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Developments in Petroleum Science, 19A

surface operations in
petroleum productlon, I

FURTHER TITLES IN THIS SERIES
1 A.G. COLLINS
GEOCHEMISTRY OF OILFIELD WATERS
2 W.H.FERTL
ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURES
3 A.P. SZILAS
PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF OIL AND GAS
4 C.E.B. CONYBEARE
GEOMORPHOLOGY O F OIL AND GAS FIELDS IN SANDSTONE BODIES
5 T.F. YEN and G.V. CHILINGARIAN (Editors)
OIL SHALE
6 D.W. PEACEMAN
FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL RESERVOIR SIMULATION
7 G.V. CHILINGARIAN and T.F. YEN (Editors)
BITUMENS, ASPHALTS AND TAR SANDS
8 L.P. DAKE
FUNDAMENTALS O F RESERVOIR ENGINEERING
9 K.MAGARA
COMPACTION AND FLUID MIGRATION
10 M.T. SILVIA and E.A. ROBINSON
DECONVOLUTION OF GEOPHYSICAL TIME SERIES IN THE EXF'LOR .ATION
FOR OIL AND NATURAL GAS
11 G.V. CHILINGARIAN and P. VORABUTR
DRILLING AND DRILLING FLUIDS
12 T.D. VAN GOLF-RACHT
FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURED RESERVOIR ENGINEER.ING
13 J. FAYERS (Editor
ENHANCED o n RECOVER4
14 G.MOZES Editor)
PARAFFIN PRODUCkS
15A 0 . S E R R A
FUNDAMENTALS OF WELL-LOG INTERPRETATION
1. THE ACQUISITION OF LOGGING DATA
15B O.SERRA
FUNDAMENTALS OF WELL-LOG INTERPRETATION
2. THE INTERPRETATION OF LOGGING DATA
16 R.E. CHAPMAN
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY
17A E.C. DONALDSON, G.V. CHILINGARIAN and T.F. YEN
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, I
FUNDAMENTALS AND ANALYSES
18A A.P. SZILAS
PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT O F OIL AND GAS
A. FLOW MECHANICS A N D PRODUCTION
second completely revised edition
19A G.V. CHILINGARIAN, J.O. ROBERTSON Jr. and S. KUMAR
SURFACE OPERATIONS IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION, I
19B G.V. CHILINGARIAN, J.O. ROBERTSON Jr. and S. KUMAR
SURFACE OPERATIONS IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION, I1
20 A.J. DIKKERS
GEOLOGY IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION

Developments in Petroleum Science, 19A

surface operations in
petroleum production, I
G.V. CHILINGARIAN
Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Southern California,
University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-121 1 , U.S.A.

J.O. ROBERTSON, Jr.
Earth Engineering, Inc., 4244 Live Oak St., Cudahy, CA 90201, U.S.A.

S. KUMAR
Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, CA 90089-121 1 , U.S.A.

Associate Editors:

T.A. BERTNESS and C.M. BEESON
Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
CA 90089-1211 , U.S.A.
with contributions from:
Moayed Yousif Al-Bassam Donald G. Knox
Axelson, Inc. Frank J. Lockhart
Donald U. Bessler Dawood Momeni
William G. Carter R.L. Pettefer
Erle C. Donaldson W.J. Powers
Clarence Dunbar K.M. Sasseen
Bruce A. Eckerson Varec, Inc.
Kern H. Guppy L.C. Waterman
W.B. Hatcher Phil Wilson
Arnold L. Johnson

ELSEVIER
AMSTERDAM - OXFORD - NEW YORK - TOKYO 1987

ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V.
Sara Burgerhartstraat 25
P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Distributors for the United States and Canada:

ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHING COMPANY INC.
52,Vanderbilt Avenue
New York, NY 10017, U.S.A.

Library of Congca C ~ ~at. ~ I I ~

Chilingarisn, George V., 1929-
Surface operations in petroleum production.

(kvelopments in petroleum science ; 19)
Includes bibliographies and index.
1. Petroleum engineering. I. Robertson, John 0 .
11. Kumar, 6. (SanJay), 1960-
IV. S e r i e s .
.
111. T i t l e .

TN871.C495 1966 622 ' .336 06-29126
ISBN 0-444-42473-3 (U.S. : V. 1)

ISBN 0-444-42473-3
(Vol. 19A)
ISBN 0-444-41625-0
(Series)

0 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.,1987

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-
copying, recording o r otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher,
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V./Science & Technology Division, P.O. Box 330,1000 AH
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Special regulations for readers in the USA - This publication has been registered with
the Copyright Clearance Center Inc. (CCC), Salem, Massachusetts. Information can be
obtained from the CCC about conditions under which photocopies of parts of this
publication may be made in the USA. All other copyright questions, including photo-
copying outside of the USA, should be referred to the publisher.

Printed in The Netherlands

This book is dedicated to George Deukmejian, Governor of California,
for his support of the petroleum industry.

VI

CONTRIBUTORS
M.Y. AL-BASSAM Getty Oil Co., P.O. Box 1, Mina Saud, State of Kuwait
Axelson, Inc. P.O. Box 2427, Longview, TX 75606, U.S.A.
C.M. BEESON Petroleum Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A.
D.U. BESSLER Tretolite, Petrolite Corporation, 369 Marshall Avenue,
St. Louis, MO 63119, U.S.A.
T.A. BERTNESS Petroleum Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A. (also: Consultant, 14827 La Cuarte Street,
Whittier, CA 90605, U.S.A.)
W.G. CARTER Earth Engineering, Inc., 4244 Live Oak Street, Cudahy,
CA 90201, U.S.A.
G.V. CHILINGARIAN Petroleum Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A.
E.C. DONALDSON Petroleum & Geology Engineering, University of
Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, U.S.A.
C. DUNBAR Senior Application Engineer, TRW Reda Pump Divi -
sion, Bartlesville, Okla., U.S.A.
B.A. ECKERSON Vanson Engineering Co., 1061-B Kraemer Place,
Anaheim, CA 92806, U.S.A.
K.H. GUPPY Petroleum Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A.
W.B. HATCHER Texaco, Inc., Taft, CA 93268
A.L. JOHNSON Vanson Engineering Co., 1061-B Kraemer Place,
Anaheim, CA 92806, U.S.A.
D.G. KNOX Petroleum Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A.
S. KUMAR Petroleum Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A.
F.J. LOCKHART Chemical Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A.
D. MOMENI Petroleum Engineering Department, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211,
U.S.A.

VII

R.L. PETTEFER Petrolite Corporation, Petreco Equipment Group, 369
Marshall Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63119, U.S.A.
W.J. POWERS Manager Marketing Services, TRW Reda Pump Divi-
sion, Bartlesville, Okla., U S A .
J.O. ROBERTSON, Jr. Earth Engineering, Inc., 4244 Live Oak Street, Cudahy,
CA 90201, U.S.A.
K.M. SASSEEN HTI-Superior, Inc., Berry Industries Company, P.O.
Box 3908, Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670, U.S.A.
Varec, Inc. VAREC Division, Emerson Electric Co., 10800 Valley
View Street, Cypress, CA 90630, U.S.A.
L.C. WATERMAN Petrolite Corporation, Petreco Equipment Group, 369
Marshall Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63119, U.S.A.
P. WILSON Kobe Inc., 3040 East Slauson Avenue, Huntington
Park, CA 90255, U.S.A.

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IX

PREFACE

This book has been developed at a time when oil producers are taking a much
closer look at the economy of oilfield operation and redesign of production
technology to improve ultimate recovery. The very high cost, and risk, of the search
for new oilfields demands the reevaluation of production technology and reservoir
engineering to improve the production characteristics of existing oilfields. This book
serves the need of field production managers and engineers for a comprehensive
reference on petroleum production surface operations and technology. Teachers and
students will find that it fills the need for a text on production technology to
complement the study of reservoir engineering.
The book presents a lucid description of the physical and chemical properties of
the fluids encountered by engineers in the field. The properties, methods of
separation, measurement, and transportation of these fluids (gases, condensate
liquids derived from natural gas, crude oils and oilfield waters) are also presented.
Thus these chapters form the basis for the explanation of surface equipment, which
exploits physical and chemical properties to process the fluids in the field for their
processing and transportation. Oilfield emulsions and the chemistry of their control,
as well as the equipment and processes used for emulsion separation in the oilfield,
are discussed in the opening chapters of the book.
Following a presentation of the fluids and their process technology, a series of
chapters present a thorough discussion of every type of surface equipment that is
encountered in the myriad aspects of oilfield operations ranging from waterflooding
to new enhanced oil recovery techniques. Included are methods for pumping, water
control, production logging and corrosion control.
The book is so comprehensive that it also includes, as a third general category:
well completion and work-over operations, methods for design and operation of
underground gas storage, and a review of offshore technology. Thus, this two-volume
book on oilfield surface operations offers a complete reference for all surface
technology for the manager, engineer, teacher and student.
The preparation of this valuable book is the result of cooperation from the
experts in petroleum production who have devoted their time to the lucid expression
of the knowledge that they have acquired through experience in the evaluation and
solution of field problems, and development of economic field processes. Oil
production companies have been generous in their cooperation through assistance
and encouragement to the authors and permission to publish data, designs and
photographs.
It is hoped that this book will find a prominent place in the Developments in
Petroleum Science Series and that it will be instrumental in the improvement of the
global enhancement of oil production and ultimate recovery.

Erle C . Donaldson, Ph.D., P.E.
Petroleum and Geological Engineering
University of Oklahoma

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XI

CONTENTS

CONTRIBUTORS ........................................................ VI

PREFACE .............................................................. 1X

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION TO SURFACE PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT
K.M. Sasseen and G.V. Chilingarian

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Gatheringsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
..... 3
..... 4
- Heater treaters, 6
...... 11

.........
. . . . . . . ..
....................... 12

Sample problems . . . ...... . .
Exchanger problem . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Solution, 21
Washtank problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field data, 23 - Required, 23
Appendix 1.1 - Some fundamental fluid mechanics concepts and sample problems . .
Fundamental equation of fluid statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
General energy equation. . . .

Compressible flow formula . . . ... . . . . . ... .... . . ..... .. . .. .. ..... . . ........
~ 27
. . . . . . . . .... . ... . 28
Solution, 28
Example problem 2. Compressible flow ( n o d e )
Solution, 29

Solution, 31

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 32
Saturated hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Unsaturated hydrocarbons .... 35
Naphthene hydrocarbons . ........................................ 3s
Aromatic hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Classification of petroleums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ..... 38

XI1

Some rules of nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Chapter 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM GASES AND LIQUIDS
F.J.Lockhart and G.V. Chilingarian

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Density of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Example2-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Density of liquids . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Example 2-2 .... 47
Viscosity of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Example2-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Viscosity of liquids . .......... 50
52
52
Example24 .......................................................... 55
55
56
56
58

Chapter 3. SEPARATION OF OIL AND GAS
F.J. Lockhart, G.V. Chilingaxian and S. Kumar

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Equilibrium flash calculations 60
Basic equilibrium relations for 60
Types of separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Internal parts of a separator . .... ..................... 63
Factors influencing separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Separatordesi g n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Gascapacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Liquidcapacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Vessel design . . . . . . . . ... .... 68
Example 3-1, 68 - Example 3-2, 70
Separator design using actual manufacturers’ field test data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Stage separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................. 71
Determination of optimum pressure f stage is atmospheric . . . . . , . 73
Determination of optimum pressures for three-stage separation (Whinery-Campbell technique) 73
Methods of successive approximations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Isothermal flash for two phases . . . 77
Lockhart-McHenry method of flash-eq 78
Example 3-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
TheLockhartmethod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Example3-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Three-phase flash equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... ..... 83
Sample problems and questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Appendix 3.1 - Raoult’s, Dalton’s and Henry’s laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Example 3.1-1 ..... 86

XI11

Appendix 3.11 - Illustration, accessories, gas capacities, settling volumes, and specifications for:
(1) vertical low-pressure separators; (2) vertical high-pressure separators; (3) horizontal low-
pressure separators; (4) horizontal high-pressure separators; and ( 5 ) spherical separators . . . . 87
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Chapter 4. OIL FIELD EMULSIONS AND THEIR ELECTRICAL RESOLUTION
L.C. Waterman, R.L. Pettefer and G.V. Chilingarian

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Theory of emulsions

Electrical treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Electric dehydrators .... 118
Automated dehydration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Sample questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Acknowledgements . ....
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Chapter 5 . CHEMICAL RESOLUTION OF PETROLEUM EMULSIONS
D.U. Bessler and G.V. Chilingarian

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Nature of emulsions 125
125
Role of the emulsifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Stability of emulsions 126
Crude oil production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Reduced-temperature treating 130
Chemical resolution process . . 131
Action of demulsifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Operating procedures 133
Chemical injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Agitation 133
Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Mechanical systems 134
Free water knock
- Vertical heater treater, 136 - Horizontal heater treater, 136 - Electrical dehydration,
136
Resolution of oil-in-water emulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Trouble shooting . 137
Chemicalinjection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
138
Freewaterknockout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Flowsplitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Heat exchangers 140
Gunbarrels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Heatertreaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Chemelectric treater . . . . . . .... 141
Producedfluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

XIV

Waste oil treating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Treatmenttanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

............ 144
............ 144

Stokes’law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Sample questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Appendix 5.1 - Derivation of Stokes’ law equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
References . . . 147

Chapter 6. VAPOR RECOVERY
Varec. G.V. Chilingarian and S. Kumar

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... 149
Evaporation loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... 149

Equipment required
Design of vapor recovery systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Storage pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Vent valve pressure settings . . . . . . . .

Valve flow capacity ................................... 165

Fast payouts from vapor recovery systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Example (A) - System payout from vapor recovery only

................ 168
................ 169
......................................................... 169
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
...... 170

Chapter 7. NATURAL GAS AND NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS
B.A. Eckerson. A.L. Johnson and G.V. Chilinganan

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Naturalgas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas processing plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas specifications . ........................ 182

Acid gas content ....... ........ 182

Water content ..................... 183

xv
Carbon dioxide and air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Hydrogen sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Specific gravity ..................................... 184
Heating value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 184
Gas measureme ............................ 184
Natural gas liquids .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
184
Ethane, 185 - Propane, 185 - Butane, 185 - Butane-pr
gasoline, 185
.................................................... 185
...................... 185
185
........... 188
189
189
....................... 190
Adsorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 191
Refrigeration processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Absorption . . . . . 193
198
198
200
................................................. 201
.................. 202
204
Ethylene recovery plant problem ............................ 204

..................................................... 205
....................... 206
Description of natural gaso
................................... 209
210

Chapter 8. OIL AND GAS TRANSPORT
S. Kumar and G.V. Chilinganan

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 211
Fundamentals of flow in pipes . . . . . .............. 211
Allowable working pressure of pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ 213
Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Friction head loss in fittings and connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Principles of pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Pumping mechanisms. . ............................................... 219
Measurement of perform e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 219
Oil pipeline transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Example 8-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ 224
Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Increasing flow capacity of pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
(1) Complete loop, 226 - (2) Partial loop, 226
Example8-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 227

. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 230 Conduction. . 276 Chapter 9..... . . . 228 Nonisothermalflow . . . 248 Transient (unsteady state) flow of oil in buried pipelines 249 Heating up of a cold line by introduction of hot oil.. . .Solution. .. . .. . . ... . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . 258 . . .. . . . 247 - Thermal conductivity. . . 232 Application of heat transfer concepts to buried pipelines . .H. . . . . . . .. . . ... ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .... . .. 282 - 286 . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . ... .. . 238 Solution .. ... .. . .. .. . . . . 237 Examples-4 . . . . . .. . . .. .Kinematic viscosity.. . .. . . . 236 Steady-state flow in buried pipelines . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .Find. . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 290 . ... . . . . ..Solution. .. .. . .. . . . .. 280 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. . . 279 Reservoir fluid flow . ... .. . ... . . . . DESIGN OF FLOWING WELL SYSTEMS S. . 236 Solution . 290 . .. . . . 227 . ... . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 280 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. .Branching pipelines. .. . . ... . . .. . . . .. . . . .Solution. . . .. . . . . . . Chilingaian Introduction .. . . . 289 ... . . . .. . .. . . ... . .Viscosity.. . Guppy and G. .. . . . . 262 Mean pressure evaluation . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .V.. . .. . . . . 280 . . . . .Specific heat. .. . .. . . . . .. 289 Multiphase flow in directional wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 228 .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. 267 Example8-6 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . 256 . . . ..... 263 The hydrate point for hyd 265 Gas transmission systems . . .. . . . . .... .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . ... 289 ... . . .. . .. .. ... . . ... . . . 266 System of parallel lines. ..Lines in series.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Example 9-5. . . .. . . . . . . 259 Gasflowfundamentals . . . . 286 289 Example 9-4. . . . .... .. . . . . .. .Density. .. . 231 . . . . . 247 Example 8-5 . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .Convection. . . 261 Weymouth approximation. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation of heavy oils in pipelines . . . . . .. . . . . . ..Example 9-2. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 234 .. . . . . . . . 282 .. . . .. . .. . . K. . .. . ... . .. . . . .. . . . .Specific heat. . . 254 . 254 Gas compressibility. . . 280 Example 9-1.Density. . . .. . Kumar. .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . ... .XVI Solution. . .(2) Estimation of thermal constants by direct measurement. 230 Fundamentals of heat transfer . . . . . . 269 273 273 Sampleproblems . . . . . . . . .. . .. 234 (1) Estimation of thermal constants from soil properties. .. . . . ... . .Booster pump stations. . . . . . . . 247 Solution . . . . 244 . .. . . . . . . . 246 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. 239 Viscosity. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 268 268 269 . 247 . . . . .. .Find.. .. . ... . . . . . . .. 266 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . . 275 References . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 253 Pipeline transportation of natural gas 254 Physical properties of gases . ... . . .. . . . ... . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Examples-3 . . . . . ..Find. ... ..

. Vertical correlation . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Buildup following a long producing time .. . . . . .. . .. . .Pressure recorders. . . . . . ..Perforated anchor pipe.331 . . . .Choke.. . . . . . . . .Determine. . .. . . . . . 344 Radius of drainage and stabilization time . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Example 9-7. . 327 Component parts of a conv . . 291 Example 9-6. . . .. . . . 352 . . . 326 Chapter 10. .Solution. . . . . . . 368 . . . 294 Example 9-8. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 350 Example 10-1.351 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . Chilingarian Introduction . . . . . . 352 Pressure buildup test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 .. . ..Injection and fall-off tests. . . . . . . . 329 . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . 369 References . . . . . . . 368 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .Given.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .Vertical interference tests. . . .Shut-in valve. . . . .. . .. . . 295 The overall production system . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . XVII Horizontal flow in surface flowlines . . . .. 355 .. . 297 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. .. ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . 369 Sample questions and problems .. 292 .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .I .. . . . . . 356 Equivalent producing time .. .. 295 . .. . . . 296 Example 9-9. . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . .. . . 295 . . .V. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. 333 Qualitative drillstem test interpretation . . . .. . . . . .. 346 Drawdown test . . . 298 Sample problems . 373 Logging devices 373 . .. . . . .Other components. ... . .. . . .. . 356 Drawdown and buildup tests in gas wells .. . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . 329 .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .Introduction to chokes . . . . . . . . .. 332 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .Solution. .. . Kumar and G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . 336 Buildup and drawdown test fundamentals . . . .. .. . . 329 . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .Solution. . . . . .. . . . . . WELL TESTING S. . 291 Horizontal flow correlations . . 331 . . . . . 340 Solution to the diffusivity equation for infinite reservoirs 343 Pseudosteady state flow . . . . . 291 Working pressure traverse curves for horizontal flow .. .11 . . . . . . 332 . . . . . . . . .. . 300 Appendix 9. . ... . . . . . . . . . . PRODUCTION LOGGING S. . .. . . . . .. 370 Chapter 11. . . . 332 Drillstem test procedure . . . . 329 Anchor shoe. .. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . 292 Inclined or hilly terrain multiphase flow . .Well test analysis in the presence of a gas phase. . . . . . .. . .. . . . 293 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Solution. . . . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. 332 - Circulating valve. . . . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . 323 References . .. . . . .Packers. 347 Multiple-rate drawdown testing . . . . . . .Equalizing valve. . 298 Horizontal correlation . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Kumar and G. .V.Solution. 293 Flowthroughchokes . . 353 Example 10-2. . . . . 299 Appendix9. . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. .Solution. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . 327 Drillstem testing .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . . 297 . . . . .. 357 . .. .. . Chilingarian Introduction .Tester valve. . . . . . .. . 359 365 testing. ... .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . 332 . .. . .

. . . . . .. ...Evaluation of completion: monitoring the perforati completion in a gas well . . .Diagnosis of ater . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .V. . .. .. . .. 380 (1) Velocity-shot method.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... Chilinganan. . . . . . .. . . 374 Gradiomanometer . .. 411 . . . . . 401 Example 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Chapter 12. . . . .. .. . . . Adiabatic expansion.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .1. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . 378 Manometer . . . . . . . . Kumar Introduction 415 Review of gas lift fundamentals 416 Pressure gradients . .. . . . . . 403 Example 11. . . .. . . . . ... . .O. . ... . 389 Interpretation of the gradiomanometer .. . . . 380 Radioactive tracer surveys . . . .. . . . . 393 (1) Lost circulation. 421 . .. . . 393 . . . . . . . 401 Conclusion. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .1-3 .1 . . . . . . . . .. 416 Derivation of pressure at bottom of gas column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PCT survey in a gas well .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. Polytropic expansion. GAS LIFT J. . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . 384 In-situ spinner calibration. ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .1-7 . . .. 411 Production logs. . . . . .. . . . . .(3) Differential injection method. .. . . . . . .. . .Completion evaluation: initial flow profile . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 412 . . . . .(4) Pr 396 .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Caliper . . . .. . . . 393 . . 388 Flowparameters . . . . . . . . 381 . . . . . .. Jr.. . . . .Conclusion. . ... . . . .Quick-look interpretation. . .G. . . . 412 . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Sample problems and questions . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 387 s. . 393 Static conditions . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . 377 Fullbore spinner flowmeter . . . . . . . . 385 Polyphasicflow . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Continuousflowmeter . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Volume of gas necessary for gas lift . 408 Example 11. ... . . . . . .. .Triphasic flow types. . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . 390 Temperature surveys . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 386 . . . . . . . . ... 391 Dynamic conditions . . . . . . . . . .(3) Fracturing. .. .. . . . . . . .1-4 . . . . . W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .5 . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 . . 421 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Energy utilized in lifting fluids 420 Types of gas expansion . 401 Example 11. . . . . . 404 Example 11.. . . . . .. 395 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .Quantitative interpretation. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .(2) Timed runs (controlled-time method).. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Spinner response in diphasic flow . . . 402 Example 11. . .Production logging (field examples) . . . . . . . G. . . Robertson.. . . . . 420 . . .1-6 . . .1-1 . . . . . .1-2 . . . . 384 Monophasicflow ... . 397 Appendix 11.. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Miscellaneous tools . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .(5) Fluid injection. . .Evaluation of completion: monitoring of acidizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 Isothermal expansion. .. .. . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Example 11. 374 Inflatable packer flowmeter .. . . . .. . . .. . . . 383 Interpretation of flowmeter logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 References . .. . . . .. . .XVIII High-resolution thermometer . . . . . . ... . . .. . . . .(2) Cementing. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Carter and S. ... . . .Diagnosis of a well problem: gas channeling behind liner .

. . .... . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . ... .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . ... 422 . . . . . . ..... . . 469 Turbulent-seal plunger . . . .M. . .. . . .. .. . . . ... .. . . . . . .. . . . ... ... . . . . . .. . 473 Tandem plunger . Chapter 13. . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. . .. .. . . Chilinganan Introduction . .. .... . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .... . . . . .. . . . .. .... ..... .... .. . . . . .. . . M.. ... ... .. PLUNGER LIFT C. . .. . . .. ... . . .. 422 Kick-off pressure (without valves) . Average density of fluid in eductor tube .. . . . .. . . . ... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . Pressure valves .. . . . . . . ..(b) Entrance and discharge losses. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . .... . . . . . . . . . 422 . . . . . . . . Knox. . . .. Given.. . ....(e) Back pressure at discharge. . . . ... .. . . .. . . .. ... . . ... . 461 Sample problems and questions References ... ... . . ... ... . . . . .. 447 Intermittent gas lift .. ... .. 469 Type M plunger lift Christmas tree . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 474 Taylor Type K cycle controller . ... . . . . . 474 Removable footpiece . .Solution.. .. . . .. . . . Continuous flow gas lift (unbalanced Example 12-1 . . .... .. .. . . .. ... . .G. . . 446 . . . . . .... . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. ... . . . XIX Gas lift efficiencies . .... . . .. . . .. . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . Beeson. .. . ... . 467 History ... . . . . . . .. . . . .. Types of gas lift . . Differential valves ... . . . . . . Kick-off valves . 453 Flow type valves . . .. ... .. . . . .V. . . Gas volumes necessary for gas lift . ... . . . . . . ... . 468 Equipment developments . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . 46 8 Cycle-controlled expanding plunger . 474 .. . . .. . ..... ... . .. 460 .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . (a) Leakage.... . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. 431 Spacing between gas lift valves ... . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . ... . . .... . . . .. . . .. . . . 422 (d) Friction losses. .. . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . Al-Bassam and G. .. .. .. . ... . . . D.. .. .. .. ... .. .. 456 ... ... . . .. . ... . . . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. ... . . .. .. 454 Mechanically-controlled valves .. . . .. . . ... . 474 Segmented retractable pads . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. . .. ... . Principles and methods of gas lift Gas lift terminology .... . . . . 468 Free-cycling plunger . .. Fluid velocity in eductor tube .. .. .

. . . .. . . . .. . 476 Description of plunger lift and need for equations . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . ..in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 Obtaining static and index consistent with operating 518 Changes in operating line with changes in static and index computed from operating conditions . .. . . .. . . 516 ... . . . ... . . .. . . 483 Net operating pressure . .. . .. . 488 Method of constructing nomographs .. . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . .Step 11.. .. . . .. . . . . 484 Maximum production rate .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 505 Accuracy expected from res . 505 Nomograph examples .in . 520 . . .... plunger. .. . . . . . .. . . 476 Equations . . . . . . . ... . . . 488 . . ... . . . . . . . 490 . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 516. . . . . . .. . .. . . ... . 487 Constructing plunger lift nomographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Derivation of operating line for 2f. . . .Derivation of supplementary operating line for 2f. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . 516 Gas well applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. . . . . .Well starting. .h . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 Tailpipe. . . . . . . 475 Well data for cycle-controlled expanding plunger . .. . . . . . . .in . . . . . .. . . . 515 Intermittent flowing and plunger lift system . . 505 Typesofexamplewells . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 485 Wells with 2. . .xx Time cycle controller with attachments . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Step 111. plunger. . . . . . . .. . . . 517 Example of change in productivity index with depth . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .Capac How to determine if a well is a possible plunger lift candidate . .. . . . . . plunger. .. .Derivation of operating line for 2. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 475 Early prediction methods . . . .. . 497 Step I. . . . . . . 494 Method of testing effects of various well conditions . . . .Well has gas available from some outside source. .. . .. . .Derivation of supplementary operat- ing line for 2. . . . 476 Least squares equations for plunger lift . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 488 Estimating average pressure at point where gas enters tubing. . .. 517 Need to use tubing bottom as reference depth . . . plunger... . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .Christmas tree. . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. . . . . . 510 . . . . . . 489 .. .Well depends entirely on formation gas. . .. . 484 Pressurebuildup . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . ... . . . . . . 498 .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 496 Nomograph instructions . . . . . . .. . . . .. 513 . . 496 Purpose of nomographs . . . . .. . . . .A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..11. .Cycle controller for intermittent flowing. . . . .. . . . . .Step V.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... 486 Method of obtaining equations for maximum production rate . 516 Advantages of intermittent flowing and plunger lift system . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Predicting plunger lift performance . . . . . plungers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Plunger lift nomographs and examples . . in. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 515 .. . . . 13-10 and 13... . . . .. . . . . .. . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .in . plungers . . . .. . . 475 Electronic controller . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... ... . . . . . . . ..Oil gravity. . . . . . . . . 488 Need for nomographs . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .B. . . . . . . . . . . 510 General considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . 497 . . . . .Step V.. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . 493 . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. 496 ... . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Tubing program.. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 . . . . . .. . . . . . . 507 Plunger lift applications . . . . . . 512 Use of Figs.. . . 485 Wells with 2. . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . 498 . .Mathematical operations by nomographs. 498 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Use of equations and figures without 510 Types of oil wells suitable for plunger lift . . . . ... . . . 498 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 484 Method of obtaining equations for gas and pressure . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . .Water cut. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . 495 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .Step IV. . . . . . . .. 515 . . . 484 Gas-liquid ratio gradient . . 515 Equipping wells at start for intermittent flowing and plunger lift (free piston) system .. . 496 How to use plunger lift nomographs . . . . . .. . .. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .(7) Material strength. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622 Corrosion . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 574 Example 14-3 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(5) Sulfide stress cracking. . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 Solution. . . . 580 Prime mover horsepo 581 Example14-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Chilingarian. 521 Nomenclature . .(5) Rod pump with stationary barrel and top hold-down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 560 Design of the sucker-rod string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUCKER-ROD PUMPING D.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 593 Visual diagnosis of operating conditions .Inhibitors. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 Polished rod loads calculation 576 Counterbalance design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(2) Tubing pump. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 554 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . .. . .(4) Rod pump with stationary barrel and bottom hold-down. . .(6) Corrosion fatigue. . 561 Example 14-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622 . . . . .. 611 Problem well testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..V.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . XXI Actual field example of changes in predictions from operating line . . . . 622 (1) Pitting and concentr corrosion. . . . . . . . . .. .(6) Rod pump with stationary barrel and top and bottom hold-down. . . 621 Selectionofmaterials . . . . . . . . . 532 Subsurface pumps .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 569 Rod motion analysis . . . . . . 623 ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 539 Selection of pump setting depth 551 Selection of pump types .. . . . . . . . . . . . 570 Effective plunger stroke . . . . . . . . 611 Energyoptimization . . . . .. . . . . . . 611 Surface efficiency . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 Pump-size determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 559 Theoretical analysis in sucker-rod design . . .. 578 Torque calculation . . . 623 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Momeni. . . . . . . . . . 559 . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Selection of pump bore size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Sample problems and questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 552 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 . . .. . 527 Acknowledgements . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. 619 Subsurface efficiency . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 528 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 Solution. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 623 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . 583 Dynamometer cards (dynagraphs) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hatcher and Axelson 531 531 General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 Pump-off controls and timers . . . . . .. . . . . . . 568 Solution. . . .. . . . 582 API recommended design procedure . . . . . . . . .(3) Rod pump with travelling barrel. . . . 595 Pumping efficiency determination . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 570 Solution. . . . . 555 . . .. . . . . . . . .(4) Galvanic corrosion. . 529 Chapter 14. . . . . . . . . . . 539 Evaluation and selection of pumps . .. . . 551 (1) Casing pump. . . . .. . 556 . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 569 Example14-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 619 Testing . . . . . . . .

. . . 667 . 669 Given. . . . . ... . ... . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. ... ... . . . . . . . . 740 743 743 .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. ... . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . 669 Classproblems .Solution. . .. . ... 709 .. . 670 Wellheads . . . . . . .. . . . 709 . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. 628 Appendix 14. .. . . . . . . 670 Tubing arrangements . . . 667 .. . . . . . . . 680 Control manifolds 680 681 Power fluid cleaning system 681 683 683 684 685 687 693 693 Example problem 15-4 . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . HYDRAULIC SUBSURFACE PUMPS P. .. . . . .... . . .XXII Installation and operation .. 669 . .. . . 669 . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .Assume. . 749 . . .Find... . . . . . . . . . .. .. Wilson and G. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .1 ... . . . . . . . . .Find. . Chilingarian 737 737 Applications . . . . . . . . . ..... . . ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 626 Sample problems and questions . . .. . . .... . .. . ... . . . . . ... ... ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .. ... . . . . ... . 738 740 . . . Dunbar and G. . .. . . . . .. . .J. ... .Find. . . 738 . 743 Power cable . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . 719 Bottomhole pressure calculations . . ... . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . .. . . .. . .V. .. . .. . .V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. 660 Example..... .. . . . . . . . .... . . . .Useful formulas . . .. . . . . . . . 665 Example problem 15-2 667 Given. . . ... . . . . . ELECTRIC SUBMERGIBLE PUMPS W... . . . . Chlingarian Introduction . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . 668 Example problem 15-3 . 638 Example problem 15-1 656 Pump selection . .. .. . . . . .. .. 633 Chapter 15. .. . . .. . .. . ... 626 Appendix 14.. . . ... 748 Motor flat cable .. . . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. ... .. . . ... . . .. ... . . ... ... . .. .. . . . .. . .. ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ..Pumping unit design calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. C. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 708 . . . .. . 710 Class problems . . . . .. . 720 Sample problem and questions . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . 669 . . .. . . .. .. .. ... . . . .11 .. . . . . . Powers.Find. .. . . . . . .. .Solution.. .. 708 Given. ... . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . 629 References . .. . . 635 Subsurface pumps-piston type . .. . . . . 736 Chapter 16. . . . . . . . . . 726 References ..Solution.

. .. . .. .. .. . ... . CHILINGARIAN and J. . . . . . . .V. . . ... . .. . . 801 SUBJECTINDEX .. . 175 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 756 Production data. . .. . . . . .. .. ... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . ..O.. . . . ... . . ... . Flow rate measurement by T. .. . . . . ... . 760 Electric power supply . . .. . .. . Jr. . .. . 160 760 Handling. Jr. .. G. . . . . . .. chemistry and classification of oilwell cements and additives by J. . . ..O. . .. . .. . HATCHER. .. . . . . . Chapter 2. . SIFFERMAN Chapter 3.. .. . . . . . .. . . . . .... ROBERTSON. . . .. . . . . .. .. ... . .. ... .. Gravel packing by W. . 153 Accessory options . .. . . .. . . . The manufacture. . .. . .R. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . Jr. . . .. . .. . ROBERTSON. Fracturing by J. . 153 Pressure-sensin . KUMAR Chapter 5. . . 150 Transformer 752 Wellhead . . . . . . .. ..Variable speed drive. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . 758 . . . ..O. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. References . . . . .D... ... . . .B. .. .. . .. . . . . ... . . . . Acidizing oilwells by J.. . .. . 805 Surface Operations in Petroleum Production. .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . G. . . . . .. XXIII Switchboard . ...V.V. G. .O. CHILINGARIAN and S . . . .. REFERENCES INDEX .. . . 116 Fluidpump-off .. . . 756 Mechanical data . . . . . ... . ... ..... . . ... .. .. . . 754 Selection data and methods . . Coleman) by G.. . . .. KUMAR Chapter 4.. CHILINGARIAN and S. . ...V. .. .. . . .. . . . . ROBERTSON. .V. ... .. . .. installation and operation . . .... . . . .. CHILINGARIAN Chapter 6 .. I1 Contents Chapter 1.. . . .. . . .. . CHILINGARIAN and J. SOLUM .. . Jr. . 152 Junction box . .. .. and G. . . . .. ... . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. .. Introduction (and an Appendix by D. . ROBERTSON. . . . . . ... .R.. .. . . . . . . ... . . . .

V. KUMAR Appendix A. Water quality for subsurface injection by C. Conversion of units by J. CHILINGARIAN and J.O.M. G. BERTNESS. CHILINGARIAN and M. Jr.V. and G. FANARITIS AND G. ROBERTSON.C. Steam enhanced oil recovery by J. CHILINGARIAN Chapter 8. ROBERTSON. SASSEEN. CHILINGARIAN Chapter 10. Underground storage of gas and oil by A. CHILINGARIAN.P. KUMAR and G.V.P.A. WRIGHT and G.V. AL-BASSAM Chapter 9. J.V. G. ALI AZUN. Pollution control by K. Offshore technology by S. CHILINGARIAN and S. CHILINGARIAN Reference Index Subject Index .V. Jr. G. and C. Corrosion in drilling and producing operations by T.V.XXIV Chapter 7. Technology of testing petroleum products and sample experiments by G.M.V. CHILINGARIAN Chapter 11. BRADY Chapter 12. BEESON Appendix B.O.

A. Production tech- niques have advanced from the very crude wooden troughs and pipes used in the early development of the industry to the modern complex gathering systems. Based on this information. Transportation has evolved from the wooden barrels filled at the wellhead to a system of pipelines and tank trucks connecting all parts of the country. 1-1). CHILINGARIAN. ROBERTSON JR. alone consumes around 16 million barrels of oil per day. This classification includes all equipment and operations from the wellhead to the refinery (Fig.A. The Drake well was drilled and completed in 1859 by a group of salt water well drillers from West Virginia. Since then the oil industry has progressed steadily until today (1985) the U. bottled the oil and sold it at “medicine shows”. 1-1) consists primarily of pipes. AND JOHN 0. GATHERING SYSTEM The gathering system (see Fig. which are connected to a group header or test . It was skimmed off in the evaporation pools and discarded. A sample of the oil was sent to Yale University for analysis and distillation revealed the presence of some valuable properties. In this book. A picture of a fierce Indian often appeared on the label. attesting to the universal curative properties of this “rock oil from the bowels of the earth”. the writers are concerned with a phase of production classified as “surface operations in petroleum production”. there was a thriving salt producing industry in the U. based on the evaporation of natural brines to recover salt. valves. SASSEEN. INTRODUCTION During the mid 1800’s. All phases of petroleum technology have kept pace with this expansion through the never-ending search for better and more efficient methods. a syndicate was formed in Pennsylvania to promote the drilling of an oil well.S. Thus. and treating plants. GEORGE V. the roles of contaminant and product have been reversed in the case of salt water and oil. (West Virginia and Pennsylvania). which have been associated from the beginning. or it may consist of separate lines from each well.M. Crude oil was a troublesome contaminant that would often accompany the produced brine. however. The gathering system may contain one or more lines with branches to each well. staged separation. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION TO SURFACE PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT K. and fittings necessary to connect the wellhead to the separation equipment.S. Many enterprising salt producers. and marked the beginning of the American petroleum industry.

- SYSTEM I VAPOR RECOVERY TRUCKING CLEAN OIL .MANUAL TO PIPELINE SHIPPING -GAUGING 4 -- PUMP r r - STORAGE TANKS I REJECT @ PIPELINE I1 LACT UNIT -@ Fig. California. Santa Fe Springs. SCRUBBING FLYASH HANDLING CW OIL i I AWT SKID UNIT r @ GATHERING . Schematic flow diagram of surface production equipment. 1-1. STEAM INJECTION SrVlY GENERATOR w m WNDOIOOR I--- FLY. Inc.) . .. (Courtesy of HTI Superior. N 4. a Berry Industries Company.

heater treaters. (2) a water conditioning system for feedwater to the steam generator. In the case of oil-burning type steam generators. each of which can be designed with automatic diverter valves in order to: (1) direct the flow of an individual well to the well test line. increased the net oil production of an existing well up to ten times the production prior to steaming operations and created new well drilling activity in many existing fields. ancillary equipment might include scrubber systems for the removal of fly ash and sulfur dioxide from the generator combustion gas. in several installations. and (5) production limiting devices. 3 header system. Among other details that determine the feasibility of steam operations are considerations which involve the subsequent steam stimulation of the well after the initial two or three steaming phases. A steam injection system primarily consists of: (1) a steam generator. The line to each well from the oil production-steam injection manifold is often a dual purpose line (in lieu of a single steam line and a single oil line) used for steaming the well for a certain period of time. to control air pollution and maintain standards set by the local environmental agencies. in terms of a production decline to a level approaching the production prior to steaming. and (7) a group oil line from the manifold back to the dehydration facility. Some of these operate under vacuum to 28 in. Accessory items might include: (1) gross-production meters. (3) a main steam header to various oil production-steam injection manifolds that are locate! in the central part of the wells to be steamed. (4) auto- matic routing valves. (3) return the flow to the maingroup header. new development facilities. Steam stimulation. (2) automatic well test units with programmers and computer readouts communicated to remote office locations or production headquarters. and (4) after a purge period. TREATING SECTION The treating section (see Fig. however. or a stable increased production due to the continued steam stimulation. the oil production returns through the same line to the manifold. (5) a common test line from the above-mentioned manifold. In this case. although more complex. (6) a purge line from the manifold. Development of oilwell steam injection procedures has added to the complexity of some field gathering systems. or electrical dehydrators. of Hg. often tend to simplify the overall design for good continuity and oper- ation. completely panel programmed. Orifice meters may be installed at each well. program the next well for testing. (4) a series of lines to each individual well. (2) route the flow to an automatic well test (AWT) unit. (3) corrosion inhibitor and chemical injection equipment. Oilwell steam injection facilities have been installed in a number of low-grav- ity oilfields to stimulate oil production. or one meter may be used to measure the entire gas production from a lease. 1-1)consists of some method of dehydration. where the production is then routed to the group header. In some cases. gas is removed from the casinghead into a field gas-gathering system. The manifold may contain twenty or more wells. as distance and distribution dictates. etc. The principal purpose . such as using washtanks.

and is conducted (higher elevation head) to the bottom of the tank by means of a large-diameter balance column attached to a spreader near the bottom of the tank. As implied. Dehydration may be accom- plished by one or a combination of several methods ranging from simple tank settling to complex methods. Application of heat to the oil stream prior to entrance to the washtank will correct this condition. Water settles out of the oil under the force of gravity and clean oil is skimmed from the surface of the oil layer. and chemical. Because the spreader is located below the interface. where it has been essentially degassed. The . Oil enters the low-pressure gas separator (gas boot). and flows to the dehydration equipment.4 of the treating section is to remove water. dehydration equipment can be divided into three classes: gravity. A level control (weir balance operation or electronic sensor) maintains the oil-water interface at a desired height. heater treaters. for the most part. this equipment is no longer a viable consideration for processing. In most cases. sand. Inasmuch as heat lowers the specific gravity and viscosity of the crude oil. electrical. usually in the midsection of the tank. Centrifuges add mechanical force to aid gravity settling. level control. the principal force involved in the separation of oil and water is gravity (separation in accordance with Stokes’ law). In general. etc. it plays an important part in the operation of a washtank. Oil enters the treating section from the separators. and low-pressure separator. the input oil is forced to rise vertically through a water bath before entering the oil layer. however. The operating principle of the spreader design is to allow the oil-water flow to break up into smaller oil globules through the small vertical louvered sections of the spreader skirt and thereby cause coalescence of the minute particles. Gravity dehydration Washtanks. In some cases. or a combination thereof. up into the oil pad with retention time being a factor. 1-2) is a large tank equipped with a spreader.. Excessive channeling rapidly reduces the overall capacity and operation of this type of dehydrator. Washtanks A washtank (Fig. centrifuges. oil draw-off. situated on top of the tank. due to high cost and low capacity. Heat is often required to reduce the viscosity of the oil to a value that will promote gravity settling. Uniform distribution of oil is of primary importance in a washtank. are included in the gravity class. Injection of emulsion-breaking chemicals at the wellhead or into the oil stream at the treating section aids in the resolution of emulsions. heat applied internally creates convec- tion currents in the water bath that may seriously interfere with proper operation of a washtank. the waste water must be cleaned to meet the requirements of the local water quality board. and other contaminants from the oil. Often the water is further processed for waterflood applications or for reuse as steam generator feedwater in some locations where the water has proper chemical composition and properties.

The oil is allowed to rise in a small sector of the tank area confined by a vertical baffle extending from the bottom to above the oil level.) detrimental effects of channeling and convection currents led to the development of a new configuration of spreaders and baffles for the washtank. a weir box or electronic controller. In this design. (Courtesy of HTI Superior. they operate practically maintenance-free.e. The oil-water interface is maintained at the desired level by the same means as those used in a conventional washtank. a Berry Industries Company. Capacities of washtanks may be based on three to four barrels of clean oil per square foot of cross-sectional area per day.Automated wash tank. the oil enters the oil layer which flows uniformly in a horizontal circular path to an oil skimmer. After rising vertically through the water bath. Heat is applied externally to the oil stream by a heat exchanger or inline heater. where the API gravity is in the middle-low range... They are low in the initial installation cost per barrel of oil throughput. A difference in density must exist between the oil and water for proper washtank operation. Segmented baffles maintain a uniform flow in the circular path. Santa Fe Springs. and once they are set and adjusted for the design parameters. California. but they are (and will remain) viable dehydration units for many production facilities. The skimmer is located on the opposite side of the vertical baffle from the spreader. the spreader takes the form of a horizontal slotted pipe instead of a circular pan. Inc.O= CLEAN OIL ST= STEAM C =CONDENSATE Fig. 1-2. i. 5 II 0 W = OIL WATER TRERYOPANE-' 80 PSI AIR 6 =OAS S =BASIC SEDIMENT ELECTRIC W =WATER PROGRAMMER C. when the viscosity of the crude has been reduced to 100 SSU * or less. * Saybolt Universal seconds. . Washtanks are not considered as sophisticated process equipment items.

Other impurities are sand. as opposed to treaters with vertical flow patterns. Because of this. All of these techniques must be applied in a systematic manner that will conserve energy. Distribu- tion. The closer the specific weights of the components are. oil coats and saturates the other components changing their specific weights. with solids being generally the heaviest components. in the refinery process equipment. Another major deterrent to gravity separation is high viscosity of the crude oil. Treaters incorporate some or all these means to speed up the separation process. Similar to the washtank. Resulting corrosion. the pipeline-refinery BSW (basic sediment and water) acceptability limit on crude oil shipments is 3%. it is generally necessary to apply additional treating processes to speed up the separation including: (1) chemicals to break emulsions. The constant force of flow resisting the settlement of water droplets is minimized. erosion. All treaters utilize gravity to separate the lighter from the heavier components: gas is the lightest. and density difference affect the heater treater operation in the same manner as they do the operation of a washtank. and accomplish the task as quickly and efficiently as possible. The most prevalent impurity is the produced water. the longer the duration of separation process. Efficient uniform heating is assured by the stream-flow distribution of the fluid around the heating elements. In addition. and (3) coalescing processes to enlarge the water droplets. and plugging is detrimental to the efficiency of operation of various equipment. the longer it will take for gravity separation to occur. Heater treaters may be vertical or horizontal and are often direct-fired. pipelines and. silt. The thicker the oil. The gravity separation principle is essentially the same as that in the washtank. the main difference being that the heater treater operates under pressure. followed by oil and then water. although indirect-heated types are available. Coating with oil affects the weight of small water droplets more than that of the larger ones. which is speeded up by enlarging the water droplets and/or reducing the viscosity of the oil. minimize costs. and various minerals.6 Heater treaters A heater treater is a pressure vessel operating on the same basic principle as the washtank. A treater utilizes the gravity separation process. 1-3) is based on the best principle of gravity separation by maintaining a horizontal flow pattern throughout the entire processing scheme. convection currents. which usually contains dissolved salts. finally. All of these constituents may deposit in the storage tanks. (2) heaters to reduce the viscosity of the oil. viscosity. The stream-flow (channeled flow) heating pattern results in a maximum heating efficiency and attains positive equilibrium at the . The gas also must be separated from the crude oil. Operation of a typical heavy-duty thermal treater (Fig. hydrogen sulphide. often using chemicals that can help break emulsions. metallic oxides. Time and gravity are the two main factors involved in the separation of various components. Whereas gravity separation is the basic method used to remove the impurities from the crude oil. a heater treater removes impurities from the produced crude oil.

California. Los Angeles. 1-3. Division of Rheern Manufacturing Co.Fig. (Courtesy of Superior Tank and Construction. Superior horizontal downflow emulsion heater treater.) 4 ..

The adjustment can be made while the unit is in operation as simply as closing a gate valve. Gas removal is accomplished at the warmest part of the treater to prevent gas breakout in the coalescing section. Free water bypasses the heating element and is not heated. with the entrained gas and water being removed at the earliest possible moment in the heating process. The crude oil emulsion is heated directly by the heating elements being immersed in the oil phase. Efficient. Gas evolved during the heating is removed at the warmest part of the system preventing its breakout later in the process. This reduces the number of control valves. The baffles are designed to force a change of direction that impacts the water onto the plate. The cutting edges of the louvers break the oil film present around the water droplets. uniform heating is assured by stream-flow distribution of the fluid around the firetubes. Flow pattern in the thermal-electric treater is an adaptation of the stream-flow (channeled flow) pattern discussed above. Precisely engineered distribution and collection headers assure uniform flow through the electrical field. With the stream-flow pattern. which is released by the heating process. the water experiencing a greater residence time is discharged cleaner. This insures a minimum energy loss from the heating constituents above that necessary to achieve separation. The thermal-electric treater (Fig.8 oil-gas and water-oil interfaces. free water is separated and bypassed around the heating elements. The closely controlled sequential . In addition. The horizontal flow reduces the resistance to separation and settlement. is removed ahead of the coalescing and settling section. allowing the water to escape and coalesce into larger droplets that can settle more quickly. The uniform stream-flow (channeled flow) heating pattern provides maximum heating efficiency and equilibrium at the fluid-gas interface. Free and entrained gas. Small water droplets are coalesced in passing through a high-energy electrically charged field. All this results in the delivery of the maximum volume of clean oil with the minimum expenditure for energy and chemicals. The initial gas removal occurs at the top of the vessel as the emulsion enters the vessel. free water is bypassed around the heating section and is not heated more than necessary to accomplish its separation. Heating in the oil constant phase reduces scaling and coking of the heating element. The louvered plates impart a slight pressure drop that causes the oil to distribute across the full cross-section of the vessel. All of the water is collected at the bottom of the treater and discharged from a single control valve at the back of the treater. thereby minimizing fuel consumption. The thermal-electric treater is equipped with a single-point quick adjusting electrical grid spacing apparatus for precise electrical current regulation. As the emulsion flows through the first compartment. The gas-free crude oil flows from the heating section into a coalescing section that contains louvered plates to achieve coalescence and insure uniform distribution throughout the settling section. thus preventing the agit’ation that would be created by its separation in the settling area. The crude oil emulsion is heated sequentially. 1-4)combines the best principles of thermal treating with electrostatic and chemical treating.

(Courtesy of Superior Tank and Construction.. Division of Rheem Manufacturing Co. L~~ ~ ~California. 1-4. Thermal electric treater.) ~ ~ l \D ~ ~ . GAS EQUALIZER GAS CONDUIT OUTLET DISTRIBUTOR REAMFLOW BAFFLES SURGE SECTEN N DISTRIBUTOR Fig.

and good distribution assures effective coalescing and maxi- mum capacity. (Courtesy of Superior Tank and Construction. 1-5.. An overhead. Superior vertical emulsion heater treater.10 heating assures heating only to the point that is required to attain the desired amount of separation. Los Angeles.) . attracting and colliding with one another. the water droplets acquire an electrical charge. Presence of a system of distribution spreaders results in uniform flow through both the length and width of the vessel. California. Division of Rheem Manufacturing Co. clean oil collection header system gives rise to a uniform outflow of clean oil. This comple- ments the bottom distributor system to provide minimum velocities and an even distribution throughout the coalescing section. The action is energetic and ADJUSTABLE WATER SIPHON\ 1 SAFETY REULF r"" our Fig. As the emulsion rises through the field. they rapidly move about repelling. Coalescing of the small water drops dispersed in the oil is accomplished by the high-voltage alternating electrical field. The gas-free oil first flows through a surge section and then into the electrical coalescing section. As a result. The tendency for fluids to channel is virtually eliminated.

effective because all the water droplets acquire a charge. respectively. combin- ing into larger drops. . alters the chemical composition at the interfacial film to such an extent. If the equilibrium is upset by any change in conditions or stresses that occur at the boundary. 1-5). In some fields. STORAGE TANKS Storage tanks are usually of bolted construction up to the 10. small welded steel tanks in bolted tank sizes up to 500 bbl are used. ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT Accessory equipment includes the equipment that is not basically necessary to convey the oil from the wellhead to the pipeline or other means of transportation. Welded steel tanks are used extensively in the larger sizes. the film will collapse and the emulsion will become unstable. that the emulsion becomes unstable. thus aiding the coalescence of the small water particles. The oil-water emulsion is heated to reduce viscosity and is then exposed to a high-voltage alternating electric current field. Electrical dehydrators The operation of electrical dehydrators is based on the well-known principle of Cottrell. Bolted steel tank components can also be factory sandblasted and precoated with various epoxy coatings to assure quality control. Chemicals may be added to aid in emulsion resolution. chemical treatment through the addition of surface-active agents. In the case of stable emulsion. Cleaning costs are usually greater with this type of equipment than they are with the gravity settling type. Gravity separation occurs when the small water particles coalesce into large drops. This growth in mass allows fast gravity settling of the larger drops into the water phase. conditions at the interfacial film can be altered to produce equilibrium with applied stress. In principle.) Chemical dehydration Chemical treatment usually is used in combination with one of the gravity settling class of equipment. whereas API 12G describes welded aluminum tanks. (See Fig. regardless of size.000-barrel size. 1-4. Inasmuch as the water particles are charged. Heat produces stress on the film that further renders the emulsion unstable. Vertical emulsion heater treaters have been successfully employed with the higher-gravity crude oils ( > 30" API) in some areas (Fig. the alternating electric field increases the random motion or displacement. The droplets collide with sufficient energy to overcome the emulsifying forces. Bolted tanks have the advantage of being easily transported and relocated. API Specifications 12B and 6 5 0 cover bolted and welded steel tanks.

12 Vapor recovery. 1-6). one to remove excess vapors from the tanks and one to admit natural gas for repressuring during demand periods. using an unloader controller to load or unload the compressor on demand condi- VAPOR HEADER TO SHIPPING PUMP &* A H . (Courtesy of HTI Superior. of water. and automatic custody transfer are included in this group. these vapors became an important source of revenue.Vapor recovery flow sheet. In some cases. California.j TO GAS SYSTEM GAS PRESSURE AIR COOLED STACK SCRVBBER TRAP COHPRESSOQ VAPOR RECOVERY COMPRESSOR SKID Fig. a Berry Industries Company. eliminating the compression section entirely. Large-diameter.) . of water. The blower or compressor can operate continuously. The pressure control system uses two very sensitive regulators. 1-6. Santa Fe Springs. A recovery system consists of a network of piping to collect tank vapors. The compression section can consist of a blower or compressor. a control system to maintain constant pressure on the tanks.. thin-wall pipe is used to collect the vapors because very large volumes at low pressures are involved. Initial pay-out periods of a few months are not uncommon (see Chapter 6 ) . and a compressor to increase the pressure of the vapors from atmospheric to the gas-gathering line pressure (Fig. the total pressure differential cannot exceed 0. Inc. the gasline is under vacuum. A pressure control system of this type can maintain the tank pressures within 0. With the introduction of gasoline plants and the ever-increasing demand for liquefied petro- leum gas (LPG) and natural gasoline. In most cases. water treatment. depending upon the gasline pressure.5 in. Vapor recovery Tank vapors were allowed to vent to the atmosphere in the past. A slight positive pressure is maintained in the tanks to prevent the admission of air.1 in.

Treatment consists of reducing the oil and sediment content of the wastewater to the established limits. In some cases. micro- organisms. (Courtesy of HTI Superior.. In waterflooding. The writers recommend thorough investigation of vapor recovery possibilities on all tank farms. wastewater cannot be discharged into unlined sumps or streams in many places. The water not only must be thoroughly cleaned of oil and sediment. Many small tank batteries have yielded important revenues after installation of vapor recovery systems. but also must be chemically stabilized to prevent scale formation. Santa Fe Springs. A meter is often included to measure the volume of vapors discharged into the gasline. The flotation cell systems are most successful when it is required to clean wastewater to a higher degree than the usual gravity settling basins permit.S. and in many other countries. the treatment of wastewater is very critical and complex. California. 1-7. and other countries have issued many regulations regarding the requirements for vapor recovery installations on tank farms. Wastewater treatment Disposal of wastewater is a very important problem. State air-quality boards in the U. Precautions must be exercised to prevent any type of deposition in the injection well. Fully pressurized flotation cell: wastewater system (P and I flow diagram).A. 13 tions. because the storage tanks constitute the final stage of gas-oil separation with a high liquid content in the gas. especially for waterflood systems where the effluent from the flota- tion cell is processed through filters prior to water injection (Figs.) . Inc.A. a Berry Industries Company. Discharge of wastewater into sewers or into the ocean without proper treatment is prohibited by state and local authorities in the U. and certain gases.S. 1-7 and 1-8). chemical treatment is required for control of basic oxygen demand (BOD). In order to prevent contamination of domestic water supplies. I R E C O M I I I O 6 f w m w m n WILLWIT Fig.

Dual flotation cell: wastewater system. Inc. temperature recorder. (Courtesy of HTI Superior. Other basic equipment. 1-9). Lease automatic custody transfer (LACT) Automatic custody transfer simply means automatic gauging. if required. i. In the flotation cell system. The same drive shaft also rotates a bottom grit scraper arm for the separate removal of settled solids from the grit collecting box. is thoroughly mixed inside the pump. and sampling device are essentially standard for both types. as the main process pump runs continuously. The fluid discharged from the pump enters the retention tank where bubbles are collapsed under 2-3 atm of pressure and are driven into true solution.. small sludge and oil particles become floatable and move to the top where the rotating skimming arm sweeps the oil sludge into a compartment for removal. Two methods are in current use: the meter type and the volumetric dump type. The air or gas together with a chemical.. a Berry Industries Company. oil from storage is pumped through the water content (water cut) determination device where the oil is either routed on through the system or bypassed back to the dehydration equipment. Clean water effluent is either directed to the outlet system or recycled back to a surge tank.e. such as automatic cut determination device. As the water enters the flotation cell at this point. the air comes out of solution due to the pressure decrease to.14 Fig. California. sampling.). atmospheric. Thus. . on low incoming flow. Santa Fe Springs. In both methods. and shipping of oil from the lease tank farm to the pipeline (Fig. air or gas injection is utilized upstream of the main process pump. 1-8.

The electrically driven sampler can be actuated by a pulse from the meter. The volumetric dump type unit operates in the same manner as the meter unit. Remote-reading tank level gauges should be included in this section. Santa’Fe Springs. Data. water cut. results in a saving in labor cost and a uniform scheduling for pipeline operation. California. It is often recommended to use the horizontal separator where the gas/oil ratio is high. 1-9. Float switches on the storage tank start and stop the unit as required. Installation of LACT. and shipping methods. This type of product handling is replac- ing the old manual gauging. each dump registering on a counter. sampling. and spherical. record.) depending on the water content of the oil. a Berry Industries Company. (Courtesy of HTI Superior. and transmit. 15 TOPVILW h l l 0 L VIEW I -PUMP 5 -METER 1-STRAINER 6-SAMPLER 3-DIVERT VALVE 7 -PROVER MANIFOLD 4 .. and volumetric rate of flow. Each type has proven features particular to various field applications.A I R ELIWINAfOR 8 -BACK PRESSURE REGULITOR Fig. pressure. where applicable. the level in any selected tank of a battery. such as temperature. Inc. for remote reading. SEPARATORS Oil and gas separators are used in most petroleum production operations. The primary function of these separators is to produce gas-free liquid and liquid-free gas. Basically there are three types of separators: vertical. except that two calibrated tanks are alternately filled and dumped. are easily transmitted and recorded at remote locations. The oil flows to a deaerator and then through the meter where the volume is determined. Gauges are available to determine. LACT unit. Both types lend themselves readily to telemetering results to control centers. the . A temperature compensation device corrects the meter with an electrically driven sampler. horizontal.

wellstream composition. The interior of a separator is divided into three compartments: (1) the primary separator chamber in the middle (2) the secondary separation chamber at the top. gas/oil ratio. (2) an oil-level control valve (diaphragm-operated or mechanical float linkage dump type). and (4) impingement . and (3) the oil reservoir at the bottom. which would cause a “rolling” action and be detrimental to the efficiency of operation. Composite volumetric metering type separators are also available. and (6) a safety relief valve. For extremely high gas/oil ratios. Staging is necessary to increase washtank or stocktank recovery and to remove the bulk of vapors formed when the pressure is decreased. ( 5 ) a float flange assembly.to include a flanged safety disc head with a pressure setting higher than the relief valve to protect against high overpressuring. Integrated with the natural forces utilized to induce mechanical separation. The factors which affect oil and gas separation and stage separation are wellhead or first-stage pressure. (3) a pressure gauge assembly. Operating conditions are established to separate the gas from the wellstream at the optimum pressure and temperature in order to induce efficient mechanical separation within the separator and thereby produce a more stabilized flow of crude oil to the washtank or treater.16 vertical separator where the gas/oil ratio is low. there are portable test separators (complete with gas and oil meter runs) for preliminary tests at the wellsite. especially in a washtank. Separators are designed to utilize natural forces and conditions in order to facilitate the mechanical separation of oil and gas. (3) gas expansion-decreases the gas density and thus induces the heavier oil particles to fall out. all of which are relative and present variable conditions of operation. therefore. contingent on the characteristics and conditions of any particular oilfield. the interface area between the liquid and gas is considered an important factor for oil and gas separation. temperature. The standard oil and gas separator accessory components are as follows: (1) a back-pressure gas regulator. The criterion for the design of oil and gas separators and separation systems is the economical separation of the gaseous and liquid phases of crude oil and distillate. These include: (1) centrifugal force-a mixed stream of oil and gas is subjected to a whirling motion and the heavier oil is thereby forced to the outside and away from the lighter gas. (2) high velocity-the amount of centrifugal force depends upon the velocity of the whirling stream. and gravity. and the spherical separator for an intermediate range of the gas/oil ratios. It is often advisable. (4) a gauge glass assembly. This precludes the entry and evolution of large quantities of vapor into the tank. Some designs of vertical and spherical separators include a secondary interface chamber in the lower oil reservoir of the separator. In addition to the various types of stationary separators for field processing. The washtank or stocktank is considered as one stage in the separation process. Stage separation processing is utilized to separate high-pressure wellstream gas-oil mix- tures into gas and liquid phases by two or more equilibrium flashes at consecutively lower pressures. the horizontal separator provides the maximum interface area.

. Horizontal oil and gas separator. 1-11.) . Division of Rheem Manufacturing Co.) contact-scrubbing and removal of oil mist from the gas flow near the gas outlet. Los Angeles. In order to accomplish good mechanical separation. utiIizing surface contact and directional change in flow. (Courtesy of Superior Tank and Construction. 1-10. 17 + GAS OUTLET IN IT IA L SE PARATlO N FLUID SECONDARY INLET /QUIESCENT ZONE LIQUID OUTLET VORTEX BREAKER Fig. Vertical oil and gas separator. the separator should perform INITIAL SEPARATION SECONDARY SEPARATION MIST EXTRACTION I I / WAVE / U BREAKER W R T E X BREAKER LIQUID ACCUMULATION Fig. California. Division of Rheem Manufacturing Co. California.. (Courtesy of Superior Tank and Construction. Los Angeles.

distribution. and deflection plates in horizontal vessels. The science of particle dynamics must be thoroughly understood and properly utilized in the design. adhesion. utilizing the above-mentioned phenomena (Figs. Generally.. 1-10. which is removed from the high-velocity gas flow. 1-12. Baffles are placed in such a manner that a “surf spray” effect on the liquid surface is prevented. The principles of surface contact. It csn also be further processed for field gas injection systems. Division of Rheem Manufacturing Co. and agglomeration are applied in the design of mist eliminators. a large quiescent zone is provided. The vessel diameter is generally established by this phase of the separation process. impingement-type devices are utilized in this section of the oil and gas separator.) the following four basic functions. In order to accomplish this. Los Angeles.18 MIST EXTRACT I ON. (3) Mist extraction for removing the mist-like liquid particles that are tightly entrained in the gas stream.G I \ S OUTLET Fig. by specially designed tangential inlets in vertical and spherical vessels. California. (Courtesy of Superior Tank and Construction. (4) Collection and disposition of the liquids in a manner that will not expose the liquids to re-entrainment. Separators incorporate scientifically designed internal components to impart laminar flow and to insure utilization of the full cross-sectional area. and 1-12). and final . The principles involved are reduction in velocity and gravity settling. (1) Initial separation for diverting the bulk of the free liquid immediately. 1-11.. GAS PROCESSING AND CONDITIONING The two basic reasons for processing or conditioning natural gas are: (1) removal of impurities that could cause problems in transportation. Spherical oil and gas separator. Gas from separators is metered and transferred to sales gasline systems or process plants. * INLET INITIAL SEPARATION SECONDARY SEPARATION LIQUID OUTLET QUIESCENT ZONE VORTEX BREAKER C . (2) Secondary separation for removing the small liquid droplets.

