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INTRODUCTION Design of concrete mixes involves determination of the proportions of given constituents namely, cement, water, coarse and fine aggregates and admixtures, if any, which would produce concrete possessing specified properties both in the fresh and hardened states with the maximum overall economy. Workability is specified as the important property of concrete in the fresh state; for hardened state compressive strength and durability are important. The mix design is therefore, generally carried out for particular compressive strength of concrete with adequate workability so that fresh concrete can be properly placed and compacted, and to achieve the required durability. In special situations, concrete can be designed for flexural strength or, for that matter, for any other specific property of concrete. The proportioning of concrete mixes is accomplished by the use of certain relationships established by experimental data, which afford reasonably accurate guide to select the best combination of ingredients so as to achieve the desirable properties. The following basic assumptions are made in the design of plastic concrete mixes of designed strength: a) The compressive strength of concrete is governed by its water-cement ratio, and b) For a given aggregate characteristics, the workability of concrete is governed by its water content. For high strengths concrete mixes of low workability, considerable interaction occurs in between these two criteria and validity of such assumptions may become limited. Moreover, there are various other factors which affect the properties of the concrete, for example, the quality and quantity of cement, water and aggregates; procedures of batching, mixing, placing, compaction and curing, etc. Therefore, the specific relationships that are used in proportioning concrete mixes should be considered only as a basis for trial mixes. Further modifications are necessary at the site based on the situation as well as specific materials available. It is to be noted that a design in the strict sense of the word is not possible in relation to concrete mix proportioning. Concrete making materials are essentially variable and the two basic assumptions enumerated above may not be held to be quantitatively exact under all situations. If more accurate relationships between proportions of materials and the properties of concrete (for example, relationship between compressive strength and watercement ratio or water content and workability) are available, they should be used. Mix design of recommended guidelines is really a process of making an initial guess at the optimum combination of ingredients and final mix proportions is obtained only on the basis of further trial mixes.

Factors in the Choice of Mix Design- Both IS 456-2000 as well as IS 1343-1980 envisages that design of concrete mix be based on the following factors: a) Grade designation, b) Type of cement, c) Maximum nominal size of aggregates, d) Minimum water-cement ratio, e) Workability, and f) Minimum cement content. Grade designation gives the characteristic strength requirement of concrete. Depending upon the level of quality control available at the site, the concrete mix has to be designed for a target mean strength somewhat higher than the characteristic strength requirement of concrete. The workability of concrete for satisfactory placing and compaction is related to the size and shape of the section to be concreted, the quantity and spacing of reinforcement, and the methods to be employed for transportation, placing and compaction of concrete. A guide to workability requirements for different conditions of placing is given in below. Type of cement: The type of cement is important mainly through its influence on the rate of development of compressive strength of concrete as well as durability under aggressive environments. Different types of cements can be used with the approval of the Engineer-inCharge. From among the different types of cements available, the Engineer-in-Charge is required to make his choice depending upon the requirements of performance at hand. Where very high compressive strength is required, for example, in prestressed concrete railway sleepers, high strength ordinary Portland cement confirming to IS 8112-1976 will be found suitable. Where an early strength development is required, rapid hardening Portland cement confirming to IS 8041-1978 is preferable. On the other hand in situations where heat of hydration to be limited, for example, in mass concrete constructions, low heat Portland cement confirming to IS 269-1976 is preferable. Portland pozzolana cement and Portland slag cement are permitted for use in reinforced concrete constructions; while Portland slag cement is also permitted for prestressed concrete constructions. With such blended cements, the rate of development of early strength may be somewhat slower. On the other hand, these blended cements render greater durability to the concrete in sulphatic environment and seawater. The requirements of durability are achieved by limitations in terms of minimum cement content, the type of cement, and the maximum water-cement ratio. Maximum nominal size of aggregates to be used in concrete is governed by the size of the section and spacing of the reinforcement. Both IS 456-2000 and IS 1343-1980, specify that the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate should not be greater than one-fourth of the minimum thickness of the member, and it should be restricted to 5mm less than the minimum clear distance between main bars or 5mm less than the minimum cover to the reinforcement and 5mm less than the minimum cover to the reinforcement and 5mm less than the spacing between the cables, strands or sheathing in case of prestressed concrete. Within these limits, the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregates may be as large as possible. In general, it is found that larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is the cement requirement for a particular water-cement ratio. This arises mainly from the fact that

workability of concrete increases with increase in maximum size of aggregate. However, the maximum size of aggregates also influences the compressive strength of concrete in that, for a particular volume of aggregate, the compressive strength tends to increase with decrease in size of coarse aggregate. This is due to the fact that smaller size aggregates present a larger surface area for bonding with the mortar matrix; it also results from the fact that the stress concentration in the mortar-aggregate interfaces increase with increase in maximum size of aggregate. There is thus an interaction of the maximum size of aggregates well as the grade of concrete, which determine the ‘strength efficiency’ of the cement, and, therefore, the requirement of cement for particular compressive strength is to be specified. For concrete with higher water-cement ratio, larger maximum size of aggregates may be beneficial whereas for high strength concrete 10 or 20mm size of aggregates is preferable. It is because of such reasons that IS 456-2000 and IS 1343-1980, while recommending that nominal size of coarse aggregates be as large as possible, also suggest that for reinforced and prestressed works, aggregates having a maximum nominal size of 20mm or smaller are generally considered satisfactory. Cement Content: In appropriate circumstances, the maximum limit of cement content in the concrete may also have to be specified. This is because concrete mixes having high cement content may give rise to shrinkage, cracking and creep of concrete also increases with the cement paste content. In thick concrete sections restrained against movements, high cement content may give rise to excessive cracking caused by differential thermal stresses due to hydration of cement in young concretes. Hence as per IS 456-2000, cement content not including flyash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in excess of 450 kg/m3 should not be used unless special consideration has been given in design to the increased risk of cracking due to drying shrinkage in thin sections, or to early thermal cracking and to the increased risk of damage due to alkali-silica reactions. Workability: From the stage of mixing till it is transported, placed in the formwork and compacted, fresh concrete should satisfy a number of requirements which may be summarized as follows: 1. The mix should be stable, in that it should not segregate during transportation and placing. The tendency of bleeding should be minimized. The mix should be cohesive and mobile enough to be placed in the form around the reinforcement and should be able to cast into required shape. The mix should be amenable to proper and thorough compaction as possible in the situation of placing and with the facilities of compaction. It should be possible to obtain a satisfactory surface finish.

2.

3.

4.

The diverse requirements of stability, mobility, compactability, placeability, and finishability of fresh concrete mentioned above are collectively referred to as “workability”. The workability of fresh concrete is thus a composite property. It is difficult to precisely define all the aspects in a single definition. It is clear that the optimum workability of

concrete varies from situation to situation and concrete, which can be termed as workable for pouring into large sections with minimum reinforcement, may not be equally workable for pouring in thin sections with heavier concentration of reinforcement. A concrete may not be workable when compacted by hand but may be satisfactory when mechanical vibration is used. Different measures of workability: There are different methods of measuring the workability of fresh concrete. Each of them measures only a particular aspect of it and there is really no unique test, which measures the workability of concrete in its totality. Although new test methods are being developed frequently, IS 1199-1959 envisages the following three methods: Slump test, Compacting factor test, and Vee-Bee consistency test. Out of these three the slump test is perhaps the most widely used, primarily because of the simplicity of the apparatus required and the test procedure. For such conditions where slump test is suitable the concrete after test slumps evenly all round, which may be called “True slump”. When the mixes are harsh or in case of very lean concrete one half of the cone may slide down the other, which is called a “Shear slump”; or it may even collapse. Apart from some conclusion being drawn regarding the harshness or otherwise of the mix, slump test is essentially a measure of “consistency” or the “wetness” of the mix. The test is suitable only for concretes of medium to high workabilities (i.e. slump 25 mm to 125 mm), For very stiff mixes having zero slump, the slump test does not indicate any difference in concretes of different workabilities. The compactability, that is, the amount of work to compact a given mass of concrete, is an important aspect of workability. Strictly speaking, compacting factor test measures workability in an indirect manner, that is, the amount of compaction achieved for a given amount of work. This test has been held to be more accurate than slump test, especially for concrete mixes of “medium” and “ “low” workabilities (that is, compacting factor of 0.9 to 0.8). Its use has been more popular in laboratory conditions. For concrete of very low workabilities (that is, compacting factor of 0.70 and below which can not be fully compacted for comparison, in the manner described in the test method) this test is not suitable. Vee-Bee test is preferable for stiff concrete mixes having low or very low workability. Compared to the other two tests, Vee-Bee test has the advantage that the concrete in the test receives a similar treatment as in would be in actual practice. Since the end point of the test (when the glass plate rider completely covers the concrete) is to be ascertained visually, it introduces a source of error, which is more pronounced for concrete mixes of high workability and consequently records low Vee-Bee time. The test is therefore not suitable for concrete of higher workability, i.e., slump of 75 mm or above. Experience has shown that mix proportions influence the workability of concrete and more pertinently, different workability tests to different extent. Therefore it is futile to expect a rigid correlation between the workabilties of concrete as measured by different methods. Table below attempts to describe different workabilties of concrete in terms of slump, VeeBee time and compacting factor. The table gives the range of expected values for different

**test methods for comparable concretes may give an indication of the correlation between them.
**

COMPARISON OF CONSISTENCY MEASUREMENTS BY VARIOUS METHODS WORKABILITY DESCRIPTION Extremely dry Very stiff Stiff Stiff plastic Plastic Flowing SLUMP mm 0 – 25 25 – 50 75 – 100 150 – 175 VEE – BEE TIME (seconds) 32 – 18 18 – 10 10 – 5 5–3 3–0 COMPACTING FACTOR 0.70 0.75 0.85 0.90 0.95

SUGGESTED RANGES OF VALUES OF WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE FOR DIFFERENT PLACING CONDITIONS PLACING CONDITONS DEGREE OF WORKABILITY Very low VALUES OF WORKABILITY 20 – 10 seconds, Vee-Bee time, or 0.75 – 0.80, compacting factor 10 – 5 seconds, Vee-Bee time, or 0.80 – 0.85, compacting factor 5 – 2 seconds, Vee-Bee time, or 0.85 – 0.92, compacting factor, or 25 – 75 mm, slump for 20 mm * aggregate Above 0.92, compacting factor, or 75 – 125 mm, slump for 20 mm *aggregate

Concreting of shallow sections with vibrations Concreting of lightly reinforced Low sections with vibrations Concreting of lightly reinforced Medium sections without vibration, or heavily reinforced sections with vibration Concreting of heavily High reinforced sections without vibration * For smaller aggregates the values will be lower

Requirement of workability: In addition to the desired compressive strength, the concrete should have workability such that it can be placed in the formwork and compacted with minimum effort without causing segregation or bleeding. The choice of workability depends upon the type of compacting equipment available, the size of the section and the concentration of reinforcement. For heavily reinforced section, or when the sections are narrow or contain inaccessible parts or when the spacing of reinforcements makes placing and compaction difficult, the concrete should be highly workable for full compaction to be achieved with reasonable amount of effort. Table above gives range of workabilities requires in terms of slump, compacting factor and V-B time for concretes depending upon the placing conditions at site. It may be noted that the nominal maximum size of aggregates itself makes a difference in the degree of workability that may be suitable under a particular placing condition. The range of values indicated are considered suitable for concretes having aggregates of nominal maximum size 20 mm. Generally the value of workability will increase with the increase in the size of aggregate and will be somewhat lower for aggregates of smaller size than indicated.

Not withstanding the guidance for workability given in the table above the situation at hand should be properly assessed to arrive at the desired workability in each case. The aim should be to have the minimum possible workability consistent with satisfactory placing and compaction of the concrete. It should be remembered that insufficient workability resulting in incomplete compaction may severely affect the strength, durability and surface finish of concrete and may indeed be uneconomical in the long run. The effectiveness of vibration equipment available for compaction should also be taken into consideration. Compressive strength: The compressive strength of hardened concrete is considered to be the most important property. It can be measured easily on standard sized cube or cylindrical specimen and it is often taken as an index of the overall quality of concrete. Many of the desirable properties of concrete, for example shear, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, bond, impact, abrasion resistance and durability etc., are also taken to be related to the compressive strength, at least to a general extent. Among the materials and mix variables the water-cement ratio is the most important parameter governing the compressive strength. Beside water-cement ratio, the following factors also affect the compressive strength of concrete: 1) The characteristics of cement, 2) The characteristics and properties of aggregates, 3) The degree of compaction, 4) Efficiency of curing, 5) The temperature during the curing period, 6) The age at the time of testing, and 7) The conditions of test. NOMINAL MIX CONCRETE: Prescribed mix: May be used for concrete grades M5, M7.5, M10, M15 and M20. Proportions For Nominal Mix Concrete

Grade of concrete Total quantity of dry aggregate by mass per 50 kg of cement (FA+CA) Max. (Kg) 800 625 480 350 250 Proportions of FA to CA, by mass Quantity of water/ 50 kg of cement Max (litres) 60 45 34 32 30 W/C ratio

M15 M7.5 M10 M15 M20

Generally 1:2 but subjected to an upper limit of 1:1½ and a lower limit of 1: 2½

1.20 0.90 0.68 0.64 0.60

NOTE: The proportions of fine to coarse aggregate should be adjusted from upper limit to lower limit progressively as the grading of the fine aggregate becomes finer, and maximum size of the coarse aggregate becomes larger. Graded coarse aggregate shall be used. EX: For an average grading of fine aggregate grading of fine aggregate (i.e. Zone-II of Table 4 of IS 383-1970), the proportion shall be (1: 1½ for 10 mm (max. size of aggregate), 1:2 for 20 mm, and 1:2½ for 40 mm) DESIGN MIX CONCRETE: Preferable to nominal mix REQUIREMENTS Properties of hardened cement concrete - decided by Structural Engineer Properties of fresh cement concrete - defined by Construction Engineer Degree of control exercised at site - defined by Construction Engineer Durability consideration - Structural & Construction Engineer

DEFINITION OF MIX PROPORTIONING: Process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative quantities with the purpose of producing an economical concrete which has certain minimum properties, notably, workability, strength and durability LIMITING VALUES: Maximum water-cement ratio, Minimum cement content, Minimum strength, Minimum workability, Maximum size of aggregate, Air content within specified limit, Type of exposure. NOTE: 1. Materials used are variable in a number of resects and many of their properties cannot be assessed truly 2. Only an intelligent guess at the optimum combinations of ingredients on the basis of relationships established based on results of extensive studies 3. Trial mixes are required to be made to check and if necessary, appropriate adjustments are necessary. ________________________________________________________________ TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS: Type of cement, Grade designation of cement (33, 43, 53 grades), Specific gravity of cement (3.15), Specific gravity values of CA &FA, Water absorption of CA & FA, Moisture content of CA &FA, Sieve analysis of FA (for zone classification as per IS 383-1970). TYPE OF CEMENT: Required for strength development, Likely hood of chemical attack, Thermal consideration. High early strength (PSC member)-- 43 grade (IS 8112), 53 grade (IS 12269) Early strength requirement -- rapid hardening cement(IS 8041-1979) (underwater concreting/cold weather concreting) Higher durability requirement -- Portland slag/Portland pozzolona cement (sulphate environment/ sea water) Hot weather / mass concreting -- Low heat Portland cement (low rate of heat of hydration)

OUTLINE OF MIX DESIGN PROCEDURE The various factors for determining for the concrete mix proportions and the step-by-step procedure for concrete mix design can be schematically represented as in Fig.1. Most of the available mix design methods are essentially based on this procedure. The basic steps involved can be summarized as follows: a) Arrive at the mean target strength from the characteristic strength specified and the level of quality control, b) Choose the water-cement ratio for mean target strength and check for requirements of durability, c) Arrive at the water content for the workability required, d) Calculate cement content and check for requirements of durability, e) Choose the relative proportion of the fine and coarse aggregates from the characteristics of coarse and fine aggregates, f) Arrive at the concrete mix proportions for the first trial mix, and g) Conduct trial mixes with suitable adjustments till the final mix composition is arrived at. The mix proportioning methods are being used in different countries are mostly based on empirical relationships, charts and graphs developed from extensive experimental investigations. Most of them follow the same basic principles highlighted above and only minor variations exist in different mix proportioning methods in the process of selecting the mix proportions. Some of the common mix design methods for medium and high strength concretes are (a) The ACI method, (b) The British (DOE) method and (c) Indian standard recommended guidelines for concrete mix design. In all the three methods, the water-cement ratio is chosen for the target mean strength from empirical strength - w/c ratio relationships and water content is chosen for the required workability for aggregates in saturated surface dry condition. In so for as the aggregate volume is concerned, the methods differ to some extent. In the ACI method, the volume of coarse aggregate in the concrete mix is first determined depending on the maximum size of aggregate and the grading of fine aggregate, whereas in the British method, the proportion of fine aggregate is determined first depending on the maximum size of aggregate, the degree of workability, the grading of fine aggregate and the water-cement ratio of the concrete mix. The ACI method also determines the proportions of dry-rodded coarse aggregate in the concrete mix, the rodding being done according to ASTM C 29 for unit weight of aggregate. It is based on the concept that in dry-rodded void content, the differences in the amount of mortar required for workability with different aggregates due to differences in particle shape and grading are automatically compensated for. In the ACI method, the air content of concrete is consider to arrive at the absolute volume of the mix ingredients. The batch weight of the materials per unit volume of concrete is calculated from the absolute volumes.

**ACI MIX PROPORTIONING PRACTICE
**

The ACI 211.1-77 recommends a method of mix design in which water content determines the workability of the concrete mix for different maximum size of aggregate. The bulk volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete is determined for different maximum sizes of aggregates and for different fineness modulus of sand. The water-cement ratio is determined in the usual procedure to satisfy both strength and durability requirements. The volume of fine aggregate is determined for unit volume of concrete, from the difference in volume between the concrete and other ingredients. Allowance for air content in concrete is made prior to calculating the volume of fine aggregate. The procedure adopted for the selection of mix proportions is as follows: i) Decide the required workability of the concrete for the job on hand ii) Decide the maximum size of coarse aggregate proposed to be used (following the guidelines of IS 456-2000) iii) Characteristic compressive strength (that is below which specified portion of test results are allowed to fall) at 28 days (fck) (This step follows BIS guideline) The target mean strength is first determined as follows: ft = fck+ K.S where ft_= target mean compressive strength at 28 days, fck_= characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, S= standard deviation, K= a statistical value depending upon the accepted proportion of low results and the number of tests Note - As per IS 456-2000, the characteristic strength is defined as that value below which not more than 5 percent of the test results are expected to fall. In such case, K=1.65 in the above equation (Table-IS1). The value of standard deviation depends on the degree of quality control that can be exercised in the site (Very good, Good, and Fair, defined in Table-IS2) and the characteristic compressive strength of concrete and the same is presented in Table-IS3. iv) The water-cement ratio for the target mean strength is chosen from Table-A1. The water-cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting water-cement ratio for the requirements of durability (Table-A4) and the lower of the two values adopted. v) The water content is selected from Table-A2 for the desired workability and maximum size of aggregate. vi) The cement content is calculated from the water content and the water-cement ratio required for durability or strength. The cement content so calculated is checked against the minimum cement content from the requirements of durability (Table-A4) and the greater of the two values adopted. After this, correct the water content to maintain water-cement ratio. vii) The coarse aggregate content is estimated from Table-A3 for maximum size of aggregate and the fineness modulus of sand. viii) The fine aggregate content is determined by subtracting the sum of the volumes of coarse aggregate, cement, water and air content from the unit volume of concrete.

Table-A1 Water-Cement Ratio Vs Compressive Strength of Concrete Compressive Strength Water-Cement Ratio, by Weight Non-air entrained Concrete Air-Entrained Concrete 450 0.38 400 0.43 350 0.48 0.40 300 0.55 0.46 250 0.62 0.53 200 0.70 0.61 150 0.80 0.71 Table-A2 Approximate Mixing Water (kg/m3 OF CONCRETE) Requirements for Different Slumps and Maximum Sizes of Aggregates SLUMP MAXIMUM SIZES OF AGGREGATE IN mm mm 10 12.5 20 25 40 50 70 150 Non-Air-Entrained Concrete 30 to 50 205 200 185 180 160 155 145 125 80 to 100 150 to 180 Approximate amount of entrained air in non-air-entrained concrete, percentage 30 to 50 80 to 100 150 to 180 Recommended average total air content, percentage 225 240 3.0 215 230 2.5 200 210 2.0 195 205 1.5 175 185 1.0 170 180 0.5 160 170 0.3 140 0.2

180 200 215 8.0

175 190 205 7.0

Air-Entrained Concrete 165 160 145 140 180 175 160 155 190 185 170 165 6.0 5.0 4.5 4.0

135 150 160 3.5

120 135 3.0

Table-A3 Volume of Dry-Rodded Coarse Aggregate Per Unit Volume of Concrete Maximum size of Aggregate mm 10 12.5 20 25 40 50 70 150 Fineness Modulus of Sand 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.70 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81

TRIAL MIXES (ACI 211.8-81) Calculated mix proportions are to be checked by making trial mixes and tested for i) workability, ii) cohesiveness, iii) finishing properties, iv) air content, v) yield, vi)density (Unit weight). If one of these properties except the last two is unsatisfactory, adjustments to mix proportions are necessary. Ex: Lack of cohesiveness can be corrected by adjusting the fine aggregate content at the expense of the coarse aggregate content.

**ACI 211.1-81: RULES OF THUMB FOR ADJUSTMENT TO TRIAL MIX
**

i.

If the correct slump is not achieved, the estimated water content is increased (or decreased) by 6kg/m3 for every 25mm increase (or decrease) in slump. If the desired air content is not achieved, dosage of the air-entraining admixture should be adjusted to produce the specified air content. The water content is then increased (or decreased) by 3kg/m3 for each 1% decrease (or increase) in air content.

ii.

BIS METHOD OF MIX PROPORTIONING Basic Data Required: Characteristic Compressive Strength (based on cube strength), Workability, Limitations on w/c ratio (based on minimum cement to ensure durability), Maximum size of aggregate used, Standard deviation for compressive strength Step –1: Determine target mean strength ft = fck + K.S, where, ft Target mean compressive strength at 28 days fck Characteristic compressive strength K Statistical value (depends upon the accepted proportion of low results and number of tests) (Table-IS1) S Standard deviation (Tables- IS2, and IS3)

TABLE: IS-1 values of K Percentage of results below the characteristic strength 50 16 10 5 2.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 K 0 1.0 1.28 1.65 1.96 2.33 2.58 Infinity

Grade of concrete M10 M15 M20 M25 M30 M35 M40 M45 M50 M55 M60

TABLE :IS-2 Suggested Standards Deviation Standard deviation for different degree of control Very good 2.0 2.5 3.6 4.3 5.0 5.3 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.7 6.8 Good 2.3 3.5 4.6 5.3 6.0 6.3 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.7 7.8 Fair 3.3 4.5 5.6 6.3 7.0 7.3 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.7 8.8

TABLE:IS-3 Degree of Quality Control Expected Under Different Site Conditions Degree of Control Conditions of Production Very good Fresh cement from single source and regular tests, weigh batching of all materials, aggregates supplied in single sizes, control of aggregate grading and moisture content, control of water added, frequent supervision, regular workability and strength tests, field laboratory facilities. Good Carefully stored cement and periodic tests, weighbatching of all materials, controlled water, graded aggregate supplied, occasional grading and moisture tests, periodic check of workability and strength, intermittent supervision, experienced workers. Fair Proper storage of cement, volume batching of all aggregates allowing for bulking of sand, weighbatching of cement, water controlled by inspection of mix, occasional supervision and tests.

Step–2: Determine the Water-cement ratio for the target strength (Figs. IS1, or IS2). Check against Tables-IS4 to IS7 for requirement of durability, and adopt lower of the two values. Fig.IS1 is based on a large number of results under Indian conditions, but on a given situation, may need slight modifications depending upon the characteristics of cement available. A more precise estimate of the preliminary water-cement ratio corresponding to the target average strength may be made from the relationships shown in Fig.IS2, using the curves corresponding to the 28 days compressive strength of cement The relationship in Fig.IS1 is really a mean curve through Fig IS2. (If you know the strength of cement you would be using, then use Fig.IS2). However, such trials will need 28 days for determining the strength characteristics of cement and at least another 28 days for the trial mixes. In order to cut down the time required for trials an alternative method has been suggested by BIS. In this method, the accelerated strength (boiling water method in accordance with IS 9013-1978) of a 'Reference' concrete mix having water-cement ratio 0.35 and workability of 0.80 compacting factor with the cement proposed to be used is determined on 15 cm cube specimens. The nominal maximum size of aggregate of the reference concrete should be 10mm and fine aggregate should be conforming to zone II of IS 383-1970. Corresponding to this accelerated strength, the water cement ratio is determined for the target mean strength, from the curves based on the relation between 28 days compressive strength of concrete having water cement ratio of 0.35, which found to be, on an average, 0.934 times that of 28-days strength of cement tested as per IS 4031-1968, and correlation accelerated and normal 28 days strength of concrete.

Table: IS-4 Environmental exposure conditions Exposure conditions Concrete surfaces protected against weather or aggressive conditions, except those situated in coastal area. Concrete surfaces sheltered from severe rain or freezing whilst wet Concrete exposed to condensation and rain Concrete continuously under water Concrete in contact or buried under non aggressive soil/ground water Concrete surfaces sheltered from saturated salt air in coastal area Concrete surfaces exposed to severe rain, alternate wetting and drying or occasional freezing whilst wet or severe condensation. Concrete completely immersed in sea water Concrete exposed to coastal environment Concrete surfaces exposed to sea water spray, corrosive fumes or severe freezing conditions whilst wet Concrete in contact with or buried under aggressive sub-soil/ground water Surface of members in tidal zone Members in direct contact with liquid/solid aggressive chemicals

Environment Mild Moderate

Severe

Very severe

Extreme

Table:IS-5 Minimum cement content, Maximum water-cement ratio and minimum grade of concrete for different exposure with normal weight aggregates of 20mm nominal maximum size Exposure Plain concrete Reinforced concrete Minimum cement content kg/m3 220 240 250 260 280 Max. free water-cement ratio Minimum grade of concrete Minimum cement content kg/m3 300 300 320 340 360 Max. free watercement ratio 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.45 0.40 Minimum grade of concrete

Mild 0.60 M 20 Moderate 0.60 M 15 M 25 Severe 0.50 M 20 M 30 Very severe 0.45 M 20 M 35 Extreme 0.40 M 25 M 40 Notes 1. Cement content prescribed in this table is irrespective of the grades of cement and it is inclusive of additions mentioned in 5.2. The additions such as fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag may be taken in to account in the concrete composition with respect to the cement content and water-cement ratio if the suitability is established and as long as the maximum amounts taken in to account do not exceed the limit of pozzolana and slag specified in IS 455 respectively. 2. Minimum grade for plain concrete under mild exposure condition is not specified Table: 5(a) Adjustments to minimum cement contents for agg. other than 20mm nominal max. Size Nominal max. aggregate size Adjustments to minimum (mm) cement contents in Table-5 (kg/m3) 10 +40 20 0 40 -30 Table: IS-6 Limits of chloride content of concrete (Clause 8.2. 5.2) Type or use of concrete Maximum total Acid soluble Chloride content expressed as kg/m3 of concrete Concrete containing metal and steam cured at 0.4 elevated temperature and pre-stressed concrete Reinforced concrete or plain concrete 0.6 containing embedded metal Concrete not containing embedded metal or any 3.0 material requiring protection from chloride TABLE: IS-7 (a) Requirements for Prestressed Concrete Exposed to Sulphate Attack Contraction of Sulphates, Expressed Type of Cement Requirements for Dense Fully as So3 Compacted Concrete Made With Aggregates Complying With IS-383 –1970 In Soil In ground Min. cement Maximum water (ppm) content free w/c ratio Total SO3 (%) 1 2 3 < 0.2 0.2– 0.5 0.5– 1.0 SO3 in 2:1 water extract g/l 1.9 to 3.1

Class

< 30 30 to 120 120 to 250

OPC or Portland slag cement OPC (see note5) or Portland slag cement OPC (see note5)

280 330 330

0.55 0.50 0.50

Note 1: this table applies only to concrete made with 20 mm aggregates complying with the requirements of IS 383–1970 * placed in near neutral ground waters of ph 6 to 9, containing naturally occurring sulfates but not contaminants, such as ammonium salts, for 40 mm aggregates the value maybe reduced by about 15% and for 12.5mm aggregates, the value may be increased by about 15%, concrete prepared from ordinary Portland cement would not be recommended in acidic conditions (pH 6 or less). Note 2: the cement contents given in class 2 are the minimum recommended. For SO3 contents near the upper limits of class 2, cement contents above this minimum are advised. Mote 3: where the total SO3 in col 2 exceeds 0.5%, then a 2:1 water extract may result in a lower site classification if much of the sulfate is present as low solubility calcium sulfate. Note 4: for severe conditions such as thin sections under hydrostatic pressure on one side only and sections partly immersed, considerations should be given to a further reduction of w/c ratio, and if necessary an increase in the cement content to ensure the degree of workability needed for full compaction and thus minimum permeability. Note 5: for class 3 concrete , ordinary Portland cement with the additional requirement that C3A content be not more than 5 % and 2C3A + C4AF ( or its solid solution 4CaO,Al2O3,Fe2O3 + 2CaO, Fe2O3) not more than 20 % is recommended. If this cement is used for class 2 concrete, minimum cement content may be reduced to 310 kg/m3. TABLE: IS-7(b) MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT REQUIRED IN CEMENT CONCRETE TO ENSURE DURABILITY UNDER SPECIFIC CONDITIONS OF EXPOSURE FOR PSC EXPOSURE MINIMUM MAXIMUM W/C CEMENT RATIO CONTENT (kg/m3) (1) (2) (3) Mild: for example, completely protected against weather or 300 0.65 aggressive conditions, except for a brief period of exposure to normal weather conditions during construction Moderate: for example, sheltered from heavy and wind driven 300 0.55 rain and against freezing, whilst saturated with water, buried concrete in soil and concrete continuously under water Severe: for example, exposed to sea water, alternate wetting and 360 0.45 drying and to freezing whilst wet subjected to heavy condensation or corrosion fumes NOTE: the minimum cement content is based on 20mm nominal size. For 40mm aggregate, minimum cement content be reduced by about 10 % under severe exposure conditions only, for 12.5 mm aggregate the minimum cement content should be increased by 10 % under moderate conditions only.

Step–3: Estimate air content from Table-IS8, for the maximum size of the aggregate used.

TABLE: IS-8 Approximate Entrapped Air Content Nominal Maximum Size Of Aggregates (mm) Entrapped Air, As Percentage of Volume of Concrete 10 3.0 20 2.0 40 1.0

Step–4: Determine the water content and percentage of sand in total aggregate by absolute volume from the Tables-IS9 and IS10 for medium and high strength concretes, respectively, for the following conditions: i) Crushed (angular) coarse aggregate

ii) Fine aggregate consisting of natural sand conforming to zone-II of Table-4, IS:383-1970, in saturated surface dry condition iii) Water -cement ratio of 0.60 and 0.35 for medium and high strength concretes respectively, and iv) Workability corresponds to compacting factor of 0.80

TABLE : IS-9 Approximate Sand and Water Contents/ Cubic Metre of Concrete W/C = 0.60, Workability = 0.80 CF: (applicable for concrete up to grade M35) Maximum Size of Aggregate Water Content Per Sand as Percent of Total (mm) Cubic metre of Concrete Aggregate by Absolute Volume (kg) 10 208 40 20 186 35 40 165 30 Water content corresponding to saturated surface dry aggregate. TABLE: IS-10 Approximate Sand and Water Contents/Cubic Metre of Concrete W/C = 0.35, Workability 0.80 CF (Applicable for concrete above grade M35) Maximum Size of Aggregate Water Content per cubic meter of Sand as Percent of Total (mm) Concrete (kg) Aggregate by Absolute Volume 10 200 26 20 190 23 NOTE: water content corresponding to saturated surface dry aggregate.

Step-5: For other conditions of workability, water-cement ratio, grading of fine aggregate and for rounded aggregates, adjustments in water content and percentage of sand in total aggregate are made as per Table-IS11.

TABLE: IS-11 Adjustment Of Values in Water Content and Sand Percentage for Other Conditions Maximum Size of Aggregate (mm) Adjustments Required in Water Content Percent Sand in Total Aggregate For sand confirming to grading zone I, Zone 0 -1.5 % for Zone I and Zone II III or Zone IV of Table 4, IS : 383-1970 -3.0 % for Zone IV 0 Increase or decrease in the value of +_ 3 percent compacting factor by 0.1 +_ 1 % Each 0.05 increase or decrease in water 0 cement ratio -7 % For rounded aggregate -15 kg / m3

Step-6: The cement content is calculated from the water-cement ratio and the final water content arrived after adjustment, then checked against the minimum cement content required for durability (Tables IS4 to IS7), and adopt greater of the two values. Step-7: With quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and percentage of sand in total aggregate already determined, the coarse aggregate and fine aggregates content per unit volume of concrete are calculated from the following equations:

**C 1 fa 1 V = [ W + ----- + ---- ---- ] ----Sc p Sfa 1000 C 1 Ca 1 V = [ W + ----- + ----- ----- ] ---Sc 1-p Sca 1000
**

where, V is the absolute volume of fresh concrete(excluding the air content, i.e.1m3-volume of entrapped air), Sc =specific gravity of cement, W= mass of water (kg )per m3 of concrete, C= mass of cement (kg) per cu.m. of concrete, p = ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume. fa,Ca= total masses of fine and coarse aggregates by absolute volume. Sfa, Sca= specific gravities of fine and coarse aggregates (saturated surface dry condition) Table: IS-12 Percentage Passing for Single–Sized Aggregate of Nominal Size(IS383-1970) IS sieve Percentage Passing for Single –Sized Aggregate of Nominal Size Designation 63 mm 40 mm 20 mm 16 mm 12.5 mm 10 mm 80 mm 100 63 mm 85 – 100 100 40 mm 0 – 30 85 - 100 100 20 mm 0-5 0 - 20 85 - 100 100 16 mm 85 - 100 100 12.5 mm 85 - 100 100 10 mm 0-5 0-5 0 - 20 0 - 30 0 – 45 85 - 100 4.75 mm 0–5 0-5 0 - 10 0 – 20 2.36 mm 0-5 Table: IS-13 Percentage Passing for Graded Aggregate of Nominal Size (IS 383-1970) IS sieve Designation Percentage Passing for Graded Aggregate of Nominal Size 40 mm 20 mm 16 mm 12.5 mm 80 mm 100 63 mm 40 mm 95 - 100 100 20 mm 30 - 70 95 - 100 100 100 16 mm 90 - 100 12.5 mm 90 - 100 10 mm 10 - 35 25 - 55 30 - 70 40 - 85 4.75 mm 0-5 0 - 10 0 – 10 0 - 10 2.36 mm Table: IS-14 Coarse Aggregate for Mass Concrete (IS383-1970) Class and Size IS sieve Destination Percentage Passing Very Large, 160 – 80 mm 160 mm 90 – 100 80 mm 0 – 10 Large, 80 – 40 mm 80 mm 90 – 100 40 mm 0 – 10 Medium, 40 – 20 mm 40 mm 90 – 100 20 mm 0 – 10 Small, 20 – 4.75 mm 20 mm 90 – 100 4.75 mm 0 – 10 2.36 mm 0–2

Table: IS-15 Grading requirements of All-In-Aggregates (IS 383) IS Sieve Designation 80 mm 40 mm 20 mm 4.75 mm 600 micron 150 micron Percentage Passing for All-in-Aggregate of Nominal Size 40 mm 20 mm 100 95 – 100 100 45 – 75 95 – 100 25 – 45 30 – 50 8 – 30 10 – 30 0–6 0-6

Table-IS-16 Fine Aggregates – limits for Grading in Zones I to IV (IS 383) IS sieve Designation Grading Zone I 100 90 - 100 60 – 95 30 – 70 15 – 34 5 – 20 0 – 10 Percentage passing for Grading Grading Zone II Zone III 100 100 90 – 100 90 - 100 75 – 100 85 – 100 55 – 90 75 – 100 35 – 59 60 – 79 8 – 30 12 – 40 0 – 10 0 – 10

10 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron

Grading Zone IV 100 95 - 100 95 – 100 90 – 100 80 – 100 15 – 50 0 - 15

**BRITISH MIX PROPORTIONING METHOD (DoE METHOD)
**

Replaces traditional British Mix Design method of Road Note no.4. Discarding the use of specific grading curves of the combined aggregates. It replaces the mix design tables correlating watercement ratio, aggregate-cement ratio, maximum size of aggregate, type of aggregates of different shapes (rounded or irregular), degree of workability and overall grading curves of the combined aggregates in earlier Road Note-No.4. Uses the relationship between water-cement ratio and Compressive strength of concrete depending upon the type of cement and type of aggregates used. Water content required to give various levels of workability is determined for two types of aggregates (crushed and uncrushed). Degree of workability very low, low, medium and high have now been referred in terms of specific values of slump and Vebe time. Expresses the maximum proportions in terms of quantities of materials per unit volume of concrete in line with European and American Practice. (Compressive strength ---> based on cube strength). Step-1: Determine water-cement ratio for target mean strength using Table-BS-1 and Fig.BS-1 Step-2: Compare with maximum water-cement ratio specified for durability and choose the lower of these two values (Tables-BS-2 to BS-5) Step-3: Determine the water content from Table-BS-6, depending on the type and maximum size of aggregate to give a concrete of specified slump or Vee-Bee time Step-4: Calculate the cement content from water-cement ratio and water content of the mix Step-5: Obtain wet density of concrete from Fig.BS-2, depending upon the water content and the relative density of the combined aggregate

Step-6: Determine the total aggregate content (saturated surface dry condition) by subtracting the cement and water content from wet density of concrete Step-7: Determine the proportions of fine and coarse aggregate from Fig.BS-3, depending on the water-cement ratio, maximum size of aggregate, workability level and grading zone of fine aggregate. ________________________________________________________________________ Acknowledgement: The material presented in this notes is an extract from the references indicated below. REFERENCES 1) IS SP23-1982, "Handbook on concrete mixes", Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. 2) IS 10262-1982,"Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design", Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1982. 3) Neville, A.M., and Brooks, J.J. “Concrete Technology”, ELBS, 1987. 4) IS 456-2000, Indian Standard code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete” Bureau of Indian Standards, July 2000.

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