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ACcircuit2

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STEADY STATE AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS STEADY STATE AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Previously we have analyzed circuits with time-independent
sources ± voltage and current that do not change with time
DC circuit analysis
x(t) = x(t +nT), where n = 1,2 3, « and T is the period of the signal
Introduction
In this section we will analyze circuits containing time-dependent
sources ± voltage and current vary with time
One of the important classes of time-dependent signal is the
periodic signals
Introduction
Typical periodic signals normally found in electrical
engineering:
t
t
t
Sawtooth wave Square wave
Triangle wave
pulse wave
t
Introduction
In SEE 1003 we will deal with one of the most important periodic
signal of all :- sinusoidal signals
Signals that has the form of sine or cosine function
t
Introduction
In SEE 1003 we will deal with one of the most important periodic
signal of all :- sinusoidal signals
Circuit containing sources with sinusoidal signals (sinusoidal
sources) is called an AC circuit. Our analysis will be restricted to
the steady state behavior of AC circuit.
Signals that has the form of sine or cosine function
Why do we need to study sinusoidal AC circuit ? Why do we need to study sinusoidal AC circuit ?
‡ Dominant waveform in the electric power industries worldwide ±
household and industrial appliations
‡ ALL periodic waveforms (e.g. square, triangular,
sawtooth, etc) can be represented by sinusoids
‡ You want to pass SEE1003 !
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Let a sinusoidal signal of a voltage is given by:
v(æt) = V
m
sin (æt)
x 2x 3x 4x æt
v(æt)
V
m
æ ± the angular frequency (radian/second)
æt ± the argument of the sine function
V
m
± the amplitude or maximum value
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Let a sinusoidal signal of a voltage is given by:
v(æt) = V
m
sin (æt)
T/2 T (3/2)T 2T t
v(t)
V
m
The voltage can also be written as function of time:
v(t) = V
m
sin (æt)
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Let a sinusoidal signal of a voltage is given by:
v(æt) = V
m
sin (æt)
T/2 T (3/2)T 2T t
v(t)
V
m
The voltage can also be written as function of time:
v(t) = V
m
sin (æt)
‡ In T seconds, the voltage goes through 1 cycle
‡ In 1 second there are 1/T cycles of waveform
‡ The number of cycles per second is the frequency f
T
1
f !
The unit for f is Hertz
T is known as the period of the waveform
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
A more general expression of a sinusoidal signal is
v
1
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt + o)
o is called the phase angle, normally written in degrees
æt
v(æt)
V
m
v
2
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt - o)
v
1
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt + o)
Let a second voltage waveform is given by: v
2
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt - o)
o
o
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
æt
v(æt)
V
m
v
2
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt - o)
v
1
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt + o)
o
o
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
æt
v(æt)
V
m
v
2
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt - o)
v
1
(æt) = V
m
sin (æt + o)
o
o
v
1
is said to be leading leading v
2
by o (-o) or (o + o)
v
2
is said to be lagging lagging v
1
by o (-o) or (o + o)
alternatively,
v
1
and v
2
are said to be out of phase out of phase
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
æt
v(æt)
V
m
-V
m
sin (æt)
V
m
sin (æt)
Some important relationships in sinusoidals
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
æt
v(æt)
V
m
-V
m
sin (æt)
V
m
sin (æt)
Some important relationships in sinusoidals
180 180
oo
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
æt
v(æt)
-V
m
sin (æt)
Some important relationships in sinusoidals
Therefore, VV
m m
sin ( sin (æ æt t ±± 180 180
oo
) = ) = - -VV
m m
sin ( sin (æ æt ) t )
180 180
oo
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Some important relationships in sinusoidals
V
m
sin (æt) = V
m
sin (æt 360
o
)
Therefore, V
m
sin (æt + o) = V
m
sin (æt + o 360
o
)
÷ VV
m m
sin ( sin (æ æt + t + oo) ) = = VV
m m
sin ( sin (æ æt t (360 (360
o o
oo)) ))
e.g., V
m
sin (æt + 250
o
) = V
m
sin (æt (360
o
250
o
))
= V
m
sin (æt 110
o
)
æt
v(æt)
V
m
250
o
110
o
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Some important relationships in sinusoidals
It is easier to compare two sinusoidal signals if:
‡ Both are expressed sine or cosine
‡ Both are written with positive amplitudes
‡ Both have the same frequency
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Average and effective value of a sinusoidal waveform
An average value a periodic waveform is defined as:
´

!
T t
t
t ) t (
T
1
X
e.g. for sinusoi l olt ge,
´
x o
o
æ æ
x
!
2
m e
) t ( ) t sin( V
2
1
V
0 V
e
!
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Average and effective value of a sinusoidal waveform
An effective value or Root-Mean-Square (RMS) a periodic current
(or voltage) is defined as:
The value of the DC current (or voltage) which, flowing through a
R-ohm resistor delivers the same average power as does the
periodic current (or voltage)
I
effec
R V
dc
R
v(t)
i(t)
Average power:
(absorbed)
dt R i
T
1
P
T
0
2
´
!
R I P
2
effec
!
Average power:
(absorbed)
Power to be equal:
dt R i
T
1
R I
T
0
2 2
effec
´
!
dt i
T
1
I
T
0
2
effec
´
! @
Sinusoidal waveform Sinusoidal waveform
Average and effective value of a sinusoidal waveform
For a sinusoidal wave, RMS value is :
2
V
V
m
rms
!
or
2
I
I
m
rms
!
Phasors Phasors
A phasor phasor: A complex number used to represent a sinusoidal waveform. It
contain the information about the amplitude and phase angle of the sinusoid.
Why used phasors ?
Analysis of AC circuit will be much more easier using phasors
In steady state condition, the sinusoidal voltage or current will have the same
frequency. The differences between sinusoidal waveforms are only in the
magnitudes and phase angles
Phasors Phasors
How do we transform sinusoidal waveforms to phasors ??
Phasor is rooted in Euler¶s identity:
U U !
U
si j c s e
j
_ a
U
„ ! U
j
e c s
cos o is the real part of
U j
e
_ a
U
ƒ ! U
j
e si
sin o is the imaginary part of
U j
e
Real
Imaginary
Supposed v(t) = V
m
cos (æt + U)
This can be written as
_ a
) t (
m
e V
o + æ
T
v(t) =
Phasors Phasors
How do we transform sinusoidal waveforms to phasors ??
_ a
) t (
m
e V
o + æ
T
v(t) =
Phasors Phasors
How do we transform sinusoidal waveforms to phasors ??
_ a
) t (
m
e V
o + æ
T
v(t) =
_ a
) t (
m
e V
o + æ
T
=
v(t) = _ a
æ o
T
m
e e V
_ a
æ o
T
m
e e V
=
o
m
e V is the phasor transform of v(t)
v(t) = V
m
cos (æt +o)
phasor transform
U
!
j
m
e V V
Phasors Phasors
U
!
j
m
e V V
Phasors Phasors
U
!
j
m
e V V
o
m
V o . = V
Polar forms
U U ! si j V c s V
m m
V Rectangular forms
We will use
these notations
v
a
(t) = V
m
cos (æt -o)
o
m
V o . =
a
V
Some examples «.
i(t) = I
m
cos (æt +o)
m
I o ! I
v
x
(t) = V
m
sin (æt +0) v
x
(t) = V
m
cos (æt +0 - 90
o
) ) 90 ( V
o o
m
0 . =
x
V
Phasors Phasors
U
!
j
m
e V V
o
m
V o . = V
Polar forms
U U ! si j V c s V
m m
V Rectangular forms
We will use
these notations
Phasors can be graphically represented using Phasor Diagrams
o
m
V U ’ ! V
m
V
o
o
Im
Re
Phasors Phasors
U
!
j
m
e V V
o
m
V o . = V
Polar forms
U U ! si j V cos V
m m
V Rectangular forms
We will use
these notations
Phasors can be graphically represented using Phasor Diagrams
o
m
V U ’ ! V
U cos V
m
o
o
o sin V
m
Im
Re
Phasors Phasors
U
!
j
m
e V V
o
m
V o . = V
Polar forms
U U ! si j V cos V
m m
V Rectangular forms
We will use
these notations
Phasors can be graphically represented using Phasor Diagrams
Draw the phasor diagram for the following phasors:
o
125 20’ !
1
V
o
100 40. =
2
V 5 j 5 !
3
V
Phasors Phasors
To summarize «
‡ v
a
(t) = V
m
cos (æt -o)
phasor transform
o
m
V J ’ !
a
V J J ! si j V cos V
m m
‡ It is also possible to do the i verse phasor tra sform:
o
m
V 0 . = V
inverse phasor transform
v(t) = V
m
cos (æt + 0)
‡ If v
1
(t), v
2
(t), v
3
(t), v
4
(t), «.v
n
(t) are sinusoidals of the same frequency and
V = V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
+V
4
+ «+V
n
v(t) = v
1
(t) + v
2
(t) + v
3
(t) + v
4
(t) + «.+v
n
(t)
,
in phasors this can be written as:
Phasor Relationships for R, L and C Phasor Relationships for R, L and C
The relationships between V and I for R, L and C are needed in order
for us to do the AC circuit analysis
+ v
R

i
R
R i
R
!
R
If i
R
= I
m
cos (æt + o
i
)
÷
R
= R (I
m
cos (æt + o
i
))
R R
I
R
+ V
R

i R
I o . = I
v m i R
V RI o . = o . = V
v v
R R
and i and i
R R
are in phase ! are in phase !
Phasor Relationships for R, L and C Phasor Relationships for R, L and C
The relationships between V and I for R, L and C are needed in order
for us to do the AC circuit analysis
+ v
L

i
L
t
i
L
L
!
L
If i
L
= I
m
cos (æt + o
i
)
÷
L
= æL (I
m
(-sin (æt + o
i
)))
LL
I
L
+ V
L

i m L
I o . = I
i m R
LI j U ’ [ ! V
v v
LL
leads i leads i
LL
by 90 by 90
oo
! !
÷ v
L
= æL (I
m
cos (æt + o
I
+90
o
))
) 90 ( LI
o
i m
+ o . æ =
v m
V o . =
Phasor Relationships for R, L and C Phasor Relationships for R, L and C
The relationships between V and I for R, L and C are needed in order
for us to do the AC circuit analysis
+ v
c

i
c
t
c
! i
If
c
= V
m
cos (æt + o )
÷ i
c
= æ (V
m
( -sin (æt + o )))
C C
I
c
+ V
c

v m c
V o . = V
v m c
V j U ’ [ ! I
ii
c c
leads v leads v
c c
by 90 by 90
oo
! !
÷ i
c
= æC (V
m
cos (æt + o
v
+90
o
))
) 90 ( CV
o
v m
+ o . æ =
i m
I o . =

Introduction Previously we have analyzed circuits with time-independent sources ± voltage and current that do not change with time DC circuit analysis In this section we will analyze circuits containing time-dependent sources ± voltage and current vary with time

One of the important classes of time-dependent signal is the periodic signals

x(t) = x(t +nT),

where n = 1,2 3, « and T is the period of the signal

Introduction Typical periodic signals normally found in electrical engineering:
Sawtooth wave Square wave

t
Triangle wave pulse wave

t

t t

Introduction In SEE 1003 we will deal with one of the most important periodic signal of all :.sinusoidal signals Signals that has the form of sine or cosine function t .

Our analysis will be restricted to the steady state behavior of AC circuit.sinusoidal signals Signals that has the form of sine or cosine function Circuit containing sources with sinusoidal signals (sinusoidal sources) is called an AC circuit.Introduction In SEE 1003 we will deal with one of the most important periodic signal of all :. .

g. sawtooth. etc) can be represented by sinusoids ‡ ‡ You want to pass SEE1003 ! . square.Why do we need to study sinusoidal AC circuit ? ‡ Dominant waveform in the electric power industries worldwide ± household and industrial appliations ALL periodic waveforms (e. triangular.

Sinusoidal waveform Let a sinusoidal signal of a voltage is given by: v([t) v([t) = Vm sin ([t) Vm T 2T 3T 4T [t Vm ± the amplitude or maximum value [ ± the angular frequency (radian/second) [t ± the argument of the sine function .

Sinusoidal waveform Let a sinusoidal signal of a voltage is given by: v([t) = Vm sin ([t) The voltage can also be written as function of time: v(t) = Vm sin ([t) v(t) Vm T/2 T (3/2)T 2T t .

Sinusoidal waveform Let a sinusoidal signal of a voltage is given by: v([t) = Vm sin ([t) The voltage can also be written as function of time: v(t) = Vm sin ([t) ‡ In T seconds. the voltage goes through 1 cycle v(t) T is known as the period of the waveform Vm ‡ In 1 second there are 1/T cycles of waveform ‡ The number of cycles per second is the frequency f T/2 T (3/2)T 2T 1 f! T t The unit for f is Hertz .

normally written in degrees Let a second voltage waveform is given by: v2([t) = Vm sin ([t .U) v([t) v1([t) = Vm sin ([t + J) v2([t) = Vm sin ([t .U) Vm U J [t .Sinusoidal waveform A more general expression of a sinusoidal signal is v1([t) = Vm sin ([t + J) J is called the phase angle.

Sinusoidal waveform v([t) v1([t) = Vm sin ([t + J) v2([t) = Vm sin ([t .U) Vm U J [t .

Sinusoidal waveform v([t) v1([t) = Vm sin ([t + J) v2([t) = Vm sin ([t . v2 is said to be lagging v1 by J  (-U) or (J + U) .U) Vm U J [t v1 and v2 are said to be out of phase v1 is said to be leading v2 by J  (-U) or (J + U) alternatively.

Sinusoidal waveform Some important relationships in sinusoidals v([t) Vm sin ([t) -Vm sin ([t) Vm [t .

Sinusoidal waveform Some important relationships in sinusoidals v([t) Vm sin ([t) -Vm sin ([t) Vm [t 180o .

Vmsin ([t s 180o) = -Vmsin ([t ) .Sinusoidal waveform Some important relationships in sinusoidals v([t) -Vm sin ([t) 180o [t Therefore.

.g. Vmsin ([t + U) = Vmsin ([t + U  360o)   Vmsin ([t + U) = Vmsin ([t  (360o  U)) e.Sinusoidal waveform Some important relationships in sinusoidals Vmsin ([t) = Vmsin ([t  360o) Therefore. Vmsin ([t + 250o) = Vmsin ([t  (360o  250o)) = Vm sin ([t  110o) v([t) Vm [t 250o 110o .

Sinusoidal waveform Some important relationships in sinusoidals It is easier to compare two sinusoidal signals if: ‡ Both are expressed sine or cosine ‡ Both are written with positive amplitudes ‡ Both have the same frequency .

1 ! T ´ (t) t t V V e 1 ! 2T !0 ´ U 2T Vm sin( [t ) ([t ) U e .Sinusoidal waveform Average and effective value of a sinusoidal waveform An average value a periodic waveform is defined as: tT X e.g. for sinusoi l olt ge.

Sinusoidal waveform Average and effective value of a sinusoidal waveform An effective value or Root-Mean-Square (RMS) a periodic current (or voltage) is defined as: The value of the DC current (or voltage) which. flowing through a R-ohm resistor delivers the same average power as does the periodic current (or voltage) i(t) R Average power: (absorbed) T 2 v(t) P! 1 T ´ Power to be equal: i R dt 0 1 I2 R ! effec T ´ i R dt 0 T 2 Ieffec Vdc R Average power: (absorbed) @ Ieffec ! P!I 2 effec R 1 T ´ i dt 0 T 2 .

Sinusoidal waveform Average and effective value of a sinusoidal waveform For a sinusoidal wave. RMS value is : Vm 2 Im 2 Vrms ! or Irms ! .

The differences between sinusoidal waveforms are only in the magnitudes and phase angles Why used phasors ? Analysis of AC circuit will be much more easier using phasors . It phasor: contain the information about the amplitude and phase angle of the sinusoid.Phasors A phasor A complex number used to represent a sinusoidal waveform. In steady state condition. the sinusoidal voltage or current will have the same frequency.

Phasors How do we transform sinusoidal waveforms to phasors ?? Phasor is rooted in Euler¶s identity: e jU ! c s U  j si U Real Imaginary cos U is the real part of e jU   c sU ! „ e   si _a U ! ƒ_ a e jU jU sin U is the imaginary part of e jU Supposed v(t) = Vm cos ([t + U) This can be written as e ( [t  U ) a v(t) = Vm„_ .

Phasors How do we transform sinusoidal waveforms to phasors ?? e ( [t  U ) a v(t) = Vm„_ .

Phasors How do we transform sinusoidal waveforms to phasors ?? e ( [t  U ) a v(t) = Vm„_ V ( [t  U ) a = „_ m e V U [ = „_ m e e a U [ v(t) = „ Vm e e _ a Vm e U is the phasor transform of v(t) v(t) = Vmcos ([t +U) phasor transform V ! Vm e jU .

Phasors V ! Vm e jU .

va(t) = Vmcos ([t -J) i(t) = Imcos ([t +U) vx(t) = Vmsin ([t +F) Va ! Vm ’  J o I ! Im U vx(t) = Vmcos ([t +F .Phasors V ! Vm e jU V ! Vm ’Uo We will use these notations Polar forms V ! Vm c s U  Vm j si U Rectangular forms Some examples «.90o) Vx ! Vm ’(Fo  90 o ) .

Phasors V ! Vm e jU V ! Vm ’Uo We will use these notations Polar forms V ! Vm c s U  Vm j si U Rectangular forms Phasors can be graphically represented using Phasor Diagrams Im Vm V ! Vm ’Uo Uo Re .

Phasors V ! Vm e jU V ! Vm ’Uo We will use these notations Polar forms V ! Vm cos U  Vm j si U Rectangular forms Phasors can be graphically represented using Phasor Diagrams Im V ! Vm ’Uo Vm sin U Uo Re Vm cos U .

Phasors V ! Vm e jU V ! Vm ’Uo We will use these notations Polar forms V ! Vm cos U  Vm j si U Rectangular forms Phasors can be graphically represented using Phasor Diagrams Draw the phasor diagram for the following phasors: V1 ! 20’125 o V2 ! 40’100 o V3 ! 5  j5 .

Phasors To summarize « ‡ va(t) = Vmcos ([t -J) phasor transform Va ! Vm ’  Jo ! Vm cos J  Vm j si J ‡ If v1(t). v2(t). «. in phasors this can be written as: V = V1 + V2 + V3 +V4 + «+Vn ‡ It is also possible to do the i verse phasor tra sform: V ! Vm ’Fo inverse phasor transform v(t) = Vmcos ([t + F) . v3(t). v4(t).+vn(t) .vn(t) are sinusoidals of the same frequency and v(t) = v1(t) + v2(t) + v3(t) + v4(t) + «.

L and C are needed in order for us to do the AC circuit analysis R iR + vR  If iR = Im cos ([t + Ui) R IR + VR  IR ! I’Ui ! iRR   R= R (Im cos ([t + Ui)) VR ! RI’Ui ! Vm ’U v vR and iR are in phase ! .Phasor Relationships for R. L and C The relationships between V and I for R.

Phasor Relationships for R. L and C The relationships between V and I for R. L and C are needed in order for us to do the AC circuit analysis L iL + vL  If iL = Im cos ([t + Ui) L IL + VL  IL ! Im ’Ui VR ! j[LIm ’Ui ! [LIm ’(Ui  90 o ) ! Vm ’U v !L iL t   L= [L (Im (-sin ([t + Ui)))   vL = [L (Im cos ([t + UI +90o)) vL leads iL by 90o ! .

L and C are needed in order for us to do the AC circuit analysis C ic + vc  If c= Ic + Vc  Vc ! Vm ’U v Ic ! j[ Vm ’U v ! [CVm ’(U v  90 o ) ! Im ’Ui Vm cos ([t + U ) c i ! t   ic = [ (Vm( -sin ([t + U )))   ic = [C (Vm cos ([t + Uv +90o)) ic leads vc by 90o ! .Phasor Relationships for R. L and C The relationships between V and I for R.

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