The content of water vapor is then reduced by bringing the gas into contact with a solid or liquid desiccant. 19 TABLE 1-1 Removal processes for hydrogen sulfide Name Reaction Girbotol a * 2RNH2 + H2S (RNH3)ZS Phenolate a + NaOC6H. S + CaS+2H20 Iron oxide FeO + H. The glycol absorbs the water vapor from the gas and dehydrated gas is discharged from the absorber.0 Caustic soda (pH = 7. The removal of CO.CO. Regenerated by air blowing. use. or (2) oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur by air.CO. also can be accomplished by chemical absorption. and water (H. Gas to be dehydrated enters the absorber (A) near the bottom and rises through a series of bubble trays where it is contacted with glycol.S-. its water content increases. + H.).S+KHS+K. First.S+Na2S+2H.S reacts chemically (combines) with a liquid absorbent. As the glycol travels downward through the absorber.O). S + NaHS+H. hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The most common impurities are carbon dioxide (CO. The water-rich glycol is discharged from the bottom of the absorber through heat exchangers (B) to the regenerator fractionation-distilla- tion column (C).O IronitemSponge" Fe. +NaHS Seaboard Na. Water vapor can be removed from natural gas by the glycol absorption dehydra- tion process (GAD) (Fig. Sodium carbonate (vacuum) Na.S + NaHS + C 6 H . The reconcentrated glycol flows through an additional glycol-to-glycol . The latter is present as a liquid and a vapor. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can be removed by many methods (Table 1-1). + H. H.5) 2NaOH+H. + H . The water-rich glycol is heated in the reboiler (D). In chemical adsorption processes. S 4 FeS + H. Regeneration of the absorbent is accomplished by: (1) the addition of heat to reverse the chemical reaction.S * NaHCO. The reconcentrated glycol flows to the glycol storage tank (E) where it exchanges heat with the water-rich glycol in the heat exchanger. causing the water to be released in a vapor form.0) N a O H + H . the liquid water can generally be removed in a separator or scrubber which is an integral part of the gas processing system.O Caustic soda (pH = 9. and/or (2) the modification of the characteristics of a natural gas to achieve the most efficient utilization. environment a Regenerated by steaming.S --L NaHCO. 0 H Phosphate a K 3 P 0 4 +H. Regenerated by vacuum steaming. 3 F e S + 4 H 2 0 + S FeS + S + FeS. +NaHS Lime Ca(OH).04+4H.HPO. the H. 1-13).

The glycol absorption-dehydrationprocess. a Berry Industries Company. Automated treating facilities. Santa Fe Springs. California.) Fig. 1-13..) . 1-14. Los Angeles. California.20 FLOW DIAGRAM : GAD-GLYCOL ABSORPTION DEHYDRATION (GAS DEHYDRATION UNIT) Fig. (Courtesy of HTI Superior. Division of Rheem Manufacturing Co.. (Courtesy of Superior Tank and Construction. Inc.

for UOP characterization factor can be obtained from charts provided by Nelson (1949).870 x 0. assuming all of the heat lost by the fuel oil is picked up by crude oil.975 = 21.500 gal/hr of the crude and 8350 gal/hr of the fuel oil. Specific heat. Chapter 2. 1-16. the heat gained by the crude oil is equal to: 15. A summarized. The efficient application of heat exchange and conservative heat flux rates assure exceptional fuel economy and high overall performances. = 675 O F * T2 = 2 2 5 "F 0.100) X 0.580 x (450 . 47.500 X 6. From Fig. = 8 3 5 0 gal / h Kw=11.570 x (400 . The fuel oil is cooled from 675" to 225"F. for example Fig. 1-14. Assuming T4 = 450"F.870 x 0.975 = 13. Then it is pumped through a gas to glycol heat exchanger (H) and into the absorber.100) X 0. Compute the heat lost by the fuel oil in Btu/hr. The gravity and UOP characterization factor of the crude are 40" API and 11.3 40OAPI Scheme 1-1. Thus. the heat gained by the crude oil is equal to: 15.529 x 0. and the crude enters the exchangers at 100°F. C . SAMPLE PROBLEMS Exchanger problem Crude oil is heated in exchangers by the counter-current flow of fuel oil: Measured at 60°F.975 = 17. respectively.95 X lo6 Btu/hr.3.500 X 6.7 x lo6 Btu/hr. 1-15. Assuming T4 = 350"F.heat exchanger (F) to the glycol pump (G). Solution: Heat lost by the fuel oil in Btu/hr = gal/hr x lb/gal X Btu/"F X AT X C = 8360 X 7.625 x (350 .650 x (675 .225) X 0. the outlet temperature T4 must be greater than 350°F. whereas those for the fuel oil are 25" API and 11. and correction factor.7 x lo6 Btu/hr.500 x 6. the correct outlet temperature T4 is equal to 403°F.100) x 0. See p. .3 25O A P I G=? 4 T3 = 100 'F 6'2 = 15. for definition of characterization factor. the exchangers handle 15. the heat gained by the crude oil in Btu/hr is equal to: 15. T.870 x 0.975 = 17.0 X lo6 Btu/hr.500 gol/h Kw = 11. cp: in Btu/"F. overall view of the surface production equipment is presented in Fig. Estimate the outlet temperature of the crude oil. Assuming T4 = 400"F.3.

16. courtesy of McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. 1-17.4 a3 0 200 400 600 000 1000 TEMPERATURE.9 k 3 00 I- 2 W 07 L 0 0. 136. Inc.6 k 0. Btu/hr x Fig.. fig. (After Nelson. Specific heats of Mid-Continent liquid oils with a correction ctor for other bases of oils. . 1-16. p.22 1.5 fn 0. Solution for exchanger problem. Diagram for washtank problem.0 2 0. OF Fig. ) 350 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 HEAT GAINED. N . 1-15. GROSS PRODUCTION 60 PSIG STEAM CONDENSATE WATER Fig. 1949. Y .

(e) How much gas (1000 Btu/cu ft) will be required for the heating system if the steam boiler efficiency is 70%. (d) Calculate the condensate return load. 60°F air temperature.I-1) where d p is increment in pressure. and g is gravitational acceleration. Field data: (1) 1800 bbl/day of 12" API oil and 500 bbl/day of water at 110°F inlet temperature. ( f ) In lieu of gas. lb/hr.000 Btu/gal) would be utilized if the efficiency is 62%. overall coefficient of heat transfer is 35. (2) Tank shell insulated with 2 in. 1. 2250 sq ft shell surface. p. 1949. dA represents an infinitesimal cross-sectional area.p g dz (1. (b) Find the logarithmic mean temperature difference (see Nelson. (3) Each internal heating pane has 42 sq ft of surface. (c) Find the number of heat panes required for the heat load. APPENDIX 1.1-1.1-SOME FUNDAMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS CONCEPTS AND SAMPLE PROBLEMS Fundamental equation of fluid statics The fundamental equation of fluid statics states that pressure increases with depth. fiberglass. p is density (mass per unit volume). The above relationship can be clearly under- stood on examining Fig. p is the pressure on the top surface of the element and . In this figure. 1-17). Required: (a) Calculate the washtank heat load. The minus sign indicates that pressure decreases with increasing z. p. dz is increment in depth (L is a vertical distance measured positively in the direction of decreasing pressure).Washtank problem It is required to design a heating system for an oilfield production process dehydration washtank (Fig. 13): d p = . the increment per unit length being equal to the weight per unit volume (Binder. which shows vertical forces on the infinitesimal element in the body of a static fluid. 478). 1962. 28 Btu/sq ft/hr radiation loss. how much fuel oil (145. ( 5 ) The required washtank dehydration operating temperature is 200°F. (4) 60-psig steam is available for heating.

Inasmuch as the pressure is due to the fluid weight. 1.) (p + d p ) is the pressure on the bottom surface. pressure difference Ap is found in lb/sq ft. eq.I-3) If p is assumed to be constant.1-1): [‘%= .-zl) (1. the above equation can be expressed as follows (see Fig.i 2 d z = -(z2.1-1. fig. and y ( = p g ) is the specific weight.I-2) or : d p = -pg dz In integral form. p.24 BODY OF A FLUID Fig.1-3 becomes: (1.of any fluid. . 2-2. 1962. On expressing y in lb/cu ft and h in ft.I-5) where h is the difference in depth between two points. (Modified after Binder. which is commonly referred to as the “pressure head”. 1.1-4) or : Ap = yh (1. the weight of the element ( p g d z d A) is balanced by the force due to pressure difference ( d p dA): d p d A = -pg d z dA (1. 13. 1. Schematic diagram of vertical forces on an infinitesimal element in body.

This force is a resultant of all forces acting on the body by the fluid. point 2 = exit.Z . ---+-= P2U2 w v2’. The pressures at different points on the immersed body are independent of the body material. eq. and ( Z . . Inasmuch as enthalpy = h = u + ( p u ) / 7 7 8 .. For a number of cases the process is adiabatic and change in internal energy is negligible. .). q+---P I U .V : ) / 2 g ( 7 7 8 ) ] = gain in kinetic energy.v: +-Z 2 .u1 = c. For a comprehensive treatment of fluid statics. q = heat transferred to fluid.u1 + v2’.h . This means that the buoyant. +-z. c. . For example. 1 Btu = 778 ft-lb.I-8) 778 778 778 2g(778) 778 .v. cp = specific heat at constant pressure..v2 z2 . General energy equation The work transferred The heat added to unit The total gain in en- to (done upon) unit weight of the flowing ergy by unit weight of the fluid between en- trance and exit. 1. there is an upward vertical buoyant force on this body equal in magnitude to the weight of displaced fluid. u = specific volume in ft3/lb. (1.Tl). ) / 7 7 8 = gain in potential energy. [( V? . 25 Buoyancy When a body is completely or partly immersed in a static fluid. (1. W = work in ft-lb per lb fluid flowing. u2 .T. = specific heat at constant volume. the reader is referred to an excellent book on fluid mechanics by Binder (1962). If the immersed body is in static equilibrium. + v. p2u2 + -W = u 2 . passing through the center of gravity of the body.(T.Zl (1. Thus: PlU. V = velocity in ft/sec.u1 = gain in internal energy. . trance (1) and exit ( 2 ) .-7782. u2 . if the same fluid is substituted for the immersed body. 2 = potential head in ft. this fluid will remain at rest. the buoyant force and the weight of the body are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.h . = cp(T. p 1 u 1 / 7 7 8= external work in pushing 1 Ib of fluid across the entrance.1-6 becomes: W q + -= h .I-7) 778 2g(778) where h . Point 1 = entrance.1-6) 778 778 778 2g(778) + 778 where p = pressure in psfa.Z . upward force on the substituted fluid is equal to its weight. The pressure is greater on the parts of the body more deeply immersed.

= V2Wg +P.1-2. Derivation of formula for flow through orifice meter A schematic diagram of incompressible fluid flow through an orifice meter is presented in Fig.I-12) Substituting eq.1-11) where V = velocity in ft/sec. (1. and Z = potential head above any datum plane in ft. and 2 = potential head in ft.(A2/-41)2 1 1’2 (1.1-11 and solving for V2: V2= [ 2g( Pl/Y . 1. 1./Al (1. y = specific weight in lb/cu ft. For an ideal flow with no friction losses the following relation will hold true: Fig. = const.1-13) .P2/Y + Zl . Schematic diagram of an orifice meter.A.z2> 1 . Inasmuch as volumetric rate of flow (in cu ft/sec) Q = V I A . V2/2g = velocity head in ft. On multiplying through by 778: (1. v: + Z. P +.= V 2 A 2 : V.1-12 in eq.26 and each term in the latter equation is in Btu/lb fluid flowing. v:/2g + Pl/Y + z. 1.I-10) Y2 2g Y1 2g which is the well-known Bernoulli’s equation.1-2. p = pressure in psfa. 1./Y + z. (1. = 2 fi + .I-9) where y = specific weight in lb/ft3 ( l / v ) . = V. p/y = pressure head in ft. For frictionless compressible fluid with no work done: vz’+ Z.

Flow equation for the Venturi meter (Fig.V. Schematic diagram of a venturi meter.148) . 1.A (1. = 1 in this case. / A . of Hg. one can derive the following equation starting with the general energy equation (also see Binder. ) . 1962): (1. Thus: Q = C.The latter is termed coefficient of contraction and is equal to A . INLET 1 THROAT Fig.z2 = 12(sP grHg . then: Ah P I / Y -k zl .Z. Compressible flow formula For a compressible flow. )] 1/2 (1.I-16) If A h is manometer deflection in in. Another term flow coefficient ( K ) is defined as: K = C / [1.1-3.P 2 / Y . however. .p 2 / y + Z.C.1-15) Thus: actual Q = K A [ 2 g ( p I / y .1-14) The term discharge coefficient (C or C.sP grf)/sP grf (1. / A .Cc. ] 1/2 (1. 27 For an actual flow one has to introduce correction factor for velocity (C. C.) often is substituted for C.) and correction factor for area (Cc).( A . = specific gravity of fluid flowing. 1.1-17) where sp gr.1-3) can be derived similarly.

= ( z 3 . ft/sec2. constant k can be obtained for various hydrocarbons. = ( z 3 . + h . 211). = energy output of the pump. 10. + h. Inasmuch as velocities at the surface of two reservoirs ( V ./2g in the case of sharp entrance./c.. and z = elevation above some datum plane.. h. + h.Z. I = length of the pipe. ft-lb/lb.5 + 1) . p. ft. ft/sec...1-4. ft-lb/lb..2/2g( f l / d + 0.33 cu ft/sec of water ( y = 62.000-ft long pipe having friction factor of 0. h. = P 3 / Y + G2/2g + z3 + A.z. and V 3 ) can be considered negligible and pressures p1 and p 2 are atmospheric (0 gage).2/2g). DATUM PLANE Fig. Determine: (1) pump horsepower required to maintain a flow rate of 0. ) + V.. = head loss due to the exit = dissipated kinetic energy ( = V. ft.. Example problem 1. As shown in Nelson (1958. d = inside diameter of the pipe.) + h. where E. = head loss due to entrance = 0. Maximum reliable flow Two reservoirs shown below are connected by a 4-in. lb/ft3. = head loss due to friction =f(l/d)(V.2/2g). Vp = velocity in the pipe..28 where G = weight rate of flow in lb/sec.5V. g = gravitational acceleration. the above equation reduces to: E.4 lb/cu ft).Diagram for example problem 1 Solution: (1) One can use Bernoulli's equation between points 1 and 3: Pl/Y + v / 2 g + z 1 + E . and k = (specific heat at constant pressure)/(specific heat at constant volume) = c. 1. h. ft.. y = specific weight of the flowing fluid.. ft-lb/lb of fluid flowing.02. + A. and (2) the maximum distance x for dependable (reliable) flow.

4 and solving for x : x = 7180 ft. E .. and air discharges to atmosphere ( p i = 14.5(3. .5 + l.02[(~)/(4/12)] (3. 29 Inasmuch as: V.147) is less than ( p2/pl)criticd (= {2/(k + l)}k’k-l) = {2/(1.1-5. in the divergent passage will be supersonic. using Bernoulli’s equation between points 1 and 2: + + p I / y + V:/2g + z . Inasmuch as p . = p 2 / y V. Example problem 2.4) + 0.02)(10000)/(4/12) + 0.78)2/64. Thus. where 550 ft-lb/sec = 1 H P . With safety factor incorporated. Thus: 175 = -21 + + (3.528).21 f t of water (= p 2 / y ) .782/64. one can solve for unknown distance x . Solution: For maximum flow rate.7 psi and Ti = 60’F). it is equal to .4-1= 0.. horsepower of the pump is equal to: H P = QyE..4 + 100 0. no cavitation). the pressure at the inlet side of the pump ( p 2 ) should be 2/3 of the barometric head of water. (See Fig. Determine throat diameter (point 2) necessary to maintain maximum flow rate through this nozzle. the velocity in the throat must be sonic. Diagram for example problem 2. because maximum velocity attainable in a convergent nozzle is sonic.782/64.7/100 = 0.2/2g z 2 + hi. Compressible flow (nozzle) A convergent-divergent nozzle is connected to a tank with air. 1. 1.33 cu ft/sec/(~(4/12)~/4) = 3. The tip diameter (point 3) is equal to two inches. / p l ( = 14.6. = Q / A = 0./550 = (0. (2) For maximum and yet reliable flow of water (i.4.33)(62. velocity V. Adiabatic constant k for air is equal to 1.78)2/64.1-5.e. Thus. inasmuch as terms p I / y and V:/2g can be neglected. having pressure of 100 psia and temperature of 100’F.) Fig.O)] = 285 ft-lb/lb. = (325 .78 ft/sec.4[(0.4’1.4)(285)/550 = 10. + A.4 + 1)}1.175) + 3.

( p . one can solve for throat di- ameter d.: V2= V .483)(1. ~ ] Solving for V. = W.3 X 466)1/2= 1060 ft/sec./4 x 144)(1060)(0. = A. supersonic speed. = A.12 lb/ft3.(0. In order to attain sonic velocity in the throat.239. = T 1 ( 2 / k+ 1) = 560(2/2. what is the work done on the air? .4) = 466"R. temperature in the throat must be critical: T. Thus.4/0.3 lb/cu ft.2 X 53.6 f t 2 and that of outlet is 0.30 T o attain sonic velocity in the throat (point 2).8 psia. ~ / ' . i. Air is compressed to 100 psia and 180"F. / ~ ~ ) 'y2/ ~ = .3)= ( ~ 2 .: d.4 = 320"R.528 = 52. Cross-sectional area of inlet is 0. is equal to V.11 ft2. pressure p 2 must be critical: + p . Example problem 3: Compressor problem Air at standard conditions is handled at a rate of 1000 lb/hr by a compressor. is equal to: y1 = p l / R T l = 100 X 144/53. = c2 = (kgRT. = 14.4)[1 . cp = 0. / R T . Inasmuch as y2/y1 = ( p . / p l ) k . yl.7 X 144/53. Temperature at point 3 can be determined from the following equation *: T.528)1/'. and the heat taken from air is 50.y. = p 1 ( 2 / k l ) k / k -= l 100 x 0.4X 0.3 x 320 = 0.: V.)'/. The specific weight of air in the tank.483 lb/ft3.147)04/1.( 0 .12). and y3 is equal to: yj = p .): W. Inasmuch as for adiabatic flow the weight rate of flow in the throat ( W 2 )is equal to the weight rate of flow at the exit (W. velocity V. / 4x 144)(1700)(0.V3y. = (1. is equal to 53. 1 4 7 ) ~ .4 x (100 x 144/0. (77d. = T . R . = 1.3 X 560 = 0..l / k= 560(0. = 1700 ft/sec. If the change in elevation is negligible.000 Btu/hr.161 inches.4 X 32.483 = 0.e.V.3 and Tl is the absolute temperature in O R ( = OF + 460). where gas constant for air. Velocity at point 3 can be determined on using the following equation: K2 = 64.

= A2V2Y2 V---G . G = A.421) W Vz'.(6. 31 Solution: Weight rate of flow: G = A V y lb/sec where A = cross-sectional area in ft2.V: q+ .h.06 ft/sec .239(180 .421 lb/ft3 V 2 = . V = velocity in ft/sec.-G . 1000/3600 = 5. 1000/3600 = 6.AIY. and y = specific weight in lb/ft3. = a P2 = 1oo(144) (53. =h.07651 is the specific weight of standard sea-level air (59'F and 14.97)2 .T/.11) X (0. + 778 2gJ h2 .60) x (0.06)2 -50+29+ 778 (64.h. = 0. (0.3) X (640) = 0.07651) where 0.7 psia).59) = 29 Btu/lb -. (5.Y.97 ft/sec A2y2 (0. .600 ft-lb/lb If the answer is desired in HP then one has to use the following equation: ( W ft-lb/lb) X ( G Ib/sec) HP = (550 ft-lb/sec)/HP .4) X (778) W = 61.

The prefix “un” means not. as well as to interpret the physical tests made on the products manufactured from petroleum. consequently. 1. so unsaturated means not full. capable of taking up some more. and naphthenic. some simple facts concerning their structure must be understood in order to intelligently interpret what takes place when these materials are broken down (as in the cracking operations).11-1) together with small amounts of compounds containing sulfur. Hydrocarbons are grouped into families according to the manner in which the carbon and hydrogen are held together in the compound. Hundreds of analyses of samples of crude petroleum from all over the world indicate the range in elemental composition presented in Table 1. The principal groups of hydrocarbons considered here are straight and branched chain saturated (paraffinic). and oxygen. Saturated means full. Carbon has the property of holding four other univalent atoms. unsaturated (olefins and diolefins).32 APPENDIX 1.11-1. aromatic.11-HYDROCARBONS: COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Introduction The word “petroleum” comes from the Greek work petra meaning rock and the Latin work oleum meaning oil. When an atom of carbon has combined with TABLE 1. nitrogen.11-1 Elemental composition of crude peiroleum Element % Carbon 83-87 Hydrogen 11-14 Sulfur 0. cannot take up any more. Saturated hydrocarbons Chemistry makes frequent use of the terms “saturated” and “unsaturated’.1-2 Oxygen none-2 . such as a sponge full of water cannot hold any more water. For various reasons one must rely chiefly on the physical properties to describe or identify the materials made from petro- leum. thus it literally means rock oil or oil coming from rock.05-2 Nitrogen 0. Fig. Crude petroleum is composed chiefly of hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. Inasmuch as the hydrocarbons form the bulk of the chemical compounds in petroleum.

) . The carbon atoms are joined by single linkages only. THE CARBON ATOn HAS FOUR BONDS THAT CAN U N I T E W I T H E I T H E R ONE OR H M I E CARBON ATOnS MI W I T H ATOnS OF ANOTHER ELEMENT. Simple saturated hydrocarbons with which the petroleum industry is concerned are listed in Table 1. 1. (See Formula 1.11-1. What are hydrocarbons? four atoms of hydrogen it cannot combine with any more. The general formula for saturated (paraffin) hydrocarbons is CnHzn+*. 33 HYOROCARBONS ARE MOLECULES C O N S I S T I N G OF HYDROGEN AN0 CARBON.11-2. being arranged in a straight chain. H H-C-H I H-C-C-C-C-H i 7 7 7 i ' l i H. on the other hand. hence the compound would be called a saturated hydrocarbon. There are paraffins in which the carbon atoms are not all arranged in a straight line. H I H I H I H I H I 1 H1 H1 H1 H1 HI HI H H Methane Butane Heptane S a t u r a t e d hydrocarbons ( s t r a i g h t chain) Formula 1.. a gas. only two of three atoms of hydrogen are combined with one carbon atom the products are unsaturated hydrocarbons. This compound is methane. which is always present in gas coming from oil wells and has a chemical formula of CH. Fig. These are called branched chain or isoparaffins. If.C-C-C-C-C-C-C. . A HYDROGEN A T W I HAS ONLY ONE BOND AND CAN NEVER UNITE W I T H MORE THAN ONE OTHER ATOn.11-11.11-1.

IH H I H-C-H H-C-H I I H H Isobutane lsooctane Formula 1.4 . and usually have extremely low freezing points.258.659 Heptane 209.1 0. The paraffin compounds show the least tendency to unite with other compounds or to attack and dissolve metals. and other parts of the fuel system. they have the highest amount of heat energy per pound when compared to the other hydrocarbon compounds.703 * Unless superscript is presented (temperature of liquid in “C). In addition.1 0.11-2.684 Octane C8HIR 258. If the carbon atoms are arranged in a straight chain.2”F. This is due to their capacity to hold the greatest possible amount of hydrogen. 180. Temperature of water to which density is referred is 39. OF gravity at 68’F * Methane CH. The paraffins are present in aviation fuel to a greater extent than in all other compounds put together (usually at least 60% by volume).4 5 Butane 31.4-trimethylpentane).the performance numbers are greatly improved.11-11 Saturated hydrocarbons Name Formula Boiling Specific point.627 Hexane Cd-44 155.0 0.601’ Pentane ca12 97. The principal hydrocarbons found in natural gas are shown in Fig. H H I I H-5-H H-C-H H-C-C-C-H H-C-C-C-C-C-H I H I I I H .1 0.585 .9 0. whereas if arranged in a “branched” chain as in isooctane (2.127. The paraffins as a class are more resistant to preignition than any other group of compounds used in aviation fuels. The name “paraffin” is derived from a Latin word meaning inactive or inert. p. 7-3.546-RR Propane C3HR .43. .8 0. rubber. as in normal heptane.2. performance numbers are low.7 0.34 TABLE 1.415-164 Ethane C2H6 .8 0. The performance numbers are also affected by the arrangement of carbon atoms.

Their formulas correspond to C.. The olefins are the least inert of the compounds in aviation gasoline and combine with air or with themselves to form varnish-like or rubber-like materials. olefins have somewhat greater solvent power than the chain paraffins. One of the well-known diolefins is butadiene which is playing so great a part in the synthetic rubber industry. The general formula for olefins is C.11-5). Butadiene Formula 1. The olefins are largely excluded from aviation fuels (less than 5%) also because of their relatively poor performance numbers at lean mixtures.H.: (See Formula 1.. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are unstable and are readily attacked and acted upon by strong acids. Unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain two pairs of double-linked carbon atoms in a straight chain are called diolefins. This is easily understood because in the case of the unsaturated hydrocarbons there is a vacant space on the carbon atom ready to grab up some substance in order to fulfill its property of having four univalent atoms around it..Hz. In addition. It is doubtful whether olefin hydrocarbons occur in crude oil.11-111. . 35 Unsaturated hydrocarbons Olefin unsaturated hydrocarbons are represented graphically by a double line between one pair of adjacent carbon atoms. and have the lowest resistance to preignition.11-3. Naphthene hydrocarbons Cyclic paraffins are saturated compounds having a closed ring structure instead of a straight chain. This is to indicate the fact that they are able to take up or combine with some more hydrogen or other elements.114 Simple unsaturated hydrocarbons with which the petroleum industry is con- cerned are listed in Table 1. but a high percentage is found in products which are made during cracking operations. Cyclopentane and cyclohexane shown below are typical examples (see Formula 1.11-3.) H H I I c=c C=C-C-H I HI H I H I H Ethene Propene Formula 1.

H.6411 at 68°F The naphthene hydrocarbons shown to exist in gasoline are cyclopentane and cyclohexane and their substitution compounds.780 Cycloheptane C.53.8099 * In 'C.1 H ' H H' Cyclopentone Cyclohexa ne Formula 1. .7 0. Specific gravity O F at 68'F Cyclopropane C3H6 .36 H \/ H H H I "\/ \/H H"H C- HI H C ti ' H' \ p :.4 0.5946 at 68°F Isobutene C4H8 20.11-111 Unsaturated hydrocarbons Name Formula Boiling point.69' * Cyclopentane C5H10 120. TABLE 1.154.4 245. The naphthenes can be present to the extent of 30%of the total volume of fuels.5 0.2 177.720-79 * Cyclobutane C4H8 55. Because of their lower hydrogen content.H* 20.11-IV. TABLE 1.4 0.11-5.745 Cyclohexane C.1 0. The performance numbers of the cyclic paraffins are better at rich mixtures than at lean mixtures. they have less energy per unit weight than the paraffins.3 - Butene(1-) C. The solvent power of cyclic paraffins is greater than that of chain paraffins.11-IV Naphthene hydrocarbons Name Formula Boiling point. and vary from good to bad.1 - Pentene(1-) C5HlO 86.00126 at 0°C Propene c3H6 .9 0.4 0. Simple naphthene hydrocarbons are listed in Table 1. Specific gravity "F Ethene CIH4 .H.26.8 0.

The general formula for this type of chemical compounds is CnH2. The aromatics are almost as inert as the chain paraffins in respect to combining with other compounds. a property which differentiates them from the paraffin and naphthene hydrocarbons. and they have high stability. and either dissolve or cause swelling of rubber and rubber-like substances. unsaturated. The percentage of carbon to hydrogen is greater in aromatic compounds than in the other hydrocarbons discussed previously. They react readily with concentrated sulfuric acid. and naphthenic hydrocarbons of a similar boiling point..-6. 37 Aromatic hydrocarbons Aromatic compounds are hydrocarbons which contain a benzene ring nucleus in their structure. the amount permitted in aviation gasoline does not exceed about 20% by volume. however. Inasmuch as they contain considerably less energy. Here the carbon percentage is ap- proximately 92 and hydrogen 8. The preignition resistance of the aromatics as a class is also distinctly inferior to that of the paraffins. thus having a greater weight in pounds per gallon than saturated. Aromatic hydrocarbons are found in various crude oils and many are produced as a result of “cracking” crude oil. They are characterized also by relatively high specific gravity.11-6. . the aromatics are the second most important group of compounds in aviation fuels. Although it is not possible to have them present to as great an extent as the cyclic paraffins. The aromatics are particularly desirable because of their performance numbers at rich mixtures. They have powerful solvent tendencies.This group of compounds has a characteristic aroma or smell. Several members of the aromatic (benzene series) hydrocarbon family are listed in Table 1.11-V. by weight. Examples of the structural arrangement of carbon and hydrogen in aromatic compounds are shown below: H H-C-H I H I H-C /‘\C-H 1I I \ rH H-C C I I H Benzene Toluene Formula 1. per unit weight than chain paraffins.

are easily applied and specific gravity is actually used to a large extent in expressing the quality of crude oils.8802 o-Methyl ethylbenzene CP.4 0. In American practice.879 Toluene C. 7. A more rational basis of classification is found in some expression of the composition of the oils.38 TABLE 1.) . such as specific gravity. 323.. 291. Systems based on a superficial inspection involving some physical property.2 0.0 0. Chemical composition of some crude oils plotted on a triangular diagram. 1949.11-2. Specific gravity “F at 68°F Benzene ‘bHb 176.H” 231. (After Nelson. fig.3 0. 87. crude oils long have been roughly Fig.6 0. p. 1.873 Classification of petroleums Many methods of classification of crude oils have been devised.8669 Ethylbenzene CXHIO 277.11-V Aromatic hydrocarbons Name Formula Boiling point.8672 Ortho xylene CXH1.

It includes also eastern Colorado and parts of New Mexico and Arizona. and (c) if they contain both paraffin and asphalt. Tissot and Welte (1978) classification of crude oils is presented in Fig.11-3. (2) The carbon atoms in the longest chain are numbered to indicate the location of attached groups. (b) naphthenic or asphaltic base. On the other hand. New York. all of Texas except the Gulf coastal area. In other words. p. and Arkansas. Michigan. West Virginia. Oklahoma. 39 AROMATIC HC+ NSO COMPOUNDS AROMATIC INTERMEDIATE 01 PARAFFINIC OILS OILS 80 60 50 40 N+I SO-ALKANES 2o CYCLO-ALKANES (PARAFFINS) (NAPHTHENES) Fig. This type of crude oil is found in the eastern states such as Pennsylvania. Using this basis for the classification of petroleum.11-2). This system was derived on the basis of differences in the nature of the lubricating oil portion of the crude after a nondestructive distillation was made. are termed mixed base. mixed base (Fig. the crude oil is carefully distilled and the portion boiling in the lubricating oil range is examined. If this portion is waxy and has the physical properties of paraffins. The Pennsylvania type of crude oil is paraffinic. 1. .) classified as (a) paraffin base. 1. Ternary diagram showing the composition of six classes of crude oils from 541 oil fields. 373. Crude oils. 1978.11-3. it has been found that crude oil occumng in various sections of the United States can also be classified. The Gulf Coast type of crude is asphaltic and naphthenic in nature and is found in the area lying in southern Louisiana and southern Texas. lubricating oil fraction of which contains both paraffins and asphalt. Midcontinent type of crude oil is mixed base and is found in Kansas. northern Louisiana. if the lubricating oil portion contains little or no wax and does contain asphaltic material. the crude oil is termed asphaltic. Some rules of nomenclature The most important rules of nomenclature can be summarized as follows: (1) The stem name of an alkane corresponds to the longest carbon-to-carbon chain present. the numbering should start from the end closest to the attached group. (After Tissot and Welte. In order to permit the smallest numbers to be used in the name. 1. and Ohio. the crude oil is termed paraffin base.

numbers are used to denote carbons to which groups are attached. 2. (4) The generic name for open-chain hydrocarbons with one double bond is alkene.Dimethylheptane Formula 1.11-10. 2-Methylpentane Formula 1.11-7. 2 -Ethyl .11-8. The specific name is derived from the name of corresponding alkane by changing -ane to -ene. Examples H H-F-H I a . the generic name becomes alkadiene (-diene ending). b. .5 . H 1 C H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H I l l I I H H H H H c.3-Butadiene Formula 1. If two double bonds are present.40 (3) Prefixes are used to specify the attached group. 1.11-9. ( 5 ) The stem name of 60th alkene and alkadiene corresponds to the longest carbon-to-carbon chain containing the double bond.1 -pent ene Formula 1. H-C=C-C=C-H d.

Y. 2nd ed. 1956. 1962. Chilingar. N. N. Vol. New York. G. New York. Petroleum Production Handbook. Englewood Cliffs. B.V. Cenozoic-type and Paleozoic-type oils. and Beeson. Tissot. 1. G. The TechnologV of Testing Petroleum Products. Springer.L. 3rd ed. R... G. New Jersey. Fluid Mechanics. Nelson. by A..V. 1949. Kartsev. 4th ed. C. 1969. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence.P.. and Welte. 1958.H.J. T... Chilingar. Petroleum Refinery Engineering. 76 pp. USAF F'ubl. 4th ed. 1960.Y. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York.. W. W. 41 REFERENCES Binder. Compass Sigma Gamma Epsilon.. Surface Operations in Petroleum Production. 960 pp. . Petroleum Refinery Engineering.Y.V..Y.. A New Approach to Oil and Gas Exploration. (Editor). 37(4): 331-336.M. 1962. Am. Frick. N. 453 pp. 830 pp. N. New York. 1978. 538 pp.L. Prentice-Hall.. McGraw-Hill.C. A Review. Chilingar..C. McGraw-Hill. N.. Elsevier. Nelson. McGraw-Hill..A. New York... 397 pp. D.

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6 1036. 86.9 1071.18 610.9 - Carbon dioxide CO.2 258.2 0.54 564.. 44. .787 Water H2 0 18.584 Isopentane CSHl2 72.8 .232.8 - Ethane C2H.H.0 -297.1 20.356 Propane C.0 529.221.1 31. 114.0 616.7 5.0 -258.OOO .H.0 -320.4 546.H.0 0.6 387.6 0.2 155.680 n-Octane C.6 0.1 360. Natural gas and natural gasoline are primarily mixtures of the lighter hydro- carbons with varying amounts of nonhydrocarbons such as water.1 -43.9 15.4 275.6 436. carbon dioxide.62 512. CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION Surface operations in petroleum production involve hydrocarbon gases and liquids with a smaller content of nonhydrocarbon compounds.508 Isobutane C4Hlo 58.0 212.6 488.116. 128.4 0. . LOCKHART and GEORGE V.3 345.7 667. and hydrogen sulfide.0 490.7 396.8 0.0 0.664 n-Heptane C.6 550.2 1. Although.563 +Butane C4H.1 -76.734 Nitrogen N2 28.0 1.06 651.3 303.624 n-Pentane CSHI2 72.4 ..3 .0 0.1 0. 43 Chapter 2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM GASES AND LIQUIDS FRANK J.2 96.1 212.7 0. .3 .7 72.8 0.0 - Oxygen 0 2 32.1 707.181.7 188.2 209. .6 385.5 0.5 3208.6 304. 90.1 10. 87.4 369.2 736.2 82. 1981) Compound Formula Molecular Boiling Vapor Critical Critical Liquid weight point at pressure temperature pressure density 1 atm at 100°F (OF) (psia) at 60°F (OF) (psis) ( g m ) Methane CH4 16.818 Hydrogen sulfide H2S 34. 100. 58. 30.H.5 0.8 0.3 0.95 705.9 0.9 - Air N2+02 29. solid phases are sometimes present.0 -317. 44.5 206. The heavier mixtures such as crude oil consist of a myriad of TABLE 2-1 Some physical constants of light hydrocarbons and other components of petroleum fluids (Abstracted from Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association.7 .5 331.4 .1 -127...7 493.707 n-Nonane C.631 n-Hexane C6H.0 -109.4 0.0 206. they are avoided whenever possible.722 n-Decane CIoH22 142.1 51.0 453.

N = number of pound moles. viscosity.73 (psia X ft3/lb-mol X OR). ft3/lb. It is probably accurate to within about 5 % for most gases. and various compounds containing sulfur. 10. 2-2. R = gas constant. and . and in the denominator of eq. Some physical constants of the lighter hydrocarbons and other components of petroleum gases and liquids are given in Table 2-1. eqs. American Petroleum Institute (1966). As the pressure is increased. density. 2-1. say less than 300 psia: pu =NRT (assuming 1 lb of gas) (2-1) and y = l/u = p / N R T = Mp/RT (2-2) where p = pressure. lb/ft3. Thus. DENSITY OF GASES The ideal gas relationship presented below is convenient and usually acceptable when dealing with gases at low pressures.44 higher boiling hydrocarbons. i. Certain physical characteristics of these hydrocarbon mixtures are needed in order to design new equipment and to understand and predict the performance of existing equipment. and Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association (1981). This dimensionless factor. and vapor-liquid equilibrium ratios. too many in number for individual identification. and M = molecular weight. 2-1 and 2-2 become gradually less accurate. psia. nitrogen. The simplest method of compensating for such errors is the introduction of a multiplying factor on the right hand side of eq. are discussed in this chapter.’R (= OF +460). Properties of special importance. u = specific volume. y = specific weight.e. is called the “compressibility factor” and was determined empirically. temperature. and oxygen. eqs.. 2-1 and 2-2 will become: pu = Z N R T (2-3) and MP Y=ZRT (2-4) The compressibility factor is determined by the composition. Errors of about 2% at atmospheric pressure become as great as 500% at higher pressures. T = absolute temperature. Z . Many of these physical properties are given in the standard references such as Nelson (1958).

p. fig. Compressibility factor for natural gases.. (From Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association. 1941 in: Natural Gasoline Supply Men’s Association.) . 45 PSEUDO REDUCED PRESSURE 9 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. 2-1.After Brown et al. 16-8. 16-3. N PSEUDO REDUCED PRESSURE PR Fig. 1957. 1981.

absolute units (OF + 460). which are equal to mole percents. 0.. Any units of temperature or pressure may be used. T. Example 2-1 Calculate the density of a gas mixture containing 90% methane. p = pressure of gas. provided that the same absolute units are used for T and T. absolute units (OF + 460).02 44 666 616 . Z is a function of reduced temperature.oo 17. and 2% propane at 55’F and 1100 psig. = critical temperature of the compound. absolute units (psig + 14. from Table 2-1.90 16 343 668 C2H6 0. - 1. . p. from Table 2-1. and reduced pressure.7 366 670 .. 2-1. For mixtures of gases. and pc = critical pressure of the compound. 8% ethane.08 30 550 708 C3H8 0.7). Note that gas compositions are usually given in volume percents.7). and where T = temperature of gas.. + absolute units (psig 14. 2-1 can also be used upon calculating the “pseudo- reduced” temperature and pressure: n pPr= ~ / p P c/ ~ = CYi Pci 1 The pseudo-critical temperature (pressure) of a gas mixture is calculated as the molecular average critical temperature (pressure) of the components. and for p and p..46 pressure of the gas. T. Fig. YTC Pc YPC fraction weight (OR) (PW Y M CH. For a single compound. Composition Mole Molecular yM r. as shown in Fig.

and mean average boiling point.= 10-11). . naphthene-predominant (K. Example 2-2 What is the density (g/ml) of a petroleum liquid at 500°F and 1000 psia.608 g/ml at 500°F and 1000 psia. In general.131. is a factor which classifies crude oils and petroleum liquids roughly as paraffin-predominant (K. characterization factor. 2-1 : Z = 0.73)(55 + 460) DENSITY OF LIQUIDS The approximate density of petroleum liquids at elevated temperatures and pressures can be obtained from Fig.= 12. 2-7: Tpr= ( 5 5 Using eq.= 11-12). 41 + 460)/366 = 1. 2-2.5 SG (60°F) or and K. the dashed line shows the density to be 0.0-12.7)/670 = 1. This figure relates the specific gravity (equal numerically to the density in g/ml) to temperature and pressure as a function of any two of the following three parameters: "API. = characterization factor = 3K (2-10) SG (60°F) The characterization factor K.41 Using eq.66 From Fig. if the oil gravity is 40 "API and K. 40 "API corresponds to a density of 0. 2-8: ppr= (1100 + 14. Watson K.5). 2-9. 2-4: y MP = -= (17*7)(1100 + 14'7) = 4.0? Using eq.825 g/ml at 60°F. the first two parameters are known rather than the last one: "API = l4IS . T. = 11. O R. and aromatic-predominant (K.81)(10.81 Using eq.41 lb/ft3 ZRT (0. 2-2. = average boiling point. In Fig.

\ \ - 100- - 0- Fig.) .000 PSlA 6 mo - 600 - IA. @ UPS A SP OR OF 0. A 40 API OIL.SOB AT 1. p.'. Specific gravity of petroleum liquids.A T 500 F @ 800. 4. 230. W K a @/I z K m..*110. 2-2.05 900- I. (After Ritter et al.K. courtesy of Petroleum Refiner.00 EXAMPLE . \ - W a I w \ c \ \ \ 400. fig. \ \ \ 300- 1 \ 2 \ \ em. ~Poo: 1. 1958.

7 psia. llB4. The effect of pressure may be obtained from Fig.6) may be obtained from Fig. Effect of pressure on viscosity of petroleum gases. fig.. 2-3. (After Bicher and Katz. p. 1966. Fig. The pressure limitation is in most cases about 400 psia. TEMPERATURE. 1966. 11-75. 2-4. American Petroleum Institute. 2-3. OF Fig.1.) p1 = viscosity at 55'F and 14. fig. . Relationship between viscosity and temperature. American Petroleum Institute. 1944. 1955. VISCOSITY OF GASES The viscosity of petroleum gases at low pressures (say below a reduced pressure of 0. 11-73. p. 2-4.1. llB3. (Modified after Carr et al. p.590 g/ml at 500°F and 500 psia.) REDUCED PRESSURE. the density is 0. 49 Extending the dashed line of the example to the 500 psia line.

Thus.50 Example 2-3 What is the viscosity of the petroleum gas given in Example 2-l? From Example 2-1. Extrapolation beyond these two experimental points is not recommended: at lower temperatures. Effect of temperature on viscosity of some crude oils.0104)= 0. p / p I = 1. the viscosity at 55°F and 1100 psig = (1. for universal and kinematic viscosities are available from the American Society for Testing Materials. Philadelphia. the average molecular weight = 17. the pseudo-reduced temperature = 1. TEMPERATURE. It is usual procedure to plot the viscosity versus tempera- ture on ASTM viscosity paper (four charts. *F Fig. . From Fig.66. From Fig.7 psia and 55°F is equal to 0.0104 cP. low and high ranges.). the viscosity at 14.21. In order to use this method it is necessary to know the viscosity at two temperatures in order to define the straight line. 2-5. there is danger of getting into the solid region. 2-3. Pa. VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS There are no accepted correlations of the viscosity of petroleum liquids as a function of temperature. 2-4. whereas at higher temperatures there is danger of getting into a region of cracking or thermal decomposition.7.41. and pseudo-reduced pressure = 1.0126 cP.21)(0.

(2-12) where t = temperature. and 6 . (OF + 460). k . = constants. Although Fig. T = absolute temperature. (After Lockhart and Lenoir. Also. PBlA FACTOR. 51 Alternate methods which are probably less accurate include the use of the semi-logarithmic equation: log 7 = a ( l / T ) + k. = constants. 1958). 2-5 from data on crude oils given by Nelson (1946a. The use of eq. 8 8 CWARACTERlZATlOW PRESSURE. 2-6. 209. including those in Fig. courtesy of Petroleum Refiner. (2-11) where 7 = kinematic viscosity in centistokes. Yw Fig. were determined at atmospheric pressure."F. the logarithmic relationship can be used: log 7 = b log t +k.b. 2-5 indicates a rough relation between viscosity and specific gravity (or OAPI). This method was revived by Amin and Maddox (1980). and a. k . 2-12 is shown in Fig. p. Most viscosity data. Effect of pressure on the viscosity of petroleum liquids at relatively low reduced temperatures.) . 2-5. 1954. Equations 2-11 and 2-12 often do not yield straight lines. 1961. fig 1. this is definitely not sufficient to eliminate the need for experimental data to define the relationship.

and p2600/pF114. however. 2-6. and compositions of numerous compounds. p at 2600 psia = (320)(1. What is its viscosity at this higher pressure? p14. 2-7 and 2-8). although this does not have to be correct in all cases. pressures.65. especially for petroleum liquids having high viscosity (see Fig.7= (400)(0. Example 2-4 A petroleum liquid having density of 0.80)= 320 CP From Fig.80 g/ml and viscosity of 400 centistokes (cs) at 60°F is subjected to a pressure of 2600 psia. there is negligible effect of K . makes calculations much easier. Calculations for these two limits are illustrated below. It is usually assumed that the vapor is in equilibrium with the coexisting liquid phase. Although eq.65) = 528 cP. the vapor and liquid behaviors approach ideality: K i =p i / P (2-14) where p i = vapor pressure of component b b i ” at the system temperature. and P = total pressure of the system. it is usually sufficiently accurate to assume that K i is a function of only temperature and pressure. The concept of equilibrium. DePriester (1953) developed two nomographs which are of general use in the industry (Figs. For most petroleum problems.52 The effect of higher pressures may be significant. in the same units as used for pi.7 = 1. it can be very useful as a limiting asymptote in checking K i P values for accuracy or consistency. and K i = vapor-liquid equilibrium ratio of compound “i ”. Over wide ranges of temperatures. By definition: yi = K i x i (2-13) where yi = mole fraction of compound “i ” in the liquid. VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM RATIOS Petroleum production usually involves handling of vapor and-liquid phases. 2-14 should not be used for most temperatures and pressures encountered in petroleum production. 2-6). it has been found experimentally that Ki is a function of the com- pounds and their concentrations in addition to the temperature and pressure. For hydrocarbon mixtures at low pressures and reasonable temperatures. . however. The limiting conditions of the two-phase region are the bubble point (100% liquid) and the dew point (100% vapor).

p.I ..) .temperature range.BUTANE N-HEXANE N-NONANE METHANE ~ .OCTANE ISOBUTANE N .. 41. . 1 1 DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS 0- IN LIGHT HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS rnz GENERALIZED CORRELATION LOW TEMPERATURE RANGE K= YX 6 Fig. 31. fig. . . 2-7.. Generalized correlation for equilibrium ratio K in low. (After DePriester. (n w ISOPENTANE N-HEPTANE N -PENTAN€ N . 2 E 2 e 'cf f 1953.

1953. fig. 49. (After DePriester. 32. 2-8. p. Generalized correlation for equilibrium ratio K in high-temperature range. DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS IN LIGHT HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS GENERALIZED CORRELATION HIGH TEMPERATURE RANGE K= y/x Fig.54 I .) .

K. This is an iterative-type calculation. 2-13). at which the K values are 13.5 13. Compound x. use eq.Vi /Ki Ki .25 0. 2-13). At 105'F the CKixi = 1.x. 1.25 1. 2-7 and 2-8.60 0.037 Linear interpolation suggests trying a temperature of 186"F. C y i / K i = 1. 0.When the latter is equal to 1. K.35 2.12 4.958 1.x. Methane 0.90. respectively.2. 55 Example 2-5 What is the bubble point temperature of the following mixture at 250 psia? The mixture composition equals the liquid composition at the bubble point (eq.00 exactly.137 Linear interpolation suggests trying a temperature of 105'F. 250 psia 200°F 180'F Ki . If X i x i > 1.7. 250 psia 100°F 120°F K.95 1. It is noted that if C K i x i < 1. the mixture is above its bubble point.82 1. Any closer check is not warranted.016.05. at which the K values are 10. - 1 .80.35 .295.0.0 Propane 0.12 2.9077 1.00 0.0 Ethane 0. 2-13 to calculate C K i x i . . . and 0. and will be about 103°F.70 Isobutane 0.275 0. Therefore. and 0. respectively. At 186°F and 250 psia. Assume a temperature.2 11.03 13. 4. the individual K i x i is equal to yi for each component.03 10. the bubble point is between 100'F and 105"F.Vi /Ki Methane 0. - 1 . 2.02 Isobutane 0. The above example shows that the light component plays a predominant role in determining the bubble point. Compound Y. the mixture is below its bubble point at that temperature and pressure. K.0.2 Ethane 0. obtain K values from Figs.71.70 .025. .80 0.80 Propane 0. Example 2-6 What is the dew point temperature of the mixture in Example 2-5 at 250 psia? The composition of the mixture equals the vapor composition at the dew point (eq.60 0.52.4 4.00 0.

For example. 2-9. What volume would ethane occupy at these conditions? (7) Ten pounds of 60-"API gasoline at 50°F are heated. p. When C y . vaporized.0 and a molecular weight of 200. dashed line. Any closer check is not warranted. As a second example. Given: ASTM slope = 3"/1%. if any two properties are known. and super- heated to 600°F at an absolute pressure of 300 psia. the dew point is between 186°F and 200°F and is about 187°F. < 1. the volumet- ric average boiling point of a distillate material. How much heat is required? . Determine the latent heat of vaporization at atmospheric pressure and also at 450°F. The molecular weight is equal to 195 and critical temperature is 845°F (Fig. see.0 exactly. = 1.5. 2-9. 145 and 146). INTERRELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OILS Interrelationship among volumetric average boiling point. 143 and 146).9 and API gravity of 35" atmospheric molal average boiling point = 580°F (1O4O0R). and critical temperature = 900°F (1360"R) (from Fig.Nelson. Calculations where the feed mixture is in a two-phase region in-between the bubble point and the dew point are discussed in Chapter 3 titled "Separation of Oil and Gas". (4) A mixture of hydrocarbons has a characterization number of 11.56 Therefore. the individual y i / K . 1949. / K . pp. 2-9. The API gravity is equal to 80" and characterization factor K is 10. SAMPLE PROBLEMS AND QUESTIONS (1) What is the viscosity of a blend of (a) 65% of oil having viscosity of 550 SSU at 130°F and (b) 35% of oil with a viscosity of 250 SSU at 130"F? (2) A 70-OAPI gasoline has a volumetric average boiling point of 300°F. having an ASTM slope of gasoline and gas oil and API gravity of 31.0. What is its viscosity at 60 psia and 400"F? (3) Determine the total heat of vapor at 450°F and 600 psia. The ASTM distillation slope is equal to 6"/1%. pp. Thus. the other properties can be determined. if a mixed-base stock has a characterization factor of 11. see Nelson. 1949.5". molecular weight = 250. molecular weights and critical temperature is presented in Fig. the mixture is above its dew point at that temperature and pressure. is 533°F (dashed line in Fig. gravity. This example shows that the heavy component of the vapor plays a predominant role in determining the dew point. 1949. is equal to x i for each component. see Nelson. It is noted that if C y . 2-9. / K . 146). (5) What is the specific weight in lb/ft3 of a 33-OAPI mixture of hydrocarbons at 60°F and at 300°F? (6) One hundred ft3 of ethane at 60°F and atmospheric pressure are compressed to a pressure of 750 psig and temperature of 89°F.

6 W REDUCEDCRUDES GAS OIL AND WBES a 4 LIGHT LUBES 9m 2 CASO AND GAS OIL I DISTILLATES AVIATION GASO-KERO $ 0 a 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 000 SOLVENTS Fig. characterization factor.and molal average boiling point = 300°F.) Given: critical pressure = 350 psia. courtesy of John Wiley and Sons. . and slope of ASTM boiling curve (degrees/$). critical temperature = 600°F. (After Hougen and Watson. Inc. I 553 CRUDE OILS E. pseudocritical temperature. (8) Is mold average boiling point higher or lower than the volumetric average boiling point? Why? (In solving problems. 1954. 2-9. 1949. gravity (OAPI). Interrelationship among molecular weight. molal average boiling point. average molecular weight = 140. see Nelson. 1958. average volumetric boiling point.).

J. R. New York..J. Natural Gasoline Supply Men’s Association.58 REFERENCES American Petroleum Institute.. 960 pp. Nelson. Chemical Process Principles. Nelson. Tulsa. 1944. N. 51 (16): 91. 174 pp. Prog.. and Lenoir. 155: 246-252. How to handle viscous crude oils.S. Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association. Oil Gas J. Amin.B. temperature. Viscosity of gases and gas mixtures at high pressures.. New York. Refiner. 1957.I.Y. 1961. New York. Eng. Liquid viscosities at high pressures. Lenoir. New York. and Schweppe. Symp.. . Bicher.L. Hougen. Viscosity at pipe line temperature. AZME.. and Watson. Chem. J. and Peck. Find specific gravities by nomograph. DePriester. Nelson. Okla. F. 1954.E.. 1953. Wiley. N. Prog.. Tulsa. Natural Gasoline Association of America.G.L. Nelson. M.Y.Jan. 1955.M. Per.. Vol 1. J.Nov.. Oil Gas J.L.L.L. Ritter... 3rd Ed. W.. Eng. K. 1980. 1958. Ser.. Parent. W. McGraw-Hill... N.A.A. Oil Gas J. N. N. Lockhart. C. A. 830 pp. Engineering Data Book. McGraw-Hill...B.D. J. 1954.Jan. and Maddox. 40(3): 209-210.. R. 37(11): 225-232. Engineering Dara Book. Okla. 49(7): 1-43. 1949. W. 4th Ed. Trans. 59: 131-135.M. 15: 269. 1966. 7th Ed.P.N.Y. 12: 87. W. Hydrocarbon Process.. Refiner.M.L. D.. R. 1981.B. Viscosity of natural gases.L. Per. 1946a. Technical Dafa Book Pefroleum Refining. 436 pp.. Nelson.5: 70. and Katz. 1958. Carr. O. Petroleum Refinery Engineering. 2nd Ed.L. Ser... N.L.. Estimate viscosity vs.Y. L.. Chem. Petroleum Refinev Engineering.. 1946b. Light hydrocarbon vapor-liquid distribution coefficients....P. Viscosity of crude oils. Symp. W.

gas and water and to remove material such as entrained solid impurities from the crude oil produced from the wells. Separators are used in many locations other than at wellheads. trap. GEORGE V. a liquid hydrocarbon. knockout drum. such as natural gasoline plants. In general oilfield practices. 59 Chapter 3 SEPARATION OF OIL AND GAS F. LOCKHART. i. Such drums are designed to separate a gas from a liquid and. CHILINGARIAN and SANJAY KUMAR INTRODUCTION The name “gas and oil separator” is one of a variety of terms used for pressure vessels which separate multiphase well fluids into gaseous and liquid streams. and gas sweetening plants. 11-18. 11-20). in some cases. compressor suctions and discharges.. dehydration plants. At times the removal of slugs of liquid from a gas is of such importance that the separator may be sized for its liquid holding capacity. A simplified diagram of a spherical three-phase (oil-gas-water) separator is presented in Fig. to separate three phases. vapor-liquid separator. . and settler. Other names found in the literature include: stage separator. liquid traps in gas transmission lines. and a liquid aqueous phase. 3-1. flash drum.e. A simplified diagram of a spherical three-phase (oil-gas-water) separator.J. scrubber. dry drum. 1962. a gas. separators are used to separate oil. flash chamber. p. GAS OUTLET CENTRIFUGAL-TYPE t COALESCING-TYPE MIST Fig. 3-1. fig. (Modified after Smith.

wherein the total feed enthalpy must equal the total product enthalpy at the lower separator pressure. The basic concept involves formation of a mixture of vapor and liquid that is kept in intimate contact for a long enough time to enable the entire vapor phase to attain equilibrium with the entire liquid phase. where this information is not known and must be calculated. + V. F. and is attained by proper design and operation of a heat exchanger.. Here the separator temperature is unknown. then an “adiabatic” flash calculation is made. At the correct temperature.1. F. 1980): (1) Accomplish a primary-phase separation of the liquid from the gaseous hydrocarbons.. . If there is no heat exchanger. Then. There are a number of design problems in surface operations. Equilibrium flash calculations In some cases of separator design. the amounts and compositions of the vapor and liquid streams leaving the separator can be calculated. the amounts of vapor and liquid and their significant physical properties are known. At a given temperature and a fixed + pressure. assigning a temperature and pressure to the separator. For the so-called “isothermal” flash.. + V. however. moles of different components. L. Usually the separator pressure is set and a temperature is assumed... the exit enthalpies are equal to the inlet enthalpy. K).. (2) Refine the primary separation by removing most of the (a) entrained liquid mist from the gas and (b) entrained gas from the liquid. Thus.. F. assuming that equilibrium is attained between these exit streams.. It is essential to know the amount and composition of the total feed to the separator in such cases. L. L. + . See Appendix 3. feed F entering the flash separator consists of F. . The separator itself serves only as a wide spot in the line to help in separating the phases. moles of the several components present in F... The equilibrium is attained in the piping and equipment just upstream of the separator. V moles of gas are produced (V. ..60 A properly designed wellstream separator must perform the following functions (Ikoku. (3) Discharge the separated gas and liquid streams and ensure that no reentrain- ment of one into the other takes place. one nested within the other... . A liquid residue L consists of L. Then the enthalpies of the exit streams are calculated and their sum compared with that of the inlet mixture. The calculation is made exactly as for the isothermal flash. the temperature at the discharge of the mixing zone and within the separator is specified along with the pressure initially. Basic equilibrium relations for complex mixtures In complex mixtures. so there is a double trial-and-error.

+ V. On applying Henry's law: K/ Kn ( L n / L ) (3-1) where V .. however.=KnLn(V/L) (3-2) Substituting (F.V. =.)(V/L) (3-3) Solving for V.L. V. and at higher rates. uses the action of centrifugal force to remove liquid drops from gas.. These separators function best when the gas flows at constant rate and pressure. / V = y and L .=Kn(F. L . 61 the. the separation suffers.) for L. / V . These centrifugal separators use multiple cyclones in parallel. V .. F = L + V and F. and there is no overwhelming favorite among them. = F n / [ ( L / K n v ) + 11 (3-4) Thus: V = Fl/[ ( L / K . At lower rates. The vertical separator occupies less ground area and is claimed to have the ability to handle large quantities of sand and to be easier to .. / L . thus: V. most of the discussion here deals with this general type of separation. the pressure drop becomes excessive.: V. Gravity separators may be classified according to the shape of the vessel: (I) Cylindrical (a) Vertical (b) Horizontal (single-tube or double-tube types) (2) Spherical Each one of these shapes has its own advantages. and TYPES OF SEPARATORS Inasmuch as most separators are designed for the removal of liquid drops from the gas by the action of gravity.: V. Another basic type of separator. . In addition. / L = x . V ) + 11 + . Cyclones are relatively small and of standard size which can be mass produced. etc. V ) + 11 + F 2 / [ L / K .mole fraction of each component may be expressed as F./F.

foaming chdes. (1) Very inexpensive quantities of sand streams because the design permits much higher gas velocities (2) Saves space (occupies lesser ground (2) Cheaper than the vertical separator (2) Good for low or intermediate GORs area) Provides better surge control Easier and cheaper to ship and assem. or for Intermediate or low GOR. Good for a di. (3) Very compact and easy to ship and ble install Liquid level control is not critical Requires less piping €or field connec. crudes) tween liquid level and the gas outlet Several separators may be stacked. it can handle foaming relatively greater vertical distance be.TABLE 3-1 Comparison of different separator types Vertical Horizontal Spherical Advantages (1) Easier to clean and can handle large (1) Can handle much higher GOR well. pected verse range of situations. . preferably relatively large slugs of liquid are ex. liquid-liquid separation. minimizing space requirements Disadvantages (1) It takes a longer-diameter separator Greater space requirements generally (1) Very limited liquid settling section for a given gas capacity as compared and rather difficult to use for three- to a horizontal separator phase separation More expensive to fabricate Liquid level control more critical (2) Liquid level control is very critical Difficult and more expensive to ship Surge space is somewhat limited (3) Very limited surge space (transport) Much harder to clean (hence a bad choice in any sand-producing area) Ideal use Low to intermediate GORs and where High GOR crudes. (4) Better clean-out tions Less tendency for reevaporization of Reduces turbulence and reduces liquid into the gas phase due to the foaming (thus. two-phase separation.

INTERNAL PARTS OF A SEPARATOR A gas-liquid separator may consist simply of an empty vessel. Internal parts of a gravity separator. however. the separator includes internal parts to promote sep- aration of the phases. 63 clean. Horizontal separator. and to remove gas from the liquid. The spherical separator is easier to install and is more compact and adaptable for portable use (see Table 3-1).. 3-2. In both cases the separator may be visualized as consisting of: (1) Primary separation section (entrance) for separating the bulk of the liquid from the gas. Decreasing the kinetic energy (i. which causes the fluid velocity in the entering pipe to be reduced by enlarging the cross-sectional area of flow.e. Vertical separator. . a. It is desirable to remove the liquid slugs and large droplets of liquid quickly from the gas stream. b. The horizontal separator can handle foaming crude oils better and is claimed to be more economical for handling large gas volumes. Usually. the velocity) of the fluids is often accomplished with the use of a tangential inlet to impart a centrifugal motion to the entering fluids. ov I I n l e t f o r two-phase feed OV Outlet f o r leaving vapor OL Outlet f o r leaving l i q u i d (1) Primary separation s e c t i o n (2) Secondary separation s e c t i o n (3) Liquid separation s e c t i o n (4) Mist extractor (5) Vortex breaker I OL (a) Fig.

) . Inc.. The large open areas make the vane type advantageous in systems where solid particles may be present. 3-3. 11.Fleximesh@mist eliminator (Copyrighted 1984 by Koch Engineering Company. Mesh pads . The vane type is mounted in such a manner that the gas flows horizontally through a multiple number of closely-spaced vertical baffles. Entrained liquid particles impinge on the baffle surfaces and are forced into liquid drainage pockets which are out of the gas flow path. (3) Liquid separation section (or the liquid accumulation section) for removing gas bubbles which may be occluded with the liquid. Dallas. and E = photograph of mist extractor bundle. showing vane bank arrangement. Basic types of mist eliminators.2-in. Mist eliminators may be used to decrease the amount of entrained liquid in the gas and/or to reduce the diameter of the vessel.g. Vane type (courtesy of Peerless Manufacturing Co. C = plan view of installation A .. Separated liquid drains down out of the vanes by gravity.64 (2) Secondary separation section for removing smaller particles of liquid by gravity settling depends to a large extent on the decreased gas velocity and reducing the turbulence of the gas. (4) Mist extraction section for removing from the gas the entrained drops of liquid. less than 0. water) and is efficient in removing droplets of around 40 p m in size and larger. I. This type of mist eliminator operates at small pressure drops (e. and for sufficient storage of the liquid to handle slugs of liquid anticipated in routine operation.): A = mist extractor installation in top of column with trays (top outlet): B = side outlet configura- tion in vertical column. D = horizontal vessel configuration showing angled position of separator elements. There are two basic types of mist eliminators commonly used: the vane type and mesh pads. which did not separate in the secondary separation section. C Fig. This section thus provides the surge capacity. Tex.

65 When vapor and entrained liquid droplets pass through Available FLEX I MESH* o FLEXIMESH mist eliminator the vapor moves freely through the mesh pad but the liquid droplets due to their greater Mist Eliminator Styles inertia cannot make the necessarysharp turns A Sa result they are thrown into contact with the wire surfaces Density SurloceArec ond bileflyheld there As more droplets enter the pad and FIIIFT' I MZIM3 %Voids collect on the wires they grow in size run down the wire to 115 I 377 97 6 the bottom surface of the mesh reporotor and fail from the 110 I 360 97 7 unit Overhead vapor is now free of entrained liquid 163 I 535 94 0 86 I 282 98 2 140 I 459 98 4 117 65 I 213 98 5 70 112 65 I 213 98 6 50 80 48 I 157 990 20 0 320 450 1476 96 0 27 0 432 610 I 2000 94 6 40 64 125 I 410 97 0 40 64 150 / 492 97 0 Fig. 3-3 continued. .

. Such mist eliminators are capable of removing very fine droplets (e. but they only identify the general form of the mathematical relationships. Excellent discussions of the scientific concepts are available. Inasmuch as the presence of surfactants is usually not known in advance. Other physical properties also change with changing temperature and pressure. (2) a single particle rather than a swarm of particles. A simple vortex breaker can consist of a solid circular plate larger than the exit pipe. which cause formation of foam (in vapor-liquid systems) and emulsions (in liquid-liquid systems). and safety relief valves. the temperature and pressure are signifi- cant. 4-6 pm) and have good removal efficiency over a wide range of throughput. ( 5 ) Vortex breaker to prevent the liquid from sucking any gas into the liquid exit pipe. Typically. sand. the flow volume of vapor increases and the volume of liquid decreases. and paraffins. Figure 3-3 shows the two basic types of mist extractors. With the pads usually installed in a horizontal position. Figure 3-2 shows schematically the internal parts of (a) a vertical gravity separator and (b) a horizontal gravity separator. Caution is given to the possibility of plugging caused by the deposition of solid materials such as silt. . Most separators are designed for the removal of liquid droplets from gas by the action of gravity. Pressure drops can be less than 1-in. Some systems may contain small amounts of surfactants. The gas phase flows horizontally through the vane type and vertically through the mesh pad. separators are usually designed on the assumption that they are not present. Forma- tion of foam and emulsion adversely affects the performance of separators. supported by three legs about 4-6 in. and the diameter of the particles. In addition. but the density is the more significant physical property involved. the liquid exit pipe is centered at the bottom of the vessel. Most laboratory studies were concentrated on the settling of (1) solid particles rather than liquid. the vapor flows upward and the liquid downward.66 The mesh pads provide a large surface area of many knitted and crimped wires for collection and coalescence of liquid mist. Additional internal parts may be present in some separators: for example. This separation depends on the physical properties of gas and liquid. FACTORS INFLUENCING SEPARATION There are several factors which affect the performance of a vapor-liquid sep- arator. an inlet baffle plate to help reduce the kinetic energy of the entering stream and a “boot” attached to the bottom of the horizontal vessel where an aqueous liquid phase can be withdrawn. With increasing temperature and/or decreasing pressure. there is a decrease in the densities of both vapor and liquid phases. above the bottom of the vessel. gas pressure valves. water.g. For a feed of given composition. espe- cially when they are stable. (6) Adequate control devices such as the liquid dump (discharge) valves. and (3) particles having a particular diameter rather than a mixture of sizes.

