Automotive Design

with Respect to

Ergonomics
Ehsan Naseri Soudeh Yektaee 81178607 81195404

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Content
What is Design? Design Process Design process For Automotive Design process For automotive with respect to Human Factors

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Introduction to Design
A goal- directed problem solving activity (Archer 1965). Design is a interplay between what we want to achieve and how we want to satisfy them (Suh 1990). Design is a process of converting information that characterize the needs and requirements for a product into knowledge about the product (Mistree 1992).

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Definition of Design
Design is
± An art, not a science ‡ Problem solving, Decision making, Applying science ± Creativity & imagination vs Heuristic search ± Directing, leading & organizing ‡ Dealing with people & team-building ‡ Negotiating to achieve a satisfactory solution & optimizing ‡ Foresight towards production, assembly, testing and other processes ‡ Considering the "bottom line" of costs and profit, ‡ Satisfying needs & satisfying the customer ± Ethical and professional conduct

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Various Design
New Design: New tasks and problems are solved by new solution
principles.

Revised Design: The embodiment design is customized/adapted to
fit new requirements. The employed solution principles are known and field-proven . Variant Design: Size and/or structure of parts and assemblies are varied within the limits of the already planned system. Repeat Design: A new start of the production run with an unchanged design. Robust design: A systematic engineering based methodology (which is part of quality engineering process) that developes and manufactures high reliability products at low cost with reduced delivery cycle.
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Over the Wall Engineering Product concept Product specs. System design. R&D. Manufacturing specs. Design specs. leading & coordinating 6 . Customers Marketing Design engineering Manufacturing engineering Production Roles of system engineer Need identification & customer linkage. risk. Integration. process. Management (spec. information).

Integrate Product Design Integrate People ± Build concurrent engineering teams R&D ± Negotiation in engineering design Manufacturing Integrating Processes ± Process Modeling Design ± Process Reengineering Suppliers Integrating Information Finance ± Database Management Systems ± Information and data mining Building a Concurrent Engineering Design Process Marketing Customers 7 .

Design Process System. 8 . subsystem and component design Sequential & iterative process Starts and Ends with the customer Comparison and contrast to scientific method ± Need p Concepts p Feasibility p Produce p Sell ± Time and cost as key factors Process of converting information that characterizes the needs and requirements for a product into knowledge about the product and its implied processes.

Engineering Models of Design 9 .

audio) Design specification Selecting product ideas Compiling the requirement list Acquire & apply technical knowledge Identify resources Prioritize design goals & continue to refine Definition of a problem or Task 10 .Design process 1 Recognition of a customer¶s need ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Market research identifies customers and needs R&D creates ideas that are relevant to an organization¶s capabilities Needs arise from dissatisfaction Technology push (examples : computers.

Designs vs Needs 11 .

Design process 2 Product definition ± ± ± ± Function Preliminary requirements list Solution requirements Cost target and budget SOURCES CONSUMER COMPANY SITUATION ANALYSIS PROCEDURE FOR SEARCH DEFINE THE PRODUCT QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTION DESIGN 12 .

± Determines the Principle of Solution.The function are listed & complex functions are broken into simpler subfunctions. ± It is preceded by a Decision Procedure ± ± ± ± ± ± Abstract to identify essential problems Establish function structures Search for working principles to fulfill the sub-functions Combine working principles into working structures Select suitable combinations Evaluate against technical & cost criteria 13 .Design process 3 Conceptual design ± This phase looks at the function requirement of the Product.

Layout. Ergonomics. Working Principle. The checklist ± Function. Maintenance. Safety. Transport. This requires approach that is progressive as well as iterative. Quality control 14 . Costs. Assembly. Production.Design process 4 Design embodiment ± It starts from the concept and develops the definitive layout for the project ± Evaluate against Technical & Economic criteria ± Preliminary layout ± Optimize and complete form designs ± Check for errors and disturbing factors ± Prepare preliminary part list and production documents Embodiment design is characterized by repeated deliberation and verification. Recycling.

± Competitive benchmarking ± Reverse Engineering of competitor¶s products ± Early bird gets the profit 15 .assembly. reliability and cost (As compared to what) objectives.transport and operating instructions ± Check all documents Design review ± Review and redesign focuses on achieving the performance. producibility.Design process 5 Prepare production documents : ± Elaborate detailed drawings and parts list ± Complete production.

There was no space for me. but the original jack was so slender. that I didn't dare creep under the car when it was lifted by this jack. anyway! The floor of the car was badly rusted. 16 . because the car had been effected by some sewer gas in the garage. I had to cut large sections out of the floor and cover them with new steel plate.Example design process: Jack My car was not in very bad condition.

Information Space below of car Jack point & car size 17 .

Available Means 18 .

List of Demands 19 .

which makes repair and service operations possible below a car. Functions 20 . which has a weight of 1300 kg. that repair and service operations below the lifted car are possible.Definition of Problem We must design a jack. The jack must be safe enough. which is able to lift a car. We must design a system. a width of 1800 mm an a wheel base of 2700 mm.

Sub function 3 makes the connection with the car. 21 . Sub function 4 keeps the system steady on the ground.Decomposing into subsystem Ones muscle power has to be transformed to lifting force with the sub function 1. Sub functions 5 and 6 secure the lift and they make operations below the car safe. Sub function 2 is used to transmit the combination of lift and lifting force directly or in transformed form into the connection points of the car.

Alternative subsystems 22 .

Possible combinations 23 .

Decision Table 24 .

Embodiment design 25 .

Detail design 26 .

Review of Design 27 .

Results 28 .

Automotive Design 29 .

Aspects of Designing Car Occupant Packaging Computer-Aided Ergonomics Design Of car Visual Aspects in vehicle Design Automotive Seat Design for sitting comfort Physical Aspect of Car Design Design of symbols for automobile Control and Displays Informational aspect of vehicle Design 30 .

) 31 . in motion or in workspace attitude and typically are expressed as 3 dimensions. standarized position) ± Functional Task Oriented Measurements Engineer Designer (are taken with the human body at work .Occupant Packaging Workspace Anthropometry : ± Conventional Static Measurements anthropologist (are taken on the human body in rigid .

Occupant Packaging 32 .

Occupant Packaging 33 .

Occupant Packaging 34 .

Occupant Packaging 35 .

Occupant Packaging 36 .

Uses anthropometric data to define 95 percent male and 5 percent female .Conduct test for specific task(reach. eye location) to develop statistical models defining spatial requirements Manikin Oriented Models . weight and« .uses manikins or selected large (95%) male and small (5%) female to define spatial requirements 37 .Use anthropometric data to Define a user population startified across stature .Driver workspace design and evaluation models Task Oriented Percentile Models .

assumes user needs are .Assume that Specified large males and small female comprehend all user requirements .Assume that 2-D (or 3-D) manikins can predict or model human requirements . .5 percent excluded at each end.Assume that sample populations defined user requirements . for example 95 percent accommodation with 2.Assume that a given percentile person is definable from the some of parts 38 expressed by a central tendency with exclusion at both ends .Driver workspace design and evaluation models .

but only for a defined small and large user .Driver workspace design and evaluation models .many level of accommodation are described .Result in questionably .Results in well defined statistical model that defines accommodation levels for specific task defined geometric manikin models that predict accommodation for only two extreme percentile people 39 . but only for the task studied .Many task are measured and evaluated .

This analysis will enable the team to make driveroriented decisions about cockpit design. posture.Computer Aided Ergonomic Design of automobile engineers will simulate driver behavior and measure key criteria such as reach. while respecting the overall aerodynamics of the racecar body. comfort. 40 . strength and anthropometrics. visibility. biomechanics.

The resulting virtual models will be used to analyze and improve specific accommodation issues such as driver comfort and security. and accessibility and serviceability of components inside the cockpit during pit stops² without the need to involve the actual drivers. 41 . engineers will first create a digital model of each driver using a combination of laser scanning and manual anthropometrical techniques.Simulation with computer To optimize cockpit ergonomics.

rapid interactive design. cost effective ergonomics 42 . The system offers the following advantages: 3D analysis of fit. reduced timescale.The SAMMIE System The SAMMIE system is a computer based Human Modeling tool. Its capabilities make it an invaluable tool to designers and design teams working on products that are used by people. reach. early input of ergonomics expertise. improved communication. vision and posture.

Minivan and off-road vehicle 3. Family and personal business sedan 2. Sport cars Three different occupants in the vehicle: 1)Driver 2) Front seat passenger 3) Rear set passengers 43 .Automotive Seat Design For Sitting Comfort kind of motor vehicles: 1.

Automotive Seat Design For Sitting Comfort Criteria for a driver s seat : 1: the set should position the driver with unobstructed vision and within reach of all vehicle control 2: the seat must accommodate the driver s size and shape 3: the seat should be comfortable for extended period 4: the seat should provide a safe zone for the driver in a crash 44 .

So how do we protect the driver? Well first we need to consider the basic physiological weak points of the human body. Designing the car to be damaged minimally while hindering driver safety is definitely the wrong approach. 45 .Why should respect Ergonomics In Design? Safety Safety in a race car is the art of protecting the human occupant. at whatever cost to the car.

The key to avoiding injury in the brain is to avoid instantaneous decelleration of the skull. The bones in our arms. Injuries occur because the body sustains impacts beyond the G (gravities) level that it can sustain. However. the skull. and can sustain tremendous G loads before breaking. Neck and spinal injuries also present a serious threat to life and career.Safety The diagram above shows that pretty much any part of the body exposed to the chassis of the race car is at risk. depending on angle of impact. and therefore snap relatively easily 46 . The brain is particularly succeptible to injury. That is. to a point. they can break rather easily. but still are to be prevented. Other bone injuries (breakages) are not as lifethreatening or career ending. legs and spine are designed to be stressed in tension and compression along their length. The brain inside unfortunately keeps on moving. These "Connector" type elements in our body are flexible and stretchable. it decellerates instantaneously. In the case of impacts they are often stressed in shear or bending. when the skull strikes something hard. because it is really just a soft tissue mass stored inside a very solid bone container. causing head trauma.

and good lower and upper body lateral support. This is of course accomplished with a chassis mount for the seat. and so should be well constructed. we need to find a way that "quickly" decellerates the body. Finally. Most racing seats provide these three elements Secondly. On formula cars. the human body does not like to be decellerated from 80 or 100 km/h to 0 instantly. This means a seat with lateral head support. the car's chassis needs to hold the seat and driver in place. Designing these structures to collapse in an impact ensures that G levels are reduced because the car is literally decellerating over a small distance.Safety In Crash First. measures must be taken to prevent intrusion into or the crushing of the driver's limbs and extremities. the driver needs to be supported. driving and crashing. The "Safety cell" is the last piece of material between danger and the driver. As well. a head rest. and a 5 or 6 point harness. Thirdly. As stated previously. in all situations. and not prone to collapsing onto the driver. the problem of suspension wishbones breaking and piercing the driver's legs is solved by anti-intrusion panels that prevent pieces of the car from intruding into the driver's cockpit. the car needs to absorb the energy via structures that are crushable. the cockpit "Safety cell" needs to be very strong. Therefore. instead of ZERO distance 47 . so movement under normal driving is very limited. The only possibilities on a race car are the structures which surround the driver's safety cell.

instead of inward. use a stressed skin over a lightweight core material . meaning energy absorption takes place over a longer period. instead of collapsing it onto the driver. 48 .In lower cost racing cars.crushable zones such as the nose cone on a formula car can be made from balsa. upward and downward. Triangulate the driver "safety cell" to prevent collapse The safety cell can be designed in such a way that a catastrophic impact which collapses the safety cell. honeycomb or high density styrofoam covered with a stressed skin of composites. will make the safety cell expand away from the driver.Safety/Ergonomics Design Tips Use energy absorbing materials in the collapsable crash structure . most of the car is usually built from mild steel. In the case of a frontal impact. Using that same mild steel in areas such as wishbones means that impacts will bend the material long before it breaks the material. this would mean the sides of the cockpit would expand outward. For light weight.

The cost is perhaps high. Use only top quality certified suppliers of safety equipment. the driver can be lowered for better CG (center of gravity). In some cases. In order to reduce the weight balance change over a race. seat belts (5 or 6 point sanctioning body certified only!). and driver safety wear (Nomex. sealed firewalls between the fuel cell and driver compartment. most drivers don't like to sit next to fuel. 49 . However. and the normally opaque bodywork replaced with clear lexan. but consider how much you value your life. Don't scrimp on safety. 2 or more layers minimum! -. Use secured.anything less is like wearing nothing). so that no matter how empty or full it is. to aid in re-establishing the vision field. and further. Keep the fuel cell and battery away from the driver and danger. designers will frequently put the fuel cell at the CG. use the safety cell to protect the fuel cell from outside intrusions. Fuel cells (Sanctioning body certified). it does not cause a front/rear or side-to-side weight bias.Safety/Ergonomics Design Tips Use a clear windscreen or bodywork to increase vision .using lexan or other non-shattering clear material can help increase visibility without compromising the function of the bodywork. Keeping dangerous items away from the driver is sometimes very difficult.

5) Sporty two-tone fascia The sporty two-tone fascia adds a touch of pizzazz to the Liana's interior. for a feeling of unity throughout. 4) Textured dashboard and console The dashboard centre.Design Of Symbols For Automobile Control and Displays 1) Digital meters Discreet digital meters maximize forward visibility and help create a sense of uncluttered spaciousness. 3) Centrally positioned audio panel A 2DIN opening for audio components is centrally positioned at the top of the instrument panel for easy access and visibility. 2) Triangle-motif steering wheel The triangle-motif steering wheel helps harmonize exterior and interior design. and front pillars are trimmed with a new textured material with a refined look and feel. 50 . floor console.

Displays 51 .

Displays 52 .

Displays 53 .

Displays 54 .

pdf Introduction of design ± http://deed.stanford.nsf/Publish/1996 Automotive Ergonomics Brayan Peacock & Waldemar Karowski Sitting posture E. Granjin 55 .edu/PD/kbase/Aesthetics_and_Engineering_Design.ibm.ryerson.Reading assignment Aesthetics and Engineering Design ± http://design.ca/DesignScience/1.html design basics in IT ± http://www-3.com/ibm/easy/eou_ext.ibm.com/ibm/easy/eou_ext.nsf/Publish/6 user engineering in IT ± http://www-3.

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