P. 1
Phonology and Langauge Use

Phonology and Langauge Use

|Views: 166|Likes:
Published by Bahtiyar Makaroğlu

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Bahtiyar Makaroğlu on Oct 24, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/01/2013

pdf

text

original

Generative rules express source-oriented generalizations.That is,they
act on a specific input to change it in well-defined ways into an output
of a certain form.Many,if not all,schemas are product-oriented rather
than source-oriented.A product-oriented schema generalizes over
forms of a specific category,but does not specify how to derive that
category from some other.While the schema is templatic in nature,the
speaker can be creative in deciding how to reshape a given form to fit
the schema of the desired category.
A number of examples from child language data,experiments,and
diachronic change illustrate the functioning of product-oriented
schemas.Consider first the semiproductive class of English verbs exem-
plified by string,strung.A list of such verbs is given in Table 5.3.This
class is one of the few Old English Strong Verb classes that has added
new members in the last millenium.In the table,the verbs with aster-
isks beside them are the new members of the class.
Originally the members of this class all had a short iin the Present,
shortain the Past,and short uin the Past Participle.One could describe
this alternation by saying that ibecomesain the Past and uin the Par-
ticiple.In other words,a source-oriented generalization was possible.
However,as new members were added to the class,the Past and the
Participle came to be expressed by the same form,and,more impor-
tant for our purposes,no requirement that the Present form have iwas
enforced.Thus strikeenters this class,and in some dialects sneakand
drag,none of which have iin the Present.
If the Past were formed by a rule that changed iintou[ ],none of
these forms would be possible.However,if the class is described by a
product-oriented schema giving the shape of the Past form,but not
specifying how that shape is attained,then these forms are possible
class members.

A further interesting fact about this class,to be discussed in Section
5.9,is that the stems of all of its members end in a velar or a nasal con-

ɾ˜

ə˜

ɾ˜

126

The Interaction of Phonology with Morphology

5.8Product-Oriented Schemas

127

sonant.Apparently,the velar has become the most important defining
feature of this class,because in the nonce experiment reported in
Bybee and Moder (1983),a few subjects not only changed the vowel
of the prompt to [ ] to form the Past,but also added a velar conso-
nant.Thus,the stimulus form vinelicitedvung,smipelicitedsmuk,stid
elicitedstug,and so on.
A better candidate for a source-oriented generalization would be an
affixation process,such as that used to form the regular Past Tense in
English.In most cases,the productive use of this schema appears to
add /t/,/d/,or / d/ to an input form,the base stem.However,there is
some indication that even this fairly agglutinative affixation may be
conceptualized as a product-oriented schema – that is,a schema that

Table 5.3.A Semiproductive Verb Class of English (Bybee and
Moder 1983)

i

æ

L

i

L

-m

swim

swam

swum

-n

begin

began

begun

-n

spin

spun

run

ran

run

win

won

ring

rang

rung

cling

clung

sing

sang

sung

fling

flung*

spring

sprang

sprung

sling

slung*

sting

stung*

string

strung*

swing

swung

wring

wrung

hang

hung*

bring

brung**

-nk

drink

drank

drunk

slink

slunk

shrink

shrank

shrunk

stink

stank

stunk

-k

strike

struck*

stick

stuck*

sneak

snuck**

shake

shuck**

-g

dig

dug*

drag

drug**

*Not a Strong Verb in Old English,but made Strong by analogy,according to
Jespersen (1942)
**Dialectal,not a Strong Verb in Old English

simply says,‘a Past verb ends in /t/,/d/,or / d/,’ rather than ‘add /t/,/d/,
or / d/ to a verb to form the Past.’
As evidence,consider a prominent class of English irregulars,those
that form the Past with a zero allomorph.This class is very stable,and
it is noteworthy that it is not prone to regularization by children in the
early stages of language development,even though it has the peculiar
property of not changing the base to form the Past.Several researchers
(Menn and MacWhinney 1984,Stemberger 1981) have argued that its
stability is related to the fact that all the stems in this class end in /t/
or /d/.Thus it is possible for the child or adult language user to inter-
pret these verbs as already fitting the schema for Past tense and not
needing further affixation.
Parallel phenomena are found in other constructions in English and
other languages (see Menn and MacWhinney 1984 and Stemberger
1981 for many examples).In fact,one of the main determinants of the
distribution of zero allomorphs is phonological similarity between the
stem and the segmental allomorph.In English,words such as lightning
that end in -ingdo not add the Progressive -ing.One says It was thun-
dering and lightning and not *lightninging.Derivational-lyfor forming
adverbs from adjectives does not attach to adjectives formed with -ly,
such as friendly,which cannot form *friendlily.In Spanish,the only
nouns with a zero allomorph for Plural all end in -es,which is also the
Plural marker.Thus,the days of the week lunes‘Monday’,martes
‘Tuesday’,miércoles‘Wednesday’,and so on,do not change for the
Plural.

Product-oriented behavior shows up in nonce probe experiments
quite readily (Bybee and Moder 1983,Köpcke 1988,Lobben 1991,
Wang and Derwing 1994).Köpcke (1988) found that a common
response to requests to pluralize the nonce German noun Treika was
the form Treiken,using the suffix -en,but reshaping the noun to fit one
of the German schemas for Plural [CVC en] rather than adding it to
the noun directly.Wang and Derwing (1994) asked subjects to form
new nominalizations with -ityon nonce adjectives in order to observe
the vowel changes made.The results showed that certain vowels were
favored with -ity,but that the choice of vowels did not depend upon
the vowel of the base.The most common responses were /ɔ/,/i/,and
/æ/,but these vowels appeared in words whose nonce bases contained
a wide variety of vowels.For instance,/i/ was given as a response to
bases with /ay/,as would be expected from,say,divine,divinity,but it

128

The Interaction of Phonology with Morphology

was also a common response for bases with /ε/ and / /,moreover,/ɔ/
was a common response to bases with /aw/,/ow/,/uw/,/υ/,and /ɔy/,and
/ε/ was a common response to bases with /iy/,as expected,but also to
ones with /ɔ/! As mentioned in Section 5.2.3,Wang and Derwing found
a significant correlation between the response vowels and the type
frequency of these vowels in -itywords in the existing lexicon.The
conclusion is that subjects are forming -itywords not by applying
the vowel shift rule,but rather by attempting to create a word that is
similar to existing words with this suffix.
Since the evidence for product-oriented schemas is quite robust,and
since any morphological pattern that can be described by a source-
oriented rule can also be described by a product-oriented one,it seems
reasonable to ask if there are indeed any source-oriented schemas.
These would be schemas that give explicit instructions for altering a
certain well-defined input form by changing features or adding ele-
ments to create an output form.Wang and Derwing found some evi-
dence of source-oriented behavior in their study (e.g.,that [i] was a
common alternate for [ay]),but they conclude that these results are
due to knowledge of English orthography.
The basic/derived relation as described above in Section 5.2.4
appears to express a source-oriented relationship:the most frequent,
unmarked form is used to create (usually by the addition of an affix)
a new derived or more marked form.But even this operation could be
accomplished with a product-oriented schema.The directional aspect
of the relation is accounted for by the asymmetry in frequency between
the basic and derived form.
If there are no source-oriented schemas,one might ask why rules
that change features work as well as they do,and why it is that so many
morphological operations involve affixation,which is the addition
of elements to a base form.The reason in both cases is diachronic.We
have seen that alternations arise from phonological processes that
do,in a diachronic sense,change features.In addition,morphology
arises through grammaticization,by which a previously independent
word develops gradually into a grammatical morpheme and can
sometimes also become an affix.Because it was once an independent
word,it appears as linguistic material added to a base.Synchronically,
however,its cognitive representation could be as a product-oriented
schema.Thus,we still await conclusive evidence for source-oriented
schemas.

5.8Product-Oriented Schemas

129

130

The Interaction of Phonology with Morphology

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->