G = superficial gas mass velocity. (2) keep downstream liquid-handling equipment operating satis- factorily should there be a temporary feed stoppage or overload. Ib/ft3. SEPARATOR DESIGN Gas capacity Gas capacity of a gas-oil separator is usually calculated from the semi-theoretical relationship proposed by Souders and Brown (1934): or and A = Q/60 u (3-9) where: u = superficial gas velocity based on the cross-sectional area of gas flow. the most important factors influencing the design of a separator are: (1) flow rate of the gas. K = an empirical factor representing past experience found to give satisfactory operations. lb/ft2hr. it is not known how to select a proper “average” diameter to attain the desired separation. Answers to the following questions suggest the rules for holding time for each specific case: . (3) density of the gas. Liquid holding time is provided to: (1) remove slugs of liquid from the flowing stream in order to protect downstream vapor-han- dling equipment.25 for vertical separators and 0. Liquid capacity Liquid capacity of a separator is dependent upon the retention time (the holding time) of the liquid within the vessel. ft2. however. (2) flow rate of the liquid. ACFM (Actual Cubic Feet per Minute). yL = specific weight of liquid. based on the cross-sectional area of gas flow. actual cubic feet per minute at the flowing temperature and pressure. Thus. Even if it was given. This last justification can become quite important when the liquid is very viscous. 61 In designing separators. Q = g a s flow rate. A = cross- sectional area of gas flow. the size distribution of the droplets is not known. ft/sec.50 for horizontal separators. yG = specific weight of gas. and (3) separate the occluded gas particles from the liquid phase. lb/ft3. with typical values of 0. and (4) density of the liquid.

(4) For a horizontal separator. the interface does not have to be at the centerline of the vessel. plant layout.90 lb/ft3 Liquid rate = 22 GPM Liquid density = 40. (2) Unless specifically stated. Example 3-I Calculate the diameter and height of a vertical separator for the following conditions: Gas rate = 300 ACFM Gas density = 3. The empirical values in Table 3-11 are of sufficient accuracy and may be used directly. from the bottom and at least 16 in. (2) Gas-oil-water separators-with oil viscosity of less than 100 cP. which should be at least 2 ft from the bottom and at least 4 f t from the top of the vessel. 10-20 min. which should be at least 10 in.0 lb/ft3 . 3-4) gives some geometric properties of circles which have been derived empirically. from the top of the vessel. a smaller-diameter vessel may be obtained by making the interface location off-center and a design variable. and for oil viscosity of greater than 100 cP. the length/diameter ratio ( L / D ) is considered to be acceptable when it is between about 3/1 and 8/1. In some cases.68 (1) In the case of removing slugs of liquid from vapor: (a) What is the estimated maximum liquid rate or the size of slug? (b) How much time would be required to attain the liquid removal rate? (2) For a temporary feed stoppage: (a) What would be the effect on downstream equipment if the drum loses liquid? (b) How much time would it take for the operator to correct for the loss? (3) For a temporary feed overload: (a) What would be the effect on the downstream vapor-handling equipment if the drum overflows? (b) How much time would it take for the operator to correct for the temporary overload? Past experience suggests the following holding times for liquids: (1) Gas-oil separators-2-4 minutes. and symmetry are significant. (3) For a vertical separator. There is not a great change in costs over this range and other factors such as foundations. Table 3-11 (see also Fig. The exact relations are more difficult to use. The feed enters at the end of the separator just above the vapor-liquid interface. These are typical values which may be changed for specific cases. The interface does not have to be at the center of the vessel. The feed enters the separator just above the vapor-liquid interface. 3-10 min. the gas flows through the entire cross-section of the upper part of the vessel. Vessel design The following must be considered in designing separator vessels: (1) The volumes of the dished heads are negligible as compared with the volume of the cylinder.

70.35%): A/A. 3-4) Between A / A .1 2 .0 (maximum error = 0.90)]0.A / A T ) =0.) +0. 3-4.90)/3.21 ( l .29 (1. i Liquid residence time = 4.8%): h/D = 0.h / D ) 2 .20 and 0.25 and 0.A / A ~ ) ~ + 3 1 . to calculate h / D (see Fig.8%): ( 1 . Diagram for Table 3-11. =1. (This is not considered to be a rigid specification. 2 9 (A/A.0924 Between A / A . Between h / D of 0 and 0.8123 ( A/A. 4 8 1 ( A / A T ) .h / D ) =2.80 (maximum error = 1.75 (maximum error = 1.76 ft/sec Vapor rate = ACF G ( T)( min )= T)( 300 ( = 5.481 ( 1 .231 ( h / D ) = 0.A / A T ) ~ Given h / D to calculate A / A .2%): h / D = 2 .A/A.0 min Liquid level in the separator is expressed as a fraction of the vessel length between limits of 0.4 .00 ACF/sec &) . 3-7: u = 0.21 (h/D)+3.) Using eq.52 (h/D)2-4. 1 3(31 . 9 3 (1-h/D)3 a Exact relations may be found in Perry and Chilton (1973).75 and 1.0 . of 0.3.h / D ) + 3 . of 0 and 0. of 0.1%): ( l .80 and 1.)2+31.93 ( h / D ) 3 Between h / D = 0.7%): A / A .5= 0. 69 TABLE 3-11 Some geometric properties of circles a ~ Given A / A .)-12. L L Fig. 5 2 ( l .20 and 0.=0.1138 Between h / D of 0.25[(40.20 (maximum error = 3.133 (A/AT)3 Between A / A .0 (maximum error = 0.25 (maximum error =1.

52 ft/sec 3. Using a 36-in. Thus. (2) Reduce the vessel diameter by lowering the vapor-liquid interface so as to maintain the same required vapor area of 3.76 . Vessel area = (2)(3.58)/~]'.29 ft2.7 in. a 36411.52 = 3.17 3.89 ft = 34. diameter-vessel can be used. 3-7: u = o.58 = 2.67 .29) = 6.' = 1. ft 8 0.7 in. Using eq.3.89 ft or 34.67 10 0.0 .90)O.00/1.21 2.909 ft2 A / A . Example 3-2 Repeat Example 3-1 for a horizontal separator.90 Vapor rate = 300/60 = 5.: A.29/4.29 ft2 (1) Initially the vapor-liquid interface is considered to be the centerline of the vessel.I I ) 4 X 6.58 a:t Vessel diameter = ( .33 The designer will probably select a diameter of 3.00 ft3/sec Vapor area = 5. the liquid height required for a 4-min residence time would be: r 1 Vessel h r/D L/D length. = 77/4(%)' = 4. = 3.oo Vapor area = - o.6.0 ft for the vessel and one of the above two lengths. diameter vessel. Length of vessel needed for 4 min residence time would be: Ths indicates that the liquid holdup requirement is not as significant as the vapor handling requirement.~= 2.70 5 .909 = 0. On assuming a diameter of 30 in. This may be adjusted later.50( 40.58 ft2 Vessel diameter = [4(6.

0924 = 0. but is kept in intimate physical contact with the remaining liquid until heating is completed. a vessel 2. The gas capacity can be increased by decreasing the liquid-filled fraction. Differential liberation of gas is the ideal liquid separation system to maximize the liquid recovery. The liquid settling volumes for different separator types and sizes are presented in the Appendix 3. a more stable stocktank liquid can be obtained.6366. STAGE SEPARATION Usually. h = (0.. h/D = 0.08 in.6366)(2. SEPARATOR DESIGN USING ACTUAL MANUFACTURERS FIELD TEST DATA Inasmuch as the Souders-Brown equation is basically empirical in nature. it is obviously uneconomical. Vessel length to get 4 min retention time= I(-)(1 -) 1 = 7.67) + 0. Usually the design standard is the one half-full liquid condition.50) = 1.59 ft = 19. from one-half full to one-third full. In addition. Stage separation can be defined as a “process in which produced crude is separated into liquid and vapor phases by two or more equilibrium-flash vaporiza- tions at successively lower pressures”. 71 From Table 3-11.33 4. . The storage tank is usually considered as one stage of separation. liquid recovery is enhanced.26 0. the pressure is decreased in infinitesimally small steps and the gas liberated at each stage is removed.g.8123 (0. The correlation charts apply to one-quarter liquid full. the single-stage separation is not desirable.5 ft in diameter and 8 ft long would meet the specifications. one-third-full. The Souders-Brown equation does not account for any height-length differences. Inasmuch as this would need an infinite number of separators connected in series. and half-full situations. These correlations account for the additional gas capacity that can be obtained by increasing the height of a vertical separator or the length of a horizontal separator. In this process.909 ft Thus. a better design can usually be made using the actual manufacturers’ field test data (see Appendix 3. Equilibrium or flash vaporization differs from differential vaporization in that the vapor is not removed as it is formed.) Q= (3-10) where Vp = liquid settling volume in bbl and t = retention time in min.11 and Ikoku. 1980). By separating the gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons into vapor and liquid phases in two or more equilibrium flashes at consecutively lower pressures.11. The liquid capacity Q (in bbl/day) can be determined as follows: 1440(V. e.

3-5. the four-stage. and low flowing pressures. Finally. Schematic diagrams of two-stage. and four-stage separations are presented in Fig. high gas/oil ratios. the optimum also changes. low gas/oil ratios. . and four-stage separations. Inasmuch as the production varies with time during the lifetime of a producing field. the three-stage separation is most applicable for intermediate-gravity oils. The two-stage separation is most applicable for low-gravity oils. Four-stage separation is also used where high-pressure gas is needed for market or for pressure maintenance. and high flowing pressures. three-stage.72 -WELL- FLUID FIRST STAOE LI' SLCOMD STA0E TWO . intermediate to high gas/oil ratios. separation is most applicable for high-gravity oils. three stages are usually optimal. 3-5. a detailed economic analysis is usually not very useful or justifiable in most cases. and intermediate wellhead flowing pressures. Economic study involves determination of fixed and operating costs for each additional separator and comparing them to the incremental oil production that results from the addition of t h s stage to the separation system.STAGE I +' 2nd THREE .STAGE J FOUR . Examples of two-stage. three-stage. In actual field practice. Thus.STAGE Fig. On the other hand.

3-6. 3-6. versus the pressure of the high-stage separator (Fig. (3) Determine the gasoline content of the gas from each stage. = stocktank pressure. for the high stage. providing the primary objective of the separation is to remove as much gasoline as possible from the gas. therefore. p.c). Determination of optimum pressure for first stage when second stage is atmospheric To determine the optimum pressure for the first stage when the second stage is atmospheric. this is due to the increase in gas evolved overshadowing the increase in the gasoline vaporized. it is due to the decrease in gasoline vaporized.a). the forego- . and n = number of stages minus 1. ( 5 ) Plot the gasoline content of the gas from each separator versus the pressure of the high-stage separator (Fig. The optimum pressure is at the minimum of the latter curve. The pressure at any stage in between can then be determined using the following equation: Pr. 3-6. 1976): (3-11) where R = pressure ratio. In this case. (4) Plot the gas/oil ratio of each separator.b). the following procedure can be used. psia. Determination of optimum pressures for three-stage separation (Whinery-Campbell technique) The pressure of the highest stage may be fixed by the requirements of a high-pressure sales line or pressure maintenance. (1) Vary the pressure on the high-stage separator. (6) From the graphs of Fig.b. with increasing pressure.a and 3-6. For the low stage. 73 The simplified analysis of a stage separation system involves the determination of the operating pressure of each one of the separators connected in series by the following relationship (Campbell. 3-6. This implies assump- tion of equal pressure ratios between the stages. The gasoline content for each separator may decrease with increasing pressure of the high stage. psia. (2) Follow the gas/oil ratios on both stages until they are stabilized. and the cumulative for both separators. psia. compute and plot the gallons of gasoline lost per barrel of crude oil versus the pressure of the high-stage separator (Fig. and R = pressure ratio.1 Pr’ R (3-12) where pr = pressure at stage r . On the other hand. which has been found to be the optimum operating condition for maximizing liquid recovery. by a method such as gas chromatography. p 1 = pressure in stage 1 (high-pressure end).

ing type of evaluation can be used to choose the optimum pressure for the second stage. Whinery and Campbell (1958. gasoline content of separator gas.0233 for wellstreams having a gravity greater than one. Schematic diagram of variation. gas/oil ratio. PSI Fig.)o. p. = ( A . 53) developed a method for determining the optimum second-stage pressure in three-stage separation. with increasing pressure of high-stage separator.---- Curnulotire P PRESSURE OF HIGH.686+ c. and c. referred to air.765+ c2 (3-14) . Their method is simple. accurate (mean error of * 5 % ) . (3-13) where C. while the first stage is operating at the desired value.0.)o.14 Y 0 IL a . 3-6. in a. and: p 2 = A ( p. total gasoline lost (to the gas phase) in two-stage separation. b.STAGE SEPARATOR. If the pressure of the highest stage is not fixed by such requirements. and eliminates the need for flash vaporization calculations. An empirical analysis yielded two equations: p 2 = A ( p. it may be treated as another variable in the evaluation.057)/0.

In the above equations.E. Whinery and Campbell found that composition could be expressed in terms of the wellstream gravity and the + percentages of methane. fig. as shown in Figs.028)/0.P. * M-1000 and MM =1000OOO. p..I. Variation of p 2 with p 1 for a fixed system composition was presented by Whinery and Campbell (1958. 75 0 Fig. C. (After Whinery and Campbell. 54. 53) and is shown here in Fig.M. C. + C . 2. but is not a replacement for a computer. referred to air. courtesy of the S. p 2 = second-stage pressure in psia. and propane ( C .) where C. p 1 = first-stage pressure in psia. 1958. and C. ethane. and A = dimensionless constant which is a function of stocktank pressure ( p . Constants A . 3-7 and 3-8. 3-9. ) and the system composition. all in mole%).. can be obtained from these graphs (Figs. The maximum of each curve shows the value of p 2 at which the stocktank recovery (gal)/(MMcf') * residue gas is a maximum. however. 3-7 and 3-8). = ( A + 0.E. standard legal temperature in most cases = 60'F. Relationship between constant A and pseudo-specific gravity of feed ( T = 80OF). It should be remembered. p.012 for wellstreams having a gravity less than one. Mcf -1000 standard cu ft. that the Whinery-Campbell technique is an excellent tool for the field engineer where time is of prime importance. 3-7. of A. .

53. SECOND STAGE PRESSURE. courtesy of the S. of A. p. DIMENSIONLESS SHIFTING CONSTANl Fig. Relationship between second-stage pressure (psia) and stocktank recovery in gal/MMcf of residue gas. C.P.16 .) 139 . PSlA Fig. 3-9. fig.E. p. analysis 6.E.I. 1958. (After Whinery and Campbell. 3-8.E.M. courtesy of the S. Relationship between shifting constant C and constant A .P. T = SOOF.I. fig.E. (After Whinery and Campbell.) . 138. 3.M. 54. 1. of A. 1958.

y will increase with increasing temperature. however.lI.but the above rule has worked out better in the experience of the writers in this type of problems. ( 6 ) If ( V/L)calc. ( V / L ) c d c . that is. (3) Add each group to get the calculated V . METHODS OF SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS In computing the compositions of the liquid and the vapor when neither composition is known. In computing the temperature and composition of vapor when the composition of liquid is known.l is not equal to ( V/L)ass. the problem may be solved by calculations with equilibrium ratios.l . because the relationship is far from being linear.] = moles of component “ 1 ” in the feed.2 as far beyond (V/L)caIc. Isothermal flash for two phases The assumption of steady-state flow through the separator gives the mass balances for each individual component as follows: r. The higher the temperature. (4) Plot Cy versus temperature. 71 If it is not desirable to use the experimental methods outlined above. = moles of component “i” in the vapor. therefore.l + [(V/L)ca. the assumption was correct within the desired accuracy.(V/L)ass.l.+L. (1) Assume a value for V / L (or L / V ) to get (V/L)ass. the procedure described below can be followed. (3-16) .=v.2= (V/L)cdc. (3) Assume another temperature which will make E y approach 1. . (4) Divide the calculated V by the calculated L to get the ( V/L)calc.l.. compute the number of moles of each component in the liquid and the number of moles of each component in the vapor. (3-15) where I. Such calculations. and Li= moles of component “ i ” in the liquid. as (J‘/LlCdc. 3-5 and 3-6.1 is beyond (V/L)ass. the greater is the value of K . . (1) Assume a temperature and record equilibrium ratios. (2) Compute y1 = K1xl.] = y + L. make (V/L)ass.l. but the equilibrium constants are given. and establish the point of intersection at Cy = 1.l* (7) One could also plot [( V / L ) a s s-. On an over-all basis: r. assume another value for V / L where (V/L)ass. (2) Preferably using eqs. . and Cy. For a fixed x . (5) If the ( V/L)cdc..lis equal to ( V/L)ass. the following procedure can be used.versus ] ( V/L)ass. y2 = K 2 x 2 . are tedious unless a computer is available.l.l.c.

the convergence may be slow (calculated V / F versus assumed V / F ) . 3-16 and the individual L. After satisfactory agreement. When using the conventional method of calculation. x i= mole fraction of component “i” in the liquid. It reduces a multicomponent mixture to a hypothetical binary system. 3-15 and 3-18 may be used in a conventional iterative method. 3-18 and rearranging gives the following relationship: (3-19) If the substitution is made for v. 1983) presented here for the first time. 3-20. comm. Two strategies for achieving this are described here: (1) the Lockhart-McHenry (1958) method. The second assumption of equilibrium between vapor and liquid in the mixture gives: Y. agrees with it within closely defined limits. is determined using eq. 3-19 or 3-20 is straightforward. is assumed. and (2) the Lockhart method (pers. = K . A value of L. which makes it difficult to bracket the . 3-15. complications may arise for some problems due to slow convergence strategy for manual as well as computer calculations to attain required accuracy in a reasonable time interval. x . and mole fractions for vapor and liquid can be determined.rearrangement gives: (3-20) Equation 3-18 or 3-19 or any of the possible rearrangements of eqs. LOCKHART-MCHENRY METHOD OF FLASH-EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATIONS Lockhart and McHenry (1958) proposed a method which reduces the usual time and luck required for making flash-equilibrium calculations for multicomponent mixtures. = mole fraction of component “ i ” in the vapor. each is calculated from eq. is correct if the calculated xy=lL. Although the solution to eq. (3-17) where y.. and K i = vapor-liquid equilibrium ratio of component “ i ” . The assumed L. 3-15 into eq. is obtained from eq. which is currently used by many engineers. Equation 3-17 may be represented as follows: Substituting eq.

.) Component Fn Kn FnK n 4/Kn F.1 34.4 .3-24) 2.23) 2.2 Ethane 369.1 290.075 5.6 .523 (eq.39 (eq.11 (eq.8 V/F= 0 V / F =1 V / F = 0. ~ .4 3289.1 Hexanes 71.79 355.9 0.9 3.7 51./(Kn+l) at V / F = 0 at V / F = I at V / F = 0. + 0.80 622.0 66.0 .136 .292 -0.3 645. .80 (eq.2 47.17 (eq.1 168.685 ~ .2 Propane 450.5 370.3-22) 202 (eq.4 51.4 0.0539 0. Tex.6 168.4 813.4 n Pentane 59.5 Methane 163. 778 1016 - .5 1.3 0.5 nButane 239. with permission of Hyakxarbon Processing. __ Total B 1484. - u Heavy 951.1 0.195 11.0 177.4 1273.3-22) V * / F -+ 0.9 3036. sample problem 3 (from Lockhart and McHenry.5 Isobutane 74.0 251.814 V* -+ 433 (eq.3 570.0 686.6 0.475 (eq.3-25) K1.7 1771.160 9.5 43. Houston.4 951.3-25) 1118 . by Gulf Publishing Co.858 - .76 651.3-23) 0.TABLE 3-111 Lockhart-McHenry method. __ .0 0.0 134.0 210. __ u Light 533.7 Isopentane 56.3-22) .35 84.314 (eq.3 497.3. .5 253.5 K: + 2.3-24) 0. 1958.44 32.

V can be solved by the following equation: Lockhart and McHenry also offered the following equations for the multicompo- nent mixtures: v* = Fl/( 1 . with permission of Hydrocurbon Processing. On the other hand.*). 3-10. Calculated V * / F versus assumed V / F . (After Lockhart and McHenry. 1958. on using the Lockhart-McHenry method.) .K.1) (3-22) for ASSUMED V/F Fig. Gulf Publishing Co. Tex.. For a binary mixture of components A and B (the more volatile and less volatile. respectively). 3. and is equivalent to the intersection of two lines at an angle of never less than 45'. The convergence to the correct answer is very sharp. Houston. fig. the convergence to the correct answer is very sharp: it is equivalent to the intersection of two lines at an angle of never less than 45".F h / ( K? .80 correct answer.

/ F < 0. then this is the correct value of L.5 in eq. 3-22 for the flash-equilibrium of the hypothetical binary mixture. Example 3-3 As shown in Table 3-111 (Lockhart and McHenry. the correct value of L . gives the direction of the correct L. this ratio (eq. where 0 and 1 correspond to the bubble point and dew point calculations.. / F will be greater than the calculated value of Z . On the other hand. In Fig. / Fequals 0. the true answer can be determined in one more trial and never in more than two trials. of 1 or more as light). the first calculation is made at an assumed value of L .50. 1958). THE LOCKHART METHOD In the Lockhart method. 3-20. The Lockhart-McHenry method also lends itself very well to computer programming.: L. KT = and Kg are evaluated on using eqs. as compared with the assumed L. 81 The multicomponent feed F is resolved into moles of “light” component F. which becomes: (3-28) The C. / F of 0.5. 1. / F ./F. calculations are made at assumed V / F values of 0. / F . / F < 0. of 1 or less are classified as heavy and those with K. then the second calculation should be made at an assumed value of L . V* = moles of vapor calculated by eq.L . 3-23 to 3-27.5 exactly.02 in V / F . K z = equilibrium ratio for the heavy component. For example. and moles of “heavy” component Fh (components with K . which is the dew-point calculation: (3-29) i-1 For some liquid to be present. / F = 0. If the CymlL .5. / F exceeds 0.. and u = subtotals of the light component and the heavy component.5 the calculated Zym1 L . the intersection of the V* curve and 45O-line is shown. . KT = equilibrium ratio for the light component in the hypothetical binary mixture. / F = 0.3-29) must be greater than unity. involving the subtotals for the light and heavy components. The second calculation should always be made to insure that there are two phases at the temperature and pressure of the flash equilibrium. Usually. if the calculated Z:-l L . If the’calculated c m 1 L . This approximate answer is usually correct to within *0. / F will be less than the calculated value of Z:. and 0.5.: L . if at an assumed value of L . then the correct value of L . 3-10.

it is fast and easy to plot a graph of versus the assumed L .0 3-30 (Bubble-point) ZI.0 at the dew-point. For manual calculations. and t. 3-19 At any value of L. The third calculation at intermediate values of t . Average At L. this ratio (eq. 3-19 or 3-20. . / F = 0 3-29 (Dew-point) At L . / F = 1. Sketching-in the curve through these points determines the next assumption to be made./F = 1.).5. The hyperbolic convergence routine proposed by Hohmann and Lockhart (1972) is recommended. then the second calculation must be made at an assumed value of L. which is the bubble-point calculation: (3-30) 1-1 In order for some vapor to be present. as desired. after each new point is calculated until satisfactory closure is attained. At any value of V. In a legitimate flash calculation. The curve is revised if necessary. / F (or L ..L. the average f equals unity. The proposed convergence technique uses the conventional calculations. but has one additional step at the end of each iteration to calculate the “average” K for the entire feed mixture. 3-20 If the Ci“. At the correct values of L . When using computers.0./F > 0.. (or t. The average K is calculated by using equations given in Table 3-IV. 3-30) must be greater than unity. it is convenient to have a convergence scheme and iterative technique built into the program. / F ) may be made using either eq. 3-28 At L . K > 1.0 at the bubble-point and K < 1. = V .82 TABLE 3-IV Calculation of average E for the mixture Condition Equation no.

42 moles. 3-28 gives C:= L.42 and 74. This assumption implied that the solubility of water in liquid hydrocarbons and solubility of liquid hydrocarbons in water are negligible. vapor is present.42 and 100 moles.K. One can check now whether or not vapor is present.002. which gives Cy. 83 Example 3-4 Calculate the lb-moles of vapor and liquid for the following conditions: Compound Moles E K.908. will be published.-: L. but became increasingly less accurate at higher pressures and lower temperatures. K = 1. = 69.5 Isobutane 35 0.89. Thus. whereas the actual aqueous phases contain various amounts of different salts. 3-20. lies between 68. Correct value of L. .996.11 moles.95 moles and K= 1.42 moles and K = 0.11 moles and K = 1. it was assumed that the water vapor reduced the hydrocarbon partial pressure in the vapor according to Dalton’s law (Nelson. Furthermore. Try L. Correct value of L.95 moles. Try L. . = 52. Erbar (1973).95 moles. THREE-PHASE FLASH EQUILIBRIUM Three-phase systems (a vapor phase. Two sets of equilibrium data are required: a set describing equilibrium between the vapor phase and each liquid phase.55 - 100 At L. whereas those between vapor and liquid aqueous phases are mostly present in company files and.0 moles in eq.F.. 3-30) gives X:. = 68.08 moles and K = 0.0 moles in eq. lies between 52.= v/x Methane 5 19. Deam and Maddox (1969). Three-phase flash calculation techniques have been presented by Osborne (1964).L. > 52.lies between 52.70 nButane 35 0.Li = 68. This approximation worked satisfactorily at low pressures and/or medium or high temperatures.. Bubble-point calculation (eq. which gives C:.0 moles in eq.42 and 68. and a liquid aqueous phase) are frequently encountered in petroleum operations.0 Ethane 5 4. which gives X Correct value of L. correct L. Correct value of L. 1958). 3-15.08 and 68. hopefully. 3-20. This may be repeated until the desired closure is attained..”. . = 68. Formerly. a liquid hydrocarbon phase.lies between 52. The composition and amount of vapor is obtained from eq. 3-20.= 189. Therefore. = V. most of the published data deals with pure water. and Peng and Robinson (1976).048. = 75. Try L.0 Propane 20 1. = 74. eq. . Equilibrium relationships between vapor and liquid hydrocarbon phases are available.

0 moles of the original mixture. For 400. The vapor pressures at 212°F are 18.2 for the heptane and 114.).30 30.84 SAMPLE PROBLEMS AND QUESTIONS (1) Draw a sectional view showing the interior construction of a typical oil-gas separator. 25.22 . (7) (a) A liquid was subjected to an equilibrium-flash vaporization at 90 psia. The composition of the vapor produced is 70%by volume of heptane and 30% by volume of octane. (6) A lube oil is treated with liquid propane in the proportions of 8. (5) Define stage separation. Compute the composition of liquid in volume per cent. the analysis of the vapors on a mole% basis was as follows: propane (C. calculate the numbers of moles and mole% of lube oil and propane in the equilibrium liquid phase. 30. 0. isopentane (iC5). The mixture is flashed at 90 psig and 120°F. ( 2 ) In two-stage separation. isobutane (iC4).05 72. (8) The liquid (mixture of heptane and octane) is heated in a closed container at 212°F. (b) gasoline content of separator gas for low-stage and high-stage.30 16.10 44. The molecular weights are 100. Under these conditions the equilibrium ratio ( K = y / x ) for propane is ? (find it) and for the lube is 0.17 0.32 psia for the octane.42 psia for the heptane and 8.704 for the octane. Component Mole Fraction Mol. 10. Explain.07 0.05 115. determine the optimum second-stage pressure for a three-stage separation. ] (9) In determining the optimum pressure for the first stage of gas-oil separation when the second stage is atmospheric.09 0. (b) Estimate the maximum temperature at which the equilibrium vapors could be condensed practically completely at 90 psia.12 0. if p1 = 600 psia. (10) For a wellstream having the following composition.00 moles of propane to 2. [xl = (1 .00 moles of oil.2 for the octane. and (c) total gasoline lost in two-stage separation. n-butane (nC. certain graphs may be drawn.05 86.15 0.K 2 ) / ( K 1.K 2 ) . Wt. (4) Describe the physical principles involved in the design and operation of float-controlled separators. (3) Outline steps in determining the optimum pressure of the high-stage sep- ara tor in two-stage separation. and (b) a high-stage separator. Estimate the temperature and the composition of the equilibrium liquid. 35.15 58. At equilibrium. With the pressure of the high-stage separator as the horizontal axis.01 0. what effect does the increasing of pressure of high-stage separator have on the gasoline content obtained from (a) a low-stage separator.). also cumulative.00.684 for the heptane and 0. give illustrative curves of: (a) gas/oil ratio for low-stage and high-stage. The specific gravities of liquids at 212°F are 0.

. p. . If a mixture is below its bubble-point temperature.1-RAOULT'S.1 Dalton's law states that the partial pressure of an individual component in a gaseous mixture is equal to the product of the total pressure.. (3. According to Raoult's law.. because at equilibrium the partial pressure of a component in the vapor is equal to the partial vapor pressure of the component in the liquid or p! = p:.. Raoult's law and Dalton's law can be combined.. and y. pp. and separation coefficient = 0.1-2) where p.909.167. gas specific gravity (with respect to air = 1) = 0.' = VY. y. Determine: (1) gas specific weight in lb/ft3 at operating conditions. p. consequently: y.: P.I-3) This equation expresses the equilibrium between the vapor and the liquid of an ideal solution at any temperature and pressure. = mole fraction of the component in the vapor phase.) APPENDIX 3.1-1) where p! = partial pressure of a component in the liquid phase. . (2) oil capacity in bbl/day (retention time = 1 min). is operating at a pressure of 500 psia at 60°F. 85 (Reference: Whinery and Campbell. Compressibility factor = 0." = vapor pressure of the component in the pure state.) (11) A 12-ft high vertical separator. at any particular constant temperature. 1962. 453-482.' = partial pressure of a component in the vapor phase. + .65. +p. = mole fraction of a component in the liquid phase. the partial pressure of one component of a mixture is equal to the mole fraction of that component multiplied by its vapor pressure in the pure state at the temperature of the liquid: p! = PfXn (3. 7~ = total pressure of the system.1-1 shows calculations involv- ing Henry's law. Example 3. 1958. with a 24-in. inside diameter. 54. and x. the total pressure = p i + p i + p . . (Reference: Craft et al. = P:xn/n (Henry's law) ( 3 . and the mole fraction of that individual component. oil gravity = 30"API. DALTON'S AND HENRY'S LAWS One can use Raoult's law in calculations involving normal paraffin hydrocarbons if the pressure is below 60 psi. n. and (3) gas capacity in MMscf/day.

5 0.gr.631 36.5 by 62.0 56 30.585 and 0. one should continue with the steps shown in the above table.504 54.631 for C4H. however.428 46. - 0.5 0. I-I A liquid consists of 42.5% pentane by volume at 60°F. Gram.33 lb/gal..1 0.9 69. 57.1 0. C.o 100. Mole S Vapor Raoult’s Mole S nent liquid at 60°F liquid wt. and sp.2 100.If the liquid is heated to 180°F at 100 psia. respectively. moles in pressure law in at 60°F (g) in liquid (psi) partial vapor (cc) liquid pressure (psia) .5 and 57. in Sp. one would multiply 42.. The reader is also referred to an excellent treatment of the subject by Nelson (1958.9 . Example 3. Wt.R CSH. the y / x ratio must be determined experimentally (equilibrium ratio K =y / x ) . Solution: Compo.9321oo.pp.3 72./m ratio is not a constant.585 24. In each case.4 lb/ft3.2 . . by 8. at 60°F is 0.0 152 69..0 If this problem were solved on the basis of 100 ft3. what will be the composition of the vapor that is produced? (Assume that Raoult’s law holds. 58.H. Consequently. and is altered by the total pressure and to some extent by the kind of materials associated with it in the mixture.3 30.5% butane and 57.. vapor pressure of CSHI2at 180°F is 56 psi. and C5H12. in Mol. at 180°F is 152 psi. Vol.gr. 434-464).) Vapor pressure of C4H. and if on the basis of 100 gal.86 The P. 42.

Stainless steel wire mesh mist extractor 1 . Float operated level control 1 . (3) HORIZONTAL LOW-PRESSURE SEPARATORS. VERTICAL LOW PRESSURE SEPARATORS GAS OUTLE MIST EXTRACTOR I\ 5. Drain connection 1 . (4) HORIZONTAL HIGH-PRESSURE SEPARATORS. Low pressure. STANDARD ACCESSORIES Standard accessories furnished with two-phase (oilgas) CONTROL separators.Tubular gage glass with safety cocks 8 draln valve OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES Thermometer Safety Head DRA. AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR: (1) VERTICAL LOW-PRESSURE SEPARATORS.. Quieting baffle over settling section Companion flanges bolted on gas inlet and outlet (threaded or slipon) OUTLET 1 . INC. A N D (5) SPHERICAL SEPARATORS (COURTESY OF HTI-SUPERIOR.Outside ladder on 10' high separators and higher 1 .APPENDIX 3-II-ILLUSTRATION. Pressure gage with isolating valve 1 . 1 . ACCESSORIES. (2) VERTICAL HIGH-PRESSURE SEPARATORS. SETTLING VOLUMES. Inlet diverter FlrTE 1 . diaphragm operated dump valve. A BERRY INDUSTRIES COMPANY). ASME safetv relief valve lF'1i I 1 . GAS CAPACITIES.N Heating Coil Additional Connections Skid Mounting Three Phase Operation . 1 .

06 5. 125 2'Thd 2'Thd 2" 2" 1. Gas Outlet Outlet Oil Gas Volume Capacity Capacity Weight No.43 7.01 3.W.86 17.1 2940 2350 V-3610 3 6 ' x 10' 125 4" Thd 4" Thd 2' 2' 3. psi Conn. .3 1960 2wM 36" x 71h' 125 4"Thd 3'Thd 2.g 4" Thd 4" 2" 7.67 14.1 1290 1150 V.61 4.3010 30" x 1 0 125 3" Thd 3'Thd 2' 2' 2. Dia.9 860 950 V-247 2 4 ' x 7v2.7 2700 2000 36" x 5' 125 4'Thd 2'Thd 2" 2" 1.x HI. M"Xl0 WXS 24"xT-9 24"xS SPECIFICATIONS STANDARD AND ASME CODE CONSTRUCTION Nominal inlet 8 Oil Standard Valves Settling Gas Oil Shippin( Model Size W.65 1.4810 48" x 1 0 125 6' Fig 4" Thd 3" 2" 5. Conn.d 4" 3" 15.23 23.0 16400 6400 80' x 2 0 -125 6" Flg 4" Th.9 21800 7600 Normal volume carried in vessel is to center line of fiodt opening.65 27.6 8980 3400 V-4815 48" x 15' 125 6" F.88 VERTICAL LOW PRESSURE SEPARATOR INFORMATION GAS CAPAC:ITIES wx20 W'XlS WXl0 4W'xlS 49x10 36"xlO WXT.245 24" x 5' 125 2" Thd 2'Thd 2' 2' 0.1 10900 5200 V43015 60" x 15' 125 6 ' Flg 4" Thd 4" 3' 12. 2' 2.51 32.3 3920 2700 V.3 10460 4500 V-M)lO W'X10 125 6' Fig 4" Thd 4" 3" 9. Veive Valve bbl MMSCFD bbllday Ib V.P. Gas capacities shown are for maximum working pressure.04 8.

High pressure. angle type. draln valve Additional accessories furnished with threephase (oil-gas-water) separators. Pressure gauge with isolating valve 1 . 89 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS GAS WTLET -p&fJ-. 1 .Pneumatlc level control 1 . angle type. Transparent gage glass with ateel safety cocks & drain valve OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES Safety Head Heating Coil Additional Connections Skid Mounting . ASME safety relief valve FLOAT PROTECTOR 1 . . diaphragm motor valve 1 . diaphragm motor valve 1 . High pressure. Inlet diverter 1 .gas) separators.Reflex gage glass with steel cocks 8. I PRESSURE GAGE STANDARD ACCESSORIES Standard accessories furnished with twc-phase (oii. Quieting baffle over settling section Companion flanges bolted on gas inlet and outlet (threaded or slipon) 1 . THERMOMETER 1 . Outside ladder on 1 0 high separators and higher 1 . screwed.Control gas regulator set with fittings GAGE GLASS LIQUID LEVEL CONTROL 1 . Drain connection 1 . Stainless steel wire mesh mist extractor 1 . Pneumatic level control 1 . screwed.SAFETY U' 'ALVE la.

13 60'x 7'h' 8. PSI0 SETTLING VOLUMES SIZE VOLUME SIZE VOLUME O. O.02 36" x 1s 4.80 10' x 4' 0.21 54" x 15' 10.33 24" x 7%' 0.80 24" x 10 1.81 20" x 7%' 0. x Ht.66 54" x 7 H ' 6. bbl.27 42" x 7%' 3.97 54" x 1 0 7. bbl. x Ht.80 20' x 10 0.65 48" x 1 0 5.08 30" X 1%' 1. Smparcltor .02 60" x 15' 12.12 30' x 5' 1.13 B a d on loo0 psl W.31 38" x 10 3.29 16' x 10 0. 16' x 5' 0.82 48" x 1 s 7.73 36" x 7%' 2.D.64 60' x I 0 9.63 30" x 10 2.D.47 60" x 2 0 15.79 24' x 5' 0.44 48" x Vh' 4.53 16' x 7H' 0.51 42" x 15' 5.41 42" h 1 0 4.90 CAPACITIES OF VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS I GAS CAPACITIES 200 300 400 XD 6W 8W 1MD 15W 1ooo SEPARATOR OPERATING PRESSURE.P.

7 590 1000 VS.Flg 2" Thd 2 ' Thd 2" Thd 2" 2.1 1230 2500 VS-2410-5 2r)"XlO 3" FI@ 1" 7.5 XXK) 1750 VS-3010-2 30"xlO 4.1010. 2.2 48"xlO 6' F l i 2" 19.5 4WX7M' 500 6'FIg 2" 24.9 1330 110 VS-307.5 lo300 esoo V5547-2 54"x74/2' 230 6' FIa 2" 21.3 lee0 k3M __.4 1180 1400 VS-2452 24"xs 230 3" FIg 1" 2.9 2520 3800 VS-387-5 W'x7M' 500 4" FIa 1" 13.1 1270 1450 VS-2410-2 24"XlO 3" FIg 1" 4.1 1040 2900 vs305-5 W'XS 500 4" FIg 1" 5.4 1.1 43.2010-2 2O"XlO 3" Flg 1" 3. O.. 1" 10. VS-3010.D. 28.2 46'x15 6' F l i 2" 24.6 30. Gas Outlet Oil Capaclty Capacity Weight No.5 38005300 VS-30155 W'x15' 4" Flp 1" 19.0 2. Flg 1" 7.2 3O"x7v2' 4" Flg 1" 0..0 3880 2700 .5 W'X10' 4" FI.7 58003500 V5427. 6' FIa 2" 14.2 ZO"x71h' 3" FIO 1" 2.2 W'XlO 4' Flg 1" 11.4 3750 5200 V5-42105 42.7 5150 3700 I vs-4810.7 820 2100 V5247-5 24"x79h' 3" FIg 1" 0.4215-2 42"x15 6" FI.7 3900 3100 VS-4210-2 42"xlO ~. 18.4015. vs-36152 W'XlS 4" FIg 1" 13. VS.4 2900 2300 vs-3610.305-2 3O"XV 230 4" Flg 1" 3.3 2700 4700 VS-36105 W'XlO 4" FIO 1" 15.1 esoo4800 -t VS-5410-2 VS-54152 VsBo7.4 ssqo loso0 .0 1700 1700 VS.8 580 1300 v5207. 91 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONS Nominal Inlet LL Std.5 VS-1010-5 54"xlO 54"x15 0O"x7'h'! 00"xlO 00"x15 8O'XZo' 16"x5' lWx71h' 16'Xlo' 230 500 6' FIQ 6' Flg 6 ' Flg 6 ' FIg 6' FIg 6.P. Valve MMCFD bbl/day Ib.245-5 24"x5 500 3" Flg 1" 3.5 38.2 42"x74/2 230 6' Flg 2" 12.7 26.2 vs6010-2 VS60152 VS60202 '451055 VS-107.3 5 O o o 5 8 0 0 V5481Q5 48"XlO' 6'FIg 2" 28..4 7800 4800 VS-487-2 46'X7M' 230 6' Fla 2" 16.4 5400 8500 VS-427-5 42"x7%' 500 6" FIg 2" 18. 21.0 52M) _-__ 3860 .5 2O'x7M" 3" FIg 1" 4. PSI Conn.8 7500 8200 v5487.~10' 6' FIg 2.5 8870 4800 VS.207.3 870 1500 VS-20105 2O'XlO 3" FIg 1" 5. VS.2 16~x10' 2" Thd 1" 2.7 1280 2700 VS-307-5 30" x 74/21 4" Fla 1" 9.2 24"x7%' 3" Flg 1" 4. vs.9 890 1200 .4 8800 7540 V548155 W'X15' 8" FIg 2' 35.7 3.4 5Ooo 8200 VS-42155 42"x15 6 FIg 2.0 1150 1700 VS.0 2880 1900 VS-367-2 36"x74/2' 230 4" Flg 1" 9.1 8850 13Ooo 10700 16100 21400 380 540 720 5700 7800 8 0 5 0 5 8 0 0 7100 8800 12300 1000 1150 1300 VS-2055 Zo"X5 500 3" FIg 1" 2..1 750 1150 V52052 2O'XS 230 3" FIa 1" 1.5 850 1200 VS-247.1 30. 2" 2" 2" 2" 1" 1" 1" 24. x Ht. Gas Llquld Shlpplng Model Size W.

1 5000 8400 VS4810-6 48"xlO 6" Flg 2" 31.4 1520 3300 VS-30510 W'XS loo0 4" FIg 1" 8.5 5400 6800 VS-427-6 42"x71/2' 600 6" Flg 2. 38.3 1140 2600 VS.6 760 2200 VS.2410.307-10 W'x7H' 4" Flg 1" 13.6 2O"XlO 3 ! Flg 1" 5.2410-10 24"XlO' 3" Flg 1" 10. Flg 1" 4. x l i t .2056 ZO"x5' 600 3" Flg 1" 2.6 840 1600 VS-2010.92 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONS Nominal Inlet a Std Gas Liquid Shlppli Model Size W.2 3600 5500 VS-38156 36"x15 4" Flg 1" 21.7 15400 17000 V56020-6 W'x20' 6" Flg 2.6 9900 11800 VS-547-6 5493X71h9 600 6" FIg 2.3 7700 10300 VS-6010-6 60"xlO 8" Flg 2" 49.6 15400 15800' vs-w20-5 6O"x20 6 .5 720 1400 VS.0 7500 8900 VS.2456 24"x5 800 3" Flg 1" 3.1610-10 16"XlO' 2 ' Thd 1" 4. VS.1 7700 9500 VS-6010.4 3750 5600 VS-4210-6 42"xlO 6" Flg 2' 23. Thd 1" 3.10 20"x71/2 3" FlQ 1" 6.P.4215-6 42"x15' 6" Flg 2' 30.4 1120 1800 VS.167-10 l6"x71hs 2" Thd 1" 3. 70. 39.3 760 2500 VS-247-10 24" x7 V2' 3" Flg 1" 8.247-6 24"x71hh' 3 ' Flg 1" 6.367.6 36"X7%' 600 4" Flg 1" 14.3 20600 21500 VS-16510 16'x5' 1000 2" Thd 1" 2.6 6300 loo00 VS-5415-6 54"x15' 6" Flg 2.6 ZO"x71h' 3 .6 12400 13900 VS.487-6 48"X71/z' 600 6 ' FIg 2" 27.10 W'x7H' loo0 4" Flg 1" 20.5 24W 4000 VS. Gas Outlet Oil Capacity Capaclty Weigh1 NO. 63.5 10300 11500 vs-60155 60"xlS 6' Flg 2' 55.807-6 6OSx7H' 600 6" Flg 2' 42.1 1050 2200 vs-24510 24"x5' loo0 3" FIg 1" 5.0 6200 eooo VS-5410-6 54"xlO 6" FIg 2" 39.6 1800 3400 VS-3010-6 W'x10 4" F l i 1" 11.1 790 1900 vs-201 010 20"XlO' 3" Flg 1" 7.7 2680 5400 vs3610-10 38"XlO' 4" Flg 1" 24.8 5000 6700 VS.1 5360 8700 .6 24"xlO 3 .8 1760 3650 v53010-10 30"xlO 4" Flg 1" 15.3 20600 zoo00 VS-1656 W'X5 600 2" Thd 1" 1.8 360 1100 VS-167-6 16"x71/2+ 2 .6 12400 12500 VS-607-5 6O'x7W' 500 6" Flg 2.D. O. Valve MMCFD bbl/day Ib.2 1180 3200 VS.3 1520 3000 VS.6 1140 2650 VS.4 10300 12500 VS.7 2700 4900 VS-3610-6 36"xlO 4" Flg 1" 17.5 670 1500 VS-20510 20"xs 1000 3" Flg 1" 3.7 530 1800 I VS-207.54155 54"xlS 6" Fig 2' 44.0 540 1250 VS-1610-6 16"xlO 2'Thd 1" 3. psi Conn. 34.9 500 1200 VS.5 60"x 1 0 6' Flg 2' 44. 49.9 2350 4200 V5367. 20.60156 W'XlS 6" Flg 2" 61.3056 30"x5 600 4" Fig 1" 6.1 3570 6400 vs-381510 38"XlS 4" Flg 1" 30.0 1200 2800 vs-307-6 30"X7M' 4" FIa 1" 9.8 560 1400 VS-207.4 340 1100 I VS.7 6600 8200 VS-48156 W'x15 6" Flg 2. Flg 1" 7.Flg 2.

6010-12 60"xlO' 6" Fla 2' 72 7 9700 21500 VS.2 7020 13100 VS. 31.4 5650 14400 VS.9 3470 7300 VS. Valve MMCFD bblldav Ib.165. 93 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS Nominal Inlet 8 Std. O.12 42"x71/2' 1200 6 .24514 24"x5' 1440 3" Flg 1" 6.Flg 2.3010-12 3O"xlO 4" Flg 1" 17.7 670 2600 VS.2 1100 3200 .1 2610 6000 VS.4 640 2100 VS-205.1 60"X20 104. Gas Outlet Oil Capacity Capacity Weight No.12 54"x7'/2' I200 6 . VS-6020. FIa 1" 4. 40.9 14550 29000 9 2.6015-12 60"x15' 6" Fla 2s 90. 51.D. 7250 18OOO VS.4210-12 42"xlO' 6" Flg 2" 36.14 16"XS 1440 2" Thd 1" 2. x Ht.12 48"xlO 6" Flg 2" 47.467.1610._ . I VS-307.9 11700 23500 VS-607-12 60"x71/2' 1200 6" FIa 2" 62.0 3510 8300 VS.14 20'xS 1440 3 .14 16"XlO' 2" Thd 1" 5.2010-14 20"XlO 3" Fla 1" 7.8 460 1800 VS.3 6200 13500 VS-4815.5 4650 11OOO VS-4810.9 2350 4500 VS.6 900 3100 VS.6 5220 9900 VS-427.12 4B"X71/2' 1200 6" Fig 2.14 16"X7 1/2 ' 2 ' Thd 1" 4.3 1760 3950 VS.0 19400 36000 VS. Gas Liquid Shippini Model Size W.1 4680 9900 VS-4215.3615-12 36"xlS 4" Flg 1" 33.1 9300 18400 vs.9 -.12 30"x7'/2' 4" Flo 1" 15.14 20"x7Vz" 3 ' Fla 1" 6.9 7600 17500 VS5415-12 54"xlS 6" Flg 2" 74.12 36"x71/2' 1200 4" Flg 1" 23.P.1 450 2100 I V5207.Flg 2.547.12 46"x15' 6" Fig 2' 59. psi Conn.7 740 2800 3" Flg 1" 11.3610-12 36"xlO' 4" Flg 1" 26.367.3 .5410-12 54"xlO 6 ' Flg 2' 59. 320 1500 VS-167.12 42"xlS 6" Flg 2" 45.

1 . Inlet diverter 1 .94 HORIZONTAL LOW PRESSURE SEPARATORS STANDARD ACCESSORIES Standard accessories furnished with two.Quieting baffle Companion flanges bolted on gas inlet and outlef (threaded or slipon) 1 -Tubular gage glass with safety cocks & drain valve OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES Thermometer Safety Head Heating Coil Additional Connections Skid Mounting Three Phase Operation .gas) separators. diaphragm operated dump valve.phase (oil. Low pressure. Drain connection 1 . 1 .Stainless steel wire mesh mist extractor 1 . ASME safety relief valve 1 . Pressure gage with isolating valve 1 . Float operated level control 1 .

5 13200 3800 H-4810 48"xlO 125 8" Flg 4"Thd 2' 2' 18.4 23700 4600 H.0 24500 8200 H.6' 30' x s 24 X10 24 x 7 . - H.3 4oooo loo00 .3 2900 1200 H-2410 24"xlO' 125 3"Thd 3"Thd 2' 2" 8.0 3850 1800 H-305 3O"x5' 125 3"Thd 3'Thd 2' 2.5 lsB00 3500 ' H-4615 46'x15 125 6' FIg 4"Thd 3" 3' 22. Conn.0 36800 8100 H.247 24"x7%' 125 2"Thd 2'Thd 2" 2" 5.4 Boo0 2100 H-3810 38"xlO 125 4"Thd 4"Thd 2" 2" 13.6015 lO"x15 125 8" Fig 4"Thd 3" 3" 48. 6 24.35 I ! ! ! ! ! ! l ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! . Valve Valve MMSCFD Bbllday Ib. . ' ! ! L ' ! ' ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! W ' I III. ~. 95 H0 R E 0NTAL LOW PR ESSURE SEPARATOR INFORMAT10 N iu GAS CAPACITIES 60 x20 60'r15 60 '"10 4W'xlS 48"x10 36x15 36 " 1 0 30x10 30'XT. psi Conn. 7.4 4500 1800 H-3010 3O"xlO 125 4"Thd 4" Thd 2" 2' 9. x Lgth. Dia.6020 60"x20' 125 6" Fig 4" Thd 4" 4" 53.P. Gas Outlet Outlet Oil Gas Capacity Capacity Weight No.6 88002800 H-3815 36'x15 125 4" Thd 4" Thd 2' 2' 16.IIII 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1111111II 1 PO 15 20 30 40 50 60 7 0 8 0 9 0 1W 125 1 1 ~ ~~ SEPARATOR OPERATING PRESSURE PSlG Nominal inlet a Oil Standard Valves Gas Oil Shipping Model Size W.4 3ooo 1200 ' H-307 3O'x7H' 125 3"Thd 3" Thd 2" 2'' 8.8010 6O"xlO 125 6" Fig 4"Thd 3" 3" 38.

Pneumatic level control 1 . High pressure screwed. diaphragm motor valve 1 . Inlet diverter 1 Drain connection 1 .96 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS SAFETY VALVE THERMOMETER INLET RESSURE GAGE MIST EXTRACTOR NLET DIVERTER LIQUID LEVEL CONTROL DUMP VALVE LIQUID OUTLET STANDARD ACCESSORIES Standard accessories furnished with two-phase (oil. Control gas regulator set with fittings 1 . Pneumatic level control 1 Transparent gage glass with steel safety cocks & drain valve OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES Thermometer Safety Head Heating Coil Additional Connections Skid Mounting . ASME safety relief valve 1 . diaphragm motor valve 1 . Stainless steel wire mesh mist extractor 1 . angle type. Pressure gage with isolating valve 1 . angle type. Outside ladder on 10' high separators and higher 1 . Quieting baffle Companion flanges bolted on gas inlet and outlet (threaded or slipon) 1 Reflex gage glass with steel cocks 8 drain valve Additional accessories furnished with three-phase (oil-gaswater) separators 1 . screwed. High pressure.gas) separators 1 .

StlOlVtlVd3S 3tlflSS3tld H U H WlNOZltlOH A 0 S31113VdV3 L6 .

5 11500 4200 I HS4810-2 HS-48152 HS-4820-2 48"XlO' W'x15' 48"W 8" FIQ 8" Fla 8" FIg 2" 2" 2" 33.s-4220-2 42"xlO' 42.0 9 o o o 2 8 0 0 HS-367-2 38"x7%' 230 6" FIg 2" 16.8 18Ooo 8800 I HS8010-2 HS80152 HS802G2 60"XlO W'XlS 60"x20" 8" Fig 8" Flg 8" Fig 2' 2" 2" 50.4 8ooo 2200 HS-30152 W'x15' 4" Thd 2" 15. 5.0 5 5 M m .7 70. 3. Gas Outlet Oil Capacity Capacity Weight No.3 38.1 4500 1800 HS-30102 W'X10' C' Thd 2" 12.2 1850 2100 HS-247-5 24"xIH' 4" FIg 2" 10.5 12W"x7H' 2" Thd 2.1 8m 2400 HS-3810-2 W'X10' 8" FIg 2" 18.5 15400 23000 32000 5100 7000 eooo HS-547-2 54"x7M9 230 8" Fla 2" 36. 4.5 33. 21.98 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS Nominal Inlet a Std.4 1330 1200 HS-207-2 X)"x7%' 3" Thd 2" 4.1 8700 2800 HS-36152 36"xW 8" Fla 2" 21.2 1850 2050 HS-2010-5 20"XlW 3" FIg 2" 8.0 800 1400 HS-187-5 lV'x7M' 2. HS-1210-2 12%"x10' 2 . Thd 2" 3. Thd 2' 2.9 3800 1550 HS-24152 24"x15' 4" Thd 2" 9.2 H. 2" 2" 40.5 24"r15' 4" Fio 2" 14.5 500 800 nsi27.5 24wo 38ooo 48OOO 85M) 11200 14000 ' HS125-5 12~x5' 500 2" Thd 1" 2.1 2800 2400 HS-265 24"x5' 500 4" FIg 2" 9.9 19400 29200 38800 8800 Baoo 11000 HS807-2 BO"x7H' 230 8" Fig 2" 44. O. Gas Liquid Shipping Model Slre W.4 1300 1800 HS-207-5 20"X7H' 3" Flg 2. 7.Thd 2 9.8 3ooo 1500 HS-307-2 W'x7H' 4" Thd 2" 11.2410-5 24"xlO' 4" FIg 2" 11.6 5700 1700 HS-3052 W'x5' 230 4.3 2750 2800 ns.2 60.0 2850 1450 HS-2410-2 24"xlO 4" Thd 2" 7.5 2850 1400 HS-2452 24"x5' 230 4" Thd 2" 6. X Lgth psi Conn.0 11700 17800 23500 3900 5200 8800 HS-487-2 W'x7H' 230 8" Flg 2" 28.0 56. 2.5 1880 1200 HS-205-2 2O"x5' 230 3" Thd 2.P.0 14800 5500 I HS-5410-2 HS-54152 HS-542&2 54"XlO 54"xlB W'X20' 8" FIE 8" FIa 8" Fig 2.5 49.9 44. 2.2 1000 1100 HS-1655 Wx5' 500 2 fhd 2" 4.5 1200 1500 HS-1810-5 l6'XlO' 2" Thd 2" 5.Thd 2" 4.7 8800 3300 I HS-42102 HS-4215. Valve MMCFD' Bbllday Ibs.5 29.0 17000 4800 HS-427-2 42"x7%' 230 8" Fig 2.7 840 1000 HS-187-2 lWx7H' 2 .8 13ooo 3800 HS362&2 36"X20' 8" Fig 2 1 25.1 1800 1800 nszw 20"X5 500 3" FIg 2" 8.8 3700 3100 H82415.8 750 1000 HS-12165 12rk"xlO 2" Thd 2" 3.D.3 1900 1300 HS-247-2 24"x7*r' 4" Thd 2" 7.1 1000 1000 HS-1852 1WX5' 230 2 .~15' 42"xX)' 8" Flg 8" Fla 8" FIg 2 2" 2' 24. Thd 2.9 2000 1300 HS-2010-2 20"Xlo' 3" Thd 2.1 1260 1100 HS-1610-2 16'Xlo' 2" Thd 2.

0 11200 8300 H54215.5 70.3 14800 22200 %MI 8800 13500 17200 H5547.8 2O"Xlo' 3" Flg 1" 8.6010-5 6O"xlO 8.P.5 54"X7'/2 500 8" Fla 2.0 48400 25100 HS-1256 12%"x5' 800 2 .8 12%"x10' 2" Thd 1" 3. Thd 1" 2.8 82.9 22400 12900 .2 lee00 loB00 HS-42206 42"xZO' 6" FIG 2" 54.8 2550 2700 HS2410-6 24"XlO 4" Flg 1" 12.1 12Ooo 8500 HS-36208 36"x20 8" FIg 2" 39.8 38"XlO' 6" FIg 2" 26. FIg 2" 73.5 58.7 8100 6800 HS367-6 Wx7H' 600 6' Fin 2" 25.5 1700 2350 H5247-8 24"x71h' 4" FIg 1" 10.3 lssoo 28000 37200 11800 17000 21200 HS507-5 6O"x71h' 500 8' Flg 2" 85.6 24"xS 600 4" FIg 1" 9.7 4ooo 3700 HS-30108 W'XlO 4" FIo 1" 18.1 eo00 5100 H53610.5 49.5 5100 3700 HS-3058 30"x5' 600 4" Flg 1" 14.0 3400 3200 H52415.1 42.8 5400 4800 H530156 30"x15' 4" FIO 2' 22.4 11200 16800 22400 7800 loo00 12200 H5487.0 34800 20100 HS60205 6O"x2O 8" Flg 2. Thd 1" 5. 99 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONS Nominal Inlet 8 Gas Llquld Shipping Model Size W. 2" 48.5 1000 1200 H51856 18"XS 800 2 .8 500 lo00 HS-127-6 12%"x7H' 2" Thd 1" 3.9 2700 2700 HS307-8 30"X7H" 4" Flg 1" 18. 34.0 1260 1700 HS207-6 20"x7%' 3 ' FIg 1" 7.5 48Vx7M' 500 8' FIa 2" 41.8 42"x 10' 6" Flg 2" 39. 52.6 42"x15' 8" FIg 2" 47.1 1200 1600 HS-1810. 2.0 23200 15100 HSS0155 60"x15' 8" FIg 2" 88.0 14ooo 9700 I HS-5410-5 HS-54155 HS-54205 54"xlO 54"x15' 54"x20' 8" F l i 8" FIR 8" FlO 2" 2" 2' 58. 102.8 leooo lo800 HS-427-6 42"x7H8 600 6" FIg 2" 34.3 11100 8OOO I H548105 HS-4815-5 HS48205 48'xlO 48"x15' 48"x20' 8" FIO 8" Fla 8' Flg 2.8 2500 2800 H5245. Thd 1" 4. I HS-4210.8 1800 2150 HS2010.7 8400 6soO HS4210.D. Gas Outlet Oil Capaclty Capaclty Welght No.6 24"x15' 4" Flg 1" 14.7 1800 1600 H5-205-8 ZO"x5' 600 3" FIg 1" 7. Valve MMCFD' Bbllday Ibs. O.x Lgth psi Conn.8 16'xlO' 2" Thd 1" 5. 35.0 17400 12800 HS.5 800 1500 H51675 16"x71h' 2 .5 HS-4215-5 HS.2 8OOO 8200 H53615-6 W'x15' 8" FIg 2.42205 42"XlO 42"x15' 42"x20 8" FIO 6" FIR 8" FIO 2" 2" 2.2 85.1 750 1100 H51210.

100 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONS Nominal Inlet 8 Std.4 1 m 10200 HS. Valve MMCFD HS-207.8 28800 22100 HS-547-10 54"x7M' lo00 8" FIg 2.3 14300 12700 HS.0 2550 3OOO HS-2410-10 24"xlo' 4" Flg 1" 16.0 3380026400 HS-6020-10 60"xZO 8' FIg 2" 154. 39. 52.5 10700 logo0 HS.D.10 42"X77h' loo0 6" Flg 2" 48.4 28800 21200 HS-5420.0 44800 32800 .2 13400 13400 HS5410-10 54"XlO 8" FIg 2" 88.6 35800 2&(00 HS-807-10 6O'x7H' lo00 8" Flg 2' 97.8 3400 3800 HS-2415-10 24"x15' 4" Flg 1" 20.3 1770 2300 HS-2010. 55. 123.367-10 36"x71/z * lo00 6" Flg 2' 35. 108.10 36"X15' 0 ' FIg 2" 47.7 8ooo 8200 HS-421010 42"XlO 6" FIg 2.307.10 30"X71h' 4" Flg 1" 23.422010 42"~20' 6'' Flg 2" 73. 78.0 17900 lso00 HS-541510 54"~15 8" Flg 2. Gas Outlel Capacity No.6010-10 60"XlO 8" FIg 2" 110.5 leooo 13400 HS.0 21400 17500 HS-4820-10 48"~20' 8" Flg 2" 88.2# 113.4815-10 48"xlS 8" Flg 2' 85.6 2380 2800' HS.6 21400 18900 HS.247. Gas Liquid Shipping Model Size W.245-10 24"xS lo00 4" FIg 1" 13.P.4 lso00 1 m HS-427.10 20"x71hh' 3" FIO 1" 10. 62.0 22400 les00 HS-801510 6O"XlS 8" FIg . x Lgth Conn.3 5100 5400 HS-305-10 303x5' lo00 4" FIg 1" 20.4 7900 7800 HS.10 2O"xlO ' 3" Flg 1" 11.5 10700 es00 HS-4215-10 42"X15' 8" Flg 2' 63.3 1700 2200 HS.1 3800 4300 HS-3010-10 30"xlO' 4" FID 1" 26.8 18800 18700 HS.10 54"xZO 8" Flg 2.5 2800 3200 HS.4 8ooo 7500 HS4615.4810-10 48"xlO' 8" Flg 2" 70.467-10 48"x71h' lo00 8" FIg 2.0 8ooo 8100 HS-3610-10 38"xlO' 0 ' Flg 2.10 24'%71/z' 4" FIg 1" 15. O.10 3@'~15' 4" Flg 2" 31.0 5200 5500 HS-3015.3620-10 36k20 6" FIg 2.

3 16000 13300 HS-427.481012 48"XlO 8" Flg 2" 79.0 6000 8700 HS.4210-12 42"XlO 6" Flg 2" 60.2 21000 18500 .9 1120 1650 HS.4 5300 5700 HS.207-12 20"x71/2' 3 ' Flg 1" 11.12 42"x7M' 1200 6" Flg 2" 53.3610-12 36"XlO 6" Flg 2" 44.4220-12 42"X2O 6 ' Fig 2' 83.20512 2O"x5 1200 3" Flg 1" 9.1 1660 2400 HS.3615-12 36"X15' 6" Fla 2" 53.1 1070 1800 HS-1610.3 710 1500 1 HS-167-12 16"x71/2' 2' Thd 1" 7.0 1430 2150 ' HS.0 10700 HS. HS-121012 l2W"xlO 2" Thd 1" 5.12 16"x5' 1200 2" Thd 1" 6.12 24"x7 7/2 ' 4" Flg 1" 16.0.2010-12 2O"xlO 3" Flg 1" 12.5 2250 2900 HS-24512 24"x5' 1200 4" Flg 1" 14.0 6000 6500 HS.421512 42"~15' 6" Flg 2" 72.5 7900 7600 HS.487-12 48"X7'h' 1200 8" Fig 2" 69.7 1670 2600 HS-247.12 24"X 10' 4" Fig 1" 18. x Lgth psi Conn Valve MMCFD Bbllday Ibs.2415. Gas Liquid Shipping - Model Size W. 2" 62.12 2 4 " 15' ~ 4" Fig 1" 22. 101 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS Nominal Inlet 8 Std.12 48"X15' 8" Fig 2% 94.5 2500 3100 HS-2410.12 16"XlO' 2" Thd 1" 6.9 14000 13700 HS-4815.6 3300 3900 HS.3015-12 30"X15' 4" Flg 2" 35.0 900 1450 HS-165.3 10500 11700 HS.7 21400 18000 HS.6 12000 10600 HS.5 5000 5400 HS-30512 3O"x5' 1200 4" Flg 1" 23.3 '8000 7900 HS.0 16000 14300 HS.3620-12 36"x20 6" Fl.367. 0.1 4000 4600 HS-3010-12 3O"xlO' 4" Flg 1" 29.P.2 2600 3600 HS-307-12 3O"x7V' 4" Flg 1" 26. Gas Outlet Oil Capacity Capacity Weight NO.12 36"x7'/2' 1200 6" Flg 2" 40.

245.4 2260 4700 HS-2410.4 3040 5800 HS.20 123/4*'x7'/2 ' 2" Flg 1" 5.0 1570 3600 HS.20 24"x5' 2000 4" Flg 1" 19.20 20'1x71/z' 3" Flg 1" 14.0 13500 16100 HS. x Lgth psi Conn.0 10000 13300 HS.o 15400 15900 HS-4220-15 42"x20' 6" Flg 2" 94.4610.15 48'.20 12W'x5' 2000 2" Flg 1" 5.1 5 42'x15' 6" Flg 2" 81.5 3900 5200 HS.0 4500 8000 .0 400 2000 HS.5 20600 20000 HS.247.5 27000 27500 HS-125.0 10300 11600 H5.3610.P.15 36"x20' 6" Fig 2' 69.4815.4 7600 6800 HS.4 590 2200 HS-167-20 16" x7 V 2 ' 2" Flg 1" 8.3 5200 6300 HS.20 24"x 10' 4" Flg 1" 23.D.20 16"x'10' 2" Flg 1" 9.3615.127.205-20 20"x5' 2000 3" Flo 1" 12. Gas Outlet Oil Capacity Capacity Weight NO.0 7700 9600 HS-4210-15 42"xlO 6" Flg 2" 67.15 42"x71/2' 1500 6" Flg 2" 60.x77/2 ' 1500 8" Flg 2" 76.1 1500 3600 HS.15 36"xlO' 6' Flg 2' 49.3015-15 30"x15' 4" Flg 2" 41.4 800 2400 HS.15 48"xlO' 8" Flg 2" 86.15 36"x15' 6' Flg 2' 59.9 5700 7300 HS.4 15200 14800 HS-427.5 7900 8500 HS. O.3010.1 2600 4100 HS-307.2415-20 24"x15' 4" Flg 1" 30.15 36" x7 '/2 1500 6' Flg 2' 43.367.6 1000 3000 HS-207.15 3O'x7%' 4" Flg 1" 30.15 48"x20 6" Flg 2" 123. Valve MMCFD Bbllday Ibs. Gas Liquid Shipping Model Size W.0 20000 21700 HS4620.20 20"XlO' 3" Flg 1" 15.165-20 16"x5 2000 2" Flg 1" 7.487.3 1180 3000 HS.3 880 2600 HS-1610.15 46"x15' 8" Flg 2" 106.7 11400 11800 HS-3620.7 600 2200 HS-1210-20 123/r"x108 2" Flg 1" 6.2415.15 24"x15' 4 .42 15. HS.Flg 1" 26.20 24"x71/2' 4" Flg 1" 21.2010.15 3O"xiO' 4" Flg 1" 34.9 2000 4300 HS.102 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS Nominal Inlet B Std.2 5000 5900 HS-305-15 3O"XS 1500 4" Flg 1" 27.

17 5.20 3SS'x7Vz' 2000 6" Flg 1" 44.21 13.68 60.71 5.30 3.83 0.80 1.32 3.61 42" x 1 0 6.35 42' x 15' 12.42 3 6 ' X 7V2' 4.34 16' x 1 0 1.04 1.20 3O"xlO 4" Fig 1" 39. 10.05 6.03 0.49 12.76 24" x 1 0 2.65 2.14 0.50 0.44 20" x 5' 0.55 24" x 7Vz' 2.2 7100 12200 HS.44 15.17 8.91 30.15 12%" x 7 M V 0.41 9.77 4.61 0. x 7 % 15.38 19.83 5. X LQth.52 1.68 34.3 14200 20800 SETTLING VOLUMES Settling Volume.66 0.67 1.40 6.73 54" x 15' 21. bbl.67 3 0 ' x 15' 6.98 0.54 36' x 20 11.09 3.93 10.24 16' x 7%' 0.70 24" x 5' 1.367.3010. Slze O.40 1.96 6.21 12%" x 1 0 0.90 36" x 1 0 6.35 0.54 20' x 10 1.45 36" x 15' 9.90 .038 20' x 7M' 1.62 7.24 .38 0.30 4.61 16.6 5350 9600 HS.60 5.38 3.3610-20 36"XlO 6 ' Flg 1" 50.96 1.01 24" x 15' 3.51 48" x 1 0 11.20 54" x 20' 27.79 0.20 30'X7'h' 4" Fig 1" 34.98 2. Gas Outlet Oil Capacity Capacity Weight No.38 54" X 7l/2' 12.52 1.87 4.99 2. HS-305.55 0.42 0. Valve MMCFD Bbllday Ibs.21 1.18 0.20 36"xlS 6 ' Flg 1" 56.08 10.39 0.0 2460 5800 HS.63 42" x 7%' 6. 103 HORIZONTAL HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONS ~ ~ Nominal inlet 8 Std.45 0.61 2.66 60' x 1 0 18.92 4.68 2.3 7440 11600 HS.55 .29 30' x 10' 4.49 46' x 15' 16.72 0.4 10700 16400 LHS-3620-20 36'x20 6" Flg 1" 66.93 3.74 9.63 1. M Full W Full 1/4 Full 12%" x 5' 0.28 1s" x 5' 0. x Lgth psi Conn.8 3720 7400 HS.47 30" x 5' 2.43 1. O.77 6.71 12.43 48" x 20' 21.67 6.307.32 48" x 7%' 9.51 6.22 0.D.2 4960 8700 HS-3015-20 30'x15' 4" Fig 1" 47.57 8.3615. Gas Liquid Shipping Model size W.39 0.20 30"xS 2000 4" Fig 1" 31.86 7.P.30 3.37 2.17 60' x 15' 60' x 20' 26.28 5.32 0. x 7'h' 3.63 42' x 20' 16.88 0.D.02 6.49 54" x 1 0 15.

oil large ratio of liquid surface area to liquid volume and water) and for handling extremely foamy oil.104 SPHERICAL SEPARATORS HTI Hydrotek's Spherical Separator utilizes a tan. assures rapid release of solution gas. facilitates fast hook-up. release and proper liquid level control operation. . A Separators available for three-phase operation (gas. The gas makes two complete directional reversals Weii planned orientation of fittings and connections before entering the mist extractor. Oil is forced against the shell as the gas moves tions to provide a quiet liquid surface for quick gas to the center. The liquid drains to the liquid accumulation area. FEATURES gentiai inlet to increase flow velocity as the wellstream enters the separator. No unused or "Dead" space. The fluid is directed against the in. side of the sphere for initial separation in the annular A baffle arrangement separates the liquid and gas sec- space.

Thermometer with S.Pneumatic ievei control Heating Coil 1 . screwed. Stainless steel wire mesh mist extractor 1 . Tangential inlet diverter 1 . Pressure gauge with isolating valve Skid Mounting 1 . separators) (Mechanical gas valve same size as oil valve furnished on 125 PSI separators) Additional accessories furnished with three-phase (oil-gas-water) separators.S. Reflex gage glass with steel cocks & drain valve (tubular gage glass on 125 P. diaphragm motor valve Safety Head 1 . High pressure. angle type. Quieting baffle over settling section Companion flanges bolted on gas inlet and outlet (threaded or slipon) on 250 P S I .ASME safety relief valve Additional Connections 1 .I. 1 . screwed. Pneumatic level control 1 . Control gas regulator set with fittings 1 . diaphragm motor valve 1 . 105 SPHERICAL SEPARATORS STANDARD ACCESSORIES OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES Standard accessories furnished with two-phase (oil-gas) separators.S. . High pressure. Drain connection 1 . Transparent gage glass with steel safety cocks & drain valve 1 . & higher 1 . Thermometer 1 . angle type.

106 cn a 0 3a e W cn a0 z W I e cn & cn W I k 0 2a 0 cn W K a (3 3 v) v) W a n 3 9 .

0 5100 3400 S52480 24' 600 1" 4.42200 42' 2. Lb 88-4212 42' 125 2" 6.0 1100 1500 88-4250 42' 2. 49. No.36120 36" 1" 16.2450 24" 500 1" 3.60120 60" 2. 14.0 1900 2400 SS-4660 48" 2" 20.0 5100 5400 88.24100 24" 1 000 1" 5. 1440 1" 6.0 2500 4100 ss-80144 60" 2. Oil Cap. 2" 18. Approx.4625 483 2' 12.0 5100 3600 SS.0 1100 3800 SS.0 5100 4700 SS-24144 24. 1" 7.0 600 3200 S536300 36' 1" 23.0 1100 1600 SS-42100 42.24120 24" 1200 1" 5.0 2500 3200 SS-6060 60. 26.2 1900 1000 ss-4812 48" 3' 9.4 300 1600 ss.0 600 1800 85-36144 36' 1" 19.3650 36" 1" 10. 45.0 1100 1600 SS. Diameter psi Gas Outlet Valve MMCFO bbidday Weight. ..7 300 1400 85-30120 30" 1" 11.0 ls00 4900 Nominal capacities based on separator V2 tuil of liquid.. Liquid Gas Cap.0 1900 2900 SS-48120 48" 2.6 600 1300 SS-3660 36' 1" 11.0 300 1200 __ ss-3oBo _.600 1400 5s-36100 36' 1" 15. 28.0 2500 3100 558050 60' 2.46100 48" 2" 25. 30' .0 1900 2300 __ SSa850 48' 2' 18. 4500 1700 55.0 1100 2600 ss.4260 42' 2.5412 54' 4" 12.24200 24" 2 m 1" 7.4 1900 1100 SS.9 600 1200 SS.0 600 2200 SS-36200 36'. 31.0 2500 3700 SS.0 5100 3400 55..0 2500 3800 ss. 1" 21.30200 30' 1" 15.6025 60.5 300 1500 SS-30144 303 1" 13.3050 30' 1" 6. 2' 33.1 300 1300 SS-30100 30" 1" 10. All separators.4225 42" 250 2" 6.66100 60' 2. iniel 8 Std.0 2500 1300 ss.0 1900 3300 88. 2" 22.6 300 1000 55.0 2500 1400 SS. 12.0 1100 2400 88-42144 423 2' 22.0 1900 2600 SS.P. 250 psi and above are ASME code constructed and stamped.46144 48" 2" 31. 54.0 600 1500 55.0 5100 4300 55.3 300 2600 S530300 30"' 1" 16.0 .42300 42' 2 q 26.0 1100 1900 5542120 421 2" 20. 107 SPHERICAL SEPARATORS SPECIFICATIONS Model Nominal W.0 .0 1800 3900 SS24300 24" 3000 1" 6.

Per.Y. I. Drilling and Production. pp. How to figure three-phase flash. Three-phase equilibrium calculations. Okla.A. 1934..Oil and gas separation. R. Hohmann. Deam. J. C. 1964. . Am.D. Peng.L. Refiner.... Tulsa.. 1980. Worley. Univ.F.P. Chem.and three-phase equilibrium calculations for systems containing water.. 1958. R. New York.Y. 1-40.J. and Maddox.Well Design. Tech. (Tentative API Study 12J).Y. In: T.. L. N. I: Entrainment and capacity. 4. PennWell. C. J. 1960.. 1976. 1957. N. Chi U.M.. J. Division of Production. Dallas. Pet. 9(4): 11-16. 5th ed. M.. Norman. J..Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. 26: 98-103. N.108 REFERENCES API. A Systems Approach. 1949. 397 pp. Tex. D..: 614-619. H. C. 1958. Eng. 62-70. Ikoku. pp. 5412): 595-599. 558-565.M. Eng. Chilingar... quicker this way. New York. 1969. 1969. M.. Petroleum Production Handbook. and Beeson. 37 (3): 209-212. McGraw-Hill. Vol. Erbar.L. Petroleum Refinery Engineering.Design of fractionating columns. Stage separation of crude oil.M.G.. 48(26): 62. N. New York. Can. B. Whiney. Campbell. Craft.and Campbell..B. lO(4): 53-54. McGraw-Hill...H. Oct. W. 1st ed. K. Smith. and Brown. E.. A.C.. Nelson.. and McHenry. Hydrocarbon Process. Englewood Cliffs. R.R. Campbell Petroleum Series.. Souders. Perry. 2-6. 1973. Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Separation. L. N.H. Petroleum Production Engineering: Oil Field Exploitation. 17 pp. and Lockhart. and Graves Jr. Wilkins. Gas Conditioning Conf. and Robinson. W. Proc. New York. pp.. Holden. E. Conv. G.J.R. F. Okla. N.V.. How to calculate three-phase flash equilibrium.. Chem.R.J. Sivalls. J. 1953. Frick (Editor). API. pp.C. R.V...Y.. Oil and gas separation is a science. F. July: 163-164.C.. 1972.J. 4th ed.. Elsevier. 52nd Annu.A method of determining optimum second stage pressure in three stage separation.S. Tech. Prentice-Hall. 1977. and Laurence. p. 571 pp.C. G. (Editors).. Oklahoma.. J. Uren. Remember the hyperbola.. Gas Conditioning and Processing. 1962.. 1962.N. 440-443. Oil Gas J. 1958. pp. 21: 97-100. Natural Gar Engineering.H.. McGraw-Hill. D.G. Osborne.R. Ind Eng.. Chemrech. Two.Figure flash equilibrium easier. 1976. Mathematics and Production Equipment. Chem. 1973. and Chilton. Pet. Lockhart.. Surface Operations in Petroleum Production. Specification of Oil and Gas Separators. 788 pp.. J.

Based on this report. Brines reside in crude oil principally because salt water generally underlies the crude oil in the geological formation from which it is produced. The oil field waters whch are produced with crude oils vary widely in composition and the amount of salts. Salt water encroachment normally starts at the edge of the fields and progresses until the production is predominantly water rather than oil. chokes.V. The more enterprising of the salt producers used gas that was produced from brine wells for firing the evaporating pots. however. the total productions of oil and water from oil wells are approximately equal. Eventually a bottle of the oil was sent to Yale University for analysis by distillation. Small bottles of the oil were sold at “medicine shows”. Emulsification of the water and oil. Thus. but pipelines will not purchase the oil until its water content is reduced to the 0. As the producing life of a field is extended. and piping. but their salinity is generally greater than that of sea water. The garish labels bore the picture of a fierce Indian and attested to the universal curative qualities of the “rock oil from the bowels of the earth”. U. gas separators. CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION In 1850 there was a thriving industry in West Virginia and Pennsylvania based on the evaporation of natural brines for the production of salt. PETTEFER and G. i. These specifications for the maximum water contents are dictated not by the amounts which the pipeline operator would prefer to have. increasing proportions of salt water are produced with the oil. R. by intimate mixing. With careful completion and production methods.S.e. Overall. may occur in the formations themselves. which they carry in solution. from the beginning of the petroleum industry. from 0 to loo%. a syndicate promoted an oil well. salt water and oil have been associated. varying with the specifications prevalent for the geographical area or dictated by the purchaser.A. though the roles of contaminant and product have been reversed. which would seep from the earth with the brine or would accompany brine produced from wells.L. These emulsions may comprise varying proportions of oil and water.5-2% range. T h s oil was skimmed off the surface of the brine pools and discarded. Drilling of the Drake Well was accomplished by a group of salt-water well drillers from West Virginia. no water at all.C. but rather by the difficulties of . it is possible to produce wells initially with no salt water. An occasional trouble- some contaminant of the brine was crude oil. WATERMAN.. 109 Chapter 4 OIL FIELD EMULSIONS AND THEIR ELECTRICAL RESOLUTION L. or in mechanical equipment such as pumps.

4-2). The emulsified water exists predominantly in the form of dispersed particles (water-in-oil type of emulsion). THEORY OF EMULSIONS A discussion of the theory of emulsion formation involves a study at molecular level of the individual groups and their environment. 4-1). which will vary in size from large drops down to small ones of about 1 pm (0. it is attracted equally in all directions toward all of its neighboring molecules. These emulsions may be stabilized by organic acid salts of monovalent metals.00004 in. Character of the water and of the oil (gravity. milk is an oil-in-water emulsion. similarly. and dolomites) from which the oil is produced and diagenetic and catagenetic processes influence the composition and concentration of brines. The separation of the molecules at the plane of cleavage was accomplished by a force necessary to overcome the intermolecular . Thus. the molecules at the new surfaces are attracted by equal forces in the horizontal plane and to the adjoining molecules beneath in the lower portion and. but prevention of emulsification by good mechanical maintenance is often helpful. It is a rule of nature that all energetic systems tend to seek the lowest level of free energy. Edgerton’s famous flash photograph “Coronet” of a drop of milk falling into a saucer of milk (Fig. The formation of a drop and its interface between oil and water requires energy. If the liquid is divided in a horizontal plane and separated into two parts. Impurities in the system. which is a characteristic of liquids (see Fig. In the case of a molecule internal to a liquid system. Indeed. and calcium are generally present in the water in decreasing order. and a hot object cools to the temperature of its environment. The O/W emulsions have the viscosity of water and may be milky or coffee-colored. clayey sands. etc. chemical constituents. will interfere with coalescence and reduce the free energy. sulfates. The energy of drop formation causes the drops to be spherical. The energy also tends to cause the drops to coalesce and to settle to bulk water. a pressure tends to relieve itself. Concentration of salts in the brine varies widely from field to field. magnesium. surface tension. The mineralogy and petrology of geologic formations (e. an elevated object tends to fall. upward for the upper section. and carbonates of sodium.g. particularly if the pumping equipment is worn and wire-drawing of the mixture occurs. As the ratio of water to oil increases to predominantly water.) and production methods will determine the size distribution and stability of emulsion particles. there is a tendency for inverse emulsions (oil-in-water) to be formed. Drop formation by agitation is beautifully demonstrated by Dr. Chlorides. Treatment of inverse emulsions is done by chemical methods.110 reducing commercially the water contents in specific crude oils to lower values by even the best dehydration methods. however. because this shape represents the least area and free energy for a given volume..) in diameter. limestones. Particle size is of the order mentioned above.

The work done in increasing a surface area is that which is necessary to move a molecule to t -0-I c f Molecule at the interlace Molecule internal to the liquid Fig. a convenient mathematical concept. 111 Fig.- surfaces. The product of the vertical force times the short distance through which the forces are significant is the work done in forming the +. Numerically. This is the “free energy” of the system. formation of drops. which is. . 4-2. “Coronet”. Forces of attraction between molecules. at least. the “free energy” per unit area is equal to the “surface tension”. attraction in the vertical direction. 4-1. It is proportional to the area of the surfaces formed.

For example. molecules which have external electrical fields) or groups of molecules in the oil. In impure systems. Interfacial tension between crude oil and water varies from about 20 dynes/cm to 32 dynes/cm. Both types of emulsion tend to resolve and the surviving type (O/W or W/O) depends largely on the nature of the stabilizer and the phase ratio. Stabilizers constitute the third essential component of stable emulsions of oil and water. such as hexane: the drops coalesce to form free water. water itself being highly polar. Further reference to “emufsions” in this chapter implies water-in-oil type emulsions. In the latter case. film around the drop. Polar molecules (i. which is the predominant type in crude oil production. impurities from the water side may be adsorbed to the interface. The surface tension of water at 20°C is 73 dynes/cm.112 the unbalanced forces at the surface from the interior of the liquid where the forces are balanced. another form of energy degradation may precede and prevent coalescence. and sediments. both types of emulsion are formed.e. such as is the case with the soaps (e. The total area of interface formed would be 400 ft2. The foregoing is true whether the material at the new surface is in contact with a gas. When molecules are present that are attracted and enveloped by the water on one end and the oil on the other. friction in lines. there will be about 2 trillion of them. thereby increasing the dehydration problem. calcium naphthenate). The free energy tends to subside and will do so in pure systems of distilled water and a pure hydrocarbon. If present. Such surface-active materials are called stabilizers or emulsifying agents. some material will be adsorbed to the oil-water interface. Of these. Emulsion that has been held in storage may have been “aged”. If the water is divided into drops 0. They give rise to a physical barrier that prevents water drops from getting close enough for the intermolecular forces (water-to-water attraction) to be of sufficient strength to bring about coalescence.g. asphaltenes are most prominent. Interfacial adsorption of these surface-active materials results in a reduction of free energy. will be subject to somewhat lower intermolecular forces. such as air. porphyrins. organic acids.. in half a gallon of oil. in diameter. This area can gather a considerable amount of stabilizer or dust. waxes. or another immiscible liquid.0001 in. When oil and water are vigorously mixed. Stabilization of the interface begins at the instant a drop is formed. as is the case with oil and water. the interface becomes . metallo-organic salts. the extraneous molecules (similar in kind) have a mutual attraction. almost equal to the surface of two 9 X 12 ft rugs on both sides. oxygenated sulfur and nitrogen compounds. resins. that are least similar to the most prevalent oil molecular species. a 1% emulsion consists of about one cubic inch of water. but primarily the minor phase tends to become dispersed. Being less attracted to the internal body of the oil and by virtue of its polar nature. whereas that of most organic liquids is about 28 dynes/cm. Such materials include asphalt. The process is called “aging”. or pressure drop through valves. When concentrated. which results in an elastic. however. The formation of an emulsion involves the creation of enormous areas of interface with attendant free energy that is supplied by agitation in pumps. “interfacial tension” is the expression used. asphaltenes. sometimes tough and viscous. It may proceed rapidly or extend over a period of days..

Nonetheless. the free surface energy may become very low. the penalty for inefficient heating is multiplied and treatment by heat is fast becoming obsolete or an accessory to other methods. Consequently. The most effective and efficient source of heat is that of the producing formation. “aging” of the emulsion and emulsifi- cation by surface equipment is held to a minimum.g. its use has decreased in favor of more efficient means or their combinations. fuel gas. the encroachment of water may be delayed. Thus. and (4) gravitational settling. coalescence of the droplets. even a slight loss of API gravity may lower the price into the next lower bracket. difference between the gravity of oil and that of water. and the emulsion will be very resistant to treatment. Heating the oil to promote dehydration has been used from the earliest days of oil industry. it decreases the viscosity. Like many tools that have served well in terms of effectiveness. Heat also reduces viscosity of the oil. whereas the degree of emulsification may be mitigated by good equipment mainte- nance. is now a valuable product. DEHYDRATION Dehydration is concerned with reduction. The means of treatment are: (1) heat. unstabilized drops of salty water.. a large proportion of oil that is produced must be treated. that was formerly wasted. and cohesion of the film. or counteraction of the stabilizing films. however. (2) chemical destabilization. loss of connate heat is avoided. Frequently no additional heat is required for such treatment and maximum efficiency is gained at minimum cost. e.5%. thickness. Furthermore. (3) electrical coalescence. to some extent. removal. By treating oil on the flowline as close to the well as other considerations permit. rupture. but a reduction in price because of a decrease in the API gravity. and gravitational separation of the oil and water phases in a relatively brief residence time. According to Stokes’ law. therefore. Heat Heat increases the solvency of the bulk oil for the stabilizer and the rate of diffusion of the stabilizer into the bulk oil. 20 min. Decrease in the API gravity of one degree corresponds to a volume loss of about 2. and the viscosity of the oil. Such “flowline treatment”. 113 indistinct. produced water may be unemulsified (or “free water”) and will separate rapidly unassisted. Thus. the most favorable combination for separation exists when the oil has high API gravity and low viscosity. . is highly desirable. velocity of settling of a water drop is proportional to the cross-sectional area. In some instances. Furthermore. Evaporation losses from heat result not only in a loss of oil volume. By good production practice. and water consists of large.

are of such dimension. therefore. Petrolite Corporation. Thousands of his “Tret-0-Lite”* demulsifier com- pounds have been used wherever oil is produced. William S . Inasmuch as these forces vary inversely as the seventh power of the distance between molecules. The mechanism of the chemical process is not explicable by any simple theory. it is usually added to the oil at the wellhead. the remaining problem is bringing the drops into very close contact quickly and without such severe turbulence that could cause the drops to redisperse. and of such arrangement at the interface that the film quality and thickness are drastically changed. in such limited concentration. Chemical additives The emulsion can be further modified by addition of chemical destabilizers. having caused the natural skin to recede from part or all of the interface. Selection of a compound is ordinarily accomplished by actual test on a sample of emulsion. These surface-active agents adsorb to the water-oil interface. Time and turbulence aid diffusion of the treating chemical through the oil to the interface. however. The synthetic interfacial material. comprises a thin film susceptible to rupture by the attractive intermolecular forces of water-to-water at very close distances. * Registered Trademark. Figure 4-3 shows the effect of additions of destabilizer to an oil-water interfacial film. The added molecules. rupturing the skin and/or displacing the stabilizer back into the oil. The motivation derives from a still further lowering of the interfacial tension of the drop. Barnickel discovered and pioneered the use of treating chemicals about sixty-eight years ago. Rupture of emulsion film by chemical destabilizer. 4-3.114 Fig. .

b exhibits the displacement of charges on a single drop (induced dipole) by an applied field. In Fig. Effect of electric field on water drops in oil. The interaction of a field and induced dipoles is illustrated in the drawings and photomicrographs of Fig. 4-4. The collision and coalescence of drops is accomplished by an induced dipole attraction between them. Electrical treatment The application of electric field is a powerful tool for causing dispersed drops to rapidly collide with one another and for overcoming the resistance of stabilizing films. Full-line drawing in Fig. After coalescence.b. 4-4. There is a displacement of electric charges induced on it. a single water drop is shown in an alternating electric field. separation of the phases is due to gravity. The broken-line drawing and photo are explained later. 4-4.a shows a suspended uncharged particle. 115 0 ( C ) Fig. 4-4. whereas Fig.c represents the effect of an applied field upon adjacent particles separated by a distance equal to a few radii. The field and the induced charges shown in this figure reverse 120 times per second. 4-4. but the relationship holds at any . Figure 4-4.

If the field is disconnected. however. F. In the process. While the drop is distorted and under the influence of the field. (4-1) d4 where K is the dielectric constant of the oil. 4-4. the force increases very rapidly as drop size increases and as the distance between particles decreases.c show a large drop dispersing toward a smaller stable drop. The left end is electrically attracted to the left by the field and the right end is pulled to the right. Conductance between drops reduces attraction. Optimum gradients and electrode configuration have been determined by 70 years of worldwide practical application.116 instant. The drop is an induced dipole. The final contaminant content of the crude oil may be a few parts per million. is the critical dispersing gradient at the surface of the drop. The electrodes establish the electric field to whch the drop is responsive. salt particles in the residual BSW are dissolved and dispersed by added fresh water (about 5%). and d is the distance between centers. since Dr. Accordingly. salt specifications are being imposed on oil moved by pipelines and tankers in many . Desalting is the removal of contaminants (salts and sediments) that reside in crude oil after normal dehydration has reduced the BSW to pipeline specification.G. the highly-polar stabilizing film will be responsive. T is the interfacial tension. There is a limitation of the size to which the drops may coalesce for a given field strength and a maximum voltage that may be applied to a given system. Inasmuch as the forces are equal and opposite in direction. The attractive coalescing force. The principles have been extended to other applications of which electrical desalting of crude oil is the most important. Broken-line drawing and photo in Fig. there is a corresponding maximum size beyond which drops discharge small droplets. the drop remains in place and merely elongates. a is the drop radius. after which brine droplets are electrically coalesced and separated by gravity. F. C is a proportionality constant. This is due to a tendency for electrically charged drops to disperse. Cottrell invented electrical dehydration. between the aligned drops of equal size is equal to: 6KE2a6 F= . Action is almost instantaneous. For any effective coalescing gradient in a given system. Though desalting equipment is a normal part of all refineries. and coalescence can more readily occur when the drops come in contact. The condition necessary for stability in undisturbed drops is given by the following relationship: where E. E is the potential gradient. and a is the drop radius. the drop resumes its spherical shape and there is no residual change as a result of the electric field application.

Fig. Pictorial assembly of Petreco” electric dehydrator. ‘I . 4-5.

“Petreco”* desalters.5% BSW. * Registered Trademark. first used about 1935.000 bpd (bbl/D) in a single unit. ELECTRIC DEHYDRATORS Through the years. meeting specifications as low as about one part per million chloride content. 4-5. Design features of dehydrators of all sizes are essentially similar. These features are shown in Fig. operating voltages are 480 V at switchboard and Fig. design of dehydrators has progressed steadily from the early models treating a few hundred barrels per day and delivering oil with a few per cent of BSW up to the current dehydrator models delivering from 1000 to 182. Venezuela. Size ranges from 6 ft in diameter by 12 ft long to 14 ft in diameter by 140 ft long. Normally.000 bbl/D containing less than 0. 4-6. Equipment (10x21 ft Petreco dehydrator: first floor) for handling production at Lake Maracaibo.118 parts of the world. have been applied to streams of a few hundred barrels per day to up to 300. . Petrolite Corporation.

Typical “Petreco” electric dehydrator. Fig. and meets all safety require- ments. For heavy crude oils the load may be 2 kW per 1000 bbl/D capacity. The operation of a large number of wells is controlled at these “stations”. Cost of dehydrators varies inversely with the size and the API gravity of the crude oil. All electrical equipment is enclosed and protected against overload. to conform with the restriction that no fire is permitted. “Tret-0-Lite” demulsifier. The electrical dehydrators operate at a well temperature ( = 130°F). An important feature of the design is to combine the dual function of electrical coalescence with optimum settling in a single vessel. Venezuela. thereby impressing the sum of the two voltages upon the field. Ordinarily. both electrodes may be electrified with opposing polarity.000 bbl of oil per day from 50%to 0. in the amount of about 6 ppm is added to the oil prior to electrical treatment. 119 16. Optionally. Electric power consumption varies according to the conductivity of the crude oil. The internal piping and electrode arrangement is directed to this end. Electrical dehydrators are adaptable to special situations.500 V at electrode. Figure 4-6 shows an installation in Lake Maracaibo.5 kW for each 1000 bbl/D capacity. Residence time of the crude oil in the dehydrator is about 20 min. the least conductive crude oils have high API gravity for whxh the load is about 0.3%. Large units treating high-API-gravity crude oils are most economical in cost. . 4-7. The 10 x 12 ft “Petreco” dehydrator reduces the water content of 12.

120 GAS GAS OUT [RELIEF INLET FIRE TUBE AA WATER DRAIN WATER DRAIN OUT OUT Fig.A.S. .Facilities for Gulf Coast. offshore production. 4-8.. 4-9. Fig. U. Diagram of “chemelectric” treater.

which is an ideal arrangement. heat. pumping. piping. 121 Figure 4-7 shows a typical 10 X 41 ft “Petreco” dehydrator installed in the Linda Field. chemical destabilization. Petrolite Corporation. * Registered Trademark. heating. production. and labor has resulted from coordi- nation of the several treating elements to produce the best end result for the least cost. The “chemelectric” dehydrator is ideally adapted for lease automation and flowline installation. the oil is treated with a minimum of handling and “aging”. vapor losses. This dehydrator is treating 35. 4-10. .000 bbl of 17” API crude oil per day. “ Chemelectric” treater for Colombia. AUTOMATED DEHYDRATION The Petreco “chemelectric”* dehydrator is a combination unit for oil-gas sep- aration. Aside from the convenience. a substantial saving in investment. Indonesia. real estate. chemicals. The combination of treating elements makes it possible to proportion them for Fig. and electrical dehydration of oil as it is produced from the wells. Thus. South America.

such as increasing content of chemicals and reducing heat. Figure 4-8shows diagrammati- cally the operation of a “chemelectric” unit. LACT operation treaters in Oklahoma. or fire. Oil is received from offshore in the high-pressure gas separators at lower left.500V transformer and the vessel contains the high-voltage cable. 4-10. best operation. The unit will degass and dehydrate 10.A. such as flooding by water. Figure 4-9 is an aerial view of an automated installation for handling offshore production. In Fig. in the Gulf Coast. The highly simplified enclosed electrical gear of the “chemelectric” treater is presented in Fig. . 4-12. or to increase the throughput capacity by adjustment of both.000 bbl/D of 20” API crude oil containing up to 20%water and 3 MMscf of gas per day. Figure 4-11 shows 6 x 15 ft and 10 x 20 f t “chemelectric” treaters installed on a LACT lease at County Line. South America. finally. through meters on platform at center to transfer to storage tank at upper left.a 10 x 25 ft “chemelectric” treater is being installed in Colombia. Oklahoma. 4-11.122 Fig. This unit is especially useful in dehydrating the very stable emulsions produced by secondary recovery operations. U. The conduit between the 16.S. steam. Then it flows through the two “chemelectric” treaters at right center and.

(3) List different types of electric dehydrators. and economy. (4) Illustrate method of arranging electric dehydrator equipment. It must be remembered that the gravity. (2) Describe the two steps involved in dehydration by electrical method. SAMPLE QUESTIONS (1) Draw a schematic vertical cross section through an electrical dehydrator. 123 Fig. . the combination of heat to modify the oil. Whatever the situation. reliability. and asphaltic content of the crude oil together with the gas pressure and the methods of production will influence both the equipment cost and the cost of operation. viscosity. and electricity to consummate the operation will provide versatility. 4-12. chemicals to modify the emulsion. Electrical equipment on “chemelectric” treater. The latter may vary from a few tenths of a cent per barrel to a few cents per barrel.

R. Chem. Mines Bull..D. Vol.E. 1937.. Sept.Hardwicke.C. Phys... Swigart... 1965.B. Dallas.T. Colloid Chemistty. pp. G.L. Chem. VI. and F. 925-931.. Rheinhold. 61(10): 51-57... May 14: 538-544. Inst. C. Soc. Factors in the Stability of Petroleum Emulsions. Div.. Waterman. J. Am. L.124 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The help extended by D. N. G.M. Pap. Div. Tex. Progr.Interfacial films affecting the stability of petroleum emulsions.. 1960. Ind. Monson. 36: 3087-3107.. Alexander (Editor). Greenlee.. C... Practices and Methoah of Preventing and Treating Crude Oil Emulsions. Chem. Chem.H. Eng.. Watson is greatly appreciated by the authors. Am. 1960. Chem. L. 535-552.W. Kraft. Histoty of Petroleum Engineering. and Stenzel. Bur. theory and practice. T. R. 1961.Y. Pet. 1946.C. pp. Prod. 11-16.A new theory of emulsions.The technology of resolving emulsions. Electrical coalescers. . New York. REFERENCES Blair.. In: J. Shea. Pet. Prepr. Roberts.W. 417: 106 pp.M. 1932.

The dispersed droplets are known as the internal phase. and refiner of petro- leum. As oil fields grow older and are subjected to secondary recovery waterflooding. It is effective. Petroleum emulsions of the oil-in-water and water-in-oil type plus any free water present cause serious problems to the producer. . and inexpensive. and chemelectric treaters. the “reverse” or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are increasing. the use of oil-in-water demulsifiers and water clarification equipment has become an important aspect of the processing of crude oil in the field. With the increasing government regulations on effluent water and the cost of crude oil. although as the water cut increases and secondary recovery methods are employed. BESSLER and GEORGE V. scale formation. 125 Chapter 5 CHEMICAL RESOLUTION OF PETROLEUM EMULSIONS DONALD U. transporter. Reduced transportation costs. and bacterial growth can be achieved by removing the water in the field. easily practiced. They generally form a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. increased throughput of pipelines. Older oil fields that have been waterflooded for many years may have 95-98% water produced along with the crude oil. CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION More than 80% of the crude produced in the world comes to the surface with various amounts of free and emulsified water. oil and water are encountered as the two phases. Chemical resolution of petroleum emulsions of both types is an established routine procedure in the production and handling of crude oil throughout the world. when used with settling tanks. The liquid surround- ing the dispersed droplets is the external or continuous phase. The emulsifying agent separates the dispersed droplets from the continuous phase. NATURE OF EMULSIONS Definition of emulsions An emulsion can be defined as a mixture of two mutually immiscible liquids. and reduc- tion in corrosion. the amount of water increases. heater treaters. one of which is dispersed as droplets in the other and is stabilized by an emulsifying agent. In the oil field.

126 Basically. clays. The molecules of emulsifier are mutually repulsed.. Besides these three components. Role of the emulsifier Emulsifiers are surface-active materials found in crude oil or added as in the case of sulfonate floods. At this time. The type of emulsifying agent will drastically affect the stability of an emulsion. i. nitrogen. With time. The emulsifier either tends towards insolubility in either liquid phase or has an attrac- tion for both phases.e. if confined in the same container. (c) Emulsifying agent-stabilizes the dispersion. and (3) suspending water droplets. creosols. Their activity is generally related to two general functions. The more shearing action that is applied to the oil-water mixture. The three principal actions of the emulsifier are: (1) reducing surface tension. Stable emulsions have been found to contain all sizes of droplets. Pure water and oil which contains no emulsifying agents will never form an emulsion no matter how much agitation is applied. certain conditions must also be met before an emulsion could form. The size of the dispersed water drops is a measure of stability. organic acids. 5-1 and 5-2.the continuous or external phase. (b) There must be sufficient agitation to disperse the water as droplets in the oil. there are three components in a water-in-oil emulsion: (a) Water-the dispersed or internal phase. These include asphaltenes (a general term applied to a large variety of chemical compositions containing sulfur. with . (See Figs. but always concentrates at the interface. the more the water will be divided into smaller drops and the more stable the emulsion becomes. and oxygen). that of a sphere. A drop of water in a body of oil will take the shape which gives the least surface area. Stability of emulsions The stability of emulsions is dependent on the various factors described below: (1) Drop size. phenols. resins. the emulsifying agent may be evenly distributed throughout the oil. but the percentage of larger droplets is very small. (b) Oil. (2) forming a physical barrier. This migration. Inasmuch as these two liquids “dislike” each other intensely. the agent migrates to the oil-water interface due to its surface-active characteristics. they will quickly find a state of existence which gives the least contact or the smallest surface area. metallic salts.) ( 2 ) Type of emulsifier. silts. and many others. When the water and oil first mix. the emulsion may be relatively unstable. There is a considerable difference in the power of different agents.speed of migration to the interface. and performance at that site. The type and severity of agitation generally deter*nes the drop size. The inclusion of solids tends to stabilize these emulsions to an even greater degree. Two conditions necessary to form a stable emulsion are: (a) The two liquids must be immiscible.

which tends to cause coalescence or dispersion. but this is more than offset by the difficulty of resolving what is formed and promoting water separation. the emulsion may invert and the water then becomes the continuous phase. two forces are at work: (a) Interfacial tension. The repelling action of like charges prevents the droplets from approaching each other close enough to allow coalescence. usually negative. The droplets of the dispersed phase are surrounded by a film which possesses a charge. thus. The absorption of substances (emulsifying agents) at this boundary surface is important in changing the surface tension between the two phases. At the time the globules are dispersed in the continuous phase. it may lead to the formation of a tough membrane. Emulsification is brought about by the emulsifying agents. If the coherence of an agent is so great that the surface tension cannot overcome it. (5) Solids. produces a thicker and tougher film surrounding the droplet. (8) Film strength. Surface tension of an emulsion system refers to the surface tension of the continuous phase-dispersed phase boundary surface and is called interfacial tension. ( 3 ) Water content. The presence of some foreign materials in an emulsion . so that they will remain dispersed. therefore. the high-viscosity oil is able to maintain larger drops of dispersed water in suspension and smaller dispersed droplets will have an even greater resistance to settling. Thicker crudes also retard the movement of emulsifier particles to the interface. 127 time. which increases the emulsion stability. on dilution with water. the effect of which extends outward into both phases. Water content above 50% tends to encourage the formation of water as an external phase. In general. The viscosity of the external or oil phase plays a dual role. The amount of water present in the regular emulsion and available at the time agitation takes place is directly related to the emulsion’s stability. they acquire an electrical charge which is located at the interfacial boundary of the oil and water. On the other hand. the size of the water droplet will depend on the emulsifying solid. Generally. At the interface and between the phases of an emulsion. Many of the same assumptions discussed for the emulsifying agent will apply. the emulsion is stable. ( 6 ) Efectrical charge. When the concentration of absorbed materials is sufficiently high. In the case of solids. In an oil having a high viscosity (high resistance to flow). (7) Surface tension. it can be said that higher-viscosity (lower-API gravity) crudes form less stable emulsions in terms of many small water drops. (4) Viscosity. resulting in an emulsion that is more difficult to break than the fresh one. which lower the interfacial tension between the two phases. which tends to resist coalescence. as the water content increases. Emulsions can be stabilized by the presence of solids. The existence of electrical charges on the water globules can cause the globules to be mutually repelling. the stability of the emulsion decreases. and (b) coherence of the film of emulsion of emulsifying agent around the dispersed phase. a given amount of agitation will not break up the water phase into droplets as numerous or fine as would be the case with a lower-viscosity oil.

and associated impurities.128 Fig. whereas others are essentially non-saline. but with impurities. tend to go to the interface. the action between droplets is increased and more rapid settling is promoted.20. Loose emulsion with larger dispersed droplets (a loose emulsion is less stable than tight emulsion because the large dispersed droplets tend to settle easily). Fig. The waters associated with crude oils likewise vary widely in characteristics. Consequently. It is this action that causes crudes to “age” and become more difficult to treat with time. crude oil emulsions are stabilized by a variety of materials. 5-2. Another factor that affects emulsion stability and settling time is the relative density of the oil and water. Normally. The smaller droplets are harder to rupture than the larger ones. Inasmuch as the lower-API gravity crudes are thicker. It is not necessary to determine the exact character of the emulsifying agent to resolve the emulsion by the use of chemical demulsifiers. As this difference becomes greater. The film strength of a drop of water. the more rapid the aging process. therefore. To break the film. As discussed earlier. the naturally occurring emulsifiers in crude oil are initially dispersed throughout the oil. chemical constitution. it is necessary to introduce chemical action and/or to apply heat to rupture this film. the higher the API gravity. depending upon the origin of the crude. CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION Crude oils differ in characteristics according to their geological age. this action is slower as is the aging process. 5-1. increases the strength of the film surrounding a drop of water. (10) Aging. (9) Density. Tight emulsion with small dispersed droplets which have considerable resistance to settling (a tight emulsion is usually a stable emulsion). varies not only with drop size. and after mixing with water. . Some have densities greater than 1.

. Monson. and stock tanks. Oil-bearing formations commonly contain in addition to petroleum. The agitation arising from the turbulent flow of the oil and the water through the well casing. Diagram of typical flowline treatment system. tubing. Treating plant with gas separator. Inasmuch as crude oil usually contains sufficient emulsifying agents to stabilize an emulsion. gun barrel. and sometimes Ba2+. Ca2+. Ions present usually include Na+. Gas v e n t Fro w line LHeofer fue/line Chemicol Gas Heater Conductor Settling Storoge tank feeder +ank Fig. HCO. Mg”. and surface equipment is usually sufficient to give rise to emulsification. Heavy line shows flow of chemicalized liquids. 5-3. Many variations of this basic design are possible. 129 Fig.) . SO:-. varying proportions of water and natural gas. (Courtesy of Dr. all elements shown here may not be required in all installations. C1-. Louis T. it is only necessary that the well produces some water as well as oil and that sufficient agitation be available to accomplish the required mixing. 5-4.

with certain assumptions listed below. (2) It increases the difference in the specific weight between water and oil. (3) lower gravity of produced oil. The use of heat in treating contributes several advantages but at a loss of profits due to unnecessary costs. and chemical used. as common carriers. thus improving the rate of emulsion breaking. and/or chemical concentration. The permissible maximum is determined in part by the ease or difficulty with which the emulsions can be commercially resolved. 5-4. the heater fuel has a definite value. fuel for heating was provided by the produced gas. therefore. REDUCED-TEMPERATURE TREATING In the past. and (4) equipment failure. High-API gravity crudes often have a 0. but in general it is less than 3% and in most cases it is less than 1%. with little or no value being placed on it. pour point. Today. (2) lower volume of produced oil. and economics of operation have renewed interest in treating the crude oil in the field at lower temperatures.00/Mcf 150 Btu/bbl oil/OF .2% maximum allowable water content. (4) It improves the mobility of demulsifier and water droplets. with a market for everything produced. crude oil prices. usually at or near the point of production. crude oil is required to be “treated”. 5-3 and 5-4. From this it can be seen that if the treating temperature is reduced.) A diagram of a typical flowline treatment system is shown in Fig. Reducing the heat required is not novel and this has been done for many years. this value can be calculated. have long-established specifications for crude oil which preclude the introduction into their lines or systems of any lot of oil that contains more than a predetermined (small) maximum percentage of water and emulsion. The increased cost of fuel. agitation. Heating of crude oil influences the treating process in several ways: (1) It makes the oil thinner and. to resolve any emulsion present and to remove the water which is separated in the process. it may be necessary to increase the time. Assumptions: Fuel gas value = $2. There was also an abundance of crude and the losses incurred were not considered significant. causing the water droplets to fall faster.1 or 0. thereby removing them from the interface. Those costs are reflected in: (1) the amount of fuel used for heating. For example. (3) It melts and solubilizes solids such as paraffin. The amount of heat required to treat a given crude will depend on gravity.130 The pipeline and other transportation companies. which may be acting to stabilize the emulsion. time. Consequently. In the past. (See Figs. viscosity. water droplets are able to fall faster. equipment. the energy required to heat crude oil was supplied by products produced on the lease or of such a low cost that no significant importance was given to them by many companies.

87/100 bbl. the profit loss may be appreciable. At $2. At a value of $31. Compared to the previously calculated heat cost of $89.08 per 100 bbl of treated oil. heat exchange efficiency. While this constitutes a definite operating expense or potential profit loss.02 penalty per 1.87. Costs attributable to heat in the above examples total $89. The increase in the amount of chemical necessary to add will fluctuate considerably depending on the crude oil and the temperature range involved.9%. some if not all of the added heat can be replaced by a chemical.00/bbl.60/100 bbl. which was an increase from two quarts per 100 bbl at 140°F to six quarts per 100 bbl at 80"F. the net saving by reducing heat would be $81. At a typical cost of $8. 131 300 Btu/bbl water/"F 30% water-cut emulsion 50% heating efficiency 1100 Btu gas 60°F temperature rise Then the cost of fuel gas would be $6.19/100 bbl as a result of volume loss at the hgher temperature.87/100 bbl plus equipment maintenance costs. treater pressure.71/100 bbl. this amounts to a profit loss of $2. Field evaluation of three leases producing broadly differing gravity crudes showed the following: With 60°F temperature rise and 25 psig treater pressure.90/100 bbl.0" API gravity drop.00/gal for chemical.00/100 bbl. and other factors. Experience shows that with most oilfield emulsions.9% volume loss on a 30" API crude oil exhibits a gravity loss of 1. a 60" heat reduction from 140°F to 80°F required three times as much chemical. The percentage loss is quite variable and subject to such influences as crude gravity and composition. A 2.00/Mcf. At a $0. This allows for adjustments as needed to prevent possible accumulations of "bad" oil. it is recommended that this be done 20°F at a time. CHEMICAL RESOLUTION PROCESS The problem of resolving water-in-oil emulsions has been approached in a number of ways over the years. temperature change. the increased cost would be $8. Today. or an increase of 1. this results in a loss of $89. it will fluctuate so broadly that no attempt will be made here to affix a dollar value. vapor pressure increases and light ends evaporate. Reducing heat can be a good way to sell more oil and increase profits. thus reducing volume and API gravity. volume of saleable oil was reduced by an average of 2.0 gal. Increased heat results in increased scaling and more frequent burnout of fire tubes. the value of the increased gas produced at the higher temperature averaged $8.3" API. however. time. This yields a net loss of $81. Loss of light ends results in a decrease in gravity. the chemical demulsification . Relating to the previously used example. As oil is heated. As a practical approach to reducing heat. Inasmuch as much crude is sold on a sliding scale with the posted price decreasing as the gravity decreases.

and the occasional presence of such other materials as fine silt and various formation particles. it works by flocculation. at a particular location.S. The highly specific nature of the chemical reagents used today to resolve petroleum emulsions suggests that the mechanism of the resolution process is quite complex. This is not totally unexpected. who discovered that mixing a minute proportion of a properly selected chemical composition with a petroleum emulsion. and solids wetting. the . as described below. under suitable operating conditions. It was pioneered by William S.and oil-dispersible. cationic.). The first action of the demulsifier on the emulsion involves a joining together or flocculation of the small water drops. aqueous phase composition. a number of which may be in use in a single oil field at any one time. the better job it can do. whereas others are apparently not soluble or dispersible in any appreciable concentration in either the aqueous or oily media. It can easily be shown that tens of thousands of different emulsion systems could be produced from crude oils and oil field waters. Louis. After it reaches the interface. demulsifiers are very similar in nature to emulsifiers. Barnickel. coalescence. When magnified. Action of demulsifiers Strangely enough. (1) Flocculation. They may be anionic. The action is all at the oil-water interface and. phase/volume ratio of the two liquids in any emulsion. are water-soluble or water-dispersible. the manufacturers supplying reagents for their resolution commonly make many different commercial formula- tions. a pharmaceutical chemist from St. Some chemical demulsifiers.A. All these facts have not simplified the problem of evolving a theory which will satisfactorily explain observed field results. Before one can determine which class of reagent is most effective in a particular application. Obsolescence rates are high and a reagent of one type may be succeeded by another having entirely different composition and properties. As a consequence. For oil-in-water emulsions. reagent selection is ordinarily accomplished by actual demulsification tests on a representa- tive sample of the emulsion. if one recalls all the possible combinations arising from the variations in crude oil composition. Some chemicals are both water. such as the early soap reagents.132 process is by far the most widely used in the oil industry. Inorganic reagents are rarely used today in W/O “regular” emulsions. and that it cannot be explained by any simple theory. whereas others are oil-soluble or oil-dispersible. therefore. or nonionic depending on the type of emulsion to be resolved. would cause the water to separate. and many other facts must be known. conditions of production. The scientific basis for the resolution phenomenon is not yet well defined. the actions of oil-in-water demulsifiers are very similar. Minnesota (U. but are still commonly used in O/W “reverse” emulsions. the formation from which the emulsion was produced. the faster the demulsifier gets there. Because of the variability of petroleum emulsions.

133 flocks take on the appearance of bunches of fish eggs. If the emulsifier film surrounding the water drop is very weak. the actual location of the injection point must be properly chosen. In most cases. In most crude oils. is beneficial in promoting coalescence. these solids can be dispersed in the oil or water-wetted and removed with the water. Once this process of coalescence begins. . Additional hard agitation may or may not be beneficial. The rupturing of the emulsifier film and the uniting of water droplets is defined as coalescence. clay. A good point is at the wellhead (Fig. Good flocculation is characterized by bright oil. the water droplets grow large enough to settle out. etc. To effectively use the large number of different demulsifier formulations requires a proficient method for selecting the proper compound for a given emulsion and system. Often such solids are the primary stabilizing material and their removal is all that is necessary to acheve satisfactory treatment. mixing. For removal from the interface. and time for the chemical to exert its influence on the emulsion before entering any other equipment. It should be located at a point far enough upstream from the treating equipment to allow adequate mixing. Increase in the amount of gentle agitation. drilling mud solids. it will break under this flocculation force and coalescence will take place without further chemical action. or any other location in the system that produces severe agitation once the emulsion has broken. solids such as iron sulfide. the film remains intact and. This reemulsification may occur in gas separators. however. Good coalescence is characterized by a good water drop. (3) Solids wetting. complicate the demulsification process. Reemulsification may occur if severe agitation is given to an emulsion once it has broken into water and oil. In order to get the most out of chemical injections. additional treatment is required. Agitation Sufficient agitation must be applied to the crude oil after the introduction of chemical. OPERATING PROCEDURES Chemical injection The purpose of the chemical injection is to introduce a chemical into the wellstream so that it will neutralize the foreign materials acting as emulsifying agents and permit the separation of water. silt. (2) Coalescence. paraffin. therefore. There should be sufficient turbulence. such as in flow lines and settling tanks. pumps. 5-5) or the location of some other restriction such as a choke or header..

In general. Larger units can also be found where all the wells go into a free wqter knockout after the manifold. Unless some means is taken to conserve these. While gentle movement will aid in coalescence. . and (3) alters the difference in gravity of the fluids and thereby tends to reduce the settling time. that heat vaporizes the light ends of the oil. heat accelerates the treating process and is used primarily to reduce the size of the treating vessel. a reduction in API gravity and volume will result and it may be more beneficial to treat the crude oil at lower temperatures. Free water is defined as water produced with the oil that will settle out within five minutes while the well fluids are stationary in a settling space within a vessel. however. coalescing. and by the size and condition of the water drops. more severe turbulence in the settling section will increase the settling time. All operations involv- ing the use of heat. In either case. Other fields may have requirements of 20%or even as low as pipeline oil. Settling Settling is the basic component in all treating procedures. or mechanical devices are designed to prepare the oil-water mixture for the settling step in the chemelectric heater treater or settling tank. and settling. Heat aids the treatment in the following three ways: (1) reduces the viscosity of the oil. Mechanical systems Free water knockout Many of the free water knockout systems used in the field have been designed for specific applications. Free water knockout systems are generally used in connection with production having a high water/oil ratio. chemicals.134 Heating Many plants use heat in the treating process because it provides an aid to mixing. The treating vessel usually provides sufficient time for quiet settling to allow all the water to settle. viscosity of the oil. free water knockouts have been used to separate the oil and water produced from a single well or several wells. the amount of BSW leaving the knockout system is unimportant as long as the treating plant is operating effectively. In some areas. Separation of gas may also occur in the upper section of the knockout system. Time necessary to allow the water to settle is determined by the difference in specific gravity between the water and oil. their function is to remove the excessive volumes of free water ahead of the treating plant. It must be remembered. Specific application of a free water knockout system and requirements it is expected to fulfill may vary and will have to be determined for each location. (2) weakens or ruptures the film between the oil and water drops by expanding the water. after. Chemical injection may be applied before. In effect.

The water-oil interface will be at the bottom of the settling tank and will not interfere with the saleability of the oil. . Flowing well with wellhead connections. Gas separator Horizontal and vertical gas separators provide tremendous agitation potential. unwanted agitation will. 5-5. Without the efficient removal of gas in these vessels. The interface need not be clean. depending upon the separator design. Generally. Settling tanks The rate of water drop is not too important because the chemical may continue acting over a relatively long time. 135 or both ahead and behind of the free water knockout system. The use of chemicals. 5-6. which are referred to as a “Christmas tree”. be created in downstream treating vessels. An interface layer in a gun barrel sometimes helps to treat in that it acts as a filter for solids and unresolved Fig. it is ahead of the knockout system in order to assist in the removal of the water. but if an interface layer does develop. The evolution of the gas in itself creates the turbulence and agitation which may be even greater. it must stabilize at some acceptable thickness. (See Fig. The chemical may continue acting over a relatively long time.) Gun barrels Speed of water drop is generally not too important because gun barrels usually have a high volume to throughput ratio. will greatly aid in the removal of gas. at times. such as silicones.

Fresh oil containing demulsifier passing up through this interface layer helps treat it out and prevents an excessive buildup. Maximum permissible oil content is usually on the order of 25 ppm or even less. They are thereby dis- tinguishable from the more common water-in-oil type crude oil emulsions. so the chemical need not provide this. it behooves him to become familiar with the characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions. The chemical must break the emulsion rapidly and completely. Oil-in-water emulsions are readily miscible with water. therefore. they are unacceptable to disposal systems at such levels. build up into the electrical field. therefore. Inasmuch as solids tend to collect at the interface. Horizontal heater treater Horizontal heater treaters normally have a high throughput. which are miscible with oil. Solids control may be important in controlling the interface. The O/W emulsions are usually more fluid than W/O emulsions. so more complete treatment is necessary in a shorter time.136 emulsion. This type of treater can tolerate only very little interface accumulation. therefore. . the chemical must also control any solids which might be present. short it out. the less this can be tolerated and. Although such emulsions commonly contain less than 1% oil and frequently contain less than 1000 ppm of oil. Chemelectric treaters. RESOLUTION OF OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS Oil-in-water emulsions. The large interface area and shallow fluid depth require that the interface be maintained fairly clean. require a chemical to effectively water wet any solids which are present. The electric field promotes excellent water coales- cence. and being conductive. Electrical dehydration Inasmuch as chemelectric treaters are horizontal vessels. so chemical action must be fast. The higher the throughput. although not so commonly or widely encountered in oil-producing operations as the water-in-oil type. The electric field tends to throw down solids in the oil. be prepared to clean his waste water of oil before disposing of it. These solids then accumulate at the interface. are receiving increasing attention. With this higher throughput. The oil producer must. Thus. particularly because of the growing interest of governmental authorities in pollution prevention. the same general actions are required for them as for horizontal treaters. it is harder to stabilize an interface layer. Vertical heater treater Inasmuch as volume to throughput ratio in a vertical heater treater is generally lower than in a gun barrel. the more complete the chemical treatment must be. speed of chemical action becomes more important.

heat. Froth flotation procedures may be helpful in accelerating separation of the oil particles.000. time.000. An appreciable excess of reagent may produce an oil-in-water emulsion which is at least as stable and undesirable as the emulsion originally subjected to treatment. Heat is rarely useful in resolving oil-in-water emulsions chemically. in some cases. (2) the chemicalized emulsion is agitated to promote coalescence of the oil particles.000-1 : 200. It is important to note that. as treating temperatures are reduced. agitation. it may not be injecting properly. before “overtreat- ment” becomes apparent. however. an acceptably wide range of reagent concentrations will be found to produce satisfactory resolution of the emulsion. and check valves may be leaking. it is usually necessary to increase the amount of chemical or time. 137 Chemical demulsifiers have been developed which are extremely effective in recovering the oil dispersed in such emulsions. the first thing that must be done is to check to make sure that the correct amount of chemical is getting into the system. and (3) quiescent settling is thereafter provided in a suitable facility to achieve separation of the oil and water. therefore. which ordinarily have different composi- tions than water-in-oil demulsifiers. use of an excess of oil-in-water demulsifier is sometimes very disadvanta- geous. This reduces the cost of resolving oil-in-water emulsions and allows the producer to sell the recovered oil. For optimum results. Often treating problems which develop are a result of some malfunction in the mechanical system. Chemical injection If a system is not functioning properly.000-1 : 50. This is accomplished without the production of undesirable residues or flocs. For example. which may be aided by air-gas flotation. Ordinarily. pumps can become gas locked. another one must normally be changed in order to regain the most economical balance. . Filter screens can become plugged. the ratio of demulsifier to water-in-oil emulsion may be of the order of 1: 10. Even though a chemical injector is running properly. in contrast to the experience with water-in-oil emulsions. balls and seats may be worn. are usually effective in proportions much smaller than those required to resolve conventional water-in-oil type petroleum emulsions. The procedure for demulsifying oil-in-water emulsions is substantially similar to that described for water-in-oil emulsions: (1) The demulsifier is added to the emulsion in the required proportion. Oil-in-water demulsifiers. whereas the ratio of demulsifier to an oil-in-water emulsion is more likely to be of the order of 1:40. which would themselves present dis- posal problems. they are in balance with each other. and. If one of these variables is changed. electricity are used to produce good treatment. TROUBLE SHOOTING When chemical.

it is possible for foam to build up and carry emulsion out the gas outlet. normally a 2%solution is made in diesel or other solvent and then injected into the well fluids. Injection of 1-5 ppm of a silicone prior to the gas separator (Fig. the various problems possible in the system should be checked. 5-6. Ineffective gas removal in the separator can cause some rolling of fluids in vessels at atmospheric pressure or in pressure vessels where operating pressures are exceeded. Chemical should be injected at a mixing point and relocation of the pump may solve the problem. Beam pumping unit with settling tanks at ambient temperature. Fig. A suitable demulsifier will break the foam and release the gas. . resulting in release of solids from the emulsion. especially if the solids content is high.138 Check the location of the chemical pump. Unless the silicone is an emulsion type. however. Gas separators Gas separators can be plagued by solids buildup. This may be particularly true if the demulsifier is injected prior to the separator. but if excessive foam is the problem and the chemical does not readily break the emulsion and release the gas at this point. 5-7) may be beneficial to proper separator performance. Before bottle testing is done. Changing conditions of the wellstream may necessitate a change in the chemical used.

Corrosion of the weir boxes will also result in excessive water carry-over. Poorly operating interface level controllers can upset the interface level and cause a loss of water resulting in oil being dumped out. exces- sive agitation can be detrimental. . depending on the mineral content of the water. it may not have sufficient quiet time to release the water. Flow splitters When flow splitters are provided with coalescing and knockout sections. When the water leg carries free oil. This can be eliminated by the installation of a vortex breaker. it may be caused by the demulsifier either being too slow or developing a poor interface. Any part of the system where a pressure drop across a water outlet line occurs is susceptible to scaling. Flowline header with chemical injection and vertical gas separator. An associated problem concerning a water-dump valve is a vortex reaching up into the interface. 139 Fig. resulting in water carry-over. Free water knockout If the demulsifier is sensitive to excessive agitation. causing an oily effluent water even if the interface is clear. installed over the interior of the outlet. There is also a problem of improperly positioned inlet splash baffles within the vessel and this can cause problems regardless of the chemical. A lack of quiet time caused by an increase in production can also cause excessive water carry-over with the oil. Such scaling can cause the control valve to either block open or shut. 5-7.

Another method is to get a sample of oil from the top sight glass of the vessel and compare its grindout to a sample obtained from the dump valve. an inspection for fouling of the fire tube and sand on the bottom of the treater is required.. Make sure of the proper combus- tion mixture. (4) If the treater is not overloaded. whereas external conductors will not present this problem. The same result would show up if there were a leak in the top plate of the treater which separates the gas section.similar to an inverted funnel. If the pilot light will not stay lit: (1) Check to insure the pilot gas is dry. 150 Btu’s are required for raising 1 bbl of oil 1°F and 300 Btu’s are required if it is water. A cone-type spreader.140 Heat exchangers Heat exchangers are often the culprit in faulty treating systems. Should the oil from the sight glass be cleaner. regardless of what is tried. will provide satisfactory heating action. Improper distribu- tion can also cause turbulence and rolling. determine the amount of oil-water throughput and the fire box rating. it is quite possible that there is a hole in the heat exchanger. Corroded steam coils can cause turbulence and steam cutting of the oil. (3) If the treater is overloaded due to an excessive amount of water. causes very irregular spreading and may not provide a suitable coalescing water wash. Gun barrels Leaks in internal conductors can contaminate the treated oil. (2) Check the air-gas mixture for a blue flame. Normally. . or a hole in the upper part of the incoming line. Spreader variations can also cause problems. which can supplement the effects of rolling. Injecting water-solu- ble dye into the incoming stream will result in the rapid appearance of dye in the clean oil line if there is communication. (2) When the treater is constantly firing. If by chance the heating elements are also in the oil phase. Holes between the incoming wet stream and outgoing dry stream permit commingling of the two and. the use of a free water knockout and/or demulsifier that exhibits a faster water drop may allow the treater to operate properly. By calculation it can be determined if the heater treater is overloaded. Heater treaters If the desired treating temperature cannot be maintained: (1) Check the thermometers and thermostat. Almost all gun barrels are at atmospheric pressure. if placed in the water. convection currents or rolling will prevent treatment and result in unsaleable oil. Heating elements. oil going to stock will be dirty.

check the temperature and chemical injection. This may require a preheated coil. or similar material can result in a short circuit. (3) Check bottom of treater for a blockage that will reduce the flow of water. This can be corrected by preheating the oil or the use of silicones. check for a loss of pressure on the treater and restrictions in the oil discharge line. (2) Channeling in the filter section which will require repacking. Other possible problems that will cause improper treatment are: (1) Foaming of the oil caused by the release of entrapped gas. If the interface is decreasing in height: (1) If the oil level is above the oil outlet. a buildup is indicated. but treating is still not adequate: (1) Check for foaming oil being carried out the vent line. Chemelectric treater Problems in a chemelectric treater are usually indicated by low voltage or the pilot light blinking. (2) Check filter section for channeling. Unlevel or eaten-out spreader plates will also cause channeling. (4) Solids or scale buildup within the treater.. (3) A buildup of solids or scale may drastically reduce the residence time in the treater. iron sulfides. This will usually indicate that emulsion in the foam is bypassing the settling section through the equalizer line directly to the top of the oil in the settling section. which is caused by the charged (lower) electrode shorting to ground. When everything else has been checked and stable levels are being maintained. if cool spots are observed. Repacking may be necessary. (4) Make sure the thermometers are not faulty and that the sight glasses are not plugged up. The charged electrode can also short to the vessel or to the oil-water interface. 141 If the interface is continually increasing in height: (1) Check for proper operation of the water discharge valve. Solids buildup can usually be detected by feeling the difference in skin temperature around the bottom. ( 5 ) Holes in internal piping. (3) Unlevel or corroded spreader plates. Solids buildup may also cause channeling from under the spreader plates. Severe foaming may be noticed in oil carryover in the vent line even before poor treatment is indicated. The upper electrode is grounded to the vessel and any conductive material between the electrodes can cause a short circuit. or going out. BSW. The most common cause of shorting is an interface buildup. Inasmuch as solids do not transmit heat to the skin of the vessels as readily as liquids. (2) If the oil level is below the outlet. dimming. Either of these could lead to faulty judgements. (2) Check the lines and valves for salt or scale deposits. This is a signal transmitted from the electrode section. Any accumulation of water. .

Such changes may be temporary or permanent. A good starting point is to allow 24 hr for each batch treated. 5-8) are designed to aid in the selection or modifi- cation of a waste oil treatment plant. suggestions and diagram (Fig. because there are no universal slop oils or volumes of waste oil processed. The following comments. There should be sample valves at regular intervals on the side of the tank in order to check the treatment. WASTE OIL TREATING SYSTEMS There are no universal waste or slop oil treating plants. well workover.Such trapped materials may break out weeks or even months later and cause temporary treating upsets. Most tanks have these sample cocks at 2-ft intervals. further investigation will involve closer inspection of the transformer and testing of electrical circuit to pinpoint shorting conditions caused at entrance bushings. Occasion- ally. the insulated hangers. voltage will increase. however. Increasing temperature or slugging the system with a proper chemical should clear up the buildup in the treater. amperage will decrease. A change in the water/oil ratio may also change the required quantity of demulsifier. or tripped switch gears. a well will start cutting a tighter emulsion because of pump wear and may require additional chemical.e. then lowering the water level would lower the interface and treater conditions should return to normal. or the safety float switch. .142 The electrical supply to the treater should be checked and examined for blown fuses. Treatment tanks The size of the tank will depend on the volume of waste oil to be processed and the time required for complete treatment. electrode. may also be the result of some slowly developing problem downhole or in the treating plant. Frequently. If the condition was caused by an interface buildup. an acid job may leave a quantity of acid trapped in the formation. but more than likely. . If electricity is the source of trouble and a shorting situation is indicated. Rapid changes in the emulsion may occur following the introduction of a new well.. some basic change in treating will be required to prevent frequent recurrence of this situation. etc. Produced fluids Significant changes in emulsion characteristics occur rather infrequently and then usually slowly over a long period of time. Slow changes in treating. the water level should be lowered gradually. and the light will become bright and steady. i. If this procedure does not disclose the source of the trouble. burned out light bulbs.

heat exchangers. Solids should not be allowed to build up in the bottom of a tank. or circulation through an external heater could also be used. less heat loss. gas-fired U-tubes. A swingline to remove the oil from the top can be used. if the separated oil-solids-water are sensitive to agitation or if the interface easily redisperses into the clean treated oil. Heating Heat aids demulsification and reduces the amount of processing time that is requiied. Cone-bottom tanks are highly recommended and preferred in handling solids- laden waste oil. some method should be provided for removing the solids from the bottom of the tank. 143 n ' 1#1oBBL O0 -M 1 con oo 'INSULAN WASTL oa ACCOMULAT" CHEMICAL TREATMENT Fig. The most desirable and safest method is to install steam coils from the bottom to the middle of the tank. but they are less desirable. Waste oil treating facility. and more economical fuel costs. 5-8. . there should be some method for removing them from the tank. A steam generator or source of steam that is capable of heating the oil to the desired temperature in 4-6 hr should be provided. Heat lances. because they will only make the next batch of waste oil harder to treat. This will result in more rapid heating. When solids are present. One common cone-bottom tank used in slop oil treatment has a 1000-bbl capacity. the tank should be insulated.. If heat is to be used. If a cone-bottom tank is not used.

for a given oil. A chemical pump injecting chemical into a flowline. recirculation. the type and amount of agitation becomes more critical than if the chemical were continuously injected into the line that was used to fill the tank. Chemical should be added. Generally. The preferred method when installing new tanks or modifying older tanks is the use of commercial tank mixers. preferably into the suction of a pump.144 Even if the planned treatment temperature is 120-140°F. Settling time The amount of settling time required for a given slop oil depends on the gravity of the crude oil and the treating temperature. Suppliers of commercial mixers can supply data and recommend the size and number of mixers required. In some cases. Agitation No matter how good the chemical is. The chemical should also be added slowly as the tank is being mixed in order to achieve a better distribution of the chemical. A chemical pump aids dispersion of the chemical when batch treating. The number of mixers required depends on the size of the tank. steam. the settling time can be reduced by increasing the temperature. The effectiveness of these various methods depends on tank size and temperature. at least. Chemical addition Chemical (demulsifier. it would not work if it does not make contact with the emulsion. helps mixing and demulsification. The 1000-bbl tanks are generally mixed for 3 hr and larger tanks are mixed for longer times. the system should be designed so that temperatures of 180-190°F can be achieved should they ever become necessary. Tanks can be mixed using air. or commercial tank mixers. The size of the tank will determine the time required for mixing. or caustic) poured in the top of a tank with 5-gal buckets does not promote good treatment. but is mandatory for continuous systems. The settling time required to obtain treated oil can also be reduced by increasing the amount of demulsifier that is being used or changing to a different demulsifier. What is important is that the chemical is thoroughly mixed with the emulsion. The type of mixing is not important. the settling time may be as much as 48 hr. . as the tank is filled. more mixing gives better results. it should be done for a period of about 3 hr at high temperature. A well-insulated tank will hold temperatures for a long time and will require less heat input. The normal settling time for most slop oils is 8-24 hr after the mixing has been stopped. Conversely. If a tank is rolled with air or gas. Lower API gravity oil and/or lower treating temperatures require longer settling times. When the chemical is batch treated into a tank after it is filled. acid.

thus allowing more rapid treatment: (1) Stokes’ law applies to static systems. It is this movement that encourages coales- cence of water droplets yielding greater settling rates. In addition to Stokes’ law. As the temperature increases. . there are four other factors discussed below that will aid in coalescence. it may be necessary to use a wetting agent and/or caustic in addition to the demulsifier. the rate of fall of the water drop increases. Examination of eq. As the size of the water drop increases. which is given by the following equation: where: g = 980 cm/sec2 (gravitational acceleration). STOKES LAW The separation of two immissible liquids is governed by Stokes’ law (see Appendix 5. The solids will be on the bottom of the tank if their specific gravity is greater than water and at the oil-water interface if their specific gravity is less than water. r = radius of dispersed phase droplets in cm. (1) As the viscosity of the continuous phase (oil) increases. whereas oil field treaters contain horizontal and/or vertical movement. and u = rate of fall of dispersed phase in cm/s (or rate of rise if negative). the viscosity decreases. because it is not only squared but can be increased considerably by coalescence. pd = density of dispersed phase in g/cc. in petroleum emulsions the size of dispersed phase droplets is in the 3-10 pm range.1). Initially. 5-1 shows that the following three factors influence the rate of fall of the water droplets in a water-in-oil system. (3) The radius of the dispersed phase (water) has the greatest influence. pc = viscosity in poises of continuous phase at settling temperature. (2) The use of a water leg in treaters not only removes free water. (2) As the difference in density of the dispersed phase (water) and the continu- ous phase (oil) becomes greater. but also aids in coalescence and increasing size of water drops. Stokes’ law states that when this sphere is under the influence of gravity it attains a constant velocity. Temperature will also have an effect on the viscosity. The waste-oil treating facilities are the best place to remove the solids from the oil-treating system. 145 Solids When a noticeable amount of solids is present. the rate of fall increases. pc = density of continuous phase in g/cc. which gives the rate of fall of a small sphere through a viscous fluid. the rate of fall decreases. If the treated oil is to be processed through the same system that generated the slop oil. the solids must be removed in the waste-oil treating facilities and not be permitted to re-enter the system.

B. (2) Describe Bancroft’s rule. in lb is acting down: B+D= W ( 5 . estimate its value at 170°F. A is the largest projected area in sq ft. (8) Explain how the law derived in (7) may be used to help in breaking emulsions. Thus. W . (9) Name a few chemicals that can break emulsions. velocity of water droplets decreases. for a laminar or viscous flow the drag force in lb is equal to: (5. more effective sweeping and coalescence may occur yielding larger drop size. for a sphere is equal to 24/NR. u is velocity in ft/s. As these water droplets fall. (11) If viscosity of emulsion (O/W) at 70°F is 3200 cP. are acting in upward direction. (3) What relationship exists between the viscosity of an emulsion and the volume of the inner phase? (4) What is the function of a conductor (boot)? (5) Describe the heat factor in treating the heavier crude oil emulsions. Inasmuch as the buoyant force. d is diameter of sphere in ft.146 (3) As the temperature is lowered. SAMPLE QUESTIONS (1) Describe the action of an emulsifying agent. and drag force. APPENDIX 5.I-2) 1 poise = 2. and p is viscosity in lb-s/sq f t (or slug/ft-s). C. below about 0. whereas the weight. thus. the viscosity increases and. (10) Plot a schematic diagram of temperature versus density for oil and water. however. thus. the drag coefficient. . Compare.. NR. ( 6 ) What effect do fine solids have on emulsions? (7) Derive Stokes’ law equation.089X10-3Ib-s/sq ft. D. improve coalescence.1-1) where p is mass per unit volume in slugs/cu ft.4. (4) The use of increased amount of chemical or using a different chemical may give rise to more interaction between the emulsion droplets and.1-DERIVATION OF STOKES LAW EQUATION For Reynolds number.

H. Austin. Colloid Chemistry.E.I-4) and (5 . 1938. N. In: A.J. March 26... 1.U. Dodd. Eng. Invest.C. 1935. pp.U. W. C. New York.. The Theory of Emulsions and Their Technical Treatment.Y.617through 3.S. 1975.. Nellensteyn. 147 or (5. and Stenzel. 30:440-443.A wash tank design. Van Nostrand. 1923. 2d ed.V. N. 5th ed. 1962. Dow..E. Tex. Williams. Bur.S. 201-208. Alexander (Editor). 2692: 14 pp. U. Vol. R. Petroleum Extension Service. D.Treating Oil Field Emulsions. 1-4.. Bessler..590..L. R. 2760-2763.. F.The physical chemistry of oil-field emulsions. The Science of Petroleum. p. 1969. DeGroote. Oxford Univ. Chilingar. Press. Znd.The resolution of petroleum emulsions. G. Elsevier. 278-284.. P. New York.Y.U. Bansbach. C..N. Patents Nos.Y. 1938.Houston. 535-552. 1954. 137: 203-213. 52. 397 pp.Structure in asphalt. and Reistle Jr. Van Nostrand.The colloidal structure of bitumens. and Bessler. .174 ft/s2.T.E. 86 pp. 1. Tex. Rep. L. Met. and Coombs. Chem. 6th ed. A. The Scientific Principles of Petroleum Technology.I-5) REFERENCES Abraham.. 1925.B. A.. N. University. Oxford. D. Chemical Marketing and Economics.V.S.. Gunvitsch. 28: 249-253. New York. U. 1980. Dunstan (Editor). Dallas.. g (gravitational acceleration) = 32. N.. 1946. Clayton. 6. Chem. W. M.. 1926-1964. Monson.Y.. 179. Reinhold.093.. Eng.Asphalt and Allied Substances. 1960. 1. 572 pp. Barnickel. H. 1914.. Vol.M. and Beeson. pp.. D.R. Surface Operations in Petroleum Production. The technology of resolving petroleum emulsions. New York.W. World Oil..S. New York.. 1975.. 1953.1-3) where y is specific weight in lb/cu ft ( y = p g ) .154(total 546).Cold Treating of Oil Field Southwestern Petroleum Short Course.. Thus: ( 5 . rev. N.. Treating Emulsions from Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects.1980. Tex. 699 pp. Primer of Oil and Gar Production. Patent No...Y. Texas Tech.098. American Petroleum Institute. In: J. Mines..pp. Vols.S. Meet. L.148. C. Chemical Publishing Co. University of Texas.. Traxler.

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it reduces fire and corrosion hazards. 149 Chapter 6 VAPOR RECOVERY VAREC '.G. A properly designed and installed vapor recovery system is very effective in preventing all kinds of vapor loss. associated prob- lems. At the very outset. Breathing loss Breathing loss refers to the daily evaporation loss due to the normal cycle of atmospheric temperature change. but merely a primitive means of preventing some vapor loss under certain conditions. filling loss. This results in condensation. At night. EVAPORATION LOSS Evaporation loss is common when a volatile product is stored in any conven- tional oil tank (cone or dome-shaped roof structure). and the temperature of the liquid surface gradually rises. equipped with pressure apd vacuum relief valves. Handbook and Catalog. heat is radiated from the vapor space through the tank shell and roof. such as when no pumping operations are taking place and when no temperature change in the vapor space is occurring. creating a partial vacuum which draws in air through Permission was granted to reproduce portions of Varec. the vapor space absorbs heat from the sun causing the air-vapor mixture to expand. it is important to establish some clear-cut concepts about vapor recovery.V. Some operators consider a vapor recovery system to be a storage tank with a gas-tight roof. This kind of system is not a recovery system. CHILINGARIAN and S . There are essentially three types of evaporation losses: breathing loss. A true vapor recovery system collects the vapors from the storage tanks at all times under all conditions. This causes some air and vapor to be vented to the atmosphere. pollution. During the daytime. the venting gradually decreases. KUMAR INTRODUCTION The first step towards energy conservation is probably taken in the oil and gas producing field itself in the form of vapor loss prevention. and boiling loss. Inc. In addition. increasing evaporation of the liquid. . During the late afternoon. and.

the vapor space. vapors must be released or air admitted to prevent structural damage. which results in the reduction or complete elimination of stored product loss to the atmosphere (Varec Division. Any change of conditions. a volume of air-vapor mixture is displaced. conditions are nearly static. vapor space volume. equal to that of the incoming liquid.. Boiling loss Boiling occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point and the process of vaporization takes place. i. and a corresponding increase or decrease of pressure in the vapor space. In late morning. According to Varec (1976). etc. methods of conservation vary in accordance with the degree of evaporation loss control desired as determined by consideration of economics which may be affected. but fortunately is not commonly encountered in lease tank batteries. Data has been gathered. When the tank is refilled. The excess vented to the atmosphere is the filling loss. change of temperature in the vapor space. the vapor space is filled by vapors evaporating from the surface of the remaining liquid. Emerson Electric Co. because of the numerous variables that govern these relationships. plant safety. Warm air rising in the center of the tank creates convection currents until air and vapor become stabilized.e. which enables an engineer to make close estimates. It is quite difficult to quantitatively estimate evaporation losses and vent valve requirements. Filling loss As liquid is withdrawn from a tank. conservation vent valves reduce evaporation losses by limiting the amount of air admitted to. . by various researchers. In the early morning. 1970). when the vapor space becomes uniform in temperature and hydrocarbon content. vapor pressure of product. EVAPORATION CONTROL Conservation by evaporation control may be defined as any control of product evaporation. rate of temperature change. Thus. This may occur along the shell on the sunny side of the tank. vapor pressure change with temper- ature change.. and the requirements of law. On low-pressure fixed roof tanks. Boiling causes excessive evaporation losses. vaporization will take place until the partial pressure of product vapors in the vapor space is equal to product vapor pressure at the prevailing liquid surface temperature.150 the vent. unless the tank is capable of withstanding the resulting increase or decrease in pressure. such as an increase or decrease of vapor space volume. the heating and venting cycle begins anew. however. or change of product vapor pressure due to temperature change may result in loss of equilibrium. or vapors released from. If vent valve settings and the tank are capable of maintaining pressures equal to or in excess of vapor pressure.

assuming no temperature change in the product or its vapors. at the same time and at the same rate another one is being emptied. 6-1.vapor recovery system. is known as a. and (3) the probable increased rate of product vaporization in the tank being filled. A typical tank installation is shown in Fig. A third method. such as shown in Fig.. wherein the vapor space pressure of individual tanks (or a group of manifolded tanks) is very closely regulated at some pressure well within the range of vent valve pressure and vacuum settings. (2) vapor space temperature changes. Emerson Electric Co. 1976. 1976).System of manifolded tanks. . which completely eliminates the loss of vapors. especially where operations can be arranged so that when one tank in the system is being filled. 6-1. a complete system requires a means of pumping off excess vapors (which may be processed or stored as a supply for repressuring) and a source of makeup gas for repressuring. 6-2. Theoretically.Basically. is commonly referred to as a vapor balancing system. (Courtesy of Varec Division. due to agitation and product tempera- ture increase from heat added by line friction and other outside sources. 151 Fig. this is a closed system. In addition to the necessary control equipment. Actually. appreciable vapor losses through the vents will occur due to: (1) unequal pumping rates. vapors are transferred from one tank to another without loss. This is a somewhat more efficient method of conserva- tion. Any one of the aforementioned methods of conservation is effective in reducing evaporation losses. Excellent results have been reported from all installations where large volumes of high vapor-pressure product are handled (Varec.) A system of manifolded tanks.

FUNDAMENTALS OF THE VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM Vapor recovery equipment is installed on field production and storage tanks and on storage tanks containing crude oil and refined products at the refinery. particularly in new installations of large-capacity. which otherwise would be drawn into the tank. (Courtesy of Varec Division. Emerson Electric Co.152 PRESSURE IEXROS BREATKR W V E WITH F M ARXSTER __ TNUtnGE ITYFiCbL EbCH TANK 1 OF C W R E S S O R WRY GAS \ i l M E UP IUTOMATIC DRIP TRAP Fig. (4) Reduces internal tank corrosion by preventing the addition of oxygen to vapor from humid air. 1976). operating at essentially atmospheric pressure. a vapor recovery system serves five purposes: (1) Economy-conserves valuable light components and. the cone-roof tank. (3) Reduces fire and explosion hazards by preventing air from entering and mixing with the vapor during out-pumping operations. In this category. In general. is the minimum accepted standard in present day practice (Varec. 1976. fixed-roof tanks operating at pressures below 15 psig are the most common type of storage tanks. Although there is an increasing trend toward this type of tank. 6-2.) Several tank manufacturers produce conservation type storage tanks. which effectively reduce evaporation losses. therefore. Typical vapor recovery system.. . there is more income from sales. (2) Conserves oil (or product) gravity by reducing evaporation losses.

When vapor recovery equipment is installed on field production tanks. for example.) fields. when a tank is being pumped out and the release of vapors from the oil within is not sufficient‘to fill the vapor space at the rate of pumping. The above discussion was directed towards economics of a vapor recovery system. which are invariably associated with oil and gas production. Because of agitation and especially if heat is used to achieve an oil-water sep- aration. It is assumed that an engineer would recommend installation of a recovery system only after carrying out a detailed financial analysis. regulations relating to smog and pollution control in oil field operations. The air content in vapors is reduced by “repressuring” the tanks with dry gas from the absorption plant. temperature of the crude oil. Generally speaking.A. Most important are gravity. In case of appreciable pressure drop. the volume of vapors recovered in California (U. there is a high content of entrained liquids in the vapors. (3) Temperature of the crude oil. and the drop in pressure which takes place following low-stage separation. is also reduced. making them even more valuable (Varec. dry gas from the absorption plant is used. Where a pressure drop of about 20 psi or higher occurs between the low-stage separator and the flow tanks. for example. dry gas slows down corrosion. the great bulk of recoverable vapors will be removed from the crude oil before it enters the tanks. The gravity of the oil is preserved as oxidation is reduced. depending upon several factors. instead of taking in air to fill the vapor space. If elevated separators are operated at near atmospheric pressure. The factors that affect the amount of vapor that can be recovered are: (1) Drop in pressure that occurs between the last stage of the separators and the tank. . Reduction of the air content in the tank reduces the fire hazard. Heating for the purposes of demulsification is included here. The presence of inert. range from less than 20 to more than 60 cu ft/bbl of produced crude oil. Indirect savings include reduced corrosion and fire hazards. 153 ( 5 ) Controls air pollution by preventing loss of vapor to the atmosphere.S. which is a function of various chemical and physical properties such as vapor pressure and content of light fractions. 1976). whenever required. This is an important function in view of the E. For example. thus lowering the temperature of the vapors and the oil surface. the amount of gas which can be recovered per barrel of produced crude varies widely. it may be worthwhile to recover the vapors even in this case. vapor recovery systems are viable in all cases where gas production is significant. The level of exposure of oil field personnel to toxic vapors. (2) Crude oil gravity.A. The cost of the system is balanced against the profits accrued through conservation of the light fractions and the increased value of the product due to the preservation of product gravity.P.

(a) Regulator on vacuum line. spark-proof gauges and thief hatches. (b) Regulator to control automatic repressuring of tank with field gas.) (3) Vacuum and pressure regulators. either in conjunction with the balance-line header or as an integral part of the hatches. A pipe manifold interconnects the tanks vapor-wise. which may be created as a result of abnormal system operation or malfunction of pressure-control equipment. An emergency relief manhole cover is used on each tank for relieving very excessive pressure buildup. and should function without maintenance for long periods of time. If there are vacuum gathering lines near the tank. and (2) adding pure vapor to the tanks during product outpumping operations and during thermal contraction of vapors inside the tanks due to temperature reduction. This can be accomplished by various means from the standpoint of controlling the vapors to and from the tank portion of the system. (2) Pressure and vacuum relief vents. A vapor recovery system should be automatic in operation. self-protective. The manifold is fitted with breather valves which serve to relieve excessive pressure or vacuum. (Refer to the API Guide for Tank Venting presented in the Appendix of this chapter. Control of product inpumping and outpumping operations has great effect upon the proficiency of the vapor control system. The ideal operation. Figure 6-2 shows a manifolded tank system. This would involve continuous and equal rates of product inpumping . etc. May need self-closing. usually from the gas-oil separators. the other to control the addition of vapor to the system when the normal operating vacuum within the system reaches a pre- determined level. even in highly corrosive service. The equipment required can be briefly summarized as follows: (1) Devices to make the tanks gas-tight and spark-proof. Each breather valve in- cludes a flame arrester for fire protection when and if the breather valve functions. although impracti- cal to expect from the operator. to remove vapors. as a result of atmospheric temperature increase or heat from the sun. (4) Compressor to compress vapors from collecting system battery and send them into the field low-pressure gathering system. It is desirable to limit the withdrawal of vapors from the tank system to a minimum.154 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED The main functions of a vapor recovery system are: (1) removing pure vapor from the tanks during product inpumping operations and during thermal expansion of the vapors inside the tanks. A manometer can be used to visually determine whether or not the system is operating within predetermined pressure and vacuum limitations. compressors are not required. This will prevent air from entering tanks when vacuum develops. Vapor-control regulators are provided: one to control the release of vapor from the system when the normal operating pressure within the system reaches a predetermined level. is to predetermine and schedule product pumping so that vapors will be transferred between tanks within the tank system by means of the manifold.

the basic vapor system at the tanks must be pressure balanced. Emerson Electric Co. Typical installation of pressure (wet gas) and vacuum (dry gas) regulators. The various relief valves. Inasmuch as this is impractical. relief manhole covers. Con- versely. . 1976). the vapors will be released through the pressure (wet gas) regulator (Fig. and regulators must be set so that when the normal product inpumping rate causes the vapor space pressure within the tank system to exceed a predetermined limit. 6-3). (Courtesy of Varec Division. 6-3.. when the normal product outpumping rate causes a vapor space vacuum Fig. 155 and outpumping.

) . the regulators must control only the flow of vapor to and from the tank system. In the case of a greatly abnormal increase Fig.156 within the tank system to exceed a predetermined limit. Settings of the regulators must be closer to atmospheric pressure than settings of the breather valves and the emergency relief manhole covers. then the breather valves relieve the excess.Typical installation of fittings on a low-pressure. (Courtesy of Varec Division. In the event that a slightly abnormal pressure or vacuum increase occurs. Emerson Electric Co. Under normal operating conditions.. 6-4. cone-roof tank. 1976. vapors will be added through the vacuum (dry gas) regulator. which exceeds the capability of the regulators to control.

6-5. 157 Fig..) . Emerson Electric Co. 1976. powered by negator motor (controlled power). Float-actuated gauge. (Courtesy of Varec Division.

(5) available market or facilities for processing surplus gas. mercury high-level switches are provided as a safety precaution. It measures changes in liquid level as a function of float travel. which may condense in the intake line. A gas-tight. DESIGN OF VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEMS In planning the installation of a vapor recovery system. a typical installation of fittings on a low-pressure. two-stage equipment is employed. Likewise. which the regulator and breather valves cannot handle. Whereas they are equipped with a bleed at the bottom so that any accumulated liquids can be drained as often as needed. mercury switches are used to shut down the motor when temperatures become too high (Varec. ( 2 ) specific gravity of gas. It is believed advisable to make these surveys over a period of several days in order to offset variations in volume and composition caused by temperature changes. the emergency manhole covers relieve the excess. Where field vacuum lines do not exist. perforated tape which moves a dial counter. 6-4. and are single-stage. In Fig. operating continuously day after day. ( 6 ) availability of gas for repressuring for a fully closed system. small compressors driven by electric motor or gas engine. float-actuated gauge. . is presented in Fig. which was inherent in reading devices using a graduated tape. with single or double cylinder. To collect vent gas satisfactorily and safely. powered by a motor. These small. from being pulled into the compressor cylinder. Dial-counter reading minimizes the possibility of error. At maximum flow. cone-roof tank is presented. frequently as low as one. fairly cheap compressors. supersensitive pressures. In arriving at the volume and'content of the vapors. These compressors are either air. ( 3 ) allowable tank pressures (allowable pressure drop and pressure drop actually required are both considered). pressure drop through the vapor line (between the tank and regulators) plus dead weight of the vapor in the regulator control line must not exceed vent valve opening pressure.or two-tenths of an inch of water above and below atmospheric. (4) available vacuum for removing vapors. one has to consider several factors: (1) volume of gas.or liquid-cooled. to prevent overheating of the compressor. 6-5. may be used to supply vacuum for removing the vapors. Where discharge pressures are required. 1970). usually ranging in horsepower input from 5 to 25 hp. To prevent any liquid. and (7) type of tank installation (individual or manifold system). one can use recording orifice meters to determine flow rates and the gas chromatograph test to establish their average gasoline content. regulators (Fig. 6-5) must operate dependably at predetermined. scrubbers are placed just ahead of the unit. have permitted the installation of many systems which otherwise would not have been possible because of the necessity for running large lines considerable distances to a field vacuum line. nongraduated. Figures 6-2 and 6-3 show typical settings for the various equipment involved in the vapor control system at the tanks. The float acts upon a counterbalanced.158 in pressure or vacuum.

1969. WATER = 1.8 ' + PRESSURE OR VACUUM SETTING Fig.4 . VALVE W a 1.8- W v) FULL FLOW OPEN a 0. 76. 5. of mercury pressure drop. 159 Regulators should be capable of handling the pressure and vacuum requirements of the tanks as determined by calculations. (After Hein et a].0 '-EMERGENCY RELIEF MANHOLE A FULL FLOW OPEN b 1. FULL FLOW OPEN U l- W a 0. WATER :0.000 cu ft/hr of gas at 0.000 cu ft/hr of inhaled air at 0.. 3 .73 in.000 cu ft/hr of makeup gas at from 1 to 30 psi pressure drop. 19681 or actual oil/gas ratios are guides to be used.5 ounces/%q in.r' 1 1 1.4 .) . t PRESSURE (WET GAS) REGULATOR 0. I 0. The wet-gas regulator would be required to handle the same 30. p.0 W 3 v) 0.00ounces Irq in. Regulator sizes are obviously smaller than the vent unit sizes because of the required differences in valve design and pressure drop.35-02differential pressure drop and 20. whatever capacities are 2. 6-6.21. FULL FLOW OPEN \' 1.8- 1. and the dry-gas regulator.2- + I ATMOSPHERIC o I 0.50-02differential drop. As an example: the vent units may be required to handle normal venting of 30.2 EMERGENCY RELIEF MANHOLE U a IBREATHER VALVE 1.-c I. fig.6- BREATHER U 1.2- 3 . Pressure balance for a typical vapor recovery system.000 cu ft/hr at from 1 to 20 in. Venting formulas [see American Petro- leum Institute (API).o 5 1. 20.6. Thus.865 in.

VAPOR LINE CONNECTIONS 90' angle pressure drop Ratio 1.3 persure drop WELDED 9 0 "ELBOW WELDED 9 0 ' ELBOW 9 0 ' FORGED OR equals 40 diameters. M A I N VAPOR LINES Ratio .160 required of the regulator.and vacuum-relief vents must be sufficient to insure against damage to tanks. Ratio 1 . and to admit air to vent the suction line in case the wet-gas regulator sticks open.75 pressure drop equals 16 diameters. - S Q U A R E WELDED TEES ROUNDED CORNER TEES 4 'p' . FULL PIPE AREA ELBOWS 13' angle pressure drop Ratio .50 pressure drop Ratio 2 pressure drop equals 5 diameters. < T A P E R 7 D' TAPER-. An automatic drip trap. equds 40 diameters. \ D . equals 20 diameters. millscale. 4 5 O angle pessure drop equds 8. Foreign matter passing through the valve at high velocities can seriously damage the valve seats. SWEDGED ELBOW 60' m g k pressure drop Ratio 1. 1'42 0 Pressure drop eqsuls Pressure drop equals Pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop 40 diameters. Equivalent length of straight pipe expressed in pipe diameters.) . thus requiring their repair. which is installed at the low point of the common control line.25 pressuredrop 662 RATIO.1 pressure drop equals 6 diameters. etc. equals 6 diameters. Ratio S O pressure drop equals 30 diameters.9 diameters. Fig. because the pressure at the "sensing point" is the true critical value. n e g l i g i b l e .8 diame8ers. A sediment trap is required in order to protect the dry-gas regulator against foreign matter such as sand. After regulator requirements have been determined. there is little danger of tank rupture. equals 20diameters. equals 6. 6 diameters. They should have sufficient capacity to exhaust incoming dry gas in case the repressuring regulator sticks open. serves the purpose of draining condensate.or pressure-relief valve - ROOF CONNECTIONS BALANCE LINE BRANCHES ANGLE BRANCHES R O U N D E D CORNER A b Pressure drop 4 k Pressure drop JL P r e ssu r e d r o p BRANCHIS equals 40diameters. Ratio . equals 16 diameters.5 diameters.. equds 9 diameters. 1976. equals 20 diameters. 6-7. Gas pressure drop in tank roof fittings and pipe bends.8 diameters. equals 10 diameters. equals 3. Ratio 1. An explosion.75 pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop equals 40 diameters.0 pressure drop equals 10 diameters. WHEN CONNECTING LAPGB A N D SMALL LINES. -I. are also required of the vent valve for any emergency eventualities. which might spread back up through the wet-gas regulator. Certain auxiliary equipment for additional safety to the system is recommended. The manometer serves both in initially setting the regulators and also in observing the condition of the system. capacity charts for regulators must be consulted to select the correct size. Size of pressure. With the pressure-vacuum relief manhole covers set to pop open in the event that a trap valve sticks and throws the entire gas load on the battery. A manometer installed on the vertical riser would be subject to varying flows and would tend to give erroneous readings. Ratio 1 . Ratio 1.! equals 17. A back-pressure check valve should be installed downstream of the wet-gas regulator for the purpose of protecting the valve and system against downstream flame ignition.25 pressure drop equals 9 diameters. -=qqjG$ %if Ratio 2 pressure drop equals 5 diameters. 7 5 i t r > I f q. equals 30 diameters. (Courtesy of Varec Division. Emerson Electric Co. A manometer should be installed in the common control line and not in any portion of the vertical riser.O pressure drop equals I0 diameters. 30' angle pressure drop equals 9 diameters.

STORAGE PRESSURES When low vapor pressure products are being stored. For this reason. bends. Although most engineers. = 1.and pressure-relief valves are set to function somewhere between 0. in. In the design and installation of vapor recovery systems.and vacuum-relief valve settings. Having determined the line sizes and pressure drops. 6-6. depending upon the composition. and will be relieved at the explosion-relief valves. it expands approximately 15 volumes (sometimes almost instantaneously). with fairly smooth interior surface. An expansion of 15 volumes increases the pressure 15 atm. the construction of most tanks is such that vent valves should not open at pressures and vacuum higher than . and all other piping be properly sized and streamlined. 6-7). This increased pressure will travel down the line in two directions from the point of origin. d = internal diameter of pipe. ft. angles. 1 = length of pipe. air having sp.0 oz/in. gr.. calculated at atmospheric pressure. The use of this light-weight pipe in flanged. experienced in flow calculations. Ordinarily. it is important to keep in mind that the pressure drops involved are small. must handle 15 times the volume of the vacuum pipe. it is usually advisable to slightly oversize the piping.2 (about 1-4 in. Also. In some cases. sheet metal duct piping is satisfactory. it is necessary that the header. and should only be used for flow of gas where pressures do not exceed 1 psig. 161 should be installed at the top of the vertical riser for the purpose of relieving excessively high pressures caused by an ignition emanating downstream of the wet-gas regulator. shop-fabricated sections will materially reduce installation costs. The above formula applies only for straight pipes. ahead of any flame. to hold the weight of the header and laterals to the minimum.5 and 2. the piping must be of sufficient diameter to permit the vapors to be readily withdrawn. In order to handle sudden overloads. When hydrocarbon vapor ignites. The size of the explosion-relief valve.03d] where: q = quantity of gas. G = specific gravity of gas at flowing conditions. A p = drop in pressure. the lightest-weight pipe obtainable is used. A pressure balance chart for a typical vapor recovery system is presented in Fig. of water). If maximum benefit of the recovery system is to be gained. the following formula may be used for estimating pipe sizes: q = 3550 / Apd’ + GI [l + ( 3 . have preference regarding flow formulas. in. 6 / d ) 0. laterals. and other resistances to flow should be kept at a minimum (Fig. The total pressure drop through a vapor recovery system must be kept well within the limits of pressure. cu ft/hr. Vacuum. of water. therefore. allowances should be made for possible further expansion.

778 1. No recommendation.187 0. however.5 psig.354 0.2 to 0. 1-f in.1094”) 4.O negative pressure is the maximum allowable for vertical cone-roof tanks having 3/16-in. It is equally important that the required flow capacity be obtained when the tank is breathing-in without developing a vacuum. H.103 9-gauge (0.471 6-gauge (0. which make a general rule-of-thumb method for determining maximum safe working vacuum and maximum allowable vacuum impossible. design.613 12-gauge (0.65 0. This.553 0.2) (in.1250”) 5. suggested that established company policy or the recommendation of the tank manufacturer be followed. entirely different vent valve designs are used. Generally speaking.23.2. is made for tanks of heavier construction and it is.284 0.133 1.568 0. is complicated by the changes in temperature and the consequent changes in vapor pressure.0625”) 2. The internal pressure at which a tank may be maintained.490 14-gauge (0. Vent valves for such tanks.740 0.1406”) 5. therefore. These valves are equipped with dead weight vacuum pellets for settings of 0. 3) a Gauge and thickness. and other considerations.20 1.850 1.5 oz/in. 13. 0. H20/in.162 TABLE 6-1 Table of weight conversions for steel tank roofs (After Varec. should be sized and pressure settings so fixed that maximum normal relief requirements are attaina- ble within this limitation (Table 6-1). depending upon tank construction.708 1. cone-roof or low-pressure fixed-roof tanks should not be operated at pressures beyond dead weight loading of the deck. spring loading. Loss Prevention Bulletin No.374 0. which may lead to vapor release during the day and air admittance at night. 1976. the possibility of external loading.1875”) 7. however. It is important to note that increasing storage pressures reduces storage losses.473 0.5 oz/in.107 0. For high vapor pressure products. therefore.00 0. This requires consideration of tank size.1719”) 7.497 0. Weight Weight Weight steel deck materials (Ib/sq ft) (oz/in. which will cause damage. Standards.2500”) 10.2) 16-gauge (0.961 ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ a Based on US. p. or even diaphragm-operated relief valves.638 1.982 10-gauge (0. however.346 7-gauge (0.860 11-gauge (0.225 8-gauge (0. According to Factory Mutual Engineering Division. Higher pressure settings are obtained by weight-and-lever arm.1562”) 6. VENT VALVE PRESSURE SETTINGS Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if present alone at .0781”) 3. is dependent upon design and condition of the tank. roof plates.

of course. According to Rogers (in Varec.S.7 psia). is equal to or is slightly above the maximum atmospheric temperatures. In order to make use of this equation.I. The size and shape of a tank. resulting in an increased vapor pressure ( p . color and condition of exterior surface paint. ) . if a tank contains a volatile product and equilibrium exists between the liquid and vapor at an absolute temperature T..A.7 .the partial pressure of the air will increase to (14. it is suggested that the maximum .. and at atmospheric pressure (14. For example.S. length of daily exposure to direct solar heat.A. 1976). 163 the same temperature in the volume occupied by the mixture (provided. If more accurate information is not available. Thus.. this equation applies to standing storage only and its use is restricted to tanks which' are constructed to withstand pressures so calculated (Varec.7 -pmin). is equal to: Obviously. According to informa- tion published by the A.P. = mole fraction of the component in the vapor phase. and heat input from the introduction of warm product. The maximum liquid-surface temperature. (1965). and y. 1976). whereas the minimum vapor space temperature is 15°F lower than the maximum liquid-surface temperature. . the product-surface temperature will also increase. resulting from atmospheric conditions only.Y = partial pressure of a component in the vapor phase.S. This makes a total pressure (absolute) in the vapor space equal to [(14. therefore.pmin)T2/Tl. Atlantic seaboard. On the West Coast of the U. the maximum liquid-surface temperature on the Gulf Coast. the theoretical storage pressure ( p s ) . is about 100°F. and northern Middlewest in U. the maximum liquid-surface temperature may be as low as 80'F. At this increased vapor space temperature. If the temperature in the vapor space is increased to some other absolute value ( T 2 ) . The maximum vapor space temperature is approximately 40°F higher than the maxi- mum liquid-surface temperature.)T.pmi. temperatures as high as 115°F are encountered. maxi- mum liquid-surface temperatures in the United States vary from 85 to 115°F.7 . 'TT = total pressure of the system.. product outage.A. Partial pressure of an individual component in a gaseous mixture is equal to the product of the total pressure and the mole fraction of that individual component: where: p. it is necessary to obtain data on vapor space and liquid-surface temperature. all have a definite effect on inside temperature. that there is no chemical reaction or that there is no tendency for one gas to dissolve in the other). at locations directly tempered by the Pacific Ocean. the vapor space will contain a mixture of gas having a pressure of ( pmin) and air at a pressure of (14. at which equilibrium is re-established and at which no breathing losses occur./T1 + p. In the Mid-Continent area and the arid Southwest of the U.].

vapor space temp. 1976. 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 Max.vaporspacetemp. 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 Min. liquidsurface temp. 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 Min.liquidsurfacetemp.TABLE 6-11 Daily average temperature relationships between atmospheric temperature and those in the tank (All other sources of heat disregarded) (After Varec. 5 ) Tank Maximum atmospheric temperature ( O F ) 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 Max. P. 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 .

2 psig Altitude should be taken into consideration if storage tanks are located at altitudes where barometric pressures vary appreciably from the sea level pressure of approximately 14. Thus: + Tl = 460" 85' = 545"R + T2= 460" 140" = 600"R By substituting in eq. respectively.0 psig VALVE FLOW CAPACITY The free gas capacity of a valve varies inversely with the square root of the gas gravity (with respect to air = l. 6-3: T2 600 p. These temperature relationships are presented in Table 6-11.7 = 2.7 . . 165 atmospheric temperature be used as the maximum liquid-surface temperature and that the preceding data be accepted as a basis for estimating probable vapor space and liquid-surface temperatures.7 psia. as the result of atmospheric conditions. In addition.7 = 2. Under such conditions.7 psia and.1)- 545 + 9. . Product has a vapor pressure of 8.1)- 545 + 9. atmospheric pressure at 4000-ft elevation is approximately 12.12.6 . Example 6-1 Gasoline having Reid vapor pressure of 9 Ib/in2 is stored in a tank. Determine storage pressure (p.7 -phn)- Tl + p .). Thus: . according to Table 6-11. are estimated at 100°F and 90°F. Gg. For example.7 = (14..O).6 psia at 100°F (p. = (12.8.1 psia at 90°F ( pmin)and 9. required storage pressure to prevent standing losses from the same product subject to identical temperature variations at this altitude is equal to: 600 p .14. maximum vapor space temperature will be 140'F and minimum temperature will be 85°F.14. qg varies directly as the square root of the ratio of the absolute standard temperature (520"R) to the absolute valve inlet temperature.8.7 .) required to eliminate standing storage losses from a tank operating at sea level and in a climate where maximum and minimum liquid-surface temperatures. = (14.6 . thus.

and the A. for vent valve flow capacity requirements. The same variables that make evaporation loss calculations difficult. because damages to a tank may result in repair costs which are several times the cost of additional venting equipment.J. They also indicated that in a number of cases reasonable payouts can be made from rather small volumes. . There have been several reports claiming total return of conservation vent valve and installation costs on the first shipment of crude oil from gas-tight field production tanks. In addition. Venting Guide (A. Gg = specific gravity of gas (air = 1). qa = free air capacity of the valve. the conservation role is overemphasized.) has reviewed all of these. solely through the use of gas-tight tanks equipped with vapor conservation devices.P. VENTING Conservation vent valves mechanically limit the loss of vaporized product to the atmosphere.g. and Ti = absolute valve inlet temperature. Also. by reducing air content. In 1951. b) covering vapor recovery systems in California showed that very rapid payouts can be obtained where substantial volumes of vapors are available. is very often hazardous. corrosion of the tank and its equipment is reduced and fire prevention is enhanced. Another advantage is the fact that properly equipped tanks result in insurance savings and offer other safety features which cannot be estimated on a strictly monetary basis (Varec. charts.. This is a very poor economic decision. OR.P. FAST PAYOUTS FROM VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEMS Conservation venting equipment. therefore.I. a survey conducted by Oil and Gas Journal (Stormont. Conservation vents also serve as safety equipment and are. serves as the general guide for the petroleum industry at the present time.166 where: qg = free gas capacity of the valve. properly installed and maintained. will often pay for itself several times a year in evaporation savings alone. installation of equipment. based on experience and available data. leading to a tendency toward size reduction to conform more nearly with capacity requirements based on normal operating conditions.P. Many formulas. after a tank has been placed in service. must also be considered in arriving at vent valve flow rates required to protect tanks under conditions requiring maximum normal pressure or vacuum relief. The American Petroleum Institute (A. ft3/min or m3/hr. But in several instances. The following illustrative examples are taken from the survey. and tables have been developed. designed for the worst conditions anticipated in order to safeguard against tank damage due to underventing. 1976). 1968) presented in the Appendix of this chapter. 1951a.. Studies have shown that lease-tank evaporation is often reduced by as much as 50%.I. The qg and qa must be expressed in the same units. e.

819 8029 1537 9566 June 11. $101.357 July 15. Fresno County. each equipped with a conventional vapor system.900 1.642 6519 1101 7619 November 11. such as gas content. In this example.776 147. etc. Batteries consisted of 1600-bbl steel tanks in groups of 3.5% of the 3.446.. This was the case of an exceptional payout (Table 6-111).194 5652 1064 6175 Total 136.629 1673 14. Calculated on the basis of 16t/1000 cu ft for dry gas.084 6665 1098 7763 May 14.896 97. were similar. . allowing 35% for shrinkage and lease fuel.136 4388 886 5274 April 10.008 8820 1537 10.554 111. TABLE 6-111 Performance of Company A.463 1655 13. Cost of the vapor recovery equipment per battery ranged from $2000 for 3 tanks to $5500 for 13 tanks.452 168.007 a Estimated on the basis of 6c/gal for butane and gasoline content. the recovered tank vapors amounted to 17.301 September 13.503 October 10. 6.053 11.393 10. Example (B) In this example.777 133.157 86. 5.000 gal contained in all the gas.238 101. 1951a) Month Vapor Liquid content Value of Value of Total recovered (isobutane liquid stripped value of (Mcf/mo) plus) fractions a gas vapors (gal) (9 ($1 ($1 1950 March 8518 73.000 Mcf or 32 cu ft/bbl of crude oil produced (Table 6-IV). other system characteristics. and 13.000 (engineer- ing time was not included).120 110. Total cost of construction and equipment was less than $14.800 gal or 7.538 6632 1156 7789 December 10.228 94.583 108.007 was realized from the recovered vapors from a total of 27 tanks. trap pressures. California (After Stormont. Average liquid content of the vapors was 14.256.104 1399 11.118 August 16. No credit given for propane content.482 12.914 191. For period March 7-31 inclusive.4 gal per 1000 cu f t accounting for 244. With the exception of the number of tanks. 167 Example (A)-System payout from vapor recovery only There were 4 tank batteries.808 5868 1133 7002 1951 January 10.082 210.769 14.

.20 2.78 1.40 2.28 1. At the time of the survey in 1951. The collected vapors contained 5.75 4. Tank vapor accounts for approximately 12% of the butanes plus recovered. 480 psi 1.437.000 1.800 Low-pressure gas.38 1.000 Example (C) As shown in Table 6-V. 30 psi 339.614.800 Low-pressure gas.2% of the total gas gathered.500 3.600 bbl of crude oil and 1.000 3.24 1. 1951a) Monthly Average liquid content Total volume (gal/Mcf) liquid (Mcf) 21-lb butanes propane total ‘Ontent gasoline (gal) Tank vapors 8.50 10.149 Mcf of recovered tank vapors amount to 52 cu ft/bbl of produced crude and 1.168 TABLE 6-IV Vapor recovery operations in Company B during January.500 1.21 1.111. however.80 91.40 244. 450 psi 49.40 3.660.56 0.200 Totul 1.1% of the total gas gathered.614.360 High-pressure gas. 1951 (After Stormont.900.90 3. the cost of vapor recovery equipment was in the range of $400 to $500 per tank.000 High-pressure gas.000 0.480 Example (0) Although the percentages of gasoline fractions are not shown in Table 6-VI. tank vapors recovered amounted to 18 cu ft/bbl of produced crude oil and 2.5 % of all recoverable liquid hydrocarbons. ran over $1000 per tank because a relatively larger compressor was required.377.70 0.55 6.22 0.60 1.256. Some installations.000 Mcf of gas produced) Monthly Average liquid content Total volume (gal/Mcf) liquid (Mcf) 21-lb butanes propane total ‘Ontent gasoline (gal) Tank vapors 17.000 3. 1951 (After Stormont. 30 psi 220. 1951a) (524.50 5.000 1.05 1.000 0.68 131.15 1. one can see that 13. TABLE 6-V Vapor recovery operations at Company C during January.75 4.10 14.320 Torul 396.

639 Mcf of gas produced) Monthly Average liquid content Total volume (gal/Mcf) liquid content (Mcf) isobutane-plus (gal) Tank vapor 13. 169 TABLE 6-VI Vapor recovery operation at Company D unit during October. start at wellhead. gas-tight. (3) Describe the equipment required for vapor recovery. not directly measurable dollarwise.639 853.149 8 105.919 SUMMARY It is estimated that. present steps followed in designing vapor recovery equipment. Other considerations. 1951b) (254. Fortunately. and increased value of stored oil due to preservation of product gravity. the gasoline content may run as'high as 10% or more of the liquid in the total gas from field.095.C.represent only a small fraction of the total gas recovered. many in less than one year. are reduction of fire hazard. and B. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The help extended by Robert Siler.800 bbl of crude oil and 1. (4) In outline form. ( 5 ) Draw a schematic diagram (flow diagram) of all the surface equipment. Wride is indeed greatly appreciated by the writers. oxidation.000 Low-pressure and High-pressure gas 1. 748. dollar value of natural gas saved. District Manager of Varec. and corrosion. SAMPLE QUESTIONS "\ (1) List five reasons for installing vaflor recovery systems on lease-flow tanks.919 Total 1.490 .095. Vapor recovery offers oil operators important additional revenue by recovery of light hydrocarbons. on the average. vapor recovery system. 1951 (After Stormont. Although vapors . (2) List four factors which affect the amount of gas that can be recovered.082. . rapid payouts occur on installing vapor recovery systems. a good conservation practice can yield attractive profits to the oil operator who installs a complete.

J. Vupor Recovery Systems. 1965. Gus Control und Safety Devices...M. Handbook and Catalog No. N. 50(4): 85-87..P. In: G. CP6003-A.V. 18 pp. and Chilingar. 1968. 61 pp.P. 1st ed. Calif. P-8. New York. Tunk Venting und Gauging: Tunk Equipment. Pollution und Gus Control Equipment.. Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storuge Tunks (Nonre- frigeruted). pp.L. Chilingar and C. 52 pp. 1969. Tank-vapor recovery at Guijarral Hills effects payout in few months. API RP 2000. Cypress. Emerson Electric Co. Inc. Varec. Handbook and Catalog No. Hein. Varec. In: Tunk Venting und Guuging: Tunk Equipment. 1965. 1976...V.H. 1910. Oil Gas J. Gus Piping Systems. Varec Division. . Vapor recovery. D. 1951a.).I. Oil Gus J. Evuporution Loss of Petroleum from Storuge Tunks. 10 pp. D. Pollution und Gus Control Equipment. Rogers. Varec Inc.I. 1976.. 50(2): 93-96. Johnson. API Standard 2000. Am. 1979. Stormont. Method of calculating oil evaporation losses.. Gus Control and Safety Devices. 67-86. 1951b. Elsevier. Bull. Bull. Technical Reference.H. Conservation of lease-tank vapors.Y. W.. Guide for Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storuge Tunks. 6003-B. G. Beeson (Editors).G. W. American Petroleum Institute (A.). Stormont..170 REFERENCES American Petroleum Institute (A.. American Petroleum Institute. P-8.. Surfuce Operutions in Petroleum Production.F.

applicable to all locations and all coaditions.) Scope perate-zone climate and normal operating conditions. vacuum through 15qsig pressure. 171 A P P E N D I X 6 . Outbreathing resulting from expansion and evapora- tion which result from maximum increase in atmospheric 2.ccounL from tank. 2. oil movement out of a tank should be equivalent to 560 cu ft of free air per hour for each 100 bbl (4. and on tanks ocMer-root tanks. within the permissible vessel pressure operating conditions: range. chi3 should be taken into 1. subjected to pipeline surgcs. at least the be equivalent to 600 cu ft of free air per hour for each sum of the venting requirements for oil movement and 100 bbl (4. M A Y 1968. Similarly. on rcqwkements of this standard do not apply to floating.Y. Where noncondcn~blesM pmt. larger vents on tanks.200 gal) per hour of maximum filling rate. hmaleffect. Outbreathing resulting from fire exposure. 4. I . should Total normal venting capacity shall be.. breofhing for a given tank capacity for oils of any flash 5. m y requirc the use of thstatimated in accordance with this standard. tanks whizh receive oil iron] wells or traps. 2.P R E S S U R E STORAGE T A N K S ( N O N - R E F R I G E R A T E D ) * (d N D A R D 2000. 1.200 3. . The many abnormal variables which must be considered This standard applics to the normal and emergency in connection with tank-venting problems make it im- venting requirements for aboveground liquid petroleum practicable to set forth definite simple rules which are s t o m tanks and aboveground and belowground re. New York.12 Venting capacity requirement for thermal in- temperature (thermal breathing). lhe required capacity may be reduced for those prcducta whose volatility is such that vapor generation or Venting requirements are set forth for the followin4 condensation.1 Inbreathing Nacuum Relief) 2. including &to tanks and maximum evaporation caused by such gravity flow rate to other tanks.0 Determination of Venting Requirements However. will provide all or part of the vcnthg requirewnts. Part I of this standard applies only to aboveground Part I1 of this standard applies only to aboveground notrefrigerated liquid petroleum storage tanks. 2.2 Outbreathing (Pressure Relief) Normal venting capacity shall be obtained without cxcceding the operating pressurc or vacuum which may 2. It out. PART I-NONREFRIGERATED ABOVEGROUND TANKS 1. 1st ed.1 1 Venting capacity requirement for maximum pctatun. which may build up pres- that it is desirable to use a venting capacity other than sure under certain conditions.0 Normal Venting Capacity Requirements 2. Larger frigerated storage tanks designed for operation from 46 oe per sq in. and belowground refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon 1$4(safe and reasonable practices for the normal tem. storage tanks.V E q T I N G A M O S P H E R I C A N D L O W . N.21 Venting capacity requirement for maxinium be applied regularly to a tank without causing physical oil movement into a tank and resulting evaporation: damage or permanent deformation to the tank. at least that shown in column 2 of Table 1. The vents may be required on tanks in which oil is heated.* * Reprinted with permission of American Petroleum Institute. Inbreathing resulting from maximum out5ow of oil . Outbreathing resulting from maximum inflow of oil gal) per hour of maximum emptying rate. for oils of any flash iO8OW' point. For oil with a flash point of 100 F or above. Inbreathing resulting from contraction of vapors ca)lsed by maximum decrease in atmospheric tem. point should be. the use of flame Bn@neeringstudies of a particular tank may indicate arresters or other restrictions.

000 120.000 lated by the following formula: 60. the roof-to-shell connection will fail preferentially to any other joint.000 24.000 4.000 100. single-fillet weld) as described in at least that shown in column 4 of Table 1. For oil with a dash point below 100 F.1 Tanks With Weak Roof-to-Shell Attachment be at least that shown in column 3 of Table 1.000 1.1.000 10.000 10.000 75.800 sq ft of exposed 5.000 34.000 determined in accordance with Table 2.400 4.) these specifications.000 29. except that 40.000 75. should be 3.000 126.000 3 1.200 2.000 bbl (840. capacity should prove inadequate.200 100 60 100 500 21.000 140.107 80. the total rate of venting shall be 30.000 44. the total rate of venting shall be calcu- 50.000 40.000 2.000 90.000 50.000 28.800 sq ft.800 3. consideration need not be given Outbreathing to any additional emergency venting requirements. For stacks with P flash mint below IM) F. the venting 100 bbl (4. For oil with a flash point below I00 F.000 2 1. the following 1 2 3 4 procedure shall govern in evaluating the required vent- 60 2.) 15.000 1.000 lnterpolile for intermediate sira.000 180. For tanlo with a capacity of lus than 20.000 12. 1.000 20.000 than 2.000 20.000 54.000 48.000 3.000 27.000 required for tanks with more than 2. the total rate of venting shall be determined in 2. (No increase id venting is 4.000 pressures over 1 psig. the reguircmenls for the vscuum condition are very close to the theo- rcticslly computed YSIYC of 2 EU f l of air per hour per squaw foot of total shell and roof area.000 45.000 35. for a given such cases.000 630.000 56. This is substantially equivalent to P mean rate of YPPDI 8paEbtcmwraturc changc of 100 F per hr.000 28. including thermal evaporation. 2. For oil with a dash point of 100 F or above.200 gal) per hour of maximum EUing rim. 3. Inbreathing -- (Pressure) Flash 3.000 3.000 500 3 00 500 3.000 60.000 160.000 42.000 2. 3. 100 4.000 wetted surface.000 82. should 3.000 34.000 15.000 24.000 40.000 52.200 cu ft of frce air per hour for each When storage tanks are exposed to fire. and excess TABLE 1-Thermal Venting Cepadtj Repoirementi pressure will be safely relieved.5. .000 1. 3.000 24.000 210.000 3.0 Emergency Venting Capacity Requirements equivalent to 1.000 below. I h c tank roof and shell tempemure E B M O ~ iise as rapidly under MY condition as they c a n drop.000 37.000 44.000 82.000 3 1.000 90. rate may be in excess of that resulting from a combina- 2.000 68.000gal). 4.000 17.172 2.2(c) and (e) of API Standard 650: Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. For tanks with 8 capacity of more than 20.2 tanks Without Weak Roof-to-Shell Attachment Tank Capacity (Vacuum) Flash Poinr Point All 100 F or Below Where the tank is not provided with a weak roof-to- (Barrels) (Gallons) Stocks Above 100 F shell attachment as described in Par. rush as during I sudden cold rain.000 68.000 19. should be (maximum %-in.000 gal).000 70. lhe thermal ~ i e w u r c - venting requirement has bem ksumed equal to ihc vacuum rcqhiremeat in Order to ~ l l o wfor ~apoI(2~Uonat the liquid curface and far the higher specific grwity of the tnnk vapors.000 Appendix. NO=% I.000 accordance with Table 2.000 6.000 3.21 For tanks designed for pressures of 1 psig or 1. if the normal venting (Expressed in cubic feet of free air per hour.000 15.000 5.000 84. the thermal inbrcathing requirement for the vacuum condilion haa been based on 1 CY n of free sit per hour for each banti of lank capaciw.000 60. In ouibreathing.500 60 40 60 ing capacity for fire exposure. outbreathing requirrmenl has k e n amumcd a8 60 percent of the inbreathing capacity requirement.000 36.000 840.000 48.000 15.000 when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater 45.000 1. For slocki with P flash point at 100 F or ~ ~ O V Cthe .7 psia at 60 F.000 9.000 52.000 600 1.000 41.000 56.000 s.000 34.000 37.22 Venting capacity requirement for thermal tion of normal thermal effects and oil movement.000 20.050. The basis for Table 2 is given in the 10.000 420.000 23. On fixed-roof tanks with a roof-to-shell attachment 2.000 3 1.000 90.000 168.000 CFH = 1. the construction of the tank will determine tank capacity: whether additional venting capacity must be provided. Par.OW bbl (840. In tanks built to 14.22 For tanks and storage vessels designed for 25.

22 are based on the assumption that the stored operated relief valve. since this vacuum (PV) valve.000 A'.8W 8q 11. of thickness.25 If normal vents are inadequate. for Fire Exposure Vs. thicknesa of external insulation is provided. l e e Par. Parf I-Design.200 700 428.000 60 63. the total emergency venting requirement for any specific 1. NOTBl: provided.0 for water spray is generally discouraged.000 160 168.) Wetted Venting Wetted Venting 3. 3. 0.000 be provided so that the total venting capacity is at least 80 84.000 40 42. additional 50 52. ing requirements: However. Bhl per hr per sq ft to standard cubic feet of free air by using tbs latent heat of vaporization and molecular weight of hexanc 4.000 Over 2.700 600 392.800 639. winds. the reliability of effective water application is dependent upon many factors.075 when 4 in. these uncertainties.5 when drainage away from the tank or vessel is 3.000 ZSO 239.000 emergency vents of the type described in Par. at given in API RP 520: Design and Installation of Pressure. The constant. 14.000 1.7 psia at 60 F. high Q = 21. is in British thermal units per hour.22 may be multiplied by the 200 211.21 or 3.OOO 1.000 524.000 1. 30 31. Horimntal tank: 75 pcrccnl of the total exposed surface. in British thermal units per pound.600 400 312.107.000 2. and it can also Fat) perHour) Feet) per Hour) be assumed that there will be no oil movement into the 20 21. M = molecular weight of the specific liquid. Because of absorbed.OOO mined by Par. and tank surface conditions are a few factors which may RdieVing Systems in Refineries. provided. 0. 3. Wetted Surface Are. However.200 557.000 tanks.000 than 1. 90 94. 3. L a Relief valves equipped with a weight and lever prefer- Where: ably should not be used.21. V = cubic feet of free air per hour from Table 2 or 2.0 Means of Venting (aCr Apwndix of this standard for further detail). 3. 0. in cases where a . in square feet.7 psia at 60 F. pressure liquid will have the characteristics of hexane. thickness of external insulation is whichever is srcaler.22. unreliability of water supply.000 3. The total heat prevent adequate or uniform water coverage. per hour-14. clogging of the system. 173 TABLE %-Total Rate of Emergency Venting Required L = latent heat of vaporization of the specific liquid.26 T h e vent size may be calculated on the basis 120 126.lOO 500 354.2 shall 70 73.600 614. in cubic feet of free air fire-hose streams and shall be noncombustible. 1. or an open vent with or without will provide results which are within an acceptable a flame-arresting device. 1ntCfloate for htcrmcdiate Y B I Y U .000 1. prcssure relief valve.000 equivalent to that required by Table 2.000 2.OOO of the pressure which the tank can safely withstand. 4. (Wetted area versus cubic feet of free air per hour. fouom: SQhnO a d rphemld: the total cxposcd Surface Up to the mPxlmum horizontal diameter or to a height of 25 ft.000 3. in accordance with the follow- d e p e of accuracy for almost all liquids encountered. A pressure relief valve is appliciible on tanks oper- the formula in Par. if used.200 900 493.800 1. if a greater degree of accuracy is desired.24.400 587. un- der ideal conditions. 0. I h c weNd area for B e lank or storage YCSIC~ shall be cslcylatcd a8 provided.. the use of an environmental factor other 1.3 when 1 in. Q.22.27 T h e total rate of emergency venting deter- 180 190. is derived by converting the heat input value of 21. A pilotsperated relief valve.000 662.400 704. Note 2: The values for insulation are based o n an arbi- WheW trary conductance value of 4 Btu per hr per sq ft per deg F per in.15 when 2 in.000 100 105. 140 147.24 Full credit may be taken for the vent capacity Area Requirement Area Requirement provided for normal venting. thickness of external insulation is 2.1 Normal Vents of free air determined from Table 2 and the formula in Normal venting shall be accomplished by a pilot- Par. absorb substantially all incident radia- N m I: The foregoing forn~ulais based on tion. Vmical unk: the tom upmed area of L c shell within a muimum height of 30 fl above grade.nd 3.23 The total venting requirements in cubic feet 4. 3.000 appropriate one of the following factors when additional 300 265.100 350 288.700 800 462. A = exposcd wcttcd surface. . since the normal thermal (Square (Cubic Feet (Square (Cubic Feet effect can be disregarded during a fire.000 3.800 * protection is provided: ' FW expo(ed wetted aurfrcca with more lhm 2.800 742. Note 3: Water films covering the metal surfaces can. shall be so liquid may be determined by the following formula: designed that the main valve will open automatically and protect the tank in the event of failure of the pilot Cubic feet of free air per hour = Y E valve diaphragm or other essential functioning device. Freezing weather. Insulation shall resist dislodgement by CFH = venting rcquircmcnt. ating above atmospheric pressure.000 2.

for tanks with test. as 5.1. ounces per square inch. vacuum) and the pressure (or vacuum) at which the ports are fully open.3 Vent Discharge may also be included if desired. Sect.5 bbl (2.12 Capacity data shall indicate points of initial 5 . or tests may be delegated to an outside agency.in which oil with a which describe flow rates occurring below the critical flash point below 100 F is storcd and on tanks conlain. and. 3.25. attachment (maximum ?bin. such as cu:baA and be available. cover the full range between the opening pressure (or 4. using a flow coefficient of 0. flowing pressure. and for tanks with a capacity actual flow area. The capacity of venting devices shall be established 3. A weak pressures in the viciuity of the opening points. vacuum) may be expressed as a flow coefficient. or vacuum. single-fillet weld).15. A manhole cover which permits the cover to lift diameter. . this 3. therefore. server.14 Pressures shall be expressed in inches of 6. for heated tanks whcrc thc oil stordg': tion. Open vents with a flame-arresting dcvice may bc determine flow capacities shall be based on formulas used in place of PV valves on tanks .1 1 Capacity data shall be presented in the form Emergency venting may be accomplished by the of curves or tables which give the volume of flow use of: through both vacuum and pressure ports. UG-131 of Unfred Pres- is stored and for use on tanks containing oil which is sure Vessels.13 Capacity data shall be expressed in terms of described in Par. A gage hatch which permits the cover to lift under coefficient being the ratio of the flow of the vent to abnormal internal pressure.50 times the opening pressure for emergency venting a tank within a building.7 psia. with the exception that the deter- is not considered necessary for use in conjunction with mination of theoretical flow for the valve (actual dis- a PV valve. under abnormal internal pressure. which describe theoretical flow rates ing oil which is heated above the flash point of the oil. By flow-testing at least one production model of collapse resulting from sticking pallets or from pluggin2 every type and size of venting device under the condi- of flame arresters is greater than the possibiiity of i l a m tions listed hereinafter.174 vacuum can be created within a tank. For tanks located inside buildings. above the critical pressure drop. charge area) and the application of any coefficient to 4. PV valves are recommcndcd for usc on atnlospheric by any of the following: storage tanks in which oil with a flash point bclow 100 F 1. Tests may be made by the transmission into the tank. In accordance with Par.1 Capacity Data 4. Open vents may be uscd to provide vcnting capncity 2.000 gal) used for the storage vent which would affect flow capacity. Data and cal- of crude oil. in order to clearly establish the flow capacity at those points. In the case of viscous oils. A connection between the roof and the shell which opening and final closing of the venting device. arresting devices as called for in items 3 and 4. will not require emergency vents. 1. By determining flow capacities of manhole covers for tanks in which oil with a flash point of 100 1: or with long bolts and similar venting devices by calcula- above is storcd.500 gal) used for critical flow and shall give proper consideration to the storage of any product. Larger or additional PV valves or pressure relief vents or devices which open fully at set pressure (or valves. and 1. particu- roof-to-shell connection shall not be used as a means larly at 1. items 3 and 4. culations to show how capacities were determined shall 6. and features of the of less than 3.2 Emergency Vents 5. pressure drop. Other forms of construction demonstrably compa- water. rather than by flow tempcrature is bclow the oil flash point. discharge from 5. 5 . whcre the danger of t x k 3. Capacity data for pilot-operated 2. 5. open vcnts may be used as manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial ob- an exception to the requirement for PV valvcs or flame. 5. is recognized as having a weak seam connection of 14.0 Testing of Venting Devices may be required.15 Sufficient measurements shall be made at vents shall be to the outside of the buildings. the is weaker than the weakest vertical joint in the shell or closing noted as pressure (or vacuum) is decreased shell-to-bottom connection. VIII of A S M E Boiler and Pressure heated above the flash point of the oil.2(c) and ( e ) of API Standard cubic feet of free air per hour at 60 F and at a pressure 650. item 2. auxiliary scales shall be expressed in rable for pressure relief purposes. Larger or additional open vents as limited by Par. the flow of a theoretically perfect nozzle of the same 4. rather than those shown in Par. and which 1.000 bbl (1 26. A flanic arrester Vessel Code (1965). however. UG- 131(e).5. vacuum protcction 5.5. penetration grade asphalts. 5. and other units of measurement 4. A tank with a roof-to-shell after fully opening the ports. The flow formula used shall be suitable for non- a capacity of less than 59.

mounted on the test equipment in the same manner as they are to be mounted in the field. 5. and Venturi Tubes. ASME Power Test Codes.” of portion.42 Air or gas flow shall be measured in accord- ameter as the valve and a length one and one-half times mce with Chapter 4. 5. . “Measurement of Quantity of Materials. 5. radius shall not be permitted.4 Flow Metering device to be tested. Flow Nozzles.21 To minimize the effect of entrance losses. with their axes in 5.23 Valves to be used on productica tanks or disk reaches its fully open position shall be noted in the to be mounted on special nozzles or fittings shall be capacity data sheet. together with the 5. essentially flat.22 The valve shall be mounted for test on a testing the venting device. The flat area shall have a diameter at least five times greater than the nominal diameter of the 5. 175 5. the 5. “Flow Measurement by Means of the nominal diameter.16 The pressure or vacuum at which the valve 5. this fact shall be noted on the test report.3 Test Tank temperature of the fluid actually used and its specific gravity at standard conditions.2 Mounting of Venting Device for Test device. manner in which the valves were mounted and tested. straight-pipe nipple which has the same nominal di.17 Capacity data shall include a statement of the the position normally used on a tank. with the end of the nipple machined to 90 deg the supplement on “Instruments and Apparatus” to the with the axis and flush with the inside of the tank.41 Air or other suitable gas shall be employed in 5.31 The test tank shall be so constructed as to prevent high-velocity jets from impinging on the venting 5.” enter the top of the test tank near the center of the flat of Part 5. The pipe nipple shall squarely Thin Plate Orifices.32 Provisions shall be made to dampen pulsations venting device shall be mounted on the top of the test in the test medium supply in order to avoid errors in tank at a location near the center of an area which is flow metering. If any fluid other than air is used in the test. 5. Rounding of the entrance in excess of a %-in.

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with forecast through the year 2000.S.A. is presented in Figs. . 7-1 and 7-2. CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION The contribution of natural gas to the national supply of energy in the U. 7-1. ECKERSON. Distribution of United States energy market among various fuels. The demand for natural gas is now greater than the supply during periods of cold weather. JOHNSON and GEORGE V. ARNOLD L.so ' a J 3! I- 8' 40 6L 30 20 10 0 1920 1930 1940 I950 1960 1970 K) Fig. 1920-1980. 100 LEAR 90 80 70 i3 E a 8" AND GAS LIPUIDS b 3 . 177 Chapter 7 NATURAL GAS AND NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS BRUCE A.

CH. or perhaps.. and acid gases such as carbon dioxide. when the high-pressure gas is produced into a lower-pressure system through a choke. (3) from 1920 to 1975. and in Fig. Liquid also condenses in the formation as the pore pressure drops and. C. over 75% of the required energy comes from petroleum and natural gas (DeGolyer and MacNaughton. (5) from 1920 to 1975. liquid forms. butanes. personal communication. that is. Thus. propane.(4) from 1920 to 1975. the residue gas.. and ( 6 ) the consumption of natural gas liquids have increased from a negligible amount in 1920 to 3% of the energy market in 1975. The other fields. hydrogen sulfide. is injected to maintain reservoir pressure.. 1965). The simplest hydrocarbon is methane. Natural gas and natural gas liquids contribute approximately 32% of this total. NATURAL GAS Natural gas is a naturally-occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and nonhydro. does not completely revaporize before abandonment pressure is reached.. unfortunately. Removal of inerts is expensive and these resen-s can be economically produced when natural gas prices are allowed to seek t h c .. in which a clear condensate is produced with the gas. natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules belonging to the paraffin series.. There are many dry gas fields in which no liquids are produced. and heavier components. the natural gas share has increased from 4% to 30%. Figure 7-1 shows the distribution of the total United States market from 1920 to 1980: (1) since 1920.proper level. Cycling plants are installed to prevent this loss of product. often in association with crude petroleum (AGA. Marginal gas reserves containing large quantities of inerts. followed by ethane.+. heating value adjustment. C.. liquid condenses out of the gas as the pressure is reduced (Katz et al. 1976).H. are now being considered for development. It is imperative that all available gas be produced in the most efficient way. 1959). Primarily. such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. These compounds have the chemical formula of CnH2. (2) nuclear energy has reached about 3% in 1975. propane. coal's share of the market has decreased from 78% to 18%. 7-3..178 In the United States. and heavier components as shown in Table 7-1. When the reservoir has . In these fields the phenomenon of retrograde condensation often occurs.. C. oil's share has increased from 13% to 42%. are called condensate fields. Natural gas is principally composed of methane with decreasing amounts of ethane.H. carbon gases found in porous formations beneath the earth's surface.H. rather than being sold. It normally is partially or completely saturated with water vapor and may contain inert gases such as nitrogen and helium. and mercaptans. which requires an understanding of natural gas and its properties. and the only processing required is dehydration. The produced gas is processed to remove the heavy ends. the water power has remained approximately constant at 4%.

) .0 100.8 0 0 0 .4 1.o 4.90 2.15 1. Outlook on energy consumption in U.68 0. 2.68 0. Los Jumping condensate.6 8. 1985 by Chevron Corporation.8 84.0 74.3 0.4 1.63 0.60 6.. Ventura " Medanos " Pound ' Paloma L( 400 lb 50 Ib Vapor (mole ') (mole ') %) (mole %) (mole %) (mole %) Hydrogen sulfide 0 3.28 4. ' In Canada.0 100.00 100.76 Isobutane 0.30 Nonane 0 100.19 0.48 1.41 Hexane 0 0.42 n-Pent ane 0 0. Sour gas.55 89.50 1.A.14 n-Butane Trace 0.89 0.74 3. forecast through the year 2000 (Copyright".00 " In California.52 0.7 1.00 100.25 Heptane 0 0.7 0.08 Ethane 2.12 0.13 Octane 0 6.81 69.02 Isopent ane 0 * 0. I % ANNUAL CHANGE 1979 O ' O ~ ~ 2000 ~~ E 85-2000 YEAR Fig.93 0.3 0 0 0 0 Carbon dioxide 0 6.00 100.05 4.S. 7-2.46 8.75 0.65 5.26 5.57 81.92 2.9 3.16 Methane 95.84 5.30 0.81 Nitrogen and air 0.07 Propane 0. 179 TABLE 7-1 Composition of natural gases Component Type of gas field Natural gas separated Gas from crude oil Dry gas.1 0.

carbon dioxide. . been swept of heavy ends so that retrograde condensation no longer can occur. This is the function of a skilled gas engineer. and construction of a gas processing plant may be economically justifiable even at relatively low gas production rates. The remainder is nitrogen. and oil-well gas produced at different pressures. sometimes. i. which is discussed later.e. At lower oil-gas separator pressures the heavy ends content of the associated gas is higher. pentanes. gas from a condensate field. natural gas consists of at least 95% hydrocarbons. being present in decreasing proportions. ethane. Methane-ethane ratio may also be as low as 4 : 1. and heptanes. The principal hydrocarbon is methane with heavier hydrocarbons. Principal hydrocarbons present in natural gas and their structural formulas. the field is produced in a normal manner. it should be pointed out that nonhydro- carbon contents may be many times those shown. and. 7-3. This wide diversity of composition means that each gas must be individually evaluated and properly handled. Although these compositions are typical of many gases. Several gas analyses are given in Table 7-1 including dry gas. This associated gas is normally rich in recoverable liquids.. sour gas. small proportion of hydrogen sulfide. propane.180 HYDROCARBONS IN NATURAL GAS METHANE Ci CH4 ETHANE c2 C2H6 H-C- " YC -H k k PROPANE C3 C3He Vt 'i' H-C-C-C -H k k h M Y H Y Y Y PENTANE Ca CsH12 HC-~-C-C-C-H ~ A IH l H l H Fig. hexanes. With few exceptions. butane. Gas is also produced with crude oil.

the extraction of ethane for petrochemical feedstocks has become an im- portant function of the gas processing plant.1 n-Pentane 11. the term gasoline plant came into being.2 7.6 Heptane 5. Natural gas may be liquefied and transported by ship. Older plants had a relatively long life expectancy.0 34. Modern plants. normally referred to as LNG.3 21. on the other hand.3 4.0 0. recovery had emphasized both on LPG and natural gasoline.0 10.1 1. and were designed for handling relatively small volumes of gas over long periods.5 0.2 11.7 0 Propane 1. and the economics of larger short-lived facilities are less acceptable. and Japanese markets. liquefield petroleum gas (LPG).0 . newer plants more often produce a single demethanized or deethanized product. therefore.0 100. and sulfur compounds. butanes. LPG is usually defined as propane.4 24. Indonesia.7 4. Since World War 11.7 3.7 0. Saudi Arabia.5 6.o 0. being built during times of restricted production.7 Isopentane 13.4 100.0 100. and TABLE 7-11 Composition of natural gasoline (liquid volume per cent) Ventura Gasoline Plant Ten Section Gasoline Plant Reid vapor pressure 38 psia 60 psia 100 psia 22 psia Ethane Trace 0.0 Hexane 6. Operation of the plant involves the removal of impurities such as water. In recent years.1 Nonane 1.7 1.0 22. American.7 Octane 1. have a long economic life.0 100. Algeria. The number and types of hydrocarbon products produced depends on the size of the plant and its location with respect to other facilities. or mixtures thereof.1 16. which is shipped by truck or pipeline to a central fractionating facility.2 1.8 0 Isobutane 19. A centrally-located facility can handle products from many sources and can.0 16. and natural gasoline (Table 7-11). 181 GAS PROCESSING PLANTS A typical gas processing plant produces residue sales gas and a variety of liquid products including ethane.0 43. Inasmuch as early plants were intended to remove only heavier components intended for blending into motor fuel. Liquefied natural gas.7 23.3 9. is becoming an important source of energy for European. Large LNG plants are operating or planned for construction in Alaska. Whereas older plants generally have their own fractionation facilities.8 12.8 5.2 n-Butane 41. carbon dioxide.2 Decane Trace Trace Trace 0. which is a result of unrestricted production.4 2.9 13. Iran. have shorter lives.

or 7-lb gas (i. The demand for energy has made purchasers less demanding. Hydrocarbon content Hydrocarbon content is usually indicated indirectly by either heating value or specific gravity. Common specifications are 1-.A.. G/M.P.G. GAS SPECIFICATIONS Sales gas specifications for natural gas include one or more of the following: water content. Water content Water content is ordinarily expressed as pounds of water per million standard cubic feet of gas. If significant amounts of carbon dioxide or nitrogen are present. however. 4-. although specifications as . or gal/Mcf). Of particular importance are hexanes and heavier components which may condense or otherwise create problems in gathering or distribution systems. 1966). specific gravity. The two methods have a definite relationship as shown by curves of water content as a function of saturation temperature and pressure (N. heating value. the price being adjusted for the heating value of the gas. presence of one or both of these impurities will be indicated because either will raise gravity and lower heating value. is not a normal surface operation in petroleum production. If both of these properties are measured. Acid gas content Acid gas content is specified according to the particular impurity.e. This procedure is not entirely accurate because composition can vary widely in a multicomponent system without changing either property signifi- cantly. Production of LNG. acid gas con- tent. neither gravity nor heating value will indicate hydrocarbon content.S. expressed as gallons of liquefia- ble material per thousand cubic feet of gas (GPM. hydrocarbon content.25 grain/100 scf. temperature. Hydrocarbon content is not specified as often as it was in the past. lb water/Mscf gas) depending on the severity of conditions to which the gas will be exposed. the price per Mcf is equal to $/MMBtu X gas Btu per cf/1000. dew point temperature and pressure also are used. and pressure. The contract gas price is expressed as $/MMBtu. The usual specification for hydrogen sulfide is 0..182 other countries. Hydrocarbon dew points are sometimes specified or limits placed on gas enrichment with reference to specific components. Ground temperatures seldom fall below that level in those areas. Gas is seldom sold strictly on a volume basis today. however. In some warmer areas a maximum dew point of 50°F at delivery pressure is specified to assure that no water will condense in underground lines.

Water content Water content is most often determined by measuring the dew point temperature at a fixed pressure with a commercial device (Bureau of Mines Tester).A. is most frequently done by gas chromatography. P. 1950a.A.&O. Carbon dioxide is also determined by Orsat analysis which is based on volume reduction of a known volume of gas after reaction of the carbon dioxide with sodium hydroxide solution. 1965). 183 high as 1. There are a few reported cases of carbonyl sulfide (COS).T. ratio. 1956..). previously Western Gas Processors and Oil Refiners Association: W.P. an upper limit is commonly 5% by volume. As a comparison. Some experience is required to differentiate between the water and the hydrocarbon dew points.R. 1980a-d. Gas Processors Association (G. W. however. protective gear is required.M). 1955. a continuous record is desired.1966. The dew point is visually observed and the water content read from any standard chart (e.S.P. N. At very low water contents. Carbon dioxide content may also be specified.g. 1966).A. and O. current OSHA standard for H.A.P. and the Pacific Energy Association (P. GAS TEST METHODS The value of any specification depends on the availability of reliable test methods to determine the specific property. This indicator consists of a pressure chamber with a thermometer and a mirror that can be cooled with a refrigerant. The follow- ing methods are the most common. Reference is made to published test methods of the American Society for Testing Materials (A.G.E. 1950. Mercaptans are also expressed as grains/lOO scf.b.S in ambient air is 20 ppm (1..P.S. N. Water content and dew point are relatively independent of gas composition.P.G. in some cases.0 grain/100 scf are sometimes found..R. Air is sometimes estimated by determining oxygen by Orsat analysis with a special reagent (pyrogal- 101) and assuming a normal air/O. although its occurrence in natural gas is rare.1972. Carbon dioxide and air Determination of carbon dioxide and air.G. a.. Specific references are given at the end of this chapter (G. In these cases a recorder using the conductiv- ity of a hygroscopic salt is used..). at that level.A..A.S. Hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen sulfide is determined by the cadmium sulfide test in which a measured volume of gas is first bubbled through a cadmium solution to precipitate cadmium . 1966.G.A. they do not often present a problem in gas sales because mercaptans are added as a warning odorant for natural gas. as well as hydrocarbons.2 grains/100 scf). suitable refrigerant may not be readily available and..P. 1962. 1943.A.E.

but approximate limits for commercial products can be summarized as follows: .P. The length of darkening and the volume of gas are a measure of the H. Gas measurement Measurement of natural gas usually involves inserting a restrictive orifice in the line and measuring the pressure drop across the orifice. Liquid specifications Liquid specifications as set by mutual agreement between buyer and seller vary widely. (2) LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). Natural gasoline is considered by many to consist of pentane and heavier hydrocarbons.E. Specific gravity Specific gravity. it is more common to analyze the gas by chromatography and calculate the heating value from known properties of the individual components.S is the use of moist lead acetate paper.A.. with small amounts of ethane and pentane being present as impurities. which appears in the publications of G. Chapter 2 of Volume I1 discusses the equipment and procedures involved in gas measurement in detail. pentanes and heavier fractions). whch can be determined with a gravity balance. The LPG is normally restricted to propane and butane or mixtures thereof. but the term is also applied to mixtures of LPG and pentanes plus (i. is commonly measured with a Ranarex or calculated from the gas analysis.S the Tutweiler method is used by allowing it to react directly with iodine solution. A qualitative test for the presence of H. Semiquantitative tests can be made with any of several “length of stain” tubes. Basic measurement data were developed by the American Gas Association.S con tent. P.184 sulfide and then titrated iodometrically. or (3) natural gasoline.S.e.. Inasmuch as the equipment is very expensive.. in which a substrate is impregnated with a reagent that turns dark on contact with H. A method for this calculation has been published by the G. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS Natural gas liquids can be classified as (1) ethane. In the presence of very high concentrations of H.P.A. however. Heating value Calorimeters are used for direct determination of heating value. and the Southern California Meter Association. This method is also used for specific gravity and compressibility determina- tions.A.

The G. gasolines are usually sold on the basis of actual composition. Water removal is necessary to prevent condensation of water and formation of ice or gas . If propane is to be used as a motor fuel.M. It is noncorrosive by using copper strip method.5%by volume. are more common.P. Engler distillation and copper strip corrosivity tests are A. which is determined from the Reid vapor pressure-composition curves prepared for each product source.) Corrosivity. The grade is defined by the vapor pressure and the percent vaporized at 140'F and 740 mm Hg. the maximum isopentane content is usually stated. dryness. End points of 300-32OoF.T. which is limited by the working pressure of DOT shipping containers (300 psig at 130°F. 185 Ethane Maximum methane content = 1. sulfur content. dryness.S. and a maximum vapor pressure which limits ethane content. natural gasoline is designated or sold on the basis of vapor pressure or. Liquid testing Standard tests for LPG and gasoline are given in the technical bulletins referred to above.A. Specifi- cations for natural gasoline limit the Engler distillation end point to 375°F. by grade. Bulletin TS-352 presents an empirical method for computing Reid vapor pressure from analytical data. On the Pacific Coast. Other properties that may be specified are vapor pressure. Propane A minimum of 95% propane by volume.A. in addition to limits on nonhydro- carbons. GAS TREATING Water removal The most common impurity in natural gas requiring treatment is water. a maximum of 1-2% butane. methods.28% by volume. however. The particular mix is identified by vapor pressure or percentages of the components. and sulfur content. specific gravity. corrosivity. Maximum carbon dioxide content = 0. The P. Butane-propane mixture In the case of butane-propane mixture. Butane The percentage of one of the butane isomers is usually specified along with the maximum amounts of propane and pentane. sometimes. and specific gravity also may be specified. The currently used vapor pressure is 208 psig.E. the propylene content is limited because of its low octane rating. Natural gasoline In the midcontinent area. has published an improved copper strip method using instrumental readings to replace colorimetric visual evaluation.

The regenerator overhead is cooled with air fins at the top of the column or by an internal coil through which the feed flows. 7-8). Stripping (regeneration) of glycols is limited by the temperatures to which they can be heated. The simplest method of water removal is to cool the gas to a temperature equal to or below the required dew point. For example. In a majority of cases. under which conditions the water content will be 60 lb/MMscf or lower. 7-4.186 PUMP Fig. and cause other operating problems. in field applications. and molecular sieves.and triethylene glycol tend to decompose before they boil. Fluid process for gas treating. Figure 7-4 shows a typical fluid process for gas treating which may be used for glycol dehydration. Both di. The range of this method can be extended if cooling can be done at higher pressures. The boiling point composition curves of both glycols are almost identical. Reflux condenses and flows downward by gravity. Ethylene glycol can be directly injected into the gas stream in refrigeration-type plants (see Fig. lower dew points can be . Solid desiccants include alumina. if it is necessary to produce a gas with a dew point of 50°F at 135 psig (water content of 60 lb/MMscf) when the best available cooling is 80"F. silica gel. Field units normally do not have a reflux drum or pump. Liquid water can cause corrosion or erosion problems in pipelines and various equipment. Most dehydration requires the use of solid adsorbents or hygroscopic liquids. Liquid agents for countercurrent contact are usually di. usually impractical. block control valves. the required dew point can be realized by cooling to 80°F at 460 psig or higher. particularly in the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Solid formation can plug pipelines. better stripping and. Countercurrent vapor-liquid contact between the gas and the glycol produces an outlet dew point that is a function of the contact temperature and the residual water content of the stripped or lean glycol.or triethylene glycol. cooling alone is insufficient and. hence. hydrates.

reportedly can give equally low dew point depressions. silica or molecular sieve. cheaper bauxite (crude alumina): 4-6%. which uses heavy hydrocarbon vapors as a stripping medium for triethylene glycol. While one bed is removing water from process gas. Desiccants. The Drizo Process. the other is being heated and cooled. To protect molecular sieve beds from plugging by sulfur. Special techniques such as stripping of hot triethylene glycol with dry gas give dew point depressions up to 100°F or more. silica is usually selected for sour gas dehydration. Because of its high tolerance to hydrogen sulfide. may be alumina. Although lower temper- . alumina beds are sometimes placed ahead of the molecular sieves to remove the sulfur compounds. one is heating. 187 COOLING GAS-OUT Y m. Silica gel and aluminas have capacities for water adsorption in the order of 7-8% by weight. and molecular sieves: up to 15%. Molecular sieves are severalfold more expensive. These are long-term design capacities and not the higher initial capacities often quoted.O U T + . Normal dew point depressions are 50-60°F below contact temperature for diethyl- ene glycol and 70-75°F for triethylene glycol. An added advantage is that the three-bed system can be used as a two-bed system while the third bed is being maintained or replaced. Heating is continued until the gas leaving the bed reaches 300-375°F. Regeneration is usually carried out with gas heated to 350-400'F. Sometimes a three-bed system is used: one bed is adsorbing. Figure 7-5 shows a typical two-bed solid adsorbent treater used for dehydration. a third bed is most often used where a dehydrator failure can result in a costly plant shutdown. and one is cooling. - r I INLET I V PROCESS GAS-IN obtained with triethylene glycol which has a higher decomposition temperature. For this reason. BED BED COOLER n7-+by A WATER -@ COOLING HEATING GAS-IN GAS . as mentioned above. Vacuum distillation can also be used. but provide very low dew point outlet gas and are used almost exclusively for cryogenic plant feed prepara- tion.

while the bed is being kept moist by circulation of a small stream of soda ash solution. Most hydrogen sulfide removal processes return the hydrogen sulfide unchanged. Hydrogen sulfide is sometimes removed by the iron oxide or dry box method. Stretford is a licensed process using a solution containing vanadium salts and anthraquinone disulfonic acid (ADA). When only carbon dioxide is to be removed in large quantities. or when only partial removal is necessary. Aeration of the bed converts the iron sulfide to elemental sulfur and iron oxide. Maddox of Oklahoma State University discusses these treating methods in detail (Maddox. Molecular sieves require regeneration gas having temperatures of 450-500'F. whereas larger quantities require a continuous process such as Ferrox or Stretford. because it becomes clogged with elemental sulfur and must be discarded. A number of special treating agents have been developed in recent years the action of which is based on physical absorption and chemical reaction. 7-4). Most of the newer agents are economi- cally competitive only when the . . Upflow. 7-4. Ferrox process is based on the same reactions as the dry box method except that it is fluid and continuous. The hot carbonate process operates at about 200'F and both the heat exchanger and the solution cooler are eliminated (Fig. The gas is passed through a bed of wood chips or shavings impregnated with iron oxide. inasmuch as only about 90% removal per bed can be realized. with regeneration flow being in the opposite direction and cooling in the same direction as adsorption. If the quantity involved does not justify installation of a sulfur recovery plant. although more expensive because of initial vessel cost. 1974). is more conducive to trouble-free operation. the process is not economic. either continuously or on a batch basis. Downflow is most commonly used during adsorption. Dr. Common treating solutions are aqueous solutions of the ethanol amines or alkali carbonates. R. The hydrogen sulfide reacts with the iron oxide to form iron sulfide and is regenerated by passing air through the bed. usually a Claw plant. higher temperatures regenerate better.partial pressure of the acid gas is high (50-75 psi or higher). If several beds in series are required. The dry box is suitable for the removal of small quantities of hydrogen sulfide. Modern environmental considerations may require that impurities should not be discharged to the air. There is no tendency to lift the bed and cause breakage. then a process must be selected which produces elemental sulfur directly. hot carbonate or one of the physical solvents is the most economical selection. The basic flow is the same as that shown in Fig. In an excellent book. This flow pattern requires the smallest vessel diameter because of higher permissible gas velocities.188 atures result in longer bed life. The total sulfur removed by a bed is limited. Acid gas removal Treatment of natural gas to remove the acid gas constituents (carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) is most often accomplished by contact with an alkaline solution.N. The method is suitable only for small quantities of sulfur.

. Nitrogen removal requires liquefaction and fractionation of the entire gas stream which is quite expensive. particularly when the volume of gas is small. With the increasing scarcity of natural gas. 189 Nitrogen removal Nitrogen is sometimes found in sufficient quantities to lower the heating value of the gas. however. plants for the removal of nitrogen are being considered and a few have been installed. 7-6. The spread must be sufficient to pay operating costs. If salability of the gas is the only reason for processing. Such a gas can sometimes be sold at reduced prices if it can be blended with a gas having a higher heating value. processing cannot be justified.o 1. amortize the plant cost. adsorption. then liquid removal usually is a field operation using either crude oil enrichment. LIQUID EXTRACTION Recovery of liquid hydrocarbons can be justified either because it is necessary to make the gas salable or because it is economic to do so.5 Dollar8 per million BTU Fig. At current high gas prices.Value of liquids as gas. Some gas reserves were left undeveloped in the past because the low energy content in the gas would not justify treatment.5 21) 2. In many cases. purchasers are less critical and processing for liquid recovery is usually based on economic considerations alone. or 30 m c 8 10 0 I. Figure 7-6 shows the value of recoverable liquids as natural gas energy. The justification for building a plant depends on the spread between the value of enriched gas containing heavier hydrocarbons and the price of lean gas plus the value of extracted liquid. and provide an adequate rate of return on capital.

truck. In rare cases. the extent to which extraction is carried out will depend on the availability of a market for the products and heating value limitations of the residue gas. These products can be readily moved by rail. however. The tank oil contains more light hydrocarbon liquids than the virgin crude oil and the residue gas is drier (leaner).190 refrigeration processes. must. 7-7. Crude enrichment The purpose of crude enrichment is to produce two products: sales gas and enriched tank oil. Sufficient amount of ethane. A typical process of this type is shown in Fig. stripping with SALES GAS CRUDE OIL I COOLER I COMPRESSOR bR 1 p -k TO FUEL OR COMPRESSION PUh Fig. although small amounts of ethane are moved by truck or rail when mixed with heavier hydrocarbons. One method of removing light ends is using pressure reduction (vacuum condi- tioning). Inasmuch as crude oil is finally separated at atmospheric pressure. and pipeline. must be left in the gas to meet contractual requirements for heating value. Ethane recovery depends on availability of a product pipeline. If liquid recovery is economic. . Heating. remove light ends from the oil to make room for the gasoline-and the LPG fractions. 7-7. therefore. Crude oil enrichment process. Every crude oil enrichment process. separator temperatures also can be varied. Selection of trap pressures will also affect the nature of other processing steps and significantly affect the amount of gas compression. Most of the liquid recovery plants recover a substantial portion of the propane and essentially all of the butanes and heavier hydrocarbons comprising gasoline. One of the simplest and yet least often recognized methods is manipulation of the number and operating pressures of the gas-oil separators (traps). in some manner. only those fractions can be added that can be retained at that pressure.

therefore. or where the increase in API gravity of the crude will provide a substantial increase in the price per unit volume as well as volume of the stock tank oil. resulting in the displacement of adsorbed hydrocarbons. Adsorption When gases are relatively lean. 7-5). adsorption-type units are installed for liquid recovery. Dehydration is normally accomplished in eight hours or longer and permits saturation of the bed with water.and operation is identical except for the length of the cycle. Generally. In this case. Equipment is similar to that used for dehydration (Fig. 7-8. Refrigeration processes Refrigeration processes can be classified according to the source of the refrigera- tion and the nature of the basic separation step. Hydrocarbon recovery requires 30-60 min per cycle and most of the adsorbed hydrocarbons are retained. after which the crude so stripped is pumped to high pressure to act as an adsorbent. stripping is done at low pressure. mechanical or compression-type refrigeration is used to reduce I GAS SALES I f FUEL GAS t . The enriched crude oil is then reduced to atmospheric pressure in stages or using fractionation (rectification). the process is not economically feasible for rich gases. 191 dry gas. or a combination thereof are also used. A typical flow sheet is shown in Fig. Crude oil enrichment is used where there is no separate market for light hydrocarbon liquids. The size of the unit depends on the amount of liquid to be adsorbed and.

such as ethane and propane. This removal of energy from the gas results in much lower temperatures than are possible by ordinary Joule-Thom- son expansion. The cold vapors are expanded through a turbine which is loaded by a compressor wheel on the same shaft.192 the temperature. Inlet gas is used for heating reboiler. can be attained using this process. When wellhead pressures are high and large pressure drops can be used. which is partially recompressed by the expander compressor. The liquid is used as the column reflux and the separated vapors combined with vapors stripped in the demethanizer are exchanged with the feed gas. a typical flow chart of which is presented in Fig. 7-9. The most common process used today. Propane and ammonia are the most common refrigerants. and the basic separation is simply a phase separation followed by liquid stabilization. which makes the . The separated liquid containing most of the heavy fractions is fed to a demethanizer column. The heated gas. when liquid recovery can be economically justified. Very low temperatures and high recovery of light components. Inlet gas is dehydrated in molecular sieve beds and cooled by heat exchange. The glycol is recovered from the main separator and regenerated in the manner shown in Fig. 7-4. The expander outlet is a two-phase stream that is fed to the top of the demethanizer column. Ethylene glycol is injected into the system at points where icing or gas hydrate formation can occur. expansion across a choke (Joule-Thomson effect) will supplement mecha- nical refrigeration or even supplant refrigeration by an outside medium. is further recompressed to sales pressure in a separate compressor. is the one which uses a turboexpander to produce the necessary refrigera- tion. which serves as a separator.

7-11 and 7-12). The remainder of . typified by Fig. 7-13 and 7-14) together with lesser amounts of lighter components. the reboiler may be placed on the vapor rectifier and the stabilizer is not used. Refrigeration is applied to the column overhead to produce reflux and. These complex plants tend to consume excessive fuel and are difficult to operate. to partially condense the feed. Although the majority of operating plants still use this process. 7-10. When the inlet gas is rich in liquefiable hydrocarbons. 7-10. process very efficient. i. The process is very flexible within the limits set by heating medium.e. Vapor rectification process. the fuel is only required for dehydrator regeneration and for recompression.. the inlet heat exchange is supplemented by mechanical refrigeration ahead of the primary separator. very few newly-constructed plants utilize it. Absorption Up until the early 1970s most hydrocarbon recovery plants involved oil absorp- tion process. Oil absorption process involves countercurrent contact between stripped or lean oil with the incoming wet gas. Refrigeration is frequently used to obtain lower (more favorable) temperatures. at such conditions of temperature and pressure that the desired amounts of the liquefiable components are dissolved in the oil (Figs. and equipment size. oil absorption process has become economically undesirable in most new applications. (Figs. but the basic separation is accomplished in a series of steps in the vapor-rectified column. 193 FGAS UEL GLYCOL I SALES J I GAS INTAKE t GAS v HEAT EXCHANGER a 2 s -43 REBOILER CONDENSATE Ir \--1 -To GLYCOL WATER I 1 Fig. refrigeration system. sometimes. Vapor rectification processes. also employ mechanical refrigeration. If the recovery of lighter liquids is sufficiently high. Production can be varied simply by resetting the top and bottom temperatures. In a time of energy conservation and the trend towards construction of short-lived plants.

and K = equilibrium ratio. A schematic diagram of bubble tray absorber. where L = moles of liquid. Refrigeration. V = moles of vapor. a low-molecular-weight oil will yield a large L for the same volume of oil circulated.194 Wire Mesh Demirler R e s i d u e G o s lo S a l e s Lean Oil Troy Bubble C o p Down Spoul W c l Gor Rich Oil u Fig. and presaturation of the oil with light components are all used to reduce effective absorber temperature and increase the absorption factor by reducing K. Inasmuch as the L / V is a molal ratio.the equilibrium ratio (mole fraction of a component in the gas: mole fraction of component in the oil). and (4) separation of the raw product into various finished products. the plant can be divided into the following functional sections: (1) separation of light ends from the oil. 7-11. 7-15. Increase in pressure also reduces K up to a point. (3) final removal of light ends from the raw product. (2) separation of absorbed materials from the oil. The extraction of a given component in the absorber depends on (1)the number of equilibrium contacts (theoretical trays) in the absorber during countercurrent flow of gas and liquid and (2) the absorption factor A defined as L / V K . A typical oil absorption system is illustrated in Fig. intercooling. .

195 Fig. LEAN OIL RATE O A L S ~ C F Fig. 7-13. 7-12. California. Bubble cap (a. b) and bubble tray (c. Ventura gasoline plant. . Relationship between the propane recovery (in 76) and lean oil/gas ratio (in gal/Mcf). d).

The rejection of unwanted light ends may be carried out in one or more steps. however. the value of K starts to increase. . 7-14. after reaching a minimum at some high pressure (500-600 psig). California. because it is more economic to cool or circulate more oil than to greatly increase the recompression horsepower. With low-molecular-weight oils. stripping is commonly done by preheating the oil and countercurrently contacting it with steam. Ventura gasoline plant.196 o/o PROPANE RECOVERED Fig. If a heavy absorption oil is used. the absorbed material is removed from the oil in the stripper or a still. Absorbers used in cycling plants are operated in the 1400-2000 psig range. Absorber pressure is usually set by the sales or end-use pressure. Methane is nearly always removed in the rich-oil rectifier by pressure reduction and heating. Following rich-oil rectification.Relationship between the propane recovery (in %) and recovery of butane and pentane. In many plants this column also removes the ethane. Steam is used because it is easily condensed and is immiscible with the raw product.

Oil absorption process. Low pressure is conducive to good stripping. the still feed is heated by ‘exchange with the still bottoms and a fired heater is installed as a reboiler. 197 S I CONDENSER COOLER Fig. whereas high pressure aids condensation. . Although most operations represent a compromise between these two factors. some plants use two stills in series: one at high pressure ISOBUTANE PROPANE BUTANE XED N4TURAL GASOLINE FROM DISTILLATION AREA REBOILER DEPROPANIZED GA5OLINE I I I Fig. Flow diagram of fractionation area. 7-15. 7-16.

when gas volumes have declined and gathering lines may be oversized. Laying of pipelines (pattern-wise). they are followed by the debutanizer and the butane splitter (Fig. it may be desirable to debutanize first in order to get rid of the large gasoline stream and then depropanize. Fractionation As was mentioned earlier. if propane recovery is low.. Using this design each column can operate at a successively lower pressure and streams will flow from column to column without pumping. at times local systems may be justified. A careful economic study must be made to evaluate the advantages of one system over the other during the life of the operation. Normally propane or ethane is the largest volume product and the depropanizer is the next column. both current and future. In the later stages of a field’s operation. If the oil is not well stripped. and it is the responsibility of the gas plant operator to gather the gas for processing. There are two general rules of thumb which can be substantiated by economic evaluation: (1) remove any unwanted light ends in the first column so that the other columns can run totally condensing. which product is produced first) can vary widely. designed for unattended operation. should be used for greater distances. On the other hand. however.198 to condense the light ends and the second at low pressure to insure good stripping of the heavier gasoline fractions. followed by a splitter if there is one. it may be possible to bypass the field compressors. fractionating systems.e. This means a partial duplication of the gathering system to bring gas at two different pressures to a compressor station. and (2) remove the largest product stream first. Substantial savings in compressor horsepower can be realized if multiple stages of separation are used. GAS GATHERING Custody transfer of the gas normally takes place immediately downstream of the trap. If the gas gathering lines are short. . In most gas processing units the greatest capital investment is for the gas compressors and auxiliaries. Generally. centrally located. Field compressors. The order of fractionation (i. the lighter compo- nents in the oil will be vaporized in the absorber and lost in the residue gas stream. In practice this means that the first column will be a deethanizer unless (1) all ethane was removed in the rich-oil rectifier or (2) an ethane product is being made and shipped as an ethane-propane mix. size of pipelines. and location of compressors should be based on economic considerations. It is a good rule of thumb that length of gathering lines to a compressor suction should never exceed five miles. 7-16). 7-27). the processor gathers the gas at low pressure and compresses it to the processing pressure which is usually the residue gas sales pressure (see Fig. it is advantageous to locate compressors at the plant where they can be attended for more efficient operation. the trend is toward construction of large.

Example of a gas-gathering system for an oil field. Hydrates may form at temperatures considerably above the freezing point of water. There are three methods commonly used to prevent hydrate formation in gas gathering lines: (1) Operation at temperatures and pressures at which hydrates cannot form. Alaska (Wilson. can plug lines and valves if allowed to form. . which resemble wet snow and have a crystalline structure. rather than an oil field. (3) Injection of hydrate inhibitors into the gas gathering lines. Gas hydrates. low temperatures. such as at the Shell’s Jumping Pound Plant in Canada. Methanol is commonly used where only a small amount of inhibitor is required. the gathering lines are normally-sized to deliver the gas at utilization pressure. for example. particularly if high pressures. and long distances are involved. Hydrate formation in gas gathering lines is often a serious problem. This system is used at Prudhoe Bay. As the wellhead pressure declines. It is sometimes used for large systems particularly when salt water is present. 7-17. at a pressure of 800 psi a water-wet. For example. 1974) and at the Ekofisk Field in the North Sea (Kennedy. If the wells are in a gas field. 0. (2) Dehydration of natural gas at the source before it enters the gas gathering lines. 199 i COOL1 n Fig. Wellhead gas heaters are sometimes used to heat the gas entering the gathering system. compression is added to maintain the flow.7-specific gravity gas will form hydrates at a temperature of approximately 65°F. 1972).

ethylene glycol is sometimes injected into the gathering line to prevent hydrate formation. wrapped.200 methanol is injected into the gathering line at the offshore production platform for the Viking Field in the North Sea. This stream is subsequently fractionated to recover methanol as a top product and salt water as a bottom product. This is done for two reasons: (1) reservoir engineers have determined that the production of oil can be maximized (maximum recovery) by maintaining the field pressure and/or (2) the gas cannot be sold because an outlet is not available and venting is not permitted because of air pollution regulations. Many operators are now using PVC or other plastic pipe for gas gathering lines below a pressure of 50 psig. long sections of line may fill with liquid. . GAS INJECTION Produced gas may be processed and injected back into the formation from which it is produced. and are less expensive to install. require no coating. This occurs when warm gas enters the system and subsequently cools to a temperature below its dew point and/or when well fluid consisting of gas. These pipes are less expensive. A methanol-water mixture is separated from the well fluid at the associated onshore facilities. Although only gas transmission lines and gathering lines in incorporated areas are subject to regulation by the Federal Office of Pipeline Safety. The slug catcher acts as a surge to level out the liquid flow to the processing facilities. This procedure was followed in the offshore Molino Field near Santa Barbara. and water enters the gathering system. Dilute glycol is separated at the gas processing plant for reconcentration and is recycled back to the inlet of the gathering system. When salt is not present. It may be necessary to install a large vessel or “slug catcher” at the outlet of the gathering lines to collect these large volumes of liquid. Two-phase flow is frequently encountered in gas gathering lines. Liquid can be displaced out of the line to improve its efficiency by running spheres (“pigs”) through the line. condensate. California. Under certain flow conditions. Additional gas from other formations may also be injected to supplement the gas produced from a given oil zone. and buried with the proper amount of cover to avoid rupture by outside operations. Steel lines must have certain minimum wall thickness and be designed for the required operating pressure and density of population. Injection pressures of 3000-4000 psig are common. cathodically protected against corrosion. An example of this is the 3000-bbl capacity slug catcher at a pressure of 1050 psig installed in the onshore facilities of the Viking Field. They must be coated. thereby increasing the pressure drop in the system. prudent operators should design and install all pipelines in accordance with those standards.

PAYOUT I . The gas engineer will make an economic evaluation outlining production. This is the function of a gas engineer with the assistance of specialists from other fields. Consideration must be given to probable changes in composition in oil well gases as gas/oil ratios increase. and careful evaluation of all engineering and economic factors is essential for an efficient and profitable operation (see Fig. Although the well test is helpful. Preliminary cost estimates are prepared by the process and/or mechanical engineer. This is usually done by a reservoir engineer with assistance from a geologist. (PROJECT) PROJECT ~ I HYDROCARBON BALANCE I I P L O T PLAN 1 I EQUIPMENT RATING 1 L I I 1 I PROCESS ENGINEERING I 1 . QE NATURAL GAS AND GASOLINE DIVISION j -1 I I I PROCESS ENGINEERING 1 I MECHANICAL ENGINEERING I I 1 JUSTIFICATION. The first step in the evaluation of a new project is to determine gas reserves. The well test results also include compositional data. 7-18. If the profitability meets the requirements of the management of a FUNCTIONS OF ENGINEERING DEPT. The results of this study must also include an estimate of deliverability versus time. t . expenses and profitability. 201 GAS ENGINEERING The gathering and processing of natural gas is very complex. Example of functions of engineering department of the natural gas and gasoline division . 7-18).1 PROCESS PROBLEMS AND CONSTRUCTION INSTRUMENTATION SUPERVISION I START UP ] Fig. PROFITABILITY. test volumes tend to be higher than can be realized in sustained production. A complete analysis is much more desirable than some quick test methods used for product allocation. On the basis of the gas analysis and the market conditions. income. the process engineer will prepare a flowsheet for the processing scheme and the mechanical engineer will prepare detailed designs and mechanical equipment specifications.

H.6 2.2 13.9 1. Final engineering design may be completed in-house and the engineering draw- ings submitted to contractors for construction bids. so that the proper decisions can be made. entering the answers on a skeleton-flow diagram. (3) List agents which can remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gases.0 100.0 1.8 100.2 0. (4) Draw a simplified flow diagram and cross section of an ethylene recovery unit.3 0.0 2. stripping.9 86.202 particular company. compute the number of moles of each component and the total number of moles in each of the other streams.9 0.3 1.0 1. The size of the engineering group determines how much work is done in-house.9 For the period covered by the table.6 58.3 1. the compositions of the various streams are given below in mole%: Component Feed Make Discharge Purge 29.1 0.0 71.0 23. or the entire project may be submitted to contractors for both final design and construction. including field production. the project will proceed.0 0.2 1. rate of return on capital. SAMPLE PROBLEMS AND QUESTIONS (1) Draw a simplified flow 'diagram of absorption. such as the process or mechanical engineer. should be as familiar as possible with all aspects of a project.9 99.9 0. and stabilization operations. among those used are payout.5 3. Economic criteria vary widely.447 times the number of moles of purge gas. (5) For a specific period of operation of the ethylene recovery plant.3 42. ratio of cash flow to investment. . The production engineer responsible for field operations should also be familiar with the problems of the gas processor in order to make the entire operation run smoothly.0 moles of feed gas. In very small companies. The various facets of gas engineering are so interrelated that even a specialist.1 1.4 0. was recovered in the make gas. a few engineers perform all the engineering functions and preliminary as well as final design may be made by an engineering contractor.1 99. Also show corresponding reactions. and the net present value at a specified discount rate.8% of the C. and 94.2 0.5 5.2 0.5 49. (2) Describe three general methods of concentrating the components of gases. For each 100. the number of moles of discharge gas was 1.

0 65.0 c4 12. whereas those for the fuel oil are 20" API and 11.1 0.0 0. (7) Crude oil is heated in exchangers by the counter-current flow of fuel oil. the exchangers handle 30.6 44. the equilibrium ratios ( K= y / x ) were 3. assume that the total number of moles of liquid is 1.3 0.0 100.0 c3 16. What precautions should be taken? (10) A mixture of nitrogen and propane having a gross heating value of 1035 Btu/cu ft is used as a fuel in lieu of natural gas. Compute the heat lost by the fuel oil in Btu/hr.75 times the total number of moles of vapor. and the crude enters the exchangers at 85°F. what is the maximum permissible pressure that will avoid condensation of liquid in the line? (11) (a) Define "equilibrium ratio".75. Estimate the outlet temperature of the crude oil. what properties should one specify? Why? Describe testing procedures. For 100.4 53.3 0. and 0. (8) Engineers were studying the advisability of deasphalting lube oil by contact with a mixture of propane and normal butane. The gravity and U.0 100.4 c: 10. respectively.3.0 moles of the original mixture.250 gal/hr of the fuel oil. compute the number of moles and mole % of each constituent in the equilibrium liquid. A mixture containing 32.1 mole% propane.9 22.0 0. Under these conditions. 1. entering the answers on a skeleton-flow diagram.0 100.0 moles of the raw gas.2 14. assuming all of the heat lost by the fuel oil is picked up by the crude.0 100.0 0. For the first approximation. The fuel oil is cooled from 750 to 250"F.3. If the ground temperature is 50"F.28 for butane. 31.O.0 0.9 0.0 For each 110.2 55. @) What factors affect the value of the equilibrium ratio? (c) What methods can be used to correlate the most complex of the factors listed in (b)? (12) On purchasing propane as a motor fuel.0 0. and 36.00 for the lube oil.P. characterization factor of the crude are 35" API and 11.6 100. Measured at 60°F.2 mole% butane.87 for propane. or L / V = 1. the composi- tions of the various streams are given below in mole%: Raw Absorber Reabsorber Stabilizer Finished gas residual residual residual gasoline gas gas gas Cl 44. 203 (6) For a specific period of operation of the natural gasoline plant.0 0.6 46. compute the number of moles of each component and the total number of moles in each of the other streams. It is transported in a buried line.500 gal/hr of the crude and 10.7 mole S lube oil was flashed at 25 psig and 100°F.0 c2 16.1 2.5 60. . (9) Outline a satisfactory sampling procedure for a nonretrograde wet gas and sketch the equipment required.9 34.

which is maintained at the feed point.5 0. For each 100.1% of the C.H.1 0.765 times the number of moles of purge gas.0 moles of feed gas.1 .1 0. the number of moles of discharge gas was 1.0 0. 360-365) Ethylene recovery plant problem For a specific period of operation of the ethylene recovery plant. was recovered in the make gas. pass upward and are removed as a discharge gas. The unadsorbed lighter gases.1 87.8 For the period covered by the table. At this temperature the adsorbed gases are desorbed from the carbon.3 0. as purge gas.0 1.5 0. a portion of the unadsorbed gases is permitted to pass up the tower. and are removed as make gas at the second disengaging tray situated just above the stripping section. however.204 APPENDIX 7.9 0. the composi- tions of the various streams are given below in mole %: Component Feed Make Discharge Purge 30. continues on up past the disengaging tray and serves as reflux in the section of the tower below .5 1. which is piped directly from the demethanizer column. pass back up the tower.2 5.3 1.0 100.SAMPLE PLANT FLOW PROBLEMS (After Chilingar and Beeson. It moves upward in contact with (and countercurrent to) the activated carbon bed.6 6. is introduced about midway in the tower.0 100.0 1. This removal occurs at a disengaging plate located just below the cooling section at the top of the tower. the carbon selectively adsorbs the ethylene and other gases of higher molecular weights.7 0. with predominating methane and hydrogen.8 56. Description of plant used for ethylene recovery The feed gas stream. Enter the answers on a skeleton-flow diagram.2 0. and 95. into the stripping section. This discharge gas is then used around the plant as fuel.7 3.0 22.8 1.6 100. The adsorbed gases (mostly ethylene) pass downward with the carbon. compute the number of moles of each component and the total number of moles in each of the other streams.5 49.1 99.5 40. A small portion of these gases.0 2. At 140°F temperature.3 12.7 1. moving downward through the tower.0 0. and past the cooling section. In order to keep the system free of an excessive amount of 60-mesh or finer carbon particles. 1968. where the temperature of the carbon is increased to about 510°F. pp.0 72.

0 1.0= 6. On reaching the top of the tower the carbon is dehydrated and cooled to about 120°F in the cooling section. Solution: (95.5 0.2 40.6 = 59.2 100.8 moles 100 5.0 0.0 13.6 100.3 0.33.0 0.765P solving for P (moles of purge gas) P = 33.1 87.2 0.1 0.9 NZ 3. which is introduced below the stripping section.0 0.5 0.3 1. = = 5. In order to remove the remaining moisture from the product.9 5.3 12.2 1. and is then condensed in a cooler.2 C2H4 6.1) Moles of C.6 0. 56. The gas pressure for lifting the carbon is supplied by a centrifugal blower.8 .0 22. This steam passes upward and out with the make gas.0 72.1 0. it is moved back up to the top through a pipe.879 Material balance: 100.6 moles 0.8 0 2 1.7 16.6.9 1.0 0.8 Total moles in make gas = -.4 1. the make gas is finally passed through an alumina dehydrator.0 6.8 0.H.6 CH. As the carbon leaves the base of the tower.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.4 49.8 33.8 .1 59.8 moles and D = 100 .5 43.5 0. 1.1)( 6.8 0.7 0.5 CZH.3 0. The last traces of adsorbed gases are removed by the steam (at 150 psig).6 99.3 5.6 0.5 i3.8 0. These gases serve to liberate the lighter components which may contaminate the adsorbed material.8 0.6 co 1. A sealing leg at the bottom of the tower prevents the stripping steam from entering the lift section.7 0.1 0.0 2. 205 the feed tray.6.6 moles (discharge gas) Component Feed Make Discharge Purge Mole % Mole % Moles Mole % Moles Mole % Moles H2 30.6 + P + 1.

7.765 P 33. and then sent upward through an absorbing column.9 78. and the stabilizer.0 5. As the gasoline-rich absorbing oil leaves the bottom of the absorber.H. (d) Compute the number of gallons per day of finished gasoline produced (based on 15.1-2.6 100.0 100.0 c4 4. the reabsorber.000 standard Mcf per day of raw gas being processed) of residual gases from the absorber.7 21. countercurrent to a stream of cold absorption oil.0 c2 9.0 100.0 100. it is pumped through a heat exchanger.1-1.000 standard Mcf per day of raw gas being processed). or 26.1 100.0 3.5 c. present in the raw gas.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 84.0 0.1% 6.0 64.1 Natural gasoline plant problem The compositions of various streams (mole %) in a natural gasoline plant are as follows: Component Raw gas Absorber Reabsorber Stabilizer Finished residual gas residual gas residual gas gasoline c. into a common stripping still and .4 26. in make gas = .0 scf of C. 4.0 scf of C: vapor. Description of natural gasoline plant The natural gasoline plant (see Figs. (b) Calculate the total number of moles per day (based on 15.8 Recovery of C.0 0.0 c3 6. and through a steam preheater.0 scf of C. 76. cooled.5 100. 7. 7.0 Assume that the liquid volumes are additive and that 1 gal of gasoline can be obtained from 37.6 -=- 59*6 .= 95. vapor.206 Moles Purge 33. (a) Calculate the number of moles (based on 100 moles of raw gas) for each stream and each component.1-4) is processing gas which is pumped from the casing heads of oil wells. and 7.0 0.5 1. The raw gas is compressed. (c) Calculate the composition of the raw gasoline fed to the stabilizer.5 10.3 35. and C.1-3.5 ' 0. vapor.8 Make 6.0 0.1. The residual (or fuel) gas leaving the absorber contains almost all of the C.8 Discharge 59.6 73.7 0.0 0. 31.

02 2 3 14 PENTANE + I69 17 4 4 100 00 100 00 100 00 100 00 Fig. Example of compositions of various flow streams in a natural gasoline plant. 207 FIELD FUEL r COMPOSITIONS VOLUME % WET RESIDUE LlOUlD FIELD GAS GAS HYDROCARBONS FUEL METHANE 80. back to the top of the absorption column. - and through a cooler. is pumped from the bottom of the still through the above mentioned heat exchanger.55 ETHANE PROPANE ISO. 7. rectifier. 7.24 . Schematic flow diagram showing the various areas of gasoline plant.1-2.BUTANE 9 58 NORMAL BUTANE 2.38 90. 4 LIGHT FRACTIONS !I UTILITIES STEAM ABSORPTION RIC DlSTILLATION FRACTIONATION WATER AREA AREA AREA E L E C T R I C POWER COMPRESSED A I R t TO STORAGE SPEC I F IC A T ION N A T U R A L HYDROCARBONS Fig. which is devoid of all gasoline fractions.87 0 70.1-1. . The stripped absorption oil.

they are sent up through a small reabsorber in order to relieve the main absorber of a heavy recycle load. The condensed raw gasoline from the still is pumped through the second heat exchanger. to a stabilizer.1-4. but absorbs some of the butane and all of the pentane. .208 . 7. r----* - - Fig. but none of the pentane. Gosolip Vapors and Stwm t c I Hot Lton Oil ACCUMULATOR Cold Leon Oil COOLER Fig. The reabsorber does not absorb propane. Flow diagram of absorption area The raw gasoline vapors from the top of the still are partially condensed and collected in a small rundown tank. 7. and the rich oil from the bottom is added to the rich oil from the absorber. The reabsorber is fed at the top with gasoline-free absorption oil.1-3. The unabsorbed gas from the reabsorber is a residual or fuel gas. Inasmuch as the uncondensed vapors contain sufficient amounts of pentane and heavier hydrocarbons. Flow diagram of distillation area. The residual or fuel gas taken overhead contains all of the propane. part of the butane. and a steam preheater.

(2) reabsorber residual gas are 0.0 = 3. C.0.2.0.737S=2. 8 On solving these two equations simultaneously. 2 6 3 S = ( 3 .0. 0.800 moles/day Reabsorber residual gas = 0.5. . respectively. = 84. = - 64.2 moles 64. .0.0. and 0. 9.5. C .000.019 x 39.5.5%= 4. 0. = - 84.0 moles Total moles = - loo x 76. 1. 209 The finished. respectively. propane-free gasoline is pumped from the bottom of the stabilizer through the second heat exchanger and a cooler to storage.. and 0.0.5 moles 84.2 moles Reabsorber residual gas and stabilizer residual gas: If R and S are the total number of moles in these two streams.0. respectively.0.1. etc. and (4) finished gasoline are 0.5 x 4.4 cu ft (379 is commonly used). respectively. 0. 0 . .0.9 c. and : C in: (1) absorber residual gas are 76.0 = 2. 1. 0.600 (b) Moles/day raw gas = 379 Absorber residual gas = 0. C . Solution: Absorber residual gas: C.0. and 4. .0 moles Total moles = - loo x 4.786R+0. and 0. 1.4.0 3. 0. 2.000 = 39.9 moles and R = 1.5 moles.600 = 550 moies/day Stabilizer residual gas = 0.0. 2 ) = 0 . (3) stabilizer residual gas are 0.5 35. then 0. Finished gasoline: C: = 64.4 moles (a) The number of moles of C .014 X 39.0 = 6.600 = 35.0%= 76. respectively.0.0 = 90.3.905 X 39.the volume of 1 Ib-mole of a perfect gas is 379. S = 1.5 c.0. 3.5.214 R + 0 .2 .600 = 750 moles/day Note: At 60'F and a pressure of 760 mm Hg.5.0. 15.0 x 76.

0. Three flow stations will handle Prudhoe East Production.. 310 pp. Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association. 1943.2. 1950a. New York.E. Gas and Liquid Sweetening (Petroleum Series). Summary of Energy Balance for the U. N. Am. Tulsa. Elsevier. 1972..A. 1966..R.R.G..G. TS-441. 1956. Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Natural Gas. W.S. N.000/31 = 10. 89 PP. Gas Processors Association. 33 pp. Western Gas Processors and Oil Refiners Association. Momson. C. 1972. W. 1965. & O. Okla.. Calif.E. Bull..A. Ekofisk plans include gas injection at 9200 psi. Chilingar.A. Kobayashi. 42 pp.Y. F. W.000/26 = 23. Tulsa.000.100 gal/day Total 33.. 2-13.A. Tulsa.P..M.A. Katz. Vernon. Poettmann. 81 pp.. LPG Specifications and Test Methods. G. & O. Okla. N. 802 pp. 70(9): 69-73. Kennedy... 1955. Calif.. and Beeson..E.A.A. Bur. New York. Okla.A. W. Los Angeles.A. Circ.L. N. & O. R. C.R.A.. Pacific Energy Association. Gas Processors Association. C. Tulsa. 72(11): 57-72..600 = 3210 moles/day. Okla. Bull. 1964. I. TS-391. J.022 x 15.P. P.L. 16 pp. Calif.M...G. Thus. Tulsa. McGraw-Hill. Publication 2140. 36 pp. Tentative Standards of Test for Liquefied Petroleum Gas. 1980c. 1. Okla.S. 1950.. = 0.A. Publication 2172. TS-561. 0.7.G. Tulsa. Bull. Specific Gravity and Compressibil- ity of Natural Gas Mixturesfrom Compositional Analysis.. and Weinaug. Gas Processors Association.H.. W.A.. Elenbaas. R. Calif.. 1968.S. W. Pacific Energy Association. Bull. J. Okla. 1950b. Los Angeles. H.E. Oil Gas J.000.Y. 1980b. Norman. G..S..210 (c) The number of moles of C . Method for Determining the Specific Graviv of Gases. Oil Gas J... TS-501. 1959.081 X 39. 1966.600 gal/day C: = 0. & O. Cornell. Methods of Test for Liquefied Petroleum Gas. 300 pp.P. Tentative Standard Procedure for the Determination of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen in Natural Gases. D. Gas Processors Association. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test Methods. Western Gas Processors and Oil Refiners Association. 1980d. TS-352. Calculation of Gross Heating Value..N. TS-431. Campbell. and 4.. TS-501. 1965.A. Engineering Data Book. (Latest revision). Calif. 22 pp. 1974. 1974. Tentative Standard Procedure for the Measurement ofNatural Gas with Orifice Meters. Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association. Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association. G. P.R.A. . 8242. Los Angeles.R. C. Wilson..4. Calif. Vary. G. C. Bull. 397 pp. TS-441.C.. Industrial Press.. Natpral Gasoline Specifications and Test Methods. Determination of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen in Natural Gases.0. 6 pp.J. Western Gas Processors and Oil Refiners Association (formerly California Natural Gasoline Association).700 gal/day REFERENCES American Gas Association. Engineering Data Book. Long Beach. Western Gas Processors and Oil Refiners Association.. Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide and Mercaptan Sulfur in Natural Gas. pp.P & O..P. Publication 2265.G. Bull.. Tentative Standard Method of Test for the Reid Vapor Pressure of Natural Gasoline.P.V.. Calif.. (d) Finished gasoline: C . Surface Operations in Petroleum Production. Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering. New York. Vernon.. Calif. Bull.A. Feed to stabilizer = 0.. 1980a. N.040 X 15.P... Tulsa. Pacific Energy Association.P.F.P. and C: in raw gasoline fed to the stabilizer are 0.. D.P.P. Mines Inf.0. Okla.A. Publication 3132. 1962. Maddox. P. 425 pp. . 81 pp. respectively.. Gas Engineers Handbook. N.Y. Los Angeles. G..R.G. Okla. Bull..P.G. Vernon. Western Gas Processors and Oil Refiners Association.G.

Some of the major advantages of using pipelines include: (1) Economy. because a minimum of storage facilities are required at either end.. He concluded that it occurred at a fixed value of a dimensionless group. etc. complex transcontinental piping systems have been developed. adverse weather. etc. breakdowns. .Velocity profiles in a circular conduit for laminar flow (left) and turbulent flow (right). The fundamental concepts involved are very useful and their knowledge is absolutely essential for any practic- ing petroleum engineer. which is highly desirable in modern continuous-flow oil refineries. 8-1. FUNDAMENTALS OF FLOW IN PIPES Reynolds applied dimensional analysis to the phenomenon of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. 211 Chapter 8 OIL AND GAS TRANSPORT SANJAY KUMAR and GEORGE V. CHILINGARIAN MTRODUCTION Inasmuch as it is usually much cheaper to use pipelines than to use barges. The designs of simple systems are briefly discussed here. (4) Continuity of flow.g.. (3) Control: An installed pipeline can usually handle a wide range of flow rates. (2) Reliability under almost all conditions (e. V = velocity V = O AT PIPE WALL I LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW Fig. non-availability of tankers. which is called the Reynolds number ( N R e )in his honor: NRe = dVp/p = d V / v = inertia forces/viscous forces (8-1) where d = diameter of the conduit through which the fluid is flowing.). tankers. trucks.

is the weight per unit volume and can be expressed in terms of lb/cu ft./ft-sec.0. has a density. F = design factor (construction type). N. d a2 a wetted perimeter = 4 a . and for turbulent flow. it is equal to 1. and d . wetted perimeter =rd. the units of dynamic viscosity are Ibfsec/ft2 or slugs/ft-sec.. for example. except for butt-welded ASTM-A53.. > 10. Thus: d . If the cross-section of a pipe is square. = = -= -. Inasmuch as 1 slug = 32.000. area of flow.001076 ft‘/sec. For laminar or viscous flow.0673 Ib. p = density of the fluid..d . = inside diameter of pipe.6). 1 stoke -100 centistokes -1 cm2/sec = 0. for transitional or intermediate flow. of 1. The schematic diagrams of velocity profiles for laminar and turbulent flows are shown in Fig. The density. p’.17 lb. = 4 R . a density of 1 slug/ft3 = 32. 1 poise = 100 centipoises = 1dyne-sec/cm2 = 1 g/cm-sec = 0. = (area of flow)/(wetted perimeter). fusion-welded A 134 and A 139 ( = 0. and R .8). = 4 R . e = longitudinal joint factor (i.174 ft-sec-’). N.17 lb. dimensionless. psi. in. t’ = temperature derating factor. can be expressed in terms of slugs/cu ft. y .3 For cases where the flow is not through a cylindrical pipe (the cross-section is other than circular). the concept of effective diameter has been developed: d.e. = ( m d 2 / 4 ) / ( r d )= d / 4 . is equal to: St’Fe ( d o . R . A = r d 2 / 4 . p a . in. (8-2) where hydraulic radius. 4 4a 4 In the case of circular cross section.8). ) Pa = (8-3) do where S = specified minimum yield strength. where g is the gravitational acceleration ( = 32. pure water.212 2 of the fluid. 8-1.4/32. R .17) slugs/cu ft.000 3 . API-5L ( = 0. and spiral- welded A 211 (= 0. =4R. Value of 3100-4000 is commonly assigned to this limit.00209 lb. which is mass per unit volume and is equal to y / g . The density expressed in lb. the mass is attracted by the earth with a force of magnitude p’g. d . and Y = kinematic viscosity of fluid. Inasmuch as p = shear stress/shear strain = T/(dV/dy). = d .4 lb/cu ft. .sec/ft’ = 0. = a . Allowable working pressure of pipeline The allowable working pressure of a pipeline. In other words. < 2100. The specific weight. 1 slug/ft-sec = 479 poises./ft3 will be designated by p throughout this book. which has a specific weight of 62.94 ( = 62./ft3. d o = outside diameter of pipe. anomaly due to weld seam). For example.. p ’ . 2100 < N R e < 10.’ p = dynamic viscosity of fluid.. cross-sectional area of flow = a’.00209 slug/ft-sec = 0.

213 Horsepower The hydraulic horsepower. the eq. friction factor. f . P. is equal to: 16 f = . at N R e ranging from 2000 to 2300. and d = diameter of pipe. and 1.000017 X bbl/D X psig = 0.2 ft/sec2. y = fluid specific weight.for laminar flow. = dimensional constant.. V = fluid velocity. I = length of pipe. If A p . Thus. 8-4 becomes: The Fanning friction factor.3192 for intermediate flow. f = 64/NR. g. because they may be multiples of the f given in Fig. is equal to 0. ft.NReJT for partially turbulent flow.2 lb. p = density (mass/unit volume). dimensionless. Pipes are defined as smooth. extreme care must be exercised on using values of f available in the literature.4126 According to Hagen and Poiseuille. (= r/di) is < ( c = absolute surface roughness in inches and di = inside diameter of pipe in ft). . lb. lb/ft2. 32. 8-2. f = Fanning. The equation f = 64/( V d p / p ) is widely accepted. friction is associated with any kind of flow. lb/ft3.00053 X gal/min X psig. is expressed in psi. = pressure loss due to friction. ' NRe f = 0.. f = 4 log. Friction Obviously. The Fanning equation for steady state flow in uniform circular pipes which are full of liquid under isothermal conditions is as follows: where A p ./ft3.1419( N R e ) -0.-ft/lb-sec2. ft/sec. 32. if the relative roughness k. ft. g = gravitational accelera- tion.

(2) Reducing or expanding-swages.= 4 log- sr NRe for turbulent flow (Prandtl-Khrmhn equation).71di . 8-2. (1962. The most widely used correlation between NRe and f (Moody..tees.51 (8-9) for intermediate flow (Colebrook's relation). Crane Company also included an equivalent length concept. Formula 8-8 is commonly called Prandtl's formula and is expressed as follows: . reducers. the above relation- ships are slightly modified: 1 2. classified all valves and fittings as follows: ( 1 ) Branching. etc.e. side-outlet elbows. For an excellent discussion of fundamentals of flow in pipes. bushings. 1-100). This equation is valid for smooth pipes at Reynolds numbers up to about lo5. = friction factor for smooth pipes. 1944) is shown in Fig. i.255 JT for fully turbulent flow (Prandtl-Khrmhn formula) For rough pipes. expressing head loss due to the friction in valves and fittings in terms of equivalent head loss due to the friction in a straight pipe. (Supino formula). the reader is referred to Szilas (1975) and Craft et al. (8-10) f=f.NReJT - 1. which conducted exhaustive tests to find the resistance of valves and fittings to single-phase flow.214 1 = 4 log.316/N. 1 3. Blasius formulated the following empirical equation for turbulent flow: f = 0. + 0. E in microinches. ( 3 ) Deflecting-elbows. pp. In 1911. Friction head loss in fittings and connections The Crane Company.<'. etc. using the absolute roughness. (8-11) i i i ) where f. etc. return bends. bends.68NRef? . chokes. These equations present fairly good approximations over a wide range of NRe. crosses.

Eng. Friction factors for various types of commercial pipes. where V = velocity in ft/sec.Fig.) NRr= V D p / p . Ib/cu ft. Soc. courtesy of the Am. p = fluid density. 1944 p. Mech. and p = viscosity of fluid in Ib/ft-sec (cP/1488). D = pipe diameter in ft. 8-2. 215 . 671. (From Moody.

table 32 (a). Cleveland. = 0 h = .")* FEET OF FLUID SEE ALSO EQUATION (5) IF A. OH).FEET OF FLUID 29 Fig. 1979.'I' FEET OF FLUID V' h = K . . 8-3. Resistance coefficients for valves and fittings (reprinted from Engineering Data Book. courtesy of the Hydraulic Institute.216 I'( . = 00 SO THAT V. p 75.

05 SQUARE EDGED INLET REGULAR SCREWED 45O ELL.0 I NOTE: K DECREASES WITH INCREASING WALL THICKNESS OF PIPE AND ROUNDING OF EDGES LINE FLOW 1 3'.5 I n 2 A SCREWED TEE BRANCH FLOW h=K - V' 2a FEET OF FLUID Fig.5 INWARD PROJECTING PIPE K = 1. 217 FI I - BELL MOUTH INLET OR REDUCER K=0. K K = 0. 8-3 continued. . .

p. OH). . Cleveland. 1979.w10 D - O.w15 0. 1979. The decrease in static head due to velocity is expressed as: V2 and if there is a valve or fitting in the line.wm 0.OW5 SMOOTH 0 1 2 3 4 s (I 7 8 8 10 R - D Fig. p. 8-5. Resistance coefficients for 90" bends of uniform diameter. then the head loss due to the friction h .21 8 0. Resistance coefficient for sudden reducers. 8-4. 79. (From Engineering Data Book. (From Engineering Data Book. 82. OH). Cleveland. is t K 06 04 03 02 01 00 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Fig. courtesy of the Hydraulic Institute. courtesy of the Hydraulic Institute.

(4)transfer of momentum by another fluid. The mechanisms (1) and (2) are commonly used in the petroleum industry. 219 equal to: V2 hl=K. whereas head can be expressed in ft. (5) electromagnetic force. 8-3. I. (8-12) 2g where K = resistance coefficient. 1973): (1) the action of centrifugal force. and (6) gravity. . 8-6. 8-5. is equal to: (8-14) where ( I / d ) = equivalent l / d for a given fitting. Measurement of performance The amount of useful work performed by a fluid-transport device is the product of the rate (capacity) at which fluid is transmitted and the head (the height of a column of fluid equivalent to the pressure differential between inlet and outlet ends of the device). (8-13) d The ratio l / d is the equivalent length (in pipe diameters) of straight pipe. the equivalent length (in ft) of a straight pipe. Inasmuch as the same head loss can be also expressed by the Fanning equation: h 1 v2 =f-- d 2g 1 K=f. Thus. 8-4. The K values for various valves and pipe fittings are presented in Figs. and d = diameter of the pipe in which the fi&g is installed. defined as the number of velocity heads lost due to the valve or fitting. (2) volumetric displacement (mechanical or by another fluid). which will cause the same pressure drop as the fitting under the same flow conditions. (3) mechanical impulse. Capacity can be expressed in ft3/min. PRINCIPLES OF PUMPING Pumping mechanisms The six basic mechanisms of artificially-induced fluid flow are (Perry and Chilton..

(Reprinted from Technical Paper No. 0. 1942..3 I .000 50 - 7 500 ANGLE VALVE.BORDA ENTRANCE 14 16 2 -- -I - -.2. FULLY OPEN F++ . OPEN I STANDARD TEE - . courtesy of Crane Co. .1 0. 409. 8-6.5 Fig.0.000 '14 CLOSED '/2 CLOSED .000 ' -FULLY OPEN --~1.300 30 30 . Resistance of valves and fittings to flow of fluids. New York).5 .0. 20 =loo ! SWING CHECK VALVE.220 h NDTF: GL GATE VALVE -3.2 LONG SWEEP ELBOW OR' RUN OF STANDARD TEE .200 22 /SQUARE I.0.

. psi. is equal to: h . at the point of gauge attachment. gal/min... = 1). f t of liquid. 8. (8-17) where h. and h . i. and h a = atmospheric pressure head.. (8-19) where h.h . = pressure gauge reading at discharge end. + h a + h. . h. vp. h. Total discharge head. Velocity head ( V 2 / 2 g )is equal to the vertical distance necessary for a body to fall to acquire the velocity V. = velocity head at discharge end.33HGQ - --H p Hydraulic horsepower. . etc. is equal to: h. . = h. =. The efficiency of the pump. OIL PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION The flow of crude oil in a pipeline may be assumed to be isothermal if the oil viscosity is low and the inflow temperature is close to the surrounding soil temperature.e. be defined as: 'h v. Q = volumetric rate of flow.. There are limitations on the net positive suction head of the pump ( N P S H ) . can.. 221 The overall efficiency of the pumping system is defined as the ratio of useful hydraulic work performed to the input work to the device. = friction head. pressure head recorded on a pressure gauge at the suction end in ft of liquid. H p = total dynamic head. = head equivalent to the vapor pressure of the liquid. . and G = specific gravity with respect to water ( G . ft of liquid. is greater than the theoretical or hydraulic horsepower by the amount of losses in the pump due to friction. h. + ha + h. h. which is equal to the absolute pressure at the source (ft of liquid) plus the vertical distance from this level to the pump center line.. The maximum theoretical vertical distance between the pump and the level of suction exposed to atmosphere is given by the following formula: N P S H = h. ft of liquid. = potential energy head at suction end. = static suction head. and h. ft of liquid... (8-18) where h. = velocity head. The brake horsepower of a pump. (8-16) 'b The total dynamic head H is equal to the total discharge head h . P b .. minus the total suction head h .h . = h. P h = (8-15) 33000 1714 where H = total dynamic head. therefore. ft of liquid... The total suction head... leakage.

to hma. Gradient h . . 8-7. The point M‘ in the valley is also critical. the pressure head at the outlet is h . is calculated using eq. where the pressure head of the flowing liquid is the lowest. h. the principles are presented here. If no throttling is applied at the tail end 0. If this line A’ intersects the ground profile. and a line with a slope equal to this gradient is drawn from the outlet end 0 to the inlet end. corresponding to the maximum allowable operating pressure of the pipeline. A’ is shifted upwards until it just touches the profile at M.. 8-21. there are two options: (1) Increase the inlet head to h . Thus: h . as shown in Fig. 8-4: This equation can be presented as follows: (8-20) where: (8-21) and h h is the hydraulic gradient. Because of safety considerations (safety factor). The maximum flow rate in the pipeline can be determined as follows: (1) Calculate the maximum head. As mentioned previously. Assuming a Newtonian liquid. = the total suction head at any point x along the length of the pipe and y = specific weight of fluid. the oil arrives at atmospheric pressure.. the friction loss over a length of uniform pipe is given by eq. =ALP = h I (8-22) h Y where h. whereas if throttling is applied. (2) Increase the head h . because one must calculate the pressure head h and limit it to the maximum allowable operating pressure of the pipeline ( P= b ’ g ) . This results in a line B having a different slope. In this case. must be higher than this minimum by 30-50 m. One can then use the criterion of hydraulic gradient to determine the possible flow over a given terrain.222 The design of a pipeline for hilly terrains has been discussed in detail by Beggs and Brill (1972) and several others (see Chapter 9). . The point M is called the critical point. . h . .

223 - i 7 hl 1 09 Distance. if the only pump station is at the head end. (Modified after Szilas. p. Pressure profile for a pipeline laid over a hilly terrain. 7. .1-1. f' Fig. These are usually given in the pipe manuals. 479. 8-7. 8-21: Inasmuch as V = -and g = 32. Hungary). fig. ( 2 ) Determine the constants a and b in the equation f = a N i : for the flow regime anticipated and the pipe in question. 1975. ( 3 ) Substitute the above equation for f in eq. Budapest. f ? . d277/4 (8-24) or (8-25) This equation can be used to determine the maximum Q for a maximum h.. courtesy of Akademiai Kiad6.2 ft/sec-'.

000/1.225 ft3/sec = 32.=) = (3045 . poi. Solution: S. = Sam. . (2) By installing a second pipeline alongside the already existing pipeline. = 3205 (0./ft-sec =4 x 2. 8-24.2 x l o p 5 ft2/sec.19 in eq. Increasing flow capacity of pipelines There are two ways of increasing the flow capacity of an existing pipeline. which should be achteved with a least-cost objective in mind: (1) By installing one or more intermediate pumping stations along the pipeline..72 X lb.84.2 = 17..200 bbl/hr..500 psi..224 Example 8-1 Determine the maximum throughput of a 30-in.09)(10-5) . This so-called looped system is of two kinds: .09 x l o T 5lb.2. d i = 28 in. F.) = 21.05 and b = 0. 8-3: For additional safety. d o = 30 in. v = o = = 5./< = 21. Q can be calculated: = 50. = 1. if the safety factor. Go.95) = 3045 ft Then.84)(62. Maximum allowable working pressure is given by eq.012524 ft/ft p.400)/(40)(5280) = 0. relative roughness c / d = l o p 6 (smooth pipe). pipe length = 40 miles. hh(. =4 CP= 4 x 6. and outlet is located 400 ft above inlet. p (4)(2. O po (0. t h s h.000 psi). Sa(... is.sec/ft2.2 Using a = 0.4)/32. reduced by about 5%: h.= 4 cP. API 5LX grade X46 pipe (maximum allowable stress.= 0.

!.:::) (8-28) Thus: Ql.0.19 1 = 0.f.05Ni:.95hhd. h .81 = 252. 8 v0. one can express f as an exponential function of NRe: f = aNi: where a and b are constants. 8-21: 2 f V 2 = 2(0. is equal to: h h = 0 . but not necessarily of the same diameter.19 or (8-29) and (8-30) .19.0031 (8-27) d.. f = 0.19 (8-26) From eq. in terms of Q.81 v0. Assuming a = 0. 0 0 3 9 5 ~ ~- "~( :*. For short sections of the Moody friction factor chart. 225 (a) Complete loop-installation of a new line of the same length.05)N.l9 Inasmuch as V = Q / ( n / 4 ) d ? .'9V2 hh= - gdi 32. (b) Partial loop-installation of a new line shorter than the old line but of the same inside diameter.0. This new line is preferably started at the tail end. in order to achieve a lower average pressure in the entire system.1di - (v) ~ 1 .05V2 diV -- 16.05 and b = 0.2di .

. If the new pipeline is to be started from the tail end. 8-8.l x+) h h . the following procedure must be followed: If Qlmax=maximum flow rate in old pipeline (line l). = flow rate in new Line 2 only.3165( ~ ~ .00395( Inasmuch as the two pipelines have equal diameter and the same inlet pressure. trace a gradient h. 8-28: hhl = 0.Using eq.81 Dividing hhl by h. . The intersection point K enables determination of the length of the new pipeline. . and h h = hhmax): di. Q.00395( Q. each will carry oil at a rate of Q.285hh1 (8-32) After determining the two gradients. = Q . from the tail end 0 as shown in Fig. Graphical method. = Q.: h. In order to calculate the diameter of the new pipeline. 8-8: h = h h m a x l = h h l ( l .. (Q. = total flow rate desired. = 0. ( I ) Complete loop Complete loop is regarded as two independent pipelines.. > elmax. elmax. Thus: h. Equation 8-30 can be used to get the diameter of the new line d . as shown by the dashed lines meeting at point K'. ./2. the length of the new pipeline can be either calculated or determined graphically. then the two gradients are reversed./2)1'81/d4. 226 These equations for h.. If the new pipeline is started at the head end Z.. from the head end I and a gradient h. the gradient in each line would be h . It is assumed that hhmaxis the same for both pipelines 1 and 2. then Q . Calculation method. = 0. > hhmax. which is preferable. Refemng to Fig. and solving for h. 8= 1 0. = h h l ( i ) 1 .. / . and di can be used to calculate the parameters of the new pipeline required. and Q. Q . which is done when pressure is to be maintained in the line due to hilly terrain. ~ ~ ~ ~ Q 2 0 . ~ ~ ~ ) / h 2 ~ (8-31) (2) Partial loop In the case of partial loop for delivering at a rate Q.

)] 0.219 in. Solution: (1) For a complete loop: Q . The closest standard pipe size is Schedule 80.3165v0. Pressure profile for a twin looped pipeline over a hilly terrain. .0395Q. 227 Dis?ance(l). = (0.87 = 24.50. ID.13)0. Propose a feasible design for increasing the capacity to 75 ft3/sec. . fig. OD. 482.012784)0'208 = 1.(0. Using eq. Budapest.3165) [ (5. miles W - Fig. (Modified after Szilas. 21. p. Thus: (8-33) Example 8-2. 8-8.376 - ( 0.562 in.756 ft = 21 inches. Hungary). courtesy of Akademiai Kiad6.13 ft3/sec.0~376)/h gz . using the data in Example 8-1. 7.128)(10 .0395( 24. 1975. 24 in.1-2. 8-31: d . = 75 . with a wall thickness of 1.

007248 ] (40) = 27.82 miles.00395v0. the gradient hh is plotted until it intersects the ground profile. In designing for a minimum number of pumping stations.012784 [ 0. both calculation and graphical techniques can be employed (Szilas. from where it branches out to various processing units.228 (2) For a partial loop system: Using eq. 1975). The length of the new pipeline in miles can be determined using eq.0. a single pipeline (called the main line or trunk line) is employed to transport oil over large distances to a central location. pp. to use a simple log-log plot.8')/(28/12)4.19(75)'.02543 ft/ft. the second pumping station (the first booster pump station) must be installed. Q2 = 100 ft3/sec and Q3 = 150 ft3/sec.02543) = 0.128)(10-5)]0.19Q:.285hh. 8-9. Assuming that the oil is injected into the pipeline at pump stations at the maximum allowable pressure of the pipeline. 8-9 the last booster station will deliver oil beyond point 0 (see Szilas. 484-485). In order to determine the unthrottled throughputs of the branch lines for any flow rate Q in the main line. Then. Booster pump stations In designing booster pump stations. until the outlet end 0 is reached.a) with flow rates Q .007248 ft/ft. 8-32: h h . 8-10.02543 . 8-33: [x= 0. input pressure is the same at all stations. draw the three h versus Q lines for the three branching pipelines. Consider a branched pipeline (Fig.0..8' = 0. using the h versus Q relationship for these lines. The procedure is outlined below. Branching pipelines Often. At this point. and the same procedure is repeated for all the intersections with the ground profile. = 0. = (0. starting from h. Again the pressure at point B reaches h. the pressure gradient in the pipeline must reach the ground zero level at the next pumping station along the line. 8-28: h hl = (0.. As shown in Fig. at I . In Fig. a simple graphical method can be used to determine the minimum number of stations required.02543 .285)(0. 1975. It is much easier. These .81)/d4. however. Using eq. = 70 ft3/sec.81 = ((0.00395) [ (5 . except (usually) the last one.

.. (Modifie after Szilas.b). 8-24: 3 'I 10 100 100 FLOW RATE. will all be parallel and are equivalent to a single line with a throughput. fig.1-3.of Q. From eq. Q2 and Q3 (see Fig. 1975. 7. 1975. (b) Flow rate versus head relation for branching pipelines. 485. (a) Branching pipelines. fig. Hungary). courtesy of AkadCmiai Kiadb. which is the sum of Q. 487.. ~ ( f t J / r e c ) O3 @ G Fig. miles Fig. 8-10. 8-10. 8-9. p. (Modified after Szilas. 7. Budapest. Pressure traverse with booster stations. p.1-5. Budapest. 229 I - 0 0' Distonce(l). courtesy of Akadtmiai Kiadb. Hungary).

head loss h . =KQ2-b (8-34) where 2avb K= is constant. of these pipelines yields a parallel line of the same slope. Adding the flow rates Q.. If the oil viscosity is high and the temperature of the flowing oil is significantly different from that of the surrounding medium. for any given total flow rate Q .b ) log Q . conduction is the dominant mechanism. is equal to discharge head h at the junction B: or log h = log K + ( 2 . Inasmuch as ( 2 . are discussed in this chapter. Q . Q 2 . Q 2 . the mechanism of heat transport is radiation. Only conduction and convection.b ) is a constant.245 . When two bodies at different temperatures are in contact.. NONISOTHERMAL FLOW Pipelines transporting oil are commonly buried in the ground. the temperature is transferred by the fluid in motion.)2- For a horizontal terrain. however.. (8-35) Equation 8-35 indicates that on a log-log paper. one can get the throughputs Q. 8-10. In the latter case. the flow cannot be regarded as isothermal. If the two bodies are separated by a vacuum..230 or h. This line is called the equivalent line and gives the sum of the throughputs of the branch pipelines for any given head h. for the branch pipelines. the Q versus h relations for the branching pipelines are parallel to each other. whereas if the two bodies are not in contact but are separated by a fluid body. Q . The Q versus h relations for different pipelines are plotted on the log-log paper. . . but have different K values. Thus. 32. (2) convec- tion: (a) free and (b) forced.. This is illustrated in Fig. . . Fundamentals of heat transfer Heat transmission can occur in three different ways: (1) conduction. . Q versus h relation is a straight line.b ( . the dominant mechanism is convection. and (3) radiation.

tempera- ture is a function of both time and space. Unsteady stute conduction. dT/dx is the rate of change of temperature with distance in the direction of flow of heat (the temperature gradient). lb. eq. dT . z axes in Cartesian coordinates. In order to conform more closely to the physical shape of the system. 8-36 may be written as follows: dq/dt= -kA(dT/dx) (8-41) where dq/dt = q / t = constant. A is the cross-sectional area across which heat flows. z are the distances along the x./ft3. electric current. "F/ft. In the case of unsteady state conduction. A variety of simplifications are incorpo- . ft2. y . (8-36) dt dx where dq/dt is the rate of flow of heat (quantity per unit time). For steady-state heat flow. eq. necessitating the use of digital computers. and q' = rate of heat generation by chemical or nuclear reaction. There is a numerical solution to this equation. Thus. 231 Conduction Fourier's law is the fundamental differential equation for heat transfer by conduction: _ dq . etc. and k is the constant called thermal conductivity. dq/dt is constant and aT/at = 0.. this equation can be transformed into cylindrical or spherical coordinates. Equation 8-37 gives a general 3-dimen- sional equation for such a situation. is approximately constant over a small range of tempera- ture. 8-39 becomes: V2T= . c = specific heat. Btu/hr. it may be written as follows: (8-38) Thermal conductivity. Btu/lb. Equation 8-36 can be used to derive the following unsteady state energy equation for static fluids or solids in 3 dimensions: cp( g) = &(kg) + $(k g ) + A( ) :k + q' (8-37) where x. Btu/ft-hr-OF."F. which is a characteristic property of the material through which the heat is flowing and varies with temperature. In vector notation.kA.q ' / k (8-40) and eq. 8-38 can be simplified: aT CP- at = kV2T + 4' (8-39) Steady-state conduction. p = fluid density. k. y . Thus.

through which heat is transferred by molecular conduction. dAo(T. y . The turbulent core and the buffer layer between the laminar sublayer and the turbulent core transfer heat by simultaneous conduction and convection. The local heat transfer coefficients were devised because of the impracticability of measuring thicknesses of the several layers and their temperatures in a turbulent flowing stream: dq = hidAi(Ti . (8-42) CP where (Y =k/pc. Convection Convection is an important factor in many cases of heat transfer involving liquids and gases. = h . This film clings to the surface as shown by the velocity distribution plot in Fig. The film is in the laminar portion of the flow (the laminar sublayer).232 rated to arrive at analytic solutions. are the local heat transfer coefficients inside and outside the wall. To = outside temperature. dAo = area element on the outside pipe wall across which heat transfer is taking place. p. respectively (Btu/ft2-hr-"F). = area element on the inside pipe wall. (dimensionless). called thermal diffusivity. V. and T. hI/k. NGr = Grashof number. . ft'. Natural convection Natural convection occurs when a solid surface is in contact with a stagnant fluid having a temperature different from that of the surface. 5. 8-42: aT 4' at = a( V2T) + - . T. which is significant in the case of flow of highly-viscous liquids and high-speed gas.To) (8-44) dt where h i and h .) . = inside tempera- ture. When a fluid flows past a solid surface. in the immediate neighborhood of the surface there is a film of fluid that does not contribute (or very little) to the total flow. 8-1. resulting in eq. dA. O F .T. The general equation used is the Nusselt equation: (8-45) where NNu= Nusselt number. and z directions and @ is the energy dissipation due to the fluid viscosity. If physical proper- ties are assumed to be constant. and k . OF.. OF. One such case is the assumption of constant physical properties c. . are the velocity components in the x. = wall temperature. an energy balance equation on a flowing fluid through which heat is being transferred is as follows: (8-43) where V.

and NNu= 0. p b = viscosity of fluid at the bulk fluid temperature. Hansen (1960) presented the following relation: ( NNu)= 3. c p / k (dimensionless). and the geometry of the system. and p w = viscosity of the fluid at the pipe wall temperature. For cylinders at 1< NPr< 40. fi = volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion.d/f. where NGrG lo9 Forced convection In the case of forced convection. there are several relationships depending upon the Graetz number. A T = bulk temperature gradient.17’ . For laminar flow in circular pipes. NPr= Prandtl number. p = fluid density./ft3.55) (8-46) where NGr> lo9. For NGz> 100.14 NNu= 1.86Ng3 (8-49) For the transition region.18 x lo8 ft/hr2. the fluid is pumped across the solid surface and the rate of heat transfer is a function of the physical properties of-the fluids. > 10. and f/d > 60.683N2~sN:. 1 3 8 N p (N:. NGz= NReNp.861 + N. O F ..000) and 0.For Ncz < 100.047NZ3 P w where d = pipe diameter. and a and m are constants.14 NNu= (8-51) .66 + 0. g = acceleration due to gravity. (1968) presented the following rela- tions: NNu= 0 .’ . 1 = pipe length.0.l4( (8-48) 1 + 0. the Sieder-Tate relation is satisfactory: 0. lb. 1 = length in contact. ( O F ) . the Sieder-Tate equation is recommended: 0.085Ncz h)’. 233 I3p2gfiAT / p 2 (dimensionless).7 < NPr< 700. Kato et al. 4. the following equation was presented by Hansen (1960): (8-50) For turbulent flow ( N . ft. .2s (8-47) 0. the flow rates.

k. therefore. c. = (cd + 0.01m) (8-55) a.578( a log m + b)1O2 (8-52) where a = 0. whereas under transient conditions. In order to determine the thermal diffusivity it is necessary to calculate density of wet soil.0. p. = pd(1 + 0..b = 0. under steady state conditions.. necessary to measure these soil constants. Heat is applied at a constant rate to this thin cylindrical probe which is pushed into the ground. these variables are equal to: p. It is./ft3.o00624m)(Cd -k 0. and humidity.0. Yearly average diffusivity of the soil can be obtained from the measurements of the soil temperature at various depths below the surface.m + b)lOz(l + 0.01m). In terms of pd and cd.000624m) (8-53) and c.0419 . which can be done in the following two ways: ( I ) Estimation of thermal constants from soil properties Thermal conductivity of the soil depends on the conductivity of the soil matrix. = density of dry soil.01m)/(1+ 0.0. Gemant’s pioneering work was followed up by the studies of Makowski and Mochlinski (1956) who derived an empirical expression for thermal conductivity of wet soil in Btu/hr-ft-OF: k.=--P W C W pd(l + o. grain-size distribution. (8-54) Combining the above three equations: k. . The k value can be determined from the heat input and temperature-time relationship. p. bulk density of the dry soil. = 0.-OF. z = 0 . 0 1 ~ ~pd..%cl= percent of clay in the soil.000465(%~1).1424 . in lb. lb. If the annual temperature . Heat transfer through the soil is proportional to its thermal conductivity.000313(%~1).01m) (2) Estimation of thermal constants by direct measurement Thermal conductivity is usually measured in situ by a field conductivity probe./cu ft and specific heat of wet soil. The rise in temperature of the probe surface is measured as a function of time. and c. and m = moisture content of soil as a percentage of dry soil weight.234 Application of heat transfer concepts to buried pipelines Thermal properties of the soil must be evaluated when designing buried pipelines. 96. the thermal diffusivity a = k/cp is the controlling factor. k. in Btu/lb.578( a log.

(8-57) at ax2 where x = depth from the ground surface (x = 0 at ground surface). 235 T i m e . 8-58a is equal to unity.. sin at (8-56) where A denotes temperature fluctuation and w = 277/t.. 493).x/-) (8. ZZ = at a depth x .. fig.) cycle is assumed to be sinusoidal (see Fig.. Z = ground surface. AT.. 8-57. the maximum temperature fluctuation (amplitude) at a depth x is obtained: AT. with t. 8-56 in solving eq. AT. =AT. Amplitude decreases with depth. The temperature variations can be expressed as: aT a2T --=ff. Using eq. sec + u Tsmin -Pt Reference Temperature (O'F) Fig. then the temperature change on the ground surface.58a) and phase shift At. 493. = time for 1 cycle. = ( x / 2 ) { F (8-58b) When the sine term in eq.. 8-11). qmax (8-58~) .2-1. Figure 8-11 shows how the amplitude decreases with depth and that the tempera- ture wave I1 at depth x is displaced in phase with respect to the ground-surface wave (see Szilas. p. =A exp I. (Modified after Szilas. 1975. p. 7. Fluctuation of soil temperature with time. 1975. exp( -x/+) sin(21it/tp . 8-11. t.../x *s/at. is equal to: AT. =AT.

82 = 63. = 65 + 1. the temperature extremes at a depth of 1 ft are equal to: T. = (. which is approximately equal to: Then. At a depth of 5 ft. At a depth of 5 ft: = 65. the phase shift at a depth of 1 ft is equal to: At. 8-11. . the amplitude is equal to: AT^.017. 8-58a....)/86.5 sec = 10 hr.82"F and - Tlmin= T.3 x ] = f1.82"F.18"F.3 X lo6 ft2/sec and the surface temperature varies from 90 to 40°F during the day.400 x 5.... Similarly.. at a depth of 5 ft: At.AT. The surface amplitude of the temperature fluctuation is equal to: Using eq.99995"F. i x 10-SOF.82 = 66.236 Example 8-3.1.(l){r/(86. the amplitude at a depth of 1 ft is equal to: AT. In order to evaluate the temperature extremes.00005"F and TSmin TSmax = 64.^ = f 5 . first it is necessary to calculate the mean temperature. By using eq. 8-58b. = 50 hr. = 65 . What are the extremes of daily temperature and the phase shift (a) at a depth of 1 ft and (b) at a depth of 5 f t if a = 5. Solution: See Fig.40O/(r X 5. . = 25 exp[ .3 X = 36. = + AT..

8-12. Aprriction. along the length I of pipe. the heat liberated per one O F drop in temperature (Btu/'F-sec) is equal to: where X = latent heat of fusion of the solids (paraffins) that separate out of the oil. . )( 7rd2/4) V ]/ I = 0. 237 Steady-state flow in buried pipelines Temperature of the oil injected into a pipeline usually differs from that of the soil. = A p .I. (2) Temperature also increases due to the exothermic process of separation of solid components (such as waxes) from the oil. is equal to: @ = 4 =0. A pressure differential. In calculating the heat generated by friction. (7rd2/4) in lb. one can assume an average constant friction gradient along the pipeline.001285AprQ / l It I (8-59) Using constant w and A. Y Surface Fig.001285 Btu).001285(A p . The heat generated by friction per unit time per unit distance of flow. This heat increases the oil temperature. Inasmuch as extensive separation leads to reduced flow efficiency and eventual blocking of the oil. Some of the factors contributing to the variation of axial oil temperature in the pipe are: (1) A part of the potential energy of the oil flowing in the pipeline is transformed into heat. due to the shearing at the liquid-solid pipe wall interface and the liquid-liquid shear within the bulk liquid. If the flow rate is Q (ft3/sec) and the heat generated by F.001285 F. exhibiting a temperature drop dq. Soil is generally cooler than the oil. (3) Temperature decreases due to the transfer of heat from the pipeline to the lower-temperature soil. (1 ft-lb. Schematic diagram of an infinitesimal element of flowing fluid. then velocity. crude oils are often dewaxed before pipeline transportation. which are actually temperature dependent. V.001285FrI/t = [0. is q. is equal to: V = Q/( 7rd2/4) and q = 0. = 0. is equivalent to a force F. @J (Btu/sec-ft).

D. it may be significant.T. = @ dl + QpwXdT. OF. the latent heat of fusion of paraffin is usually not considered.=(@+kT. ft3/sec. Exam- ples of temperature profiles are shown in Fig. integrating (initial conditions: I = 0 and T = TI): / ( B . .) d l (8-61) On substituting Qpc. however. In practical calculations.) dT.kA T. In the latter case. w = amount of solids formed per lb. lb/lb.-OF: Or : (Qpc.2 CP . = 12 in. On considering an infinitesimal volume element. and Q = oil flow rate. = specific heat of the flowing oil. In turbulent flow. = axial temperature of the flowing oil in the pipeline. by heat balance: PQC. 8-12 where the temperature of the flowing oil decreases by dT. over a length d l of pipe. 8-61.238 Btu/lb. 8-13. whereas in laminar flow. viscosity is 4. the radial temperature variation is slight. one obtains: (8-62) The oil temperature also varies radially. and resubstituting for A and B. ./ft3.85. temperature T. dT. = llO°F.il-oF. k = heat transfer coefficient per unit length of pipe. Example 8-4 Oil is injected at a flow rate Q = 700 bbl/hr into a 20-mile long pipeline having I. it may be significant. OF.-kT. . = B (constant) in eq.-AQpw) dT. and c. one can obtain. p = density of the paraffin-containing oil.) d l Change in Heat Heat Heat lost heat content generated generated to of the by by separation surroundings flowing friction of paraffins liquid where T. T. as shown in Fig. Btu/lb.=/dl Solving. = original soil temperature at the same depth. Btu/ft-hr-OF. the axial temperature Tfis somewhat higher than the average temperature. The oil gravity is 0. As shown in Example 8-4. lb. of oil per O F drop in temperature.QpwX = A (constant) and Qz + kT. k(T..

From Fig.615/ 3600 ft3/sec]/[(7r/4)(1)2 ft2] = 1.100.2 = 1./ft3). 69"C.100.39) (1. 8-6. c. (Modified after r= Chernikin.04) *Pf= gdi+ K .0001 and NRe= 26. 1 long sweep elbow. for relative roughness r/d = 0. r= 0. Solution: Velocity of oil in the pipe. and I.0242)[(20)(5280) + 2(320) + 201 (1. 498).2-4. (8. K for a coupling = 0. 8-13. T. 239 Velocity + Temperoturr (a) I b) Fig.5"C.2 Btu/hr- ft-OF.04 lb. = 55. for a long sweep elbow = 20 ft.455 Btu/lb-OF. From Fig. and 100 couplings present.4 = 53.2g = (32. (3) Neglecting the effects of both friction and paraffin deposition. relative roughness c/d = 0. Find the exit temperature Tn of the oil: (1) Assuming friction and paraffin deposition over the entire length of the pipe. (2) Assuming negligible paraffin deposition.. the head loss due to friction is equal to: 2f/V2y V2y 2(0. 8-3.0001. X = 200 Btu/lb.778 X slugs/ft-sec). = 40 OF. for a globe valve = 320 ft. 1975. soil temperature T. 8-59: .85 X 62. the Fan- ning friction factor f = 0. 7. Oil specific weight.317 m/sec. There are 2 globe valves. N Re = -d=Vp (1)(1.0242. Velocity (a) and temperature (b) profiles for oil flowing in a pipeline. 8-2.778 X From Fig. whereas oil density. y = 0. Thus. fig.647 slugs/ft3( = 53. P (8.04/32.39)2(53. V = Q/( 7r/4)dz = [700 X 5. w = 0. I.04.003/"F.39 ft/sec. = 0. and k = 1. p = 53.04 lb/ft3. 1958 in: Szilas. p.2) (11 Using eq..647) = 26.

8-49.2)(20)(5280) 1.(1.6) 1 +--0. For Na -= 100 and NRe < 2100 (eq. there are a series of resistances to the transfer of heat from the oil to the surrounding soil.. and @ = 0.047NZ3 ]( e) 0.(1. First there is heat transfer from the bulk oil to the pipe wall.04)(0. 8-62.2 1 .40 . As shown in Fig.2 =58.240 (1) From eq. per unit pipe length signifies. 8-50.2)( 20)( 5280) (700 X 5. k.615)(53. The paraffin deposition. which is a process of forced internal convection (see eqs. 8-48.783 x exp[ 1.- . 8-14. which is neglected by many pipeline engineers.40"F This example enables one to evaluate the significance of each of these assump- tions.455 + 0.14 Fig 8-14 Cross-sectional view of a buried insulated pipeline carrying oil . T. 0*783 110 .455) 1 0.66 [ 0. has a very significant effect.783 1.615)(53. and 8-51).2 x exp[ (700 X 5.88"F (3) On assuming w = 0.615)(53. It is important to understand what the heat transfer coefficient.(1. the exit temperature is equal to: 110 .455) 1 = 58. = 40 + (110 . 8-48): NNu=3.04)(0.- 0.40 .63'F (2) On assuming w = 0.783 +-1.04)(0.2)(20)(5280) (700 X 5.2 -79.40) exp [ .085NGz + 1 + 0.

i 3 [ 1+ ( (”) d / ~ ~ / ~ ] PW For NRe > 10.125) N . because it is the heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe. (8-64) di In this manner..000 (i.116( N i l 3 . another factor (2nkin/ln( din/d. In the presence of thermal insulation around the pipe.. = 0.14 N. at a depth x . Finally. If the thermal conductivity of the pipe wall material is k. where kin= thermal conductivity of the insulating material and din= diameter of the insulating material.e. and turbulent. It is called h i . Thus. 8-51): 0. then its net contribution in Btu/hr-ft-”F is equal to 2rkw/ln( do/di). 8 6 N g 3 i-:L r4 For 2100 < NRe < 10. the transition region. the net heat transfer per unit length of pipe (Btu/hr-ft-OF) due to the internal forced convection is equal to: Another resistance to heat transfer is the pipe wall. eq. laminar. Inasmuch as: hidi NNu= . it . 8-49): NNu= 1. the thermal conductivity of the soil surrounding the pipeline must be considered. transition.e.. eq. Thus. the heat transfer coefficient h (Btu/hr-ft2-OF) can be de- termined.. one can evaluate the Nusselt number N N u using the appropriate equation for a particular flow regime. Assuming a constant undisturbed soil temperature T. 8-50): 0.14 ”.000 (turbulent flow. i. = These equations correspond to heat transfer by convection in the three zones of flow. 241 For NGz > 100 and NRe < 2100 (eq.) is introduced. (8-63) k k h i = NNuX .

T . qn)/ln(dh/do) = hodin..242 can be shown that the net heat transfer coefficient of soil. Inasmuch as the porosity of this backfill is greater than that of the undisturbed soil.= . Under steady-state conditions. plant cover. ) (8-68) One can assume that the inside and outside wall temperatures of the pipe are After Rohsenow and Hartnett (1973) who gave an appropiate relationship: 2ks h. causing the effective heat transfer coefficient to increase slightly.( qn.1 2rk. snow. . h. however. 1 hi(rdi) + - 1 2 r k w ln( 3)+ . The backfill compacts with time. 2kin hodin The kin values for some common insulating materials are presented in Table 8-1. which are usually laid in ditches dug for that purpose.In(%) + . the heat transfer across the flowing oil into the soil is equal to: = 2rkin(T0. the total heat transfer coefficient per unit length is equal to: k. In( 3)+ 1 - hordin (8-66) Thus. Other variables are wind. ln(2) + - hidi 2kw di . are covered with backfill. is approximately equal to : In order to obtain the net effective resistance. its thermal conductivity is lower. it is necessary to add these four resistances ( = l/conductance) in series together: R=.. = dincosh-’(2x/din) where cosh-’(2x/din) is approximately equal to In(4x/din). moisture content of the soil. etc.1= r (8-67) ‘ R 1 1 1 1 -+ . Pipes.

69 0.3 (expanded) Polyurethane (expanded) Good .T.95 Burnt diatomaceous earth paste Moderate 22 1900 0. 243 TABLE 8-1 Thermal conductivities of pipeline insulators (after Thomas and Turner.17 0.270 0. .820 1. one should use a trial and error procedure.300 600 0.610 31.35 0.300 175 0. Max.742 29.23 0.300 1600 .50 230 . 0.) =mdihi(T.37 0. 1953. 0. courtesy of Chemical Engineer) Material Resistance Temperature limits Thermal conductivity Specific towater (OF) (Btu/hr-ft 2-oF/in. 0. 32°F 70°F 212OF 500OF Cellular glass Excellent -400 800 0.39 0. 0. ) (8-71) If Ti is unknown. specific heat.520 0.41 0.541 0.273 0.26 .T .66 0.058 26 (semi thermo.52 12 Perlite Excellent 32 1200 .35 .320 .46 0.58 10-12 Polystyrene Excellent . 2-2.44 0.525 0.2 Glass fibers Excellent . 23 Burnt diatomaceous earth bricks Moderate 22 1900 0. 3 equal ( q= To). 0.720 . Assume Ti and establish the physical parameters of the oil (density.38 0.603 0..Ti) =hodinpin.) to .617 0. soften the setting) dried cement Cement Will not 32 1200 0. 10 Cellular silica Excellent .590 0. 0.Ti) (8-69) (8-70) and hidi&.) weight Min.46 . etc. .694 0. 8 (formed into pipe insulation and blocks) Hydrous calcium silicate Good 100 1200 .0 10-12 Cement Water will 100 1800 .62 1.and then break up the above multiple equation into three indepen- dent equations: k ( T . viscosity.840 49 (hydraulic soften when setting) wetted Diatomaceous earth Fair 22 1900 .43 0.610 0.

fig. then the assumed value of Ti is correct. 8-67. If the k values obtained by the two methods agree. evaluate NRe.244 Fig. density. NP. If not. To carry out such calculations. 19-39. (After Frick. .O F .02023 ("API). Knowing NNu. 1962. cP. This equation implies that a plot of log p versus 1/T will yield a straight line. until one arrives at an acceptable agreement.) of the oil with temperature must be known. p. 8-15. Figure 8-15 illustrates the above equation. NGr. Universal viscosity versus temperature chart for crude oils. which is generally used. ' ~ ~where . courtesy of McGraw-Hill. 8-69. the variation of the physical parameters (viscosity. y = 10'.1 (8-73) where pdo= viscosity of dead oil (gas-free crude oil).' . Another k value is obtained using eq.0324 . and z = 3. and x = Y T .Na and NNu. which gives better results than the frequently used Beal's (1946) correlations: pdo = 10" . Viscosity Temperature and liquid viscosity may be correlated within the accuracy of most experimental data (1-2%) with the de Guzman-Andrade Equation: where A and B are constants. the calculation procedure is repeated with a different value for Ti. Beggs and Robinson (1975) presented a more recent empirical correlation be- tween viscosity and temperature. T . New York).0..calculate h i and then k using eq. etc. 19-41.

p.M. 8. fig. Viscosity of gas-free crude oil at reservoir temperatures.E.).M. (From Chew and Connally. . of A.P. 0 2 1111 I I I1 I IllllJ 0. 8-17. I00 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 2 I 08 06 04 I- 4. The viscosity of gas-saturated crude oils at reservoir temperature and bubble-point pressure.E. of A. courtesy of the S.4 OK08 I 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 BOIOO VISCOSITY OF DEAD OIL.I. 1946. p. courtesy of the S.E. fig. 8-16. 2. CENTIPOISES (AT RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE) Fig.). 1959. 103.I. 25. (After Beal.P. 245 Fig.E.

lb. Straight lines were obtained and it was found that each of these lines corresponded to crude oils having a particular API gravity. 8-73.E. ap = pressure coefficient of oil density. along with the Chew and Connally (1959) correlation (fig./ft3. 8-17).B = 5. Relationship between the viscosity of oil and pressure (above the bubble-point). scf/STB. courtesy of the S. and base pressure (usually at standard conditions). .715(RS+ 100)-0. Density The following equation takes into account the effects of both temperature and pressure on the density of the oil: or where p T = density of oil at any temperature T.. (From Bed. T versus log log(pdo+ 1). which led to the development of eq.P. and y = specific weight. pn = density of the oil at.246 Fig. For crude oil containing dissolved gas. 1946. lb/ft2.I. the base temperature T. lb/ft3. 109. Ib. Because of their popularity. 11. 8-16 and 8-18. Beggs and Robinson provided the following correction for viscosity: Po =A d o (8-74) + where A = 10. 150)-0.M./ft’-’F.338. Beal’s correlations are also presented in Fig. a T = temperature coefficient of oil density.515.44 ( R . 8-18.E. fig. This correlation was developed by plotting log. l/ft.and R . p. This equation gives the viscosity of gas-containing (live) oil. p = pressure.of A.). = amount of dissolved gas in oil.

75 in.388 + 0. "Rankine. neglects the effect of pressure. k . Thermal conductivity The American Petroleum Institute (1966) recommended a single value of 0.438 in. and c are constants. . Assume laminar flow: NRe= 2000.8) = b + c log T (8-77) where Y = cm2/sec (or stokes) and T = temperature. respectively: 0'0677 [ 1 .5 \ where T is the temperature in O F and Go is the liquid specific gravity at 60°F. Example 8-5.25 1b/ft2-'F. aT = 0. = 1. Given: = 110'F. = 35'F. 247 The coefficients aT and ap can be evaluated if the densities are known for any two known conditions of temperature and pressure. On incorporating this value into the above equation.0.85 or 35'API). = 12.8 for most of the oils. At other temperatures. Specific heat Cragoe (1929) presented a correlation for the estimation of the specific heat cp in Btu/lb. respectively. Kinematic viscosity A useful correlation between temperature and kinematic viscosity Y (which combines both the viscosity p and the density p of the oil) was proposed by Walther. (8-79) Go where 32" < T -= 392°F. one obtains: log log(102v + 0. which is generally small: log log(102v + a ) = b + c log T (8-76) where a .-'F for petroleum oils: c = 0. Cragoe's equation gives satisfactory results. however. with average and maximum deviations of 12 and 398. The accuracy of this equation is +5%. Pipe having O.0003( T .D. This equation. carries a crude oil having specific weight of 53 lb/ft3 (Go= 0.D. T. Determine the heat transfer coefficient for a 10-mile pipeline buried 4 ft below the surface. their value depending upon the particular oil in question. There are other empirical correlations which are not presented here.0. The average and maximum deviations from this value are 7 and 308.32)] k= . The value of a is around 0. and I. b.00045T (8-78) P G. = 12.0 Btu/hr-ft-"F.077 Btu/hr-ft-OF at 30°C (86°F) for thermal conductivity of petroleum oils.

8 cP.163 = (211.32435= 211.66 + h i= NNux k o = (0.32435 y = 10' = 102.6 Inasmuch as Ncz < 100.. 8-78.25(80-60)=48 lbm/ft3.85 The Graetz number. Neglecting the effect of pressure.033)(80)- 1.0-0.2914 . Using eq..02023(35) = 2.( NGz = (2000) = N R e N P r d / l )is 0.(at T.438 = 10.0785 Btu/hr-ft-"F 0. 4 7 1Btu lbm ft-sec 1 [lzO] X 12.163 - .i2] = 0. Ti = 80°F is assumed.0.l.248 Solution: For the first trial. 8-48 to find NNu: NNu = 3.1.56 CP and p.0003(80 .0324 . . the density is equal to (eq.56 X 6. N.)=53. one can use eq.) = 6.844)[ - di 1i:.0635 Btu/hr-ft2-OF . Using eq.0785 3600 Btu sec-ft-OF Ibm equal to: 6)7X - (18.033 x =yT-'.72 X 1 0 . 1 = 18.T.4 ) ( 0 . 8-73: z = 3. 8-75): p r = p . 8-79: k o = -[l .0. specific heat of oil is equal to: The thermal conductivity of oil can be determined from eq.2914. = 101.a T ( T .32)] = 0.

249 and h.438/12)(0. Slight departures from the steady-state behavior are approximated by the steady-state relationships.071 Btu/hr-ft-"F and Ti = 82°F.0827 Btu/hr-ft-"F On assuming Ti = 82"F. the departure may be sufficient to render the steady-state relationships useless for even an approximate quantitative evaluation: (1) Termination or beginning of flow in the pipeline.0705 Btu/hr-ft-OF. Transient (unsteady state) flow of oil in buried pipelines If the inlet temperature.6941 X 12. the physical parameters of the oil. 8-69 gives k = 0.) = 0. the heat flow in and around a buried pipeline must be steady. and the soil temperature are constant over a comparatively long period of time.75/12 ) Thus.q ) k= = [ ~(12. never satisfied.80)]/(110 .0711 Btu/hr-ft-"F.75/12) and using eq. 8-69: mdihi(T. Szilas (1975) presented a transient model which describes the temperature changes in a pipeline shut down after steady-state flow. (2) Change in injection temperature of oil into the pipeline. These conditions are.35) ( T f .T.6941 Btu/hr-ft2-"F din ln( 2) 4x4 In( 12. as a further approximation. however. = 0. which is a reasonable agreement. Given sufficient time. any kind of flow (except the fluctuating type) will eventually stabilize and reach steady state. In numerous practical situations listed below. . 8-67: 1T k= = 0. however. Numerous models and calculation methods have been devised to describe and solve unsteady-state systems. whereas eq.06352 X 12.0604 Btu/hr-ft-'F 1/(0. the above procedure is re- peated : Equation 8-67 gives k = 0. ' This book was originally published in Hungary in 1968 .0635)(110 . k can be determined using eq. (3) Fluctuations in temperatures.438/12) + 1/(0. (4) Fluctuations in flow rates. flow rate. = . k = 0. Thus.

and the change in the outer temperature of the insulation Tin. If point PI is the image of the projection of the linear heat source on a plane perpendicular to it (see Fig. and Ei is the exponential integral function. and in refers to pipe insulation. 1975..’.T. and using eq. TA. 517.2 .= (@/4ak.Tin) d t where subscript o refers to oil. and T[n are transient temperatures. 8-67: k = r/ [ (1/2kin) In( din/do )I Setting: 77 [ dfpoc0 + (d. 8-19).250 He called it a “cooling model” for an insulated pipeline.2-13. it is assumed that: (1) The pipeline is embedded in an infinite half-space filled with soil of homoge- neous thermal properties.df)PpCp] = 4 - 4k and rearranging: A[dTo/(T. (2) The temperature of the soil in contact with the pipeline can be described by Chernikin’s (1958) model.) -Ei(-1/4NFo)] (8-81) where NFo= q / r 2 = Fourier number (dimensionless). The Chernikin model for unsteady state flow of oil in buried pipelines. . In the case of shutdown after flow.T6)] = -dt (8-80) The Chernikin relationship is then used here to describe the change in the oil temperature. . Heat flowing through the wall of unity pipe length into the cooler ground over an infinitesimal period of time d t reduces the temperature of oil and pipe by dT: [ rd? 4po~o 1 + -774 ( d ? . Fig. 8-19. 1958. courtesy of Akadkmiai Kiad6. then the difference in temperature between the point Pz (lying in the plane of projection and defined by the coordinates y and z) and the undisturbed soil is equal to: TL. p refers to pipe. (Modified after Chernikin.)[Ei(-xz/r2X1/NF. Budapest. fig.k (T.df ) pPcp dTo = . p. Hungary). 7. T. Neglecting h i and h . in: Szilas.

8-85.T.) . 25 1 If t = 00 (steady state flow).b( Ti. + (1 .= (1.. . 8-81 reduces to the following form: To . are constant for a given pipeline.T.a . 8-86 can be written for the insulation around the pipe: TL = (1 .T. 8-87 and 8-88: Ti'.T. .)+T.T. k. ps and c. + (1.) + T. (8-88) Combining eqs. Sections of this curve can be individually approximated by the following relation: X=a+bht (8-87) In addition. ) / ( To. 8-86.T.) and C = b(Ti. the above equation can be written as follows: where The process of warming 'up is described in eq.T.a ) ( Tin..C In t (8-89) where B = T.) + T.x or Td=(l-X)(To-T. = B .T.b h t )( Ti..X ) ( Ti. an equation similar to eq. . r .a)(Ti. (8-86) The relationship X = f(t) for a given case can be plotted on a graph using eq. 8-81 by eq.).T . eq.) ln(2x/r) (8-82) Dividing eq. ..) = 1 . 8-82: Inasmuch as x. = T. In the case of cooling down after steady-state flow: ( T.) In t or Ti:. = (@/21rk.

from eq. 8-94 into eq. the initial transient heat loss-to the cold soil can be very much higher than the equilibrium steady-state heat loss. (See Davenport and Conti. In the case of initial condition T. It is assumed that equilibrium is reached when the Nusselt number from eq.BdTo +Clnt I = -dt The general solution of eq. Due to the approximation employed. 8-80: ’[ T d . Thus. 1971. do (8-94) Thus. 8-90 is: (8-90) T. p. the Nusselt number is related to the Fourier number as follows (see Davenport and Conti.. It is. 1975. Heating up of a cold line by introduction of hot oil When hot oil is pumped into a cold line. 8-89 into eq. 1971): N.5772 . therefore. the pipe is assumed to be surrounded by an “infinite sea” of soil having homogeneous thermal properties. The heat transfer between the ground surface and air is assumed to be infinite. Substituting eq. yields: r 7 (8-95) . NNuis a function of x/do only in eq.B . 519.C In t + [ CEi( t/A)To . it is possible to calculate the time necessary to reach equilibrium.).). which is a function of NFo and x / d o . necessary to know how the transient heat loss varies as a function of time. In large crude oil lines.252 Substituting q.C(0.’=B-C In t + [CEi(t/A)C’] e-‘IA (8-91) where C’ is the constant of integration. = 0. 8-94: (N.. it may take many days or even weeks before equilibrium conditions are established. the heat loss is directionally symmetrical and for this simple case.’ = at t = 0: Ti = B . 8-93 equals that from eq. 8-93.In A ) ] e-r/A (8-92) The above relationship can be used to evaluate the variation of temperature Ti versus the time t elapsed after shutdown of the pipeline at any pipe section situated at a distance 1 from the head end of the line (See Szilas.:’ (8-93) The soil will warm up continuously and will reach equilibrium with the pipe surface.) In the simple case. 8-94.953/N. = 2/cosh-’(2x/d0) = 2/ln(4x/d0) if x >.362 + 0..

Wax deposits form in the storage tanks as well as in the pipeline. two major alternatives are available: (1) Use of a dual pipeline. In the case of oil fields located in remote areas. or a hydrocracker to crack a portion of the heavy crude to . (See Barry. characterized by high viscosities. The first two techniques are applicable only in cases where the oil viscosity is low enough to permit economical pipelining at the existing temperature. is changing this. where the diluent may not be readily available. which inhibit its ability to flow. the surface begins to play an important role and the infinite sea approximation is invalid. The third and fourth techniques are currently the major methods for the pipelining of heavy crude oils. high pour points. The methods for pipelining heavy crude oils are briefly discussed here. which has been discussed already. and do = outside pipe diameter.15%thereafter. and low API gravities. x = depth of burial of pipeline. so that one pipeline could carry the diluent back to the field. unstable slurry-emulsion system by mixing water with the oil. As the temperature wave from the pipeline reaches the surface and is reflected. requires some means of heating the oil. therefore. The fifth technique has not been used yet on a commercial scale.t/d:. 253 where N.. natural gasoline. Thus. are currently being transported only to a limited extent by pipelines. Usually direct-fired heaters are used. ft. which can be achieved by the following means: (1) Use of additives (pour point depressants). however.) The major problems are caused by: (1) pour point (wax crystallization problems) and ( 2 ) viscosity (flow problems). it is necessary to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil being transported. The heat loss exceeds the calculated value by 10 . catalytic cracker. 1971. greater pump horsepower is required. Development of the largely untapped world resources of heavy crude oils. ( 2 ) Preparation of an oil-solid slurry. TRANSPORTATION OF HEAVY OILS IN PIPELINES Heavy oils. This relationship gives the time of transient flow in the pipeline as a function of x and do. and naphtha in order to reduce viscosity of heavy oil. (3) Heating the oil to keep the flow essentially above the pour point. ( 5 ) Preparation of a lower-viscosity. The dilution technique involves the addition of low-viscosity hydrocarbons such as condensate. and also to reduce viscosity. the head loss due to friction increases and. With increasing viscosity. ft. The transportation of hot oil by pipelines. (4) Dilution of oil with a solvent or with another oil for reduction of viscosity and pour point. High pour point temperatures are caused by excessive formation of wax'crystals in the oil. = cy. ( 2 ) Installation of a thermal cracker.

process feasibility.. . courtesy of Natural Gasoline Association of America). density. The choice of a technique is determined by the oil viscosity. which affect gas transmission in pipelines are discussed first in this section. Gas compressibility Deviation from ideal behavior of natural gas is seldom negligible. only compressibility factor Z is applied: p v = ZnRT (8-96) GAS GRAVITY (AIR=I) Fig. viscosity. PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS Physical properties of gases Physical properties of natural gases (compressibility. 8-20.254 lighter components. and economic considerations. (After Brown et al. the geographic location. 1948. length of pipeline. Pseudocritical properties of condensate well fluids and miscellaneous natural gases. For practical purposes. and specific heat). which can then be blended with the remaining heavy oil for pipelining.

P. T = absolute gas temperature. Z = compressibility factor.= total gas volume. 255 where p = absolute pressure of the gas. Compressibility factor for natural gases as a function of reduced pressure and temperature.M. .).73 psia-ft3/lb mole-OF. (From Standing and Katz. courtesy of the S. p.E. 2.I. 8-21. T/. 1942. and R = universal gas constant = 10. fig.of A. ft3. PSEUDO REDUCED PRESSURE PR Fig. OR. n = number of moles of gas in volume y . 144.E. psia.

is equal to T/T. content is less than 8% and that of CO. and CO. 8-100 be- comes: m/K=pM/ZRT=p (8-101) . eq. which can be determined as before. is less than 108. respectively. M . and CO. This is the basis for the generalized compressibility factor chart shown in Fig. (1948). at a pressure p and temperature T can be obtained from eq. For a mixture of gases.256 According to the law of corresponding states. Reduced pressure p . gases are given in literature.. is equal to p / p c and the reduced temperature T.. Density The gas density. the reduced state parameters are replaced by the pseudo-reduced parameters ppr and Tp. If the N. The molecular weight. and T. p . one can use approximate empirical correlations (see Fig. are the critical pressure and temperature of the gas. The compressibility charts for N. is equal to: n M= CyiMj (8-99) i=l If the gas composition is not known. 8-21. 8-20) developed by Brown et al. Natural gas often contains nonhydrocarbon gases such as N. the compressibility factors Z of two gases are equal if the reduced state parameters of these gases are equal. one can use the additive rule to determine compressibility factor Z : where ZHc is the compressibility factor for the pure hydrocarbon gas. which are defined as follows: n ~ p =c C Yipci (8-97) i=l and n Tpc = C YiTci (8-98) i-1 where yi = mole fraction of component i in a gas mixture. where p. 8-96 as follows: n / y =p/ZRT (8-100) Inasmuch as number of moles n = mass/molecular weight = m / M ..

268. 1954. and hydrogen sulfide. with corrections for nitrogen. p.P.E. fig. 8-22. 251 . (From Carr et al.I. ..E.). carbon dioxide. 6. Relationship between the viscosity of paraffin gases and molecular weight at a pressure of orre atmosphere and reservoir temperatures.E3 Fig. of A. courtesy of the S.M.

fig.M. (From Carr et al.I. T. pe.s/(209 + 19M + T ) .258 Fig. P. p / p l . 8-22 and 8-23) and Lee et al. Gg. whereas the temperature effect is just the opposite. Beggs and Brill (1972). (1954. pa. eq. B = 3. p1= viscosity of gas at atmospheric pressure and at temperature T. 8-23.. (1966). 4.97 Viscosity Gas viscosity decreases with increasing molecular weight and increases with increasing pressure and temperature. to the density of air.E.). as a function of pseudoreduced temperature and pseudoreduced pressure. Viscosity ratio.4 + 0.of A.. Gas gravity.. 267. is defined as the ratio of the density of the gas. gave the following modified form of Lee's equation: 1.. under standard conditions: (8-102) because Z = 1 at standard conditions. Inasmuch as molecular weight of air is equal to 28.E. The pressure effect is the same as in liquids.P.02M)T1. and reduced pressure. 8-102 can be written as follows: Gg= M/28. p = viscosity of gas at reduced temperature. A = (9. see Figs. courtesy of the S.1= A x exp( BpC) (8-103) where p is the viscosity in cP. The two most widely used correlations are those of Carr et al.5 t . 1954 p.97.

C. Sorg (1931).A.E. 8-24. Hirschfelder. =R (8-104) The cp of a gas mixture can be calculated from the following formula: n cp= c i-1 YiC. cp. OF Fig. resulting in two distinct specific heat values.i (8-105) Product of gas constant R o and molecular weight M is called Universal Gas Constant ( R= R o M ) and is equal to = 10.C. For an ideal gas.Viscosity of natural gases at atmospheric pressure. Smith (1921).O. Specific heat Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree.732 p~ia-ft~/Ibmole-~ R = 1544 ft-lbf/lbmole-o R = 1.Spotz (1949).G. 1954.M. Bird and E.S. or at constant volume.B. fig.0.E.. 8-24. Trantz and K.I. tables of thermal properties of gases and research work by J. p.and A. R. and p is the density in g/cm3.986 Btu/lbmole-o R.B. T is the temper- ature in OR. . M = molecular weight of the gas. It can be measured at a constant pressure. 269.2. Rankine and C.L.-N.O. 7. the difference between the two is equal to the gas constant R: cP .M. Data is based on N.A.P. (After C a r et al.4 . The viscosities of natural gases at atmospheric pressure are given in Fig.of A. courtesy of the S.01M. + 986/T 0.).4. co. 259 Temperature.J. C = 2.

M. of hydrocarbon vapors at a pressure of one atmosphere.I.E. 1.). 8-25).260 . Specific heat. 1945. 66. 8-25. (After Brown. . courtesy of the S.of A. fig. cp. Equation 8-105 can be used to determine approximately the specific heat of a mixture of gases if the composition is known. Brown (1945) has presented the molar specific heats at constant pressure for the individual hydrocarbon gases (Fig.E.W TEMPERATURE DEtREfS FAHRENHEIT Fig. p.P.

1948. 613.6 0.2 0. Generalized relationship of heat capacity differences.c u ) quantity. which is larger than R for a real gas.0.04 0. fig. 8-104.ITZf x d 2s 1 (8-107) NRe = 0. courtesy of Petroleum Refiner.060. 8-26. Gas flow fundamentals Detailed treatment of gas flow fundamentals was presented by the Institute of Gas Technology (1972).c. 3-54..774- QbGgpb p: -pz .10 0. Fig.4 0. in: Perry and Chilton. p. Q b = 38. 8-26. p./(TZ) Os G.. ratio is equal to: The ( c p . (8-108) pdiTb . CJC.8 I 2 4 Reduced pressure pr=P/P. may be obtained from the generalized chart in Fig.Z.. 1973. to reduced pressure and reduced temperature..0375GgA~p. Some important equations are presented here. c. cp . 3-238. for an ideal gas can be easily obtained using eq. (After Edmister. For a real gas.) The specific heat capacity ratio. 261 0.000.4775 ./c.

0035rK (8-114) and (8-115) . psia (usually atmospheric). BI = bend index. inches. I = pipeline length.=volumetric flow rate at pressure Pb and temperature T.. di = internal pipe diameter. p = viscosity. or sand blasted 200-300 The roughness E for aluminium pipe is equal to 200 microinches. lb. p b = base pressure. OR. Ff = drag factor. and E = effective or operating roughness. psia.67( -) (8-113) where Q. OR. can be derived as follows: f = 0. ft (positive for net uphill flow and negative for net downhill flow). pavg= average pressure.262 (8-109) r 1 (8-110) (8-111) (8-112) Pavg = 0. miles. Tb = base temperature.. Z = gas compressibility factor. A t = elevation. psia. T = flowing gas temperature. psia. Mcf/D. degrees/mile. fft = Fanning friction factor for fully turbulent flow. p 1 = upstream pressure. p 2 = downstream pres- sure. which was developed by Weymouth. fpt = Fanning friction factor for partially turbulent flow. microinches: Steel pipe Roughness E (microinches) New 500-700 12-months old 1500 24-months old 1750 Plastic-lined. f = Fanning friction factor. Gg = gas specific gravity (air = 1). Weymouth approximation A very widely used formula for volumetric flow rate (Qb)./ft-sec.

gases. 8-115: (8-116a) Substituting eq.73 psia-ft3/lb-mole-"R in eq. lb/lb-mole.e. OR.x ) from outlet end: Fig.8-27. 8-116b.. and z= average com- pressibility factor at average pressure. and R = 10. R = universal gas constant = 10. Using eq. 8-114: f = 0. $? Rearranging eq. at point C where l = l ( x ) from inlet end and I = l(1 . 263 where M = molecular weight of the gas.0035&.and average temperature. pavg. this is not the case for com- pressible fluids. Mean pressure evaluation.73 psia-ft3/lb-mole-"R. As discussed below. 8-116a: or (8-116b) Mean pressure eualuation The mean pressure for an incompressible fluid is simp] the arithmetic average of the inlet and outlet pressures. One can derive a simple formula to determine the pressure at any fractional distance x from the inlet end in a pipe carrying gas (see Fig. T= average temperature. 8-27). . i.

Pressure profile along the length of a horizontal high-pressuregas pipeline shown in Fig. courtesy of Akadtmiai Kiad6. and 10. 1975.x ( P: .Z-P22 X 1-x Solving for p. 8-116: .: p. fig. (After Szilas. 8-28. 8-28.2-1. = [ P: .5 (8-117) Equation 8-117 suggests a pressure profile as shown Fig.Z -.5 Equating these two equations: p:-p. 8-27.Pz’>I0. Budapest. The mean pressure is given by the following equation: or If in eq. P.264 x + Fig. Hungary). 36. p. 1.

1975) Gases like methane. 8-122. carbon dioxide. 1975): (1) The water must be in a liquid state during hydrate formation. T is in OR. propane. has been included. a solid granular substance forms. such as nitrogen. The following approximate forms of the Weymouth equation are also used: (8-121) and (8-122) where Q is measured in Mcf/D at the average pressure and temperature. and hydrogen sulphide. and I is in miles. 0. ( 5 ) The gas must be immiscible with water in the liquid state. and butane can enter the water lattice without forming a chemical bond. the friction factor. one obtains the following equation: Qb [ 43.487 = (52so)y’] [ 24 X 3600 1000 ] (12“))[ d8l3 w] . (2) Low temperature and high pressure. (4) The hydrate must be water resistant. The conditions necessary for hydrate formation and stabilization are (Szilas. (3) The gas must be of a covalent bond type with molecules smaller than 8 A units. The hydrate point for hydrocarbon gases (see Szilas. Several methods of determining the hydrate point temperature for a given . p is in psia. and Qb in Mcf/D. ethane. Besides hydrocarbon gas molecules.5 (Tb’pb) (8-119) or (8-120) where Qb is in Mcf/D at Tb and p b . 265 di is expressed in inches. In eq. It can be included in a similar way in eq. 1 in miles. 8-120. which resembles snow or ice and is called hydrocarbon hydrate. (6) No van der Waals’ forces should arise between the hydrate molecules. is in inches. Upon sufficient decrease in temperature. f. d . hydrates can also be formed by nonhydrocarbon gases.

(1959) procedure seems to be the best suited one for natural gases devoid of nitrogen and up to about 275 atm (4000 psi). and Q . as in the case of systems for bulk transport of gas from the field to the regional supply stations.266 pressure and gas composition have been described in literature. (8-125) where QA. 8-29): A P T = ApA(or A P B or A PC ) + A P D 9 (8-127) . Flow may be at a high pressure with significant increase in specific volume with declining pressure. Also: (8-126) because the end points of all three lines are common. Hydrates form when the following condition is satisfied: (8-123) where y. = mole fraction of i-th component in the gas and Khi = equilibrium ratio for the i-th component obtained from the Kh versus temperature-pressure charts (Katz et al. The Katz et al. B and C. respectively.445 where Th is the hydrate-formation temperature in OK.. Flow may also be at a low pressure with negligible specific volume changes. flow through which can not be treated like a simple single-line flow. Although the flow in a transmission system is invariably transient. 1959). System of parallel lines As in liquid flow. Heinze (1971) gave the following relationship for the hydrate point for nitrogen- [ containing natural gases up to 395 atm (5800 psi): !lyiKhi] Th= (8-124) 0. as in the case of supply from the regional stations to the consumers. QB. The total pressure drop is given by the following equation (see Fig. Gas transmission systems Gas transmission systems are complex network (looped or loopless) systems. the assump- tion of steady state flow is valid for many design and operation problems. are the flow rates in lines A. and QT is the total flow rate.

Q 2 . 2. In this case. For this system. are the respective pressure drops in these lines. that is equivalent to I. it is very simple to define a single line having diameter d . . and 3. is the total flow rate. . A p . one can use an equivalent single line having a length 1. The Weymouth equation (eq. A p . and Q . miles of line of diameter d 3 . Q =Q = Q =Q 1 2 3 T and where Q . 8-29. . 8-120) can be written as follows: (8-128) where K includes the constant terms. TABLE 8-11 Equivalent diameter and equivalent length for lines in parallel and lines in series Equivalent diameter Entire line looped a Equivalent length - Lines in parallel Q 3/16 Lines in series a It is assumed that lengths of all lines in the looped section are equal. Ap. that has the same capacity as the looped line under the same pressure drop. This is given in Table 8-11. and an equivalent diameter d . Lines in series A system of lines in series is shown in Fig. is the total pressure drop. . Thus. Pipelines in parallel for Example 8-6. 267 A l M D I io ! I Section I I Section 2 ~ Fig. 8-30. respectively. A p . miles of line of diameter d 2 and I .and Q 3 are the flow rates in lines 1. .

d. = 1. This represents two pipes in series.446-in.639 = 22. = 2.5)8/3 +--(3)"/' . diameter pipe= 15 X (3/3. Alternatively. +-( 2 .639 miles. 8-30.446)(15)'/2 = 36. and I. = 3 in."/' (2)"' -=.9. Solution: Refer to Table 8-11. one can determine the diameter of a line having length I.. 1- 2 miles Fig. = 1. Determine the equivalent ~ f : / ' / l . = 15 d e S . 8-31. which is equivalent to the above mentioned lines (Table 8-11). For the looped part.268 Line I I Fig. = 3 in.927 = 5.587)16/' = 3.857 in.639 miles. = (36.. Alternatively: Equivalent length of the 15-mile section as a 3-in. / ~ratio for use in the Weymouth equation for this system.927 miles.584 Thus: d . Therefore. is equal + to 2 3.. = 2 miles.. d. d .5 in."/' = (9. = 2 in. Pipeline system for Example 8-6. 8-31.d . Hence. The resulting configuration is shown in Fig.584)3/8 = 3. 8-30. assume d.927 miles. Pipelines in series. Choosing an equivalent length: ( 3*8357 IDe= 2 miles x -)16/' = 7. . the equivalent length of the full system having diameter of 3. Example 8-6 In Fig.1. D C3in t 15 miles . d .857 in.8/3 (15)'12 (15)'/2 (15)'12 ft'/2 Inasmuch as length 1. = 15 miles. is + equal to 15 7. the equivalent length of the full system having diameter of 3 in.

This involves a trial and error type solution for the flow capacities of the tubing in the well and the surface flow pipes. 3 = 2Ggz/53. Flow in hilly terrain Frequently the terrain over which the pipeline is laid may not be horizontal. the horizontal flow equations presented for gas flow have to be modified to account for the net head (or elevation) change from inlet to the outlet. it must be realized that in real situations numerical simulation techniques may have to be employed to enable more accurate predictions.p i ) / 1 ) ] term by: PI - 1 where 1 = total length of pipeline. These relationships can be used to predict the performance of many systems. APPENDIX 8. z = total elevation dif- ference between inlet and outlet (= zOutle. 8-30 is equivalent to: (1) 22.P $ ) 1422(pZ).). approach is to modify the Weymouth equation by replacing the [( p : . Rajay K. this is complicated by the fact that the gas properties are very sensitive to pressure. or (2) 5.1 One of the most routine calculation procedures in a gas field is the determination of deliverability. A simple.ft. The interested reader is referred to Szilas (1975) and other references listed for a detailed treatment of the subject.I-1) . as described earlier for flow of liquid oil. 2 factor.zinlet). etc. 269 Thus. the system in Fig.93-mile long 3-in.857-in. diameter pipe. which have to be evaluated at the average pressure. In such cases. . diameter pipe. The calculation procedure is outlined below: (1) Determine the gas flow in the reservoir: ' = kh ( F i . yet valid. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are very thankful to Mr.64-mile long 3. For gases. However. Iterative solutions are introduced by the gas properties (viscosity..472re/rw) + S ] (8 .33TaZa. Goyal for his valuable comments and suggestions during the preparation of this chapter.TR [1n(0.

dimensionless. Dougherty (1982) presented a modified calculation procedure. and then evaluate the average p and Z for the gas. If not.0375 Gglt/TaZa. ft. ft. f = friction factor. psia. dimensionless. ( n is the number of wells) is equal to: (8 . s = surface flowline. is equal throughout and establish the unknown wellhead pressure. Z = gas compressibility factor. pwh.1-1. pwr= bottomhole flowing pressure. assume a new value of pwhand repeat the calculation procedure. av = average conditions in the reservoir. and s^ = 0. He defined the following quantities: (1) For tubing. cP.1-2) Express the flow for each well. through iterative techniques.1-3 to get Q.. p = gas viscosity.the flow constant B. Mcf/D. = n2B1(for n wells) (8. The usual calculation procedure is to assume that the gas flow rate. jiR= average reservoir pressure. If all three Q’s are equal. pwh = wellhead flowing pres- sure. assume a reasonable value of pwh. and R = reservoir condition. 8. Gg= gas gravity with respect to air = 1. S = skin factor. the assumption was correct. k = reservoir permeability.I-3) In all these equations.ft. . T = temperature. rw = wellbore radius. (3) Determine the gas flow in the surface flowline from the wellhead to the supply terminal(s): (8 .I-4) and B.1-2 and 8.1-5) . ft. Use eqs. Q = gas flow rate. psia. obtain the average pressure and temperature.6)2 (8. 1 = length of flow conduit. in. OR. Q. md. First. psia. 8.. Subscripts: t = tubing from bottomhole to the surface. d = diameter of flow conduit. . psia. pd= pressure at supply end of pipeline.270 (2) Determine the gas flow in the tubing and casing from downhole to the wellhead: Q 2 = (198. h = formation thickness. re = drainage radius for the producing well. a = average conditions between the bot- tomhole and the wellhead.

1-13: P5. 8.l/rw) +S] (8 . 8.I-11) and K.ZS f s 4 (3): kh A.l = JA77.T.472re.( Q2 C-1 7) (8. TR A. A ft’.1-15) (8.1-5.1-16) . = An/[ln(0.1-12) (6): C=ej (8.1-2. 8.1-4./rw) + S ] (for n wells). = nA.I-10) if there are n wells in the drainage area. (8. (5): K .1-8) (4) Drainage radius is equal to: re.472re.6)’d: E= (8. = Xl/[ln(0. (for 1well) (8. and 8.. 8.1-6) G.1-12: P i -P$ = Q/Kn (8.CPih = ().1-7) 1422( P 1. 271 (2) For flowline.1-9) and re. (for n wells) (8.1-14) Using eqs.n = r e J 6 (8 . E is equal to: (198.1-1 and 8. = (for 1 well) (8.1-13) Dougherty then derived his solution technique as follows: Using eqs.

Cp. cp&= Q/K..1-18) Introducing new terms a. b. [ -b.20) Thus. the calculations can be performed twice to give a better accuracy. --'an bn (8 3. Inasmuch as the pZ product for gases is almost constant over small pressure ranges. If required. any assumption of Pwh will not affect the result significantly. \i( I c Q= +)2 + a.1-14 and 8.1-18 becomes : a n Q 2+ b.1-17) Substituting eq. It is only necessary to assume an average pressure for pZ product evaluation.1-19) This is a quadratic equation: Q.2+]/2an Inasmuch as negative Q is not physically possible. and c: a . one obtains: pi.1-16 into eq. 8.272 Adding eqs.) b.1-1. 8.c = 0 (8.1-15. and c = p i . . 8.+ Q*(C-')/('n?) (8.f ii6. This procedure is illustrated in Example 8. = C / E + (C-l)/(?B.Q .1-17: or (8.. = lJK.2 equation 8. Q can be easily determined.

For Gg= 0. = 540"R * (Tpr). z(TR.000 ft. Thus: A p = 800 + 200 = 1000 psi and pwh=pwr. Gg= 0.000)(0. = 3 in. and turbulence coefficient = 0. d . T. the static pressure difference between wellhead and bottomhole is equal to: A p = (l0.87. PR= 4500 psia. d . pwr= 2500 psia ( pPr)wf = 3.675.25. r. an additional pressure drop due to friction is introduced. and 20 wells if the pipeline inlet pressure is 1250 psia. I.690 .08 psi/ft. which is assumed to be 200 psi.A p = 2500 .1000 = 1500 psia. = 2. k = 50 md. p w f ) =o*845.75. pR= 4500 psia * ( ppr)R - = 6. h = 20 ft.000 ft. = 10. 273 Example 8. Z ( q . = 220°F.743. friction factor f = [2 log d + 6. T. = 80°F.) = 0. r. pd = 1250 psia * ( ppr)d= 1. For a depth of 10. I.I-1 Calculate the deliverability of a gas field for n = 1. 8-21. = 5280 ft.. pwh = 1500 psia ( ppr).53]-*.h= 2. The following information is given: A = 4000 acres. Z(TR.= 1.= 1. Using Fig. pwh)= 0.. Solution: Assume pwr= 2500 psia and a common gas gradient of 0. = 4 in.947. ppc= 668 psia.5 in. jj. 10.75.0. Due to flow.08) = 800 psi.. Tpc= 406"R. TR= 220°F = 680"R * ( TPr). skin factor S = 2.330.737.

274 and. (198.0512. p d ) = 0. p(TR. = 20A.6)’d: - .9761.= 0. 2 . (0.610°R. (198 . p R ) ~ 0 .845 +2 0. Using Fig.Z.(0.0186.690 = o. (198. Z ( T .0186) (10. = kh - .) =0.5)’ GgTaZafJ.024. f.7675) (0. p.53)-2 = 0.(4)’ = 1592.0167)(5280) A. .000) = 0.= (2 log d.T.9761) = 23.. 8-23.6).0202 CP.6007. . = 0.61.7675) (610) f. = (20).71)(0.6).000) = 58.0375) (0.(2.d: B. B2.. B.9761) = 5897.730.75) (610)( 0.0202) (680) 1422(p Z)av A. and h.0375Gglt - ‘ a ‘a (0. 0 2 4 8CP and.7675.020) (0.6).5120.(58. s^= 0.75)(540)(0.43.53)-2= (2 log 2.5 + 6. E = (198. (50)(20) = 0.020 cP. = . (pz)av= 2 z. (0. TR (1422) (0.947) + (0. = 1... Thus: (0.590.= (2 log 4 + 6. = lOh. T a T=+ TR L -.&J. G. = (10).53)-.92. p ( T R .0248)( 0.845) = 0. + 6.(58.0167. = 0.75) (10.

400.477 105.953 17.43 x 10-3.472 X 1665. 275 re.258 SAMPLE PROBLEMS (1) Fracture fluid having specific gravity of 1. with c/d = lop4.. and casing is 4. Sections BC. and BE.25) + 2 = 0.04 ft.3/0.001203 b.eJpt 17.7 .. 8-32). of 2.0244 0.6 112. For a fracture fluid rate of 50 bbl/min and a pressure of 3000 psig against the sandface.817 c = p i .38 22.5-in. The depth to the midpoint of perforations in each of the wells is 2500 ft. I. 0.10186.472re. = 1/K. . re..0512 K.7359. Next.D.l ) / ( S .3 ft. = ln(0. the gas flow rate Q for each of the three cases can be determined as shown below: Parameter Number of wells n=l n = 10 n = 20 a. BD and BE are each 1000 ft long with I.00138 0.734 20.45 120. A1 0. Pipe section AB is 4 in.400.953 17.25) + 2 = 4. The tubing is 2.173 116.953 27.472 x 7447.05 is to be injected into three wells simultaneously as shown below..3 ft.338.532.102. determine the horsepower of the pump required at the fracture-fluid storage outlet. ) 0.3/0. 225.4625. Assume viscosity of fracture fluid = 100 CP and the fracture fluid is pumped through the tubing-casing annulus.4080. There are 2 flanged globe valves in each one of the sections BC. = = /(4000)(43560)/~ = 7447.19 . =d m = 2355.25) + 2 = 0.313 9.5120 K1o = ln(0. in diameter and 500 ft long.D.04923.024 Kzo= ln(0.472 x 2355/0..400. = 1665.5 in. BD. The storage is open to atmosphere (Fig. I.2o= 4. 1.78 . = e'/E + ( eg . and re.l/rw) +S ln(0.5 in.D. Friction losses at each wellhead are equal to 50 psi.

J. 1945.Estimating the viscosity of crude oil systems. and Brill. The inlet pressure is 1500 psia. insulation thickness = 1 in. Textbook for courses at the Univ. kin= 0. Per. gas gravity Gg= 0.. Bed.An Experimental Study of Two-phase Flow in Inclined Pipes. Per. 8-32. Sample problem 1. inlet oil temperature = 105°F.276 C Frocture -a Fluid Storoge 4in 4 in ID Pump 41: 1 Fig.000 bbl/D. 57(554) : 74-85. natural gas. AIME. Insr. Pumping non-Newtonian waxy crude oils. G. AZME. find the horsepower of a 90%-efficientpump that must be placed 3 miles upstream from the exit end. Eng. ~ / = d soil temperature T. = 5. J.G. Oct. 1946. JFT Forum. a.80.P.. REFERENCES Barry. 27(9) :1140-1141. Pipe relative roughness.J . C. SPE 4007. = 6. crude oil and its associated gases at oil-field temperatures and pressures. 1974. H.A series of enthalpy-entropy charts for natural gases. AIME.D. = 0. pipe O..D. 5-mile pipeline at 60 MMscf/D.5 Btu/hr-ft- OF. J. Formation (2) A 45"API oil with solution gas/oil ratio R.P. friction factor f=O. and Robinson. k . (b) The steady-state pipeline outlet oil temperature. Pet. 1971.Two Phase Flow in Pipes. 165 :94-115.. H...05 Btu/hr-ft-OF. I.G.. J.D. 8-11. pipeline. Eng. = 50°F. Soc.. 1975.O15. The viscosity of air. Trans.. average flowing temperature = 75"F.375 in. 160:65-76. ..R.D.5 Btu/hr-ft-OF. Soc. (3) Gas is to be transported through a 4. Brill.13pp. Per.D. of Tulsa. 1972. through a 65-mile long. Beggs. Brown. E. Eng.D. The pipe is buried 10 ft below the surface. San Antonio. k . Pet.=400 scf/bbl is to be trans- ported at a flow rate Q = 12. Beggs. For a supply pressure of 800 psia. H. I. and Beggs. Determine: (a) The time required for flow to reach steady state.5 X lo6 ft2/sec. Texas. Trans. Soc. 10-in. = 1. water. Tech. Fall Meet.5-in. 47th Annu.

237 : 997-1000. 1962. Brown. 409.G. Soc.C.. 1978. Chernikin. Tex.L..P.J. Eng. McGraw-Hill. 201 : 264-272. Houston. 1966. E. C. G.E.L. 1956.. Heinze.. Tex. 1972. 8-11. Gonzalez. V.. C. R. Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure.. N.. C. and Burrows. 487 pp. Makowski. Okla. and Turner. New York. Trans. Moscow. Vol. J. 193 pp. In: 47th Annu. W.B.. and Beggs. Poettmann.. Vary. Englewood Cliffs. Cragoe... Cleveland.S. 1. Dougherty. 1944. Ciu. Vol. 630 pp. Eng. J. 1972. Moody. AIME. Density of natural gases. 1961. 1982. E. B. Los Angeles. D. W. J . AIME. Ohio. V. Pet.. A.. The Technology of Artificial Lijt Methodr. Amsterdam. 1953.. 1948. 216 :23-25. Standing. H. Technical Paper No. Oberfell.A.. M. 97..A. 66:671-684. B. Eng. 1979. Cornell. AIME. Kobayashi. Petrol. and Conti. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill. 1954.Mech. Eng.. On the turbulent heat transfer by free convection from a vertical plate. 60(6):222. Vol. W. Electr. Vol. Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics. 802 pp..Y..Pet. 312 pp. N. Turbulent flow in pipes. Pennwell.. Inst. J. C.. Gulf.P. Production and Transport of Oil and Gas (Developments in Petroleum Science. Thomas..F. N. Hydraulic Inst. J . 1974. Miscellaneous Publication No. Austin. Zaba. 1959. Soc. 571 pp. W. 10. Prentice-Hall. and Graves. and Eakin. Jr. Eng. Norman. Marks. W. (in Russian). AIME. Tex.H. Trans.. 152-185... Lehrbogen 3/3 von der Bergakademie Freiberg.C.. . Pet.. Handbook of Natural Gar Engineering.. 1977. and Hirata. Eng. Colebrook.R. R. Handbook of Heat Transfer... 5th Ed. 1973. Inst. SOC. New York.H. Pumping of Viscous and Congealing Oils. Eng.D. M.F. N. Gulf. Pet. J. 203 pp.P.B.. Holden. 146: 140-149. and Katz. M.. and Hartnett.. Aduanced Reseruoir Engineering.. 3) Elsevier. 1971. May 1947 through March 1949. Time-saving chart for pipe wall thickness selection.E. New York. Nishiwaki. Cal. Int..M. Heat transfer problems encountered in the handling of waxy crude oils in large pipelines.C. 1942. M. 1958.A. Trans.D. A viscosity correlation for gas-saturated crude oils. R...A. Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants.S. Texas. Heat Mass Transfer. 11. F. Pet. Oct. Davenport. Tulsa. Bureau of Standards. Eng. N. Kobayashi. Kato.. 277 Brown.. D. J. Well Design. 57(555) : 147-164.F. T. SOC. 1973. Gulf.H. Unsteady Natural Gas Calculations in Complex Piping ' systems..Y.A. with particular reference to the transition region below the smooth and rough pipe laws. 11 : 133-156. K.E. Hydraulic Institute. New York. Friction factors for pipe flow. 1971. Eng. Chem.L. Crane-U. and Alden. D. N. Craft. Perry. Okla.. Carr.H.. 1973.B. H. Szilas. Soc. Practical Petroleum Engineers' Handbook.. Pap. and Doherty. Katz. 1938-1939..Y.C. PennWell. Edmister. and Chilton. The viscosity of natural gases. 1962. Edmister. Okla. 1942.S. Institute of Gas Technology. 1947-1949. Crane-U. (Editors). N. M. C. Tulsa.. A. 1953.A. K. Eng.Y. R.C. E. An evaluation of two rapid methods of assessing the thermal resistivity of soil. D. 1956. AIME.J. N. L.. Chemical Engineers' Handbook.. V.A. F. pp. Tex.G. Hydrocarbon absorption and fractionation process design. Wylie. Campbell. SPE 4004. G.. U S .... Streeter... and Connally Jr. Oct. 1959. D. and Weinaug.C. Lee. Chew. R.R...I. Eng.C. 32(6) : 1-15. I. McGraw-Hill. W. McGraw-Hill. Hydratbildung. Handbook of Pipeline Engineering Computations. Houston. New York. Fall Meet. Ludwig..L. 347 pp. J. Trans.. and Mochlinski.. Gostoptekhizdat. Petroleum Extension Service. Proc. Am. Frick. Houston. l l ( 7 ) : 1117-1125. Elenbaas. Tulsa.L. W. pp..B.. Petroleum Production Handbook.T.M. J. Katz. Petro/Chem..Y. Oil Pipeline Construction and Maintenance.. 1968. 3-121. Tex... Gas Processors Assoc. Trans. pp. 19-39. Technical Report No. Engineering Data Book. Drilling and Production.. SOC. Natural Gasoline and Volatile Hydro- carbons. Pet. 371 pp. E. 1. Rohsenow. 5204. Lectures at the University of Southern Cali- fornia. Campbell Petroleum Series.L. Okla.L. Univ.M. N. 1960. Hansen. 1975. A. Steady Flow in Gas Pipelines. T. Inst. Insulation for heat and cold. 1929.. and Stoner. Gus Conditioning and Processing. San Antonio.

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Equations can be derived to predict pressure drops in each segment. The overall production system. 279 Chapter 9 DESIGN OF FLOWING WELL SYSTEMS SANJAY KUMAR. Each segment of the flow configuration can be separated and treated individually. the entire system is separated into the following flow segments: (1) Reservoir or porous fluid flow. courtesy of PennWell Publishing Company. rCHOKE SEPARATOR . 9-1. and the surface flow configuration. KERN H. GUPPY and GEORGE V. In general. (After Brown and Beggs. 1977..AS + i -.) .-. i c-FLOW ~HROUGHO POROUS MEDIUM Fig. It is imperative that good judgement be exercised in designing these facilities to match the oil or gas well’s production in order not to underdesign or overdesign the system. p. Figure 9-1 is a schematic representation of the overall flow configuration in a typical well as fluid flows frqm the reservoir to the surface separator. . 68. (2) Vertical or directional flow in tubing or casing. subsurface equipment. CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION The design of production facilities necessitates familiarity with and an under- standing of the basic concepts of flow in the overall system consisting of the reservoir.

06 bbl/D/psi-ft. = 3q.= 1. qo = 4. psia. Hence. jR = average reservoir pressure. as illustrated in Example 9-1. Solution: Water cut = 0. The pressures normally used are the flowing bottomhole pressure and the average reservoir pressure.25 600 (1) J = qo/( jR . can have a significant impact on the design criteria. 0. the smaller the difference between these pressures.. = 200 bbl/D (bpd). Hence. water. For any given flow rate.or two-phase flow. psia. J. Productivity index J . is used. 500 (2) = (40 + q w ) / ( P R . can be based on total fluid production. commonly expressed as PI. RESERVOIR FLUID FLOW The ability of a reservoir to produce is influenced by several factors. and pwf= flowing bottomhole pressure at the wellbore. (4) Restricted or choke flow. and h = 20 ft.2/20 = 0. the type of flow. pwf= 2500 psia. whether single. (2) J based upon total liquid production. which is defined as follows: J=q/(jR-Pwf) (9-1) where q = flow rate. + qo).. is equal to: J J.p W r )= -= 1. water cut = 258. h . reservoir pressure. and (3) Specific J for (1) and (2) above. it is important that the relationship between flow rate and pressure be described accurately. To predict this ability to flow.q. or on individual oil.2500 = 500 psi.6 bbl/D/psi. The objective in the overall design is to minimize pressure drops in each portion of the system. such as reservoir permeability. + (3) Specific J . Example 9-1 Given: jR = 3000 psia./( q. and the type of drive mechanism. a parameter called the productivity index.pwf= 3000 .25 = q. based upon oil production. = 600 bbl/D and jR. J . or gas production rate.2 bbl/D/psi. q. Find: (1) J based on oil production.280 (3) Horizontal or inclined flow in surface flowlines. = .. To compare different wells with different drive mechanisms quantitatively. the more efficient is the ability of the reservoir to produce fluids. bbl/D..P w f ) = 6oo5002oo = 1.

the slopes will be the same. 1977. 281 00 q+ Fig. 9-2. IPR can be accurately predicted by testing a well and assuming a linear relationship. it is very important to predict the flowing bottomhole pressure for any given flow rate. in the case of the solution-gas-drive. the inverse slope of the IPR curve. It should also be noted that a combination of drive mechanisms can exist in many reservoirs. courtesy of PennWell Publishing Company. J is not constant and varies with flow rate as follows: Figure 9-3 illustrates the J characteristics for the three different types of reservoirs. the system exhibits a combination of linear J above the bubble point and a non-linear solution-gas-drive J below the bubble point. is equal to: 1. It is shown in Fig. the reservoir pressure is above the bubble point. 1. In 1968. It is important to remember that the I P R curve represents the relationship between the flowing bottomhole pressure and flow rate at a given reservoir pressure. (Modified after Brown and Beggs. Thus.6 J. 9-2 for water-drive. IPR is more difficult to predict. gas-cap-drive and solution-gas-drive mechanisms.) Specific Jst.. the IPR curve will become different. but the actual flow rate and pressure values will be different. Inasmuch as the IPR curve ranges from the maximum pressure (average reservoir pressure) to the minimum pressure of zero. J is constant. For the water-drive system. 20 To properly design the 'correct production components. p. Below the bubble point. A quantitative measure of the I P R is the productivity index. For the gas-cap and solution-gas-cap drives. as the reservoir pressure changes. In a newly discovered reservoir. based upon total liquid production.08 bbl/D/psi-ft. Typical inflow performance curves. Vogel offered a technique for describing the IPR . It has been found that the drive mechanism in the reservoir has the greatest influence on this relationship. gas and oil segregate forming a two-phase oil and gas mixture. For the water-drive mechanism. Whereas in the water-drive system. called the Inflow Performance Relationship ( I P R ) . = .= 0.

It was also found that a nonlinear equation can be used to describe this relationship as follows: 2 qo/(qo)m. Relationship between productivity index. Solution: .0. (2) qo at pwf= 500 psia. i. Find: (1) (40)m. using Vogel's method. assuming a constant J .0 5.0 2. using different P YT data from several reservoirs.2 r (3 (3 .. 9-4. is estimated at pwr= 0. Example 9-2 The following data were obtained from a well test: - p R= 3000 psia.e.9 40 at P w r = O . testing a well to determine pwfcorresponding to a flow rate qo enables one to determine the IPR curve. (In: Brown and Beggs. As in the case of water-drive system. pwf= 2500 psia. 9-3.8 .0 4. 1977. ( qo)ma'i is determined from substituting qo and pwfin eq. he was able to dimensionally represent ZPR curve in a form shown in Fig.0 6. 2.282 '0 1.0 CUMULATIVE RECOVERY (MMSTBO) Fig. In this paper.0.0 3. p. 9-3.0 7. J . (3) qo at pwf= 500 psia. and recovery for different types of reservoirs. = 1 . In Vogel's equation. courtesy of Shell Oil Company. (9-3) where (qO)m.) curve for solution-gas-drive reservoirs. qo = 500 STB/D. however.

40 0:60 0. FRACTION OF MAXIMUM Fig. p. ' .2778 = - ~ 0. 9-3: --4o .) Using eq. 283 w n 3 v) v) w n a w U 3 v) v) w U a -0 0:20 0./(qo)max).8333) .80 l:oo PRODUCING RATE (q. ( q )max = 0.M. 1968.8333)2 = 0.2(0.0.2778 ( 40 )"ax 40 500 . 9-4. fig.2778 = 1800 STB/D. 5 .8(0.E.1 . (After Vogel. Inflow performance relationship for solution-gas-drive reservoirs.0.1667 PR 3000 .I. Pwr 500 = - (2) r = 0. courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of A. 85.

The Horner plot yields slope m . when (a) FE = 0.9444)(1800) = 1700 STB/D. Example 9-3 The following information is available from a well test: qo = 500 bbl/D.. When FE = 1. S . pWr= 2500 psig. 40 = 500 = 1.. (b) The well is reworked to yield FE = 1.3. 9-5 that needs to be determined is Ap. Equa- tion 9-4 can be redefined as folloisrs: Equation 9-5 shows that if FE < 1..O bbl/D/psi.87 Sm.833 j R 3000 .7.9444. the well is damaged. He defined a term known as the flow efficiency ( F E ) as follows: where J.Ap.8(0. and FE = 0. = actual productivity index. i.). If FE > 1. The simplest method used is to test the well and develop a Horner Plot in order to determine the skin effect. One shortcoming of Vogel’s equation is the assumption that the well does not have a pressure drop around the wellbore due to the wellbore damage or to fractures..e. pkf = ideal bottomhole pressure. (40 )mu Thus: qo = 0. Details of this procedure are given in Chapter 10.1667) . One parameter in eq. Standing’s correlation becomes Vogel’s equation.284 40 As before.0.p w r )= l(3000 ..2500 = 0.9444(q0).. (3) J = . jR= 3000 psig. Fig- ure 9-5 shows Standing’s curves for various FE values. Ji = ideal productivity index. = 0.0...500) = 2500 STB/D. whch enables determination of Ap.2500) Thus: qo = J( j R. Find: qo at pwf= 1700 psig. Solution: Pwr . = (0. Ap. and pwr= actual bottomhole pressure ( = p i p. the well is stimulated.. = 1 ..1667)2= 0. (c) The well is fractured to yield FE = 1.. PR -Pwf (3000 .0.. Standing (1971) extended Vogel’s work to account for the so-called “skin effect” in the vicinity of the wellbore.2(0.0..7.

0.3. it may be required to design the tubing and flowline combination before the well is drilled.47)(2632) = 1237 bbl/D.and flow rate. qo/(qo)Lzl = 0. qo = (0. (c) For FE = 1.E.0.77)(2632) = 2026 bbl/D. The above example illustrates how to predict the flow rate at various values of pwr.77 Hence. S8Z Fig. methods have been shown in this section for predicting the relationship between flowing bottomhole pressure.47 Thus. qo = (0.65)(2632) = 1711 bbl/D. at FE = 1. 9-5. p. qo. 1970.19. (b) For FE = 1.L*l = 0. For a pwr of 1700 psig: From Fig.7. qo = (0. IPR curves for damaged wells producing by solution-gas-drive. an IPR curve can be developed for a particular well. qo/(qo). fig.) From Fig.19 = 2632 bbl/D.I. 9-5: (a) For FE = 0. 9-5. In summary.65 Thus. courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of A. the IPR curve is drawn. pwf. (After Standing. qo/(qo)k%=l = 0. (qo)cE1 = 500/0. Once a relationship is determined.Hence.M. qo/(qo)kk-l = 0. as long as FE is known. It . 1400. In many cases. 2. Thus.

the vertical flow in the tubing or casing requires accurate methods for predicting pressure drop from the bottom of the wellbore to the surface.g. through a vertical distance A h in ft. gas and liquid velocities. As in the case of single-phase flow in vertical columns. defined as the volume fraction of liquid. VERTICAL FLOW For oil reservoirs. A . and (3) the distinction made in flow regimes. An accurate estimate must be made of the relationship between the flowing bottomhole pressure and flow rate for a given average reservoir pressure. Hagedorn and Brown used a 1500-ft deep experimental well to develop their correlation. Correlations presented by Hagedorn and Brown (1965) and Beggs and Brill (1973) are considered to be applicable over all velocity ranges of multiphase flow. as a result of flashing that may take place due to the large reductions in pressure as the fluid moves upward in the tubing. (2) the handling of friction losses. considerable amount of research work has been done in this area.286 is useful to test an adjacent well in order to predict the inflow performance relationship for the new well. e. viscosity and density are actually those of a mixture (liquid and gas). Vertical flow correlations Various methods used for predicting pressure drops in vertical columns use different empirical correlations for determining H . Most of these correlations differ only in (1) the way the liquid holdup is evaluated in the computation of density.in a vertical column. Following a pioneering paper by Poettmann and Carpenter (1952). Data was taken for liquids of varying viscosity using three different tubing sizes (1-2. and the pipe inclination. Such calculations become very complicated when gas and oil are flowing together. They used the general energy equation to obtain the equation for pressure loss in a two-phase system: where A p = pressure drop in psi. In two-phase flow. and velocity of the fluids. Frequently.5 in.. The holdup factor is usually determined from correlations based on experimental work. density. and the friction factor for the two-phase mixtures. which can be calculated directly from the flow rates (see Chapter 11). H L . it is taken as the no-slip holdup. d = tubing .). It depends on the flow pattern. prediction of frictional loss in the case of two-phase flow requires estimating friction factors which are dependent on viscosity. Determination of the properties of mixtures requires introduction of a new parameter called the liquid holdup factor.

cP. and pg = gas viscosity. the Reynolds number. and g. g = gravitational acceleration = 32. Their mist flow Fig. They represented the mixture viscosity by the relation proposed by Arrhenius. suitably modified using field data. They used 90-ft long pipe sections. and 1. 287 diameter. All other parameters remaining the same. P. These modifications render this correlation applicable quite accurately over a wide range of flow conditions. ft. = + pLHL &(l. is used. Ib. (After Duns and Ros. The larger of the two values./ft3. from horizontal to vertical. cP. carefully controlled laboratory data. sec2.) ./D. in diameter. the variation in flow characteristics under the influence of any one parameter could be studied. ft/lb. V. 1963. courtesy of Halliburton Services. The singular advantage offered by such a setup was that the same pipe could be manipulated at all angles. = velocity of mixture. 9-6. w = mass flow rate.2 ft/sec2. Another modification is in the use of mixture density. pm = density of the mixture at the reference point. In the modified Hagedorn and Brown technique. Flow patterns were not considered.H L ) = average mixture density. lb. It is quite accurate for horizontal and vertical flow.2 lb. expressed in oilfield units for the two-phase flow becomes: (9-7) where pL= liquid viscosity. one calculated by using the Hagedorn and Brown holdup correlation and the other by assuming no-slip.5 in. however. = 32. the Griffith modification for bubble flow has been incorporated for use in the bubble flow regime. This correlation was developed primarily for directional or inclined flow. The Duns and Ros (1963) method was developed through large-scale. ft/sec. Thus. 1 in. Beggs and Brill (1973) conducted experiments on scaled-down versions of the real situation in the laboratory. Vertical flow patterns.

courtesy ofWliburton Smites. Flow regime map. N m W Fig.) . 9-7. (After Duns and Ros. 1%3.

pwh at 1400 ft (= 9400 . An interesting aspect of this work is the introduction of the flow regimes (Fig.. and gas/liquid ratio. go vertically down to the applicable gas/liquid ratio curve. / g a ) ' / ~ . The technique of using the traverse curves can be described as follows: (1) Select the applicable curve for the given tubing size. production rate. In Fig. Ngv= gas-velocity number = Kg(~ .800 = 2000 psig. p w p= 2800 .1-1 through 9.0 (linear). if the known pressure was the bottomhole pressure. J = 1. 9-6) and the flow regime map (Fig. Kg= superficial gas velocity. Using Fig. Pwh. ft/sec. lb. / g u ) ' / and ~ NLv= liquid-velocity number = V. which are plots of depth versus pressure for selected oil and gas properties at various gas/liquid ratios. z = 8000 ft. Example 9-4 serves to illustrate this procedure./sec2. and details can be obtained from the original references. 9. G / O = 300 scf/bbl. = superficial liquid velocity.( ~ .1-16 in Appendix 9. 289 correlation is the most widely accepted.1.8000) is equal to 130 psig. if the known pressure was the surface pressure. Example 9-4 Given: qo = 800 bbl/D.Pwr Therefore. and u = surface tension. Solution: J = . (b) Subtract the well depth from the depth value found in Step (2). 9. Working pressure traverse curves for vertical flow To avoid the use of large programs and computers for individual wells. ft/sec.5 in. 9-7.. V. .1-9 for vertical flow. pL = liquid density. tubing size = 2.. The most common traverse curves used are prepared by using correlations of Hagedorn and Brown and are presented in Figs. PR = 2800 psig. (4) Read off the unknown pressure corresponding to the corrected depth. and read off the depth on the vertical depth axis. (2) Locate the known pressure on the pressure curves. a more generalized approach has been made to predict pressure drops in vertical columns: traverse curves. (3) Correct this depth as follows: (a) Add the well depth to the depth value found in Step (2). lb.qo =1. 9-7)./ft3.0 P R .. These curves enable conversion of pressures into equivalent vertical lengths and vice versa. Find: the flowing wellhead pressure. are used. The above-described correlations all require the use of complex programs and computers to accurately predict pressure drop.

Second trial: Assuming pwf= 1820 psig. length of 2-in. j = ( pwh p w r ) / 2= (100 1800)/2 = 950 psig. total tubing length minus true vertical depth of tubing) is determined using a horizontal flow correlation.890 = 60 psig Thus pwf= pLf + A p . Determine the flowing bottomhole pressure. . the second assumption was correct and pwr= 1820 psig. p w f . = 960-900 = 60 psig and pwf= 1760 + 60 = 1820 psig. G / L = 800 scf/bbl. Pwh = 100 psig. Example 9-5 outlines this procedure. Their results. q = 1000 bbl/D (100% water). however. First the pressure loss is calculated using only the true vertical depth in a vertical flow correlation. Beggs and Brill (1973) introduced corrected holdup factors to account for directional flow. Ney (1968) presented two new solutions. resulting in a greater frictional head loss.. = 950 . is equal to: A p . which is presented here. pwr= 1800 psig. downstream pressure = 900 psig. the true vertical depth is equal to 7000 ft. because (1) a directional well has a greater length than a vertical well for the same depth. Thus: A p .As a first approxima- tion. + + Thus. therefore. = 1760 psig. Solution: Using the vertical flow correlation for a vertical depth of 7000 ft. and using additional length of 2000 ft (= 9000-7000).1-19. The head loss due to friction in this extra 2000 ft of pipe. and (2) holdup differs and may be greater than that for vertical flow. = 1760 + 60 = 1820 psig. Then the frictional pressure drop due to the extra length of the tubing (i. whereas Fuentes (1968) extended his work. combines the use of vertical flow and horizontal flow correlations of Hagedorn and Brown.290 MULTIPHASE FLOW IN DIRECTIONAL WELLS In the case of directional wells with deviations not exceeding 15-20' true vertical depth can be used along with the vertical multiphase flow correlation to ascertain the pressure traverse. Ney (1968) and Fuentes (1968) have pointed out that this method works fairly well. p. j = (100 + 1820)/2 = 960 psig. have not yet been tested sufficiently to be widely accepted. is invalid for deviations greater than 20°. From the horizontal flow correlation. Example 9-5 In a directionally-drilled well. however.. the average pressure. Consequently.e. One of these solutions. 9. the down- stream pressure is found to be 890 psig. On locating this average pressure ( jj = 950 psig) on the horizontal flow correlation chart in Fig. A trial and error procedure is required to determine p w f . The sum of these two pressure losses is the total pressure loss for the deviated well. tubing is equal to 9000 ft. This approximation.

(2) Enter the pressure axis using the known pressure and locate the length corresponding to this pressure on the correct G / L ratio curve. Flow patterns were not considered. The liquid holdup correlation presented by them is very accurate and is frequently used along with Dukler’s friction factor correlation. the workmg pressure traverse curves prepared by Brown are sufficient. Thus. Horizontal flow correlations As in the case of vertical flow. These curves are based on Eaton’s correlation and give satisfactory results except for low rates and low G / L ratios. their method may result in large errors.1-22. It is recommended that the correlations of Dukler’s Case I1 or the Eaton’s correlation be used if accurate predictions are needed. Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) were the first to present a correlation. restricting fluid flow from the well. provided the free-gas/oil ratio is used for the G / L parameter. however. and gas/liquid ratio. They studied two cases: (1) the case of no slip between phases and a homogeneous flow. plots of pressure versus length of horizontal pipe have been prepared for various G / L ratios. Only liquid holdup and friction loss parameters are necessary for characterizing horizontal flow. and (2) the case where slip occurs. 9. Flow patterns were not considered. Usually. Horizontal flow pressure traverse curves are presented in Figs.1-17 through 9. especially in designing large-diameter pipes. (1967) developed correlations for friction factor and liquid holdup from extensive field studies under controlled conditions. however. Working pressure traverse curves for horizontal flow The correlations cited are fairly complex and require the use of a computer to accurately calculate the pressure traverse. Similar to the vertical flow curves. but it is assumed that the ratio of the velocity of each phase to the average velocity is constant. Dukler et al. several correlations have been presented in the literature for determining two-phase pressure drop in the horizontal lines. . They. (1964) and Dukler (1969) collected laboratory and field data and used these to develop correlations for liquid holdup and friction factor. neglected flow patterns and any acceleration. there is no elevation component. The steps involved in using them can be summarized as follows: (1) Select the curve for the given line size. but can be used interchangeably for oil. 291 HORIZONTAL FLOW IN SURFACE FLOWLINES The main objective in designing flowlines is to choose a flowline size that will not cause significant back pressure on the well. which was determined from laboratory-scale data. flow rate. the separator pressure is predetermined and it is necessary to determine the optimum wellhead pressure to produce at the allotted flow rate. It should be pointed out that these curves were prepared using water. For reasonable results. Eaton et al. Their friction factor correlation is one of the most accurate for horizontal flow. Unlike the vertical flow.

Hence free-gas/oil ratio is 800 scf/bbl. 9. and concluded that most of the pressure drop occurred in the uphill section of the line. if the known pressure is the inlet pressure. 9-8). The uphill sections are treated as equivalent vertical columns containing an equivalent amount of liquid. Determine the separator pressure for a 2.1-20 and the procedure described above: pSe. Inasmuch as in two-phase flow the pipe is not completely filled with liquid. if the known pressure is the outlet pressure. Flanigan (1958) and Beggs and Brill (1973) presented some correlations. which is the predominant component in vertical and inclined flows.292 (3) Correct this length for the pipeline length by: (a) Adding the pipeline length to the length in Step (2). The sum of these two components determines the total pressure drop (Fig. Flanigan defined two main pressure drop components that influence the two-phase flow in an inclined system and presented a method to determine each one of them: (1) Pressure drop due to friction. and (b) Subtracting the pipeline length from the length determined in Step (2). = 300 psig INCLINED OR HILLY TERRAIN MULTIPHASE FLOW Inclined flow implies flow through pipes that deviate from the horizontal. Flanigan’s method. The pressure drop A p (in psi) due to elevation is determined by using the following equation: PLHFXH Ap= (9-8) 144 . Flanigan introduced the term HF. ID. however. He calculated the effect of hills on pressure drop in pipelines by observing several field tests for various inclined flowlines at different flow rates. which is the predominant component in horizontal lines. is the only method available that can be applied to field problems without the use of complex computer programs. which is the fraction of the total static pressure drop that exists as the elevation component.5 in. such as flow over hills. Solution: Assume that at a pressure of 400 psig there is no gas in solution. Example 9-6 A well is producing 800 bbl/D of oil with G/O=800 scf/bbl at a flowing wellhead pressure of 400 psig. (4) The unknown pressure is the pressure corresponding to this corrected length. etc. Using Fig. 9000-ft long line. (2) Pressure drop due to the liquid head.

qL = 6000 bbl/D (95% water). 1958. Find the pressure loss due to the hills if the gas/liquid ratio G/L = 200 scf/bbl. Solution: E : H = 1 2 0 + 8 0 + 2 2 0 + 4 0 + 7 0 + 1 8 0 = 7 1 0 ft. r= 120°F. and C H = the total uphill rises in the direction of flow.07.7. G.3264V. = (9-9) + 1 0. 40 ft. 220 ft. 80 ft. j = 300 psia. gravity of oil is 42" API.7 (9-10) sg where I = length of the flowline. dimensionless. courtesy of the Oilund Gus Journal. and Gg= 0. j = 300 psi. lb.kOo6 Baker (1960) showed that for Kg> 50. = 1. 9-8. ft. = v0.7 (with respect to air). 70 ft. average pressure in line. the applicable formula is: 0. HF = elevation factor. V&. as determined by Flanigan.194qgTF (9-11) "= d'j(520) Example 9-7 A flowline passes over 6 hills having the following vertical heights: 120 ft. Gg= 0.00967( 1)1'2 H. T= 120°F = 580"R.) where pL = liquid density./ft3. is as follows: 1 H. The flowline is 4 in. and average temperature. Pressure drop components in two-phase flow. The correlation between HF and the superficial gas velocity. and 31. 293 Gas flow rate Fig. . and 180 ft. (After Flanigan. in diameter and 2000 ft long.

where Q = 1.266. and c = 0.35)''w6 1 Go = (141. Aphills= (1. p u : Pu/Pd = 2 (9-12) The generalized equation for critical two-phase flow through a choke is: (9-13) where qL = liquid flow rate. and yL = (1. b = 10.194-. scf/STB. From eq.06)(62. Most commonly. d i = inside diameter of choke.4)(0. This situation is obviously highly desirable in field operations. in order to regulate the flowing rate.06)(62.266)(710)/144 = 86.06. Therefore. G.89.5)/(173. Chokes serve many useful functions: (1) maintaining desirable flow rate. It is desirable to size a surface choke in a flowing well.5)/(131. b and c.294 Using Figs.05G0 = (0.95)(1. + (0. 8 9 ) / ( 1 0 R 0 .. STB/D.0. p d .5) = 0.3264)(8. z=0. the compressibility factor.05)(0. and (4) preventing gas or water coning.75 psi. Critical flow is assumed to occur when the downstream pressure.546: qL = ( p u d ' . psia.96. 9-11: qgz 7 (31194)(6000 X 200 X 10-6)(0. pu = upstream pressure. 8-20 and 8-21 (Chapter 8).4) lbf/ft3. Critical flow implies a flow where change in downstream pressure (such as separator pressure) does not affect the flow rate or the upstream pressure. = = 8. (2) maintaining sufficient back pressure to prevent sand entry.5 + OAPI) = (141. = = 0. 6 4 t h ~in. 9-9: 1 H.8156) = 1.95Gw+ 0. such as a choke. Gilbert's (1954) correlation is used. so that flow through it is critical. (3) protecting surface equipment. 5 4 6 ) (9-14) .35 ft/sec sg dzjj 520 (16) (300) (520) Using eq. and R = producing gas/liquid ratio.8156. FLOW THROUGH CHOKES All flowing wells utilize some kind of surface restriction.07) + (0. however. Various investigators have proposed different values for a.96)(580) V = 31. = O. is ap- proximately half of the upstream pressure.

1000 ft above the bottom of the tubing.5-in. Determine: (a) The choke size required. Using eq.89= l o q . 5000-ft deep at a rate of qo = 1000 bbl/D with G / L = 600 scf/bbl.0 and jTR = 2400 psig.89= 19. it is required to install a choke (“choke the well back”). 1175 p r i g P.71 = 20/64 inches. 295 Example 9-8 A reservoir having J = 1. 9-9. = 1175 psig.1-10. ~ 0 . . Diagram of bottomhole choke for solving Example 9-8.1-10.8)1/1. This well produces a large amount of sand when the oil production rate is above 1000 bbl/D. It is proposed that the choke be installed at a depth of 4000 ft. the pressure at 1000 ft above the bottom of tubing is equal to p. di = (279. (b) The flowing wellhead pressure. i.qo/J = 2400 . = 1400psig Fig. Using the vertical flow correlation of Fig.(10)(1000)(600)0’546 = 279. assuming that the flow through the choke is critical with p. (b) pd = i(1175) = 588 psig.8 in 6 4 t h ~in.. is producing through 2. = 2pd. 5 4 6.e. a bottom- hole choke must be designed. Solution: (a) pWr= jTR . Using Fig.1000/1 = 1400 psig. tubing. The system is shown in Fig. 9. 9-14: d!. PU 1175 Thus. Pwh= 100 psig. Inasmuch as hydrate problems have made it impossible to install a surface choke. 9. 9-9. therefore.

9-10. (2) Knowing the depth of the well.296 THE OVERALL PRODUCTION SYSTEM Figure 9-1 illustrates the overall interconnected system. (2) the pressure loss in the vertical tubing string.. 1967. . A p . The inflow performance (l). Figure 9-10 shows the graphical representation of this system. Sometimes. courtesy of PennWell Publ. determine the values of the wellhead pressure corresponding to different flow rates and then plot. (3) Plot the surface choke performance curve for different flow rates. (1) the pressure loss in the porous medium ( A p . and (4) flow through the choke. Relationship between pressure and flow rate. is equal to 30-80% of the total loss. respectively. (After Juch. and (3) the pressure loss in the surface facilities. (2) subsurface flow up the tubing to the wellhead. A p . Typically. a single curve is drawn corresponding to the flow rate desired. G/L. 1977): (1) Plot the inflow performance curve. =jR-pwf) is equal to 10-50% of the total loss.) . etc. is equal to 5-30% of the total loss. and chokes (4) correspond. . tubing string = A PZ ( P w f . The pressure versus flow rate plot shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. to (1) flow in the reservoir (porous medium). 9-10. (3) flow in surface lines. surface flowlines (3).PWh ) I I &@ ---- s u r f a c e facil i t i e s 1 \ Fig.tubing diameter.vertical flow performance (2). The procedure can be briefly described as follows (Brown and Beggs. CO. 9-11 exemplifies a plot used by an engineer in designing the production facilities for a given well.

and choke size required for optimum performance. and Gg= 0. Example 9-9 A well is ready to be completed with several different tubing and flowline combinations. WOR = 1.0. ID.. pwh. ID. The reservoir pressure is 3000 psig and the separator must be operated at 100 psig. Hence: G/L ratio = 500 scf/bbl. (4) The vertical line at the desired rate gives the values of pwf. given the following informa- tion: J = 10. 297 I 1 I I 1 0 loo0 2000 3000 4000 SO00 WOO TOTAL LIQUID FLOWRATE. length of tubing = 8000 ft.65. Solution: WOR (water/oil ratio) is 1 and the G/O ratio is 1000 scf/bbl. Example 9-9 below outlines the procedure used in the selection of correct combination of tubing and flowline sizes.5 in. Determine the possible combinations.. 2.0. flowline length = 4000 ft.. and 4 in.4 . qL. (2) Flowline: 2 in. 40 J=10= 3000 . The tubing and flowline sizes available are: (1) Tubing: 2 in. average tubing temperature = 150°F. 3 in. and 3 in. average flowline temperature = 120°F. bbVD Fig.pwr . 9-11. The well should not produce above 2000 bbl/D of liquid because of sand problems. Tubing and flowline analysis for Example 9-9. G/O = lo00 sc€/bbl.

pwr.) (Psi@ 2 3 1000 500 2900 640 740 1500 500 2850 480 - 2000 500 2800 240 640 3000 500 2700 . 560 4Ooo 500 2600 . . The intersections below q L = 2000 bbl/D give the possible combinations as follows: Tubing size Flowline size Total flow rate. . - 2000 500 720 400 250 160 3000 500 . = 2q0 as given.5 2 2.from the horizontal correlation. 9-15 above. - 1500 500 540 300 .5 3 4 600 500 220 160 . 280 The above data is plotted in Fig.- 10 qL or pwf= 3000 .298 Therefore: 40 pwf= 3000 . 440 Horizontal correlation qL G/J.) (bbl/D) (bbl/D) 2 2 1375 687.. - 1000 500 350 200 . The results obtained on following the above-described procedure are as follows: Vertical correlation qL G/L Pwr pwhfor tubing size (ID) (in.) (in. (in. one can determine the wellhead pressure.) 2 2. 600 370 190 4000 500 . assuming various values for q L . pwh for flowline size (ID) (in. Now. 9-11. (9-15) 20 where qL = qo + q.Also using a separator pressure of 100 psig. 520 240 5000 500 . q L Oil flow rate. q. .5 1750 875 2 3 2000 1000 3 2 1850 925 . Then the vertical correlation is used to determine the flowing wellhead pressure. the flowline length is 4000 ft. one can obtain pwrusing eq.. pwh.

a new test was run and it was found that jR = 2550 psia. 1982. (4) Given: 2..5 in. STB/D: 500 1000 1450 pwf.65 and the average temperature is 120°F. find: (a) The no-slip holdup. A flow test conducted later showed that J = 5. Design the neces- sary flowline over the hills. in diameter and qo at the time of the test was 3000 bbl/D. = 1. G / L = 800 scf/bbl. (b) Determine qo for a drawdown of 1500 psia using the graph drawn in part (a). is the valve partially closed or not? If so. qw = 3000 bbl/D (all water).08. wellhead pressure = 650 psig. and qo = 750 bbl/D. downstream pressure pdn= 150 psi. and that qo = 600 bbl/D for a pwfof 1620 psia. tubing having a length of 5000 ft. pwf= 2800 psi. and 100% water.5411. psis: 2600 2040 1500 The jR was 3000 psia on January 2.= (Hint: Plot qo versus drawdown on a log-log paper). tubing length (depth) = 4000 ft.10. and Gg= 0. (7) A production system is overdesigned in such a way that the separator pressure of 100 psig cannot be maintained. Assume FE = 1. (5) Given: depth = 8000 ft. G/O = 350. The specific gravity of gas is 0. (2) An oil well gave the following pressure response on January 2. FE = 1. jR= 2500 psig. 299 SAMPLE PROBLEMS (1) In a solution-gas-drive reservoir.000 f t . separator pressure = 200 psig. elevation of hills = 700 ft. ID tubing. PR = 3500 psi. a well is making 200 bbl/D of water having specific gravity of 1. 1983. If the tubing is 4 in. (b) Find qo when pwrdrops to 1800 psi. On January 2. flowline. and (iii) mixture velocities. With respect to the new conditions: (a) Determine ( qo).65. Assume no slippage and that no gas goes into solution (because only water is being produced). in diameter and 4000 f t long.5-in. what is the pressure drop across the valve? Assume qo is constant before and after valve installation (this is a simplifying assumption and is not necessarily true).0 (assume linear relationship). At a pressure of 500 psia. The well produces 100%oil having 35" API gravity with GOR = 500 scf/bbl. 3-in tubing. 1982: Rate. (6) Given: length of pipeline 1 = 5000 ft. G / L = 1500 scf/bbl. The flowline is 2. (ii) liquid. T = 120"F. A safety valve was installed in this well at 3000 ft from the surface. pwh= 120 psig (100% oil production).5-in. A. The system consists of a 2. The reservoir has an active water drive and consists of three separate layers having . (b) The (i) gas. G / L = 500.. (c) Repeat (a) and (b) using Vogel's technique. Determine: (a) the flow rate possible in the flowline (assume all water) and (b) the flowing bottomhole pressure. (3) In a 2. upstream pressure pup= 400 psi. G. flowline length = 10. (a) Determine the maximum oil production rate at a reservoir pressure of 3500 psi.

Liner size = 8 in. 9. = 1.15. p. G/O = 200 scf/bbl. DUNCAN. respectively. k. B. and 100 md. It is required to produce 400 bbl/D of oil.1-1 through Fig. COURTESY OF HALLIBURTON 'SERVICES. k. water cut = 0. Tubing size = 2 in. (FROM TUBING SIZE SELECTION. It is proposed to install a surface choke. See Fig. = 1. The net pay of these layers is 20 ft. . and po = 8 cP. A 40-acre spacing is used. = 10 md. = 200 md.. It is possible to inject gas through the casing at high pressures. (8) An oilwell stops flowing due to a low reservoir pressure. 30 ft. 80 md.300 permeabilities of 310 md. = 1.). spacing = 60-acre. and tubing length = 8000 ft. Find (a) the production rate for critical flow across choke and (b) the necessary choke size.22. AND VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENT.1-22 (pp. net pay = 95 ft.1-HAGEDORN AND BROWN (1965) PRESSURE TRAVERSE CURVES. p. 9. B.5.. CORRE- LATION AMONG PRESSURE. BY HALLIBURTON ENERGY INSTITUTE. 1976. wellhead pressure = 160 psig.0 cP. B. LENGTH OF PIPE. What is the required gas flow rate through the casing? APPENDIX 9. = 8 cP. OKLA. Reservoir pressure = 3000 psig. wellbore diameter = 6 in. = 1. GAS/LIQUID RATIO. and 80 ft.04.. and reservoir pressure = 2700 psig (maintained by a water drive). An orifice is located in the tubing at a depth of 5000 ft (from the surface). 301-322).

~ .65 Producing Rate 600 B/D Average Flowing Temp.. 301 PRESSUREIn 100 pslg 0 4 8 12 16 H 1- r5 i !!i 1 2 3 4 B 6 7 0 . all rights reserved.1-1. 14tP F Oil API Gravity 35"API Fig. . (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.i I 10 ~ itt. 9.) . . 8 Q 8 9 % . VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2 in: ID G& specific Gravity 0.

1-2. 9.) .302 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 1 2 3 4 5 I I T B e 5 I i Y -1 I VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2 in. 140" F Oil API Gravity 35"API Fig. all rights reserved. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.65 Producing Rate 1000 B/D Average Flowing Temp.

140" F Oil API Gravity 35" API Fig. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0.1-3. 303 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 4 12 16 20 24 28 % / $%% %% %2 VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2 in.) . 9. all rights reserved.65 Producing Rate 1200 BID Average Flowing Temp. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.

. all rights reserved.1-4. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.) .. I 7 8 9 10 VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2 in. 140" F Oil API Gravity 35" API Fig.65 Producing Rate 1500 Bf D Average Flowing Temp. I I 43 1 6 .304 PRESSURE in 100 sig 0 4 12 18 20 24 28 1 1 2 3 4 Y e- c5 -. 9. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0.

074 Producing Rate 600 BID Gas Spedfic Gravity 0. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. 305 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 i 3 4 I -i r 5 E Pw & 6 0 7 *? 6 8 B 9 % 10 %&+.g%%%% % % VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (50% OIL-%% WATER) Tubing Size 2 in. 9.1-5.65 Oil API Gravity 35"API Average Flowing Temp.) . ID Water Specihc Gravity 1. all rights reserved. 140°F Fig.

- c5 I k2 6 7 8 9 10 xg$%%%% % VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (50% 01L-50% WATER) Tubing Size 2 in.306 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 4 1 2 3 4 H i. all rights reserved. ID Water Specific Gravity 1. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. 140" F Fig.074 Producing Rate 800 BID Gas Specific Gravity 0. 9.1-6.) .65 Oil API Gravity 35"API Average Flowing Temp.

9.1-7.074 Producing Rate 1000BID Gas Specific Gravity 0. all r i a t s reserved. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.65 Oil API Gravity 35" API Average Flowing Temp. ID Water Specific Gravity 1. 140" F Fig.) . 307 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 ~-u-v-v- VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (50% OIL-50% WATER) Tubing Sire 2 in.

65 Producing Rate 600 BID Average Flowing Temp.a 0 1 2 3 4 Y @- c5 i! 6 7 8 9 10 -%vwe" " " v v " VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2. 140" F Oil API Gravity 35"API Fig.9.5 in. . ID Gas Specific Gravity 0.) Fig.1-8. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company: all rights reserved.

) .1-9. 309 PRESSURE in 100 pslg 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 1 2 3 4 P ia E5 4 Y 6 7 8 9 10 %&$+g%% % % % % % VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. 9. all rights reserved. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0.5 in.85 Producing Rate 800 B/D Average Flowing Temp. 140" F Oil API Gravity 35"API Fig.

(Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company: all rights reserved.) .1-10.65 Producing Rate 1000 B/D Average FlowingTemp.5 in.310 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 1 2 3 4 -H - c5 I li5 6 7 8 1 9 10 I VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2. 140°F Oil API Gravity 35"API Fig. 9. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0.

1-11. all rights reserved.) . ID Gas Specific Gravity 0. 9.(Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. 140" F Oil API Gravity 35"API Fig.65 Producing Rate 1500 BID Average Flowing Temp. 311 >$%3g%Qo % % % VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2.5 in.

312 B PRESSURE In 100 prig 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 2 VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2.1-12.65 Producing Rate 1200 BID Average Flowing Temp.) . 140" F Oil API Gravity 35" API Fig.5 in. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. all rights reserved. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0. 9.

all rights resewed. 313 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 .-t 1 I 1 2 3 4 H B r 5 I Ii 3 6 7 8 9 10 %%%% % % VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 2. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0.) .(Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. I . . ..5 in. 140" F Oil API Gravity 35" API Fig.1-13.65 Producing Rate 2OOO B/D Average Flowing Temp. 9.

5 in.E 5 I b z 6 7 8 9 10 ?$gg$%%%% 'ib %I VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (50% OIL--509'0 WATER) Tubing Size 2.65 Oil API Gravity 35" API Average Flowing Temp. 9.1-14. ID Water Specific Gravity 1. all rights reserved.) . 140" F Fig. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. 314 PRESSURE in 100 pslg 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 1 2 3 4 I 1 .074 Producing Rate 600 B/D Gas Specific Gravity 0.

t-- .- .5"API Average Flowing Temp. '-t 1 -4. ID Water Specific Gravity 1.5 in. r 2 3 4 5 i c5 I b Y 6 7 8 9 10 VERTICAL FLOWINGPRESSURE GRADIENTS (50% 011--50% WATER) Tubing Size 2.) . 315 PRESSURE In 100 p i g 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 . .1-15. 1400 F Fig. all rights reserved. . 9.074 Producing Rate 800 BID Gas Specific Gravity 0. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.65 Oil API Gravity 3.

9. all rights reserved.a 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENTS (ALL OIL) Tubing Size 3 in.) . 140" F Oil API Gravity 35"API Fig. ID Gas Specific Gravity 0.1-16. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.65 Producing Rate 600 B/D Average Flowing Temp.

1-17.07 Fig. all rights reserved. ID Gas k f i c Gravity .065 Producing Rate 600 BID Average Flowing Temp. 317 PRESSURE In 100 prig 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2 4 6 a Y s -r l a k!I 12 14 16 18 20 Flowline Size 2in. 9. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. 120°F Water SpecificGravity 1.) .

) . (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company. all rights reserved.318 PRESSURE in 100 psig 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Fig.1-18. 9.

. -- . . . 319 PRESSURE In 100 pslg 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2 4 6 8 H r 8- c 10 4 w 4 12 14 16 .1-19. ID Gas Specific Gravity . . ... . (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company..) . all rights reserved. 120" F Water Specific Gravity 1.. . > ^ 18 * .~. ._. .07 Fig. . . 9. 20 HORIZONTALFLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENT [ALL WATER) Flowline Size 2in. .065 Producing Rate loo0 B/D Average Flowing Temp.

1-20.320 %%%%%%% $ % HORIZONTALFLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENT % % % (ALL WATER) Flowline Size 2. 120" F Water Specific Gravity 1. (Reprinted with permission of Hdliburton Company.065 Producing Rate 800 BID Average flowing Temp. 9.) .07 Fig.5 in. ID Gas Specific Gravity .all rights reserved.

1-21. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.m5 ProducingRate 1500 BID Average Flowing Temp.5 in. 140" F Water Speclflc Gravity 1. " U " U " = .) . a -0 HORIZONTAL FLOWING PRESSUREGRADIENT (ALL WATER) Flowline Size 2. 9.07 Fig. ID Gas Speciri Gravity . all rights reserved.

1-22. ID Gas Specific Gravity . all rights reserved.07 Fig.065 Producing Rate 2000 BID Average Flowing Temp.) . 140°F Water Specific Gravity 1. (Reprinted with permission of Halliburton Company.322 PRESSURE in 100 paig 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2 4 6 8 I! '-c 10 E 0 3 12 14 16 18 20 % % % % % HORIZONTAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENT (ALL WATER) FlowlineSize 2.5 in. 9.

9. (Courtesy of S. The pressure drop of this choke design occurs as the flow is restricted through the area between the seat and the needle portion of the stem. Long Beach. Calif. 9. fixed and adjustable. There are' several types of adjustable chokes with each design offering several features. This allows a change in the flow rate without shutting in the well. I Fig.11-1 shows a cross-sectional view of a fixed or positive choke.11-INTRODUCTION TO CHOKES The purpose of a choke is to provide precise control of wellhead flow rates in surface production applications involving oil. and enhanced recovery. The use of the choke as a control device has found many applications in the petroleum industry. The size or area of the opening is increased as the needle is moved farther away from the seat. Willis.I.11-1. 323 APPENDIX 9. The fixed bean choke is generally used where the flow conditions do not change over a period of time.I. gas. in a flowing well. A choke is a restriction in a flowline that causes a pressure drop or reduces the rate of flow through an orifice. and Mr. because the changing of the bean requires a shutdown of the flow through the choke. Positive choke. There are two types of chokes that are commonly available. One of the varieties of adjustable chokes is the needle and seat type as shown in Fig. Figure 9. Typically. Such control is often necessary to ensure cost effective production over the life of the well. Chokes are capable of causing large pressure drops. The pressure drop of the choke is determined by the flow of the medium through the internal diameter of a fixed orifice. the choke is used to maintain a back pressure in the reservoir while allowing an optimum flow of gas or oil. often called a bean.11-2.) . Rick Floyd. For example. gas can enter a choke at 5000 psi and exit at 2000 psi or less.. Adjustable chokes are used where there is an anticipated need to change the flow rate periodically.

Willis. Willis. Long Beach.. Pav Grewal.) Fig.324 Fig. (Courtesy of S.I. Calif. Calif. 9.) . Long Beach. Matthew L..I.11-2. 9. and Mr.11-3. and Mr.I.I. (Courtesy of S. Multiple orifice valve. Philippe. Needle and seat of a choke.

Typically. Because chokes must operate in a wide variety of corrosive and harsh environ- ments. Willis. This design uses two flat discs (Fig. California. components need to be constructed of materials designed to provide maxi- mum performance.11-4.11-4) to control the flow. 9. Trim material and sizes. Disc plate-multiple orifice choke. such as stainless steel and tungsten carbide.11-3. Fixed and adjustable chokes are used in a variety of applications with surface production equipment. as shown in Fig.I. There are two holes in each disc such that as one disc turns in relation to the other. the major dif- ference is the absence of a heater. 9. Injection is used to maintain reservoir pressure and an economic rate of production. Chokes are also used to control the rate of flow in enhanced oil recovery applications where fluids and gases are injected into the reservoir. Long Beach.) Another type of adjustable choke is the Multiple Orifice Valve (MOV). chokes can be customized to meet the requirements of any specific application. 325 CLOSED PARTIALLY OPEN FULLY OPEN Fig. (Courtesy of S. 9. body materials and seal materials can all be selected to provide a cost effective approach to controlling the rate of production. This process can be applied to flowing and pumping wells to improve the rate of recovery.I. When chokes are used for oil production. . the area of the opening vanes.

1968. and Brill... 57 pp.Per. D... Thesis. Trans..E. Eng.I.. J. Chem. Duncan. Sixth World Per. Inflow performance relationship for solution gas drive wells. Silberberg. J. 1964. 1. M. PennWell. The use of actuated chokes is increasing as computers are installed to manage production more effi- cien tly. 1960. 1970. Vol. 1954. and Carpenter. H. 17(4): 475-484.E.. Univ. Flanigan. Okla... Pet. Advances in Well Test Analysis. Oil Production Methods Course at the Zulia Univ. Pipeline Eng.. and Brown. and Martinelli. Pracr.. 5 Henry L.H. A. A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes.E. A. P.. Inst... 25(5): 607-617. oil and water through vertical flow strings with applications to the design of gas lift installations. 1976.. Halliburton Energy Institute. Chem. 264 pp. 1968. an adjust- able choke can be fitted with an actuator for remote operation. Vol. 56(10): 132-141. Standing. J. Inst. Feb. J. Designing pipelines for simultaneous flow of oil and gas. Lockhart. Tech.. B.326 In addition to tailoring a choke to perform in specific environments...E. Oil Gas J... 1965. Wicks. 45(1): 39-48. 487 pp. 1952. Eng. Am. Tulsa. and Brown.. .C. p. R. Tulsa. A. Wylie. Tulsa. Congