo) T(u) = 2.9 hr T(u) = 6.1 hr T(u) = 2.9 hr T(u) = 6.1 hr T(u) = 2.9 hr T(u) = 6.1 hr
1 0.065 0.083 0.052 0.072 0.048 0.071
2 0.044 0.055 0.036 0.043 0.033 0.048
3 0.038 . 0.055 0.032 0.046 0.030 0.048
4 0.028 0.042 0.024 0.035 0.023 0.037
5 0.021 0.032 0.018 0.028 0.017 0.030 .
6 0.018 0.029 0.016 0.026 0.016 0.027
7 0.016 0.027 0.015 0.024 0.014 0.025
8 0.016 0.026 0.014 0.024 0.014 0.025
9 0.014 0.024 0.013 0.022 0.012 0.023 • Absorbed dose to the fetus per unit' activity administered to the mother. 1 Maximum thyroid uptake ("10).

T(u) is the ~ thyroid biologic half4ime for uptake.

The authors' estimates of dose to the fetus throughout pregnancy are really not too reliable,p there is no accounting for placental crossover of the iodine (which is well known to occur). This is difficult to account for .. in the work of Russell, a fairly good kinetic model for iodine in pregnancy was used, which accounted for placental exchange of the iodine with maternal tissues. How this model would be affected by hyperthyroidism has not been determined. If a suitable model existed, these dose estimates could always be re-evaluated using the new pregnant female phantoms. The issue of fetal dose in later pregnancy is not too important here. as therapy for hyperthyroidism will generally be contraindicated in pregnancy (however more because of the

dose to the fetal thyroid, discussed below). . .

2. The athyroid patient

. I~ thyroid cancer patients. 1-131 NaI is often given to patients whose thyroids have been mostly removed surgically. There may be a remnant of thyroid tissue. andlor some thyroid cancer

. .

metastases around the body, but usually a large amount of activity is given (enough to destroy all .

remaining thyroid tissue and the mets). In a study involving a few athyroidic subjects (Rodriguez 1996) it was found that the kinetics could be well characterized by treating the iodine not taken up by the thyroid by the normal kinetics of urinary bladder excretion (6.1 hour half-time). Using the~ assumptions, and assuming that the other normal soft tissue uptakes occur, and using RUssell's results for fetal residence times (here it seemed more reasonable to assume that the standard kinetic modei for maternal-fetal exchange of iodine would be similar to the euthyroid case), we obtain the. following dose estimates:

Early

3 months 6 months 9 months

0.068 mGy/MBq 0.070 mGy/MBq 0.225 mGy/MBq 0.27 mGy/MBq

\

Again, the dose estimates in later pregnancy are not likely to be of interest very-often, as this kind of therapy should not be carried out on a pregnant woman.

59

l

3. Post administration conception - 1-131 NaI

at lei . icrure sometimes arises when conception occurs after the iodine has been l

An unusu netic pi b . ·11 h In hi

d .. ed Pati ts are counseled to avoid becoming pregnant, ut It sti appens.. t s

a minister . atten . . d· . I ft ·11

h . di h already started to wash out of the body, and whatever 10 IDe IS e WI Pliii!

case, t e 10 IDe as. d Stabi 1997) th I· r=

irradiate the embryo. This problem was studied recently (Sparks an ID ; e resu ts are J.

presented here:

,.

).

Table I. Absorbed Dose '0 'he Embryolfet"s in Eu,hyroid Cases (mGy/M8q) .l-

% Max Time In Weeks After AdmlnlstraUon That ConcepUon Occurs
Uptake 1 2 3 -c S 6 ·7 .J
5% 3.1E-O" 1.SE-O-C 7.7E-05 3.BE-OS 1.9E-OS 9.SE-06 ".7E-06 :l! .. E-06
15% 8.IiE-04 ..... E-04 2.2E-04" 1.tE-0" S.6E-OS 2.8E-OS 1. .. E-05 7.2E-06
25% 1.4E-03 7.1E-04 3.6E~04 1.8·E-04 9.2E-05 4.7E-OS 2."E-05 1.2E-05 Table 2 .. Absorbed Dose to the EmbryolFetus in .Cases or Hyperthyroidism (mGyIMBq)

.% Max Time. In Weeks After Admlnlstrallon That ConcepUon Occurs
Uptake 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
5% 4.1E-04 1.9E-0" 8.7E-OS ".OE-OS t.9E-05 8.7E-06 ".OE-06 t.9E-06
10% 8.3E-04 3.8E'_O" t.7E-O" 8.0E-OS 3.7E-OS 1.7E-OS " 7.8E-06 3.6E-06
15% 1.3E-03 S.8E~0" 2.6E-04 1.2E-04 S.SE-OS 2.SE-OS 1.lE-OS S.2E-q6
20% 1.7E-03 7.8E-0" 3.SE-04 t.6E-0" 7·.2E-OS 3.3E-OS I.SE-OS 6.7E.06
2S% 2.2E-03 D.8E-0" 4.4E·0" 2.0E-04 8.8E-OS 4.0E-OS 1.8E-OS 8.0E-06
30% ·2.7E-03 " 1.2E-03· S.3E-0" . 2.3E·04 . I.OE-04 ".6E-OS 2.0E-OS S.lE-06
35% 3.2E-03 1.4E-03 ·6.IE-04 2.7E~04 . 1.2E-04 S.2E-OS 2.3E-OS I.OE.:OS
40% 3.7E-03 1.6E-03 7.0E-04 3.0E-04 1.3E-04 S.7E-OS 2."E-OS 1.lE-oS
. "5% 4.3E-03 .1.8E';03 7.8E-04 3.3E-04 1.4.E-04 6.0E-OS 2.6E-OS . 1.1E-OS
SO% 4.8E..:03 2.0E~03 8.SE ... 04 3.6E-04 1.SE-04 6.3E-OS 2.6E-OS 1. 1 E-OS
SS% S.4E-03 2.2E-03 D.2E-04 3.BE-04 1.6E-0" 6."E-OS 2.7E-OS 1.1E-OS
60% 6.0E-03 2.4E-03 .S.8E-0" 4.0E-0" " 1.6E-04 6."I;:-OS 2.6E-OS 1.0E-OS
6S~ 6.7E-03 2.6E-03 1.0E-03 4.0E-0" 1.6E-0" 6.2E-os 2.SE-OS S.7E·06
7C1% 7.3E·03 "2.8E-03 1.lE-03 ".lE-04 1.SE-0" S.9E-OS 2.2E-OS 8.GE-06
7S% 1.9E-03 2.9E-03 1.1E-03 ".OE·O" 1.SE-0" ·S."E-OS 2~OE-OS 7.2E-OG
80% 8.SE-03 3.0E-03 1.1E-03 3.7E-O" 1.3E-0" ".6E-OS 1.GE-OS S.7E-06
BS% 9.1 E-03 3.0E-03 1.0E-03 3.4E-04 t.tE·04 3.8E-OS 1.3E-OS ".2E-06
90% 9.6E-03 3.0E-03 9.2E-04 2.9E-04 8.9E-OS 2.8E·OS 8.GE-06 2.7E-06
9S% 9.8E-03 2.8E-03 7.9E·O" 2.2E-04 6.3E-OS t.IE-OS S.IE-06 1."E-06
tOO% 9.8E-03 2.4E-03 6.1 E-04 l.SE-04 3.BE·OS 9.3E-06 2.3E-06 S.IE-07 \

60

l-

1

1

l

l

l l

~:

I

.",

I

r:':

......

t! c

rn rrr

L

rrJ

ru" r[

rr'

o.' •

rr'

I.'

~ .:

rn

, .

. , ..

r;

. l..

r :

4. Fetal thyroid

When Nal is given to a pregnant woman, it is well known that placental crossover occurs. After about the I O-13th week of gestation, however, the fetal thyroid begins to concentrate iodine.

This is a very tiny organ, and it can easily receive very high radiation doses from such concentration of the iodine. This problem was studied by Watson (1992); the results of this study are shown here:

Table 7

Absorbed Dose in Fetal Thyroid from Radionuc11des A~inistered to the Pregnant Voman (mGyjKBq Administered to Voman)

Gestational '.'
Age (mo) 1-123 1-124 1-125 .. 1-131
3 2.7 24 290 230
4 2.6 27 , 240 260
5 6.4 76 280 580
6 6.4 100 210 550
7 4.1 96 160 390
8 4.0 110 150 350
9 2.9 99 120 270 r:

Note the extremely high numbers for 1-131 Nal at some stages. Babies have been reported to be born with hypothyroidism (under functioning thyroids) or without thyroids after accidental administrations of therapeutic levels ofI-131 NaI to pregnant women, so this is something that must always be considered.

5. Sample calculations

I . . .

F6t this section, most of the calculations to be done will simply involve table lookup procedures.

If one has individual residence times that are different than assumed in these models. then individualized dose estimates could be calculated.

Example A woman was given 500 MBq ofI-131 NaI. Before the test. a pregnancy test was given, but in an administrative error, the result was not reported until after the study. The results were positive - she is assumed to be about 2 weeks pregnant. Her thyroid uptake was 76% at 6 hours post administration and 58% at 24 hours. What is the fetal dose?

61

As the thyroid uptake peaked at 6 hours (instead of at 24 hours), the faster wash-in model is indicated (2.9 hr half-time). The thyroid uptake of 76% is close enough to 800/0 that interpolation in the tables is probably not warranted. I would estimate the fetal dose to be 0.036 mGylMBq x 500 MBq = .8 mGy.

Example A woman was given 500 MBq ofl-I3 I NaI. As the subject returned after the therapy for follow up, she mentioned that she had just gotten a positive home pregnancy test result. Based on her estimates, her conception is assumed to have occurred 12 days after the administration. Her 24 hour thyroid uptake was 63%. What is the fetal dose? .

From the tables above for 65% uptake, we could use the value for 2 weeks post administration conception, or develop an interpolation factor of(I2-7)/(I4-7) = 0.714. The latter approach would suggest a dose of 0.0067 - 0.7.14 x (0.0067 - 0.0026) = 0.0038 mGy/MBq x 500 MB'_ = 1.9 mGy. Of course, we could further interpolate in the tables between 60 and 65%, if one F' thought that the additional accuracy was worth the effort. I would probably report a dose of around 1.5-2 mGy.

Example A woman received 5 MBq ofl-131 NaI.. and it was subsequently discovered that she was 6 months pregnant at the time. Her 24 hr thyroid uptake was estimated to be 27%. What is the fetal dose? . '

This thyroid uptake should probably be considered to represent a euthyroid case, thus the standard dose estimate of 0.23 mGy/MBq should be used. Thus the fetal dose is 0.23 mGylMBq x 5 MBq = 1.2 mGy. However, of more concern here is the fetal thyroid dose .. It would be 550 mGy/MBq x 5 MBq =,2750 mGy.

l l l:·

1 l

l

l

. V. Applications - Occupational Exposures

Yet another tool for calculating fetal doses was developed recently. The Nuclear Regulatory l

. Commission funded a study to determine fetal doses from internal emitters, and the results of the.

study were published as NUREG/CR-S63I (Sikovand Hui 1996). The report focuses mostly on . l ...

act'Upational intakes of radionudides, although there is a section in which the data of Russell et aI.

for radiopharmaceuticals is reproduced and discussed briefly. The authors attempted to puD

together a large amount of materialon the biokinetics and plaCental transfer of many elements, , l ... and to calculate dose estimates corresponding to intakes at most stages of pregnancy. Much of

the biological data came, again, from animal data, and is subject to considerable uncertainty. The

authors employed the MIRD, rather than the ICRP. System of dose calrulation. Fetal self-dose l:

was estimated assuming generally that all alphas wereabsorbed within the fetus; then they

calculated electron self-dose using an integration of electronpolnt-kemels to account for Joss of

electron energy.when the embryo/fetus was small; and for photons, a mixture of sources was .1"

employed and the authors were not particularly clear about which sources were used in which

cases. , No contributions for activity in the mother's body or placenta were considered.

62

rn •.

,_

f a.

rr-

g: The results are given as a large number of tables of dose and dose rate, given at any month of

r .. : gestation after an intake, which may occur at any point in gestation. These doses are given per

:~ _ unit activity introduced into the maternal transfer compartment (blood). Some sample tables

i' follow: .

r~

1.' tL·

r~' r'

10·

r ~._

,

. .

Table 623.

Days of Gestation at Introduction

Days of Gestation'at I ntrodu:_yon

o 30 60 90 i20

150 180 210 240

Radiation dose rates and doses to the embryo/fetus from 1 pCi of 137Cs injected into the maternal transfer compartment (blood)

Dose rate (rad/hr) to the embryo/fetus at indicated gestational periods (da~

o 30 60 90 120. 150 180 . 210 240 270

0 1.9£-05 2.1£-05 4.1£-06 4.0£-06 5.1£-06 3.0£-06 3.1£-06 3.1£-06 1.7£-06 1.3E-06
30 1.9£-05 5.2E-06 5.1E-06 6.6£-06 3.8£-06 4.0E-06 4.0E-06 2.2E-06 1.6E-06
60 6.4E-06 6.5E-06 8.4E-06 '4.9E-06 5.2E-06 5.2E-06 2.8E-06 2.1£-06
90 6.4E-06 1.1E-05 6.3£-06 6.7E-06 6.7£-06 3.6£-06 2.7E-06
120 6.4£-06 8.0E-06 8.5£-06 8.5E-06 4.6E-06 3.4E--06
150 5.3£-06 LIE-OS 1.1£-OS 5.9£-06 4.4E-06
180 5.3E-06 1.4£-05 7.8£-06 5.8E-06
210 5.3£-06 1.1£-05 8.3E-06
240 4.2£-06 1.3£,..05
270 1.9E-05 Cumulated dose 0-270

Dose (rad) to the embryo/fetus during indicated gestational periods (days)

0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 .150-180 180-210 210-240 240-270

1.6£-02 1.4£-02 2.8E-03 3.2£-03 3.0E-03 2.2E-03 2.3£-03 1.7£-03 1.1£-03 4.6£.,.02
1.8E-02 3.6£-03 4.1E-03 3.9£-03 2.8E-03 2.9E-03 2.2£-03 1.4£-03 3.9E-02
4.6E-03 5.2E-03 5.0£-03 3.6£-03 3.8£-03 2.8E-03 1.8£-03 2.7£-02
6.7E-03 6.4E-03 4.6£-03 4.9£-03 3.6£-03 2.3£-03 2.8£-02
8.1£-03 5.9£-03 6.2E.,.03 4.7£-03 2.9£-03 2.8£-02
7.6E-03 8.0£-03 6.0£-03 3.8£-03 2.5£--02
1.0£-02 7.9£-03 5.0£-03 2.3£-02
\ l.1£-02· 7.1E-03 1.8£-02
1.1£-02 1.IE-02 63

Table 810.

Radiation dose rates and doses to the embryo/fetus from 1 pCi of inorganic 6OCo injected intol···_, the maternal transfer compartment (blood),' ."

Days of Gestation at Introductj on

Dose rate (rad/hr) to the embryo/fetus at indicated gestational periods (days)

o 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 . 240 .270

o 4.1£-05 6.8£-06 3.6[-06 3.1£-06

30 4.1£-05 4.4£-06 3.6£-06

60 2.6[-05 .4.4£-06

90 2.6£-05

120

150

180·

210

240

270 "

2.8£-06 2.1E-06 1.9E-06 3.1E-06 2.3£-06 2.1£-06 3.6£-06 2.6£-06 2.3£-06 4.4£"-063.0£-06 2.6[-06 2.6£-05 3.8£-06 3.0£-06

2.2£-05 3.7£-06 2.2£-05

1.8£-06 1.9£-06 2.1£-06 2.3£-06 2.6£-06 3:0£-06 3.7£-06 2.2£-05

1.4£-06 1.3£-06 1.5£-06 1.4£-06 1.6£-06 1..5£-06 1.7£-061l~6£-06 1.9£-06 1.7£-06 2.1£-06 1.9£-06 2.4£~06 2.1£-06 3.0£-06 2.4£-06 1.7E-05 3.0£-06

. "1.0£-05

Days of Gestation at Introcluctjon

Dose (rad) to the embryo/fetus during indicated gestational periods (days)

0-3Q' 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 lso-180 180-210 210-240 240:270

CLRIlUlated dose 0-270

l 1. ];

0 8.0£-03 4.3£-03 2.4£-03 2.1£-03 1.7£-03 1.5£-03 1.3£-03 1.1£-03 9.6£-04 2.3£-02
30 8.0£-03 2.8£-03 2.4£-03 1.9£-03 1.6£-03 1.4£..:03 l.~£-03 1.0£-03 2.0E-02
60 5.2£-03 2.8£-03 2.2£-03 1.8£-03 1.6[-03 1.3£-03 1.1£-03 1.6[-02
90 5.2£-03 2.6£-03 2.0£-03 1.8£-03 1.4£-03 1.2£-03 1.4£-02'
JlO 4.9£-03 2.4£-03 2.0£-03 1.6£-03 1.3£-03 1.2E-02
150 4.4£-03 2.4£-03 1.8£-03 1.4£-03 1.0E-02
180 4.3£-03 . 2.1E-03 1.6£-03 8.1E-03
210 4.0£-03 1.9£-03 5.9E-03
240 3.5£-03 3.5E-03 " \

i i

64

rr
~

~ :
re-'
, .
, .
rr'i Table Ol. Cumulated radiation doses to the embryo/fetus from chronic
t., mat~rnal ingestion of common chemical 'or physical fonms of
f ~
" ".- radiologically important radionuclides.
r,,~ Dose Fraction Activity
ALI per All All for for 50 mrem
r[, H!.!cljde tomoound _ft- {uCj 1 {rem} 50 mcem {uCjl
H-3 Water lE+OO 8E+04 5E+OO 1E-02 8E+02
H-3 Organic 1E+00 8E+04 8£+00 6E-03 5E+02
C-14 Organic 1E+00 2E+03 7£-01 7E-02 1E+02
rr: P-32 Phosphates 8E-01 6£+02 4£+00 lE-02 8E+00 r:
Cr-Sl . All lE-Ol 4E+04 1E+00 5E-02 ' 2E+03
\ . fe-55 All 1E-01 9E+03 2E-01 2E-01 2E+03
rr Fe-59 All 1E-01 8E+02 2E+00 3E-02 2E+01
Co-57 Inorganic 5E-02- 8E+03 • 3E-Ol 2E-01 1E+03
Co-58 Inorganic 5E-02 ·2E+03 . 3£-01 2E-01 3E+02
rr' Co-60 Inorganic 5E-02 5E+02 3E-01 2E-01 8E+01
Zn-65 All . 5E-Ol 4E+02 3£+00 2E-02 7E+00
ru,-86 All 1E+01 5E+02 5E+01 1E-03 5E-Ol
t .. Sr-89· Sol iJbl e 3E-01 6E+02 6E-01 8E-02 5E+01
rr: Sr-89 Insoluble 1£-02 5E+02 2E-02 3E+OO 1E+03
Sr/Y-90 Soluble 3E .. 01 3[+01 8£-02 6E-Ol 2E+Ol
Sr/Y-90 Insoluble lE-02 5E+02 5£-02 lE+OO 5E+02
rr :, Tc-99m All 8£-01 8E+04 2E+OO 3E-02 . 2E+03
Ru/Rhl06 All 5E-02 2E+02 6E-02 9E-01 2E+02,
I., . 1-123 All lE+OO 3E+03 5E;..03 lE+Ol 3E+04
1-125 All 1E+OO 4E+01 2E-02 3E+00 lE+02
r! ' 1-131 All lE+OO 3E+Ol 3E-02 2E+OO 5E+Ol
t 1-132 All 1E+00 4E+03 2E-.o2 3E+OO 1E+04
t . ~ 1-133 All 1E+00 lE+02 2E-03 3E+01 3E+03
rlO Cs-l34 All lE+OO 7£+01 3£+00 2E-02 1E+OO
t .:~. _/ Cs-137 All lE+OO ' lE+02 3E+00 2E-02 2E+00
l.~ Ce-141 All 3E-04 2E+03 1E-03 4E+01 9E+04
Ce-l44 All 3E-04 2E+02 5E-05 1E+03 2E+05
r'" All 1E-02 2E+03 9E-03 5E+00 lE+04
~ ~ 0s-191
I"'
r Ir-192 All 1E-02 9E+02 9£-02 6£-01 5E+02
c_.:
11-201 All 1£+00 2E+04 4£+00 1£-02 3£+02
r --
r··:
..
:... ...
"
r ~;~
: ~
r
r 65
.,
r Sample calculations

The only problem in using these tables is calculating the amount of activity in the mothers blood - it is usually not obvious how to obtain this quantity. Usually intake estimates are based on either bioassay measurements or air sampling, or other similar. results that give an estimate of the original intake. usually by inhalation or ingestion. If the intake estimated was assumed to be an ingestion, the amount initially in the mothers blood can be assumed to be the intake multiplied by the factor flo which gives the fraction of ingested activity that reaches the blood. If the intake was . by inhalation, the NUREG gives pulmonary transfer factors. which can be worked out from the standard ICRP 30 lung model as:

Class D ClasSW ClassY

TF =0.48 + 0.15 r. TF = 0.12 + 0.51 r. TF = 0.05 + 0.58 r.

Then the calculations just become. again, a matter oflookup. The dose or dose rate at any month after the intake can be obtained. An integral dose over .pregnancy can be obtained by just summing up the individual doses over the appropriate number of months in question. As noted in the document, you can also use the tables to simulate chronic intakesof radionuclides (by assuming an intake rate per month and suinming the contributions) or situations in which the intake preceded conception (through use of metabolic models to estimate the maternal burden at the time of conception and then use of the tables in the standard way). Tables are given of the estimated cumulative fetal dose for chronic intakes by ingestion Or inhalation throughout pregnancy, assuming 119 of the intake occurs in each month of gestation. Tables are also given for estimating cumulative fetal dose from pre-existing maternal radionuclide burdens, assuming that one ALI was taken in immediately before conception. There is a large number of nuclides for .which a detailed dose assessment was not made throughout pregnancy, but simply a cumulative dose to the nongravid uterus was calculated, assuming chronic intakes of these nuclides (as well as those for which a more careful assessment was made) throughout pregnancy.

Example A woman is assumed to have inhaled 2300 Bq of a Co-60 class Yaerosol, at about 4 l1l&ilf1ths' gestation. What is the dose to the fetus in all subsequent months of gestation, and what is the total estimated fetal dose?

First, the transfer factor for the maternal transfer compartment is

TF =0.05 + 0.5R x 0.05 = 0.079

The activity reaching the maternal transfer compartment is thus 0.07cJ x 2300 ,;", 180 Bq = 4.9 X 10-3 JlCi.

From Table BIO of the NUREG (included in this document). for an intake of 4.9 x 10-3 JlCi assumed to occur at 120 days gestation, the doses are as follows:

66

1

l l

1:·

v.

l.·

1

J.

l' 1 l·. l:

1

r:'.·'

:.:

r~:r'

i~~

r[J rr

t

ri'1 r[ r[

r t r m' r I'

r L

r·· r

ic

,. -:
[ i<.
r 1> 120 - 150 days 150 - 180 days 180 - 210 days 210 - 240 days 240 - 270 days

2.4 x 10-S rad 1.2 x 10-5 rad 9.8 x 10-6 rad 7.9 x 10-6 rad 6.4 x 10-6 rad .

Total

6.0 x 10-s rad

Just using the tabulated value for 0 - 270 days, one would obtain 5.9 x 10-s rad.

Example A woman is assumed to have ingested low levels ofCs-137 throughout her pregnancy. What total fetal dose would have resulted from a cumulative intake of 5 kBq, assuming relatively . constant intake throughout the pregnancy?

Assuming an intake of5 kBq = 0.135 flCi throughout the pregnancy, <me would estimate an intake ero.ns flCil9 = 0.015 flCi per month. The fl for Cs-137 is 1.0, so the amount entering the transfer compartment is the same as the intake. Using Table B23 of the NUREG (included in

this document), the cumulative fetal doses would be as follows: .

0- 30 days 30- 60 days 60-90 days

. 90 - 120 days 120 - 150 days 150 - 180 days . 180 - 210 days 210 -240 days 240 - 270 days

6.9 x lO-4rad

, 5_9 x 10-4 fad' 4_1 x 10-4 rad 4.2 x 10-4 rad 4.2 x 10-4 rad 3.8 x 10 .... rad 3.4 X ]0-4 rad 2.7 x 10'" rad 1.7 x 10-4 rad

Total

3.7 X 10-3 rad

Usirig instead the values from Table Dl in the report (also included in this, document), we would . estimate a total fetal dose of

. 0.135 flCi x 3.0 rem/IOO flCi = 4.0 x Hr3 rem.

VI Radiation Effects

In a brief summary of a very large amount ofliterature, the authors orNCRP Commentary No.9 (NCRP 1994) gave information about possible radiation effects on the embryo/fetus. First, for deterministic effects, the authors noted that many different effects have been observed, which are ' much more pronounced at different stages of gestation. In early pregnancy, termination of the pregnancy is the most likely effect. Between 2-4 weeks of gestation. and possibly longer, gross

67

l

physical malformations, including microcephaly (small head size) and overall growth retardation

are possible. The risk of neurological damage begins at about 7~8 weeks, and is greatest between l""

8 and 15 weeks' gestation. A reduction in IQ has also been noted (not directly associated with microcephaly). The following table, from their report, summarizes this mformation;

TABLE 4.1 - Temporal relaliDnship 0{ pouible e{(eeI$ of radiation during pnpmu:y.. l.:;

Star- of Dewlopaaellc
PIe- Implalltatioll EarJyILat. F.ta1
implallcatioll ~uop""
Da,. S~ CoIIcepcioa (caseatioa)
Effect' 0-9 9-14 15-SO 55-105 105-115 175-280 ·l::;

- ..

-_=:>

LatlaalitY <-rPtioo) G_ maHmllatiou Growth ncardatioll

(at tenD)

Growth ncardacioll (as adult)

S&edJity

Cacaraas NeUl'Op&ChoIoc7 Maca! nwutioll Small"ad aizec IQ

CuciaoceDeSis - . +

+++

+

+

+++

:t

:t

:t

l··

+

+

+

+

+

+

·l': ].:

l

+

++

:t

++

++

++ ++

.+ +++1++

+

+ +

+

• ++

+++ +++

++

:t

+++

+

+

+

·Adapted fro.m Brent (1983) aDcl Mettler aDcl Moseley (1985). .

'Effects listed in this Table have been ideDtified mai.Dly in aaima1s (but eome also in hWDaDS) at close levels of about 1 07 and are listed as a £unction of the comparable human restatioal period. Key: +++ occurs with hiP incidence; ++ readily apparent effect; + demonstrated effect; :!: questionable effect; - DO observed incidence

COtake aDd Schull (1993).

These effects are generally thought to be observed with some thr~hold, which varies with the

effect (perhaps 100-400 mGy for mental retardation, 100-200 mGy for physical malfonnations. 1 and as low as 50 mGy for small head size). For cancer induction, the report cites a risk estimate

of around lOx 10-2 Sv-I, although the effects are seen in some studies and not seen in others. For hereditary effects, the authors note that these effects have not been reliably reported in human l populations, and so are "conjectural". Using the same sensitivity as that assumed for the adult,

they cite a risk level of I x 10-2 Sv-I• II! a summary statement, they say:

.. !

.~ -:

"If the dose to the embryo, fetus, or nursing child 'from an unintended exposure is less than or equal to an effective dose of 50 mSv, there is no harm from deterministic effects. and the risk oj stochastic effects is less than one percent ... no action regarding the embryo, fetus, or nursing child other than assurance of the accuracy of the dose is warranted If the dose ... exceeds an effective dose of 50 mSv, since the possibility of hahn increases . with the dose. it is recommended tha: action be instinued to assure that the dose estimation is accurate, and in addition, that expert medical evaluation, advice and follow-up be utilized on a case-bycase basis."

1

1

",., I

68

.., I

r-~·O-

ijO

r:>

&.0;

n··

.

.

- I.~":

n'

- '" ~

r~:: rl

'- it~

r~

. ~;

r~····

~.

I t;

VII. References

Cloutier, R, Smith, S, Watson, E, Snyder, W. Warner. G, Dose to the fetus from radionuclides in the bladder, Health Phys 25:147-161, 1973. .

Loevinger R, Budinger T, Watson E. MIRD Primer for Absorbed Dose Calculations, Society of

Nuclear Medicine, 1988. .

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Considerations regarding the unintended radiation exposure of the embryo, fetus, or nursing child. NCRP Commentary No.9, NCRP, 1994~

• • 0

RodriguezM. Development ofa kinetic model and calculation of radiation dose estimates fg_r..

sodium-iodide-I"I in athyroid individuals. Master's Project, Colorado State University, 1996.

o Russell JR. Radiation absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus from nuclear medicine procedures . . Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee. Knoxville, August 1995.

Russell JR, Stabin MG, Sparks RB, Watson EE. Placental transfer ofradiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry in pregnancy. In proc. Sixth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium,

1997, in press. .

Russell JR, Stabin MG, Sparks RB. Watson EE. Radiation absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus from radiopharmaceuticals. Health Physics Journal, 1997. in press.

Sikov M and Hui T. Contribution of maternal radionuclide burdens to prenatal radiation doses . NUREG/CR-5631, Rev. 2, USNRC, 1996.0

Sparks Rand Stabin M. Fetal radiation dose estimates for 1-131 sodium iodine in cases where accidental conception occurs after administration. In proc. Sixth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium, 1997. in press.

~ . ..t¢-

Stabin M. MIRDOSE - the personal computer software for use in internal dose assessment in nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med, 37:538-546, 1996.

Stabin M. Tables of dose-conversion factors for use in nuclear medicine. ORISE. 1997, in press.

Stabin M, Watson E, Marcus C, and Salk R. "Radiation Dosimetry for the Adult Female and Fetus from 1-131 Administration in Hyperthyroidism: J Nucl Med 3t:808-813, 1991.

Stabin M, Watson E, Cristy M. Ryman J~ Eckerman K. Davis J, Marshall D., Gehlen K. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult. female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy. ORNL Report ORNLIIM- ]2907, 1995 ..

69

female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy. ORNL Report ORNlffM-I2907, 1995.

Watson EE. Radiation Absorbed Dose to the Human Fetal Thyroid. In: Fifth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium. Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Oak Ridge Associated Universities, pp 179- 187, 1992.

\

70

l 1,

l ~t

J:

It;. l;

lr ]:::

'-~ .

l

.-.

J. l· 1

J

f~L

!

~':.

1

I

-...;

l

~

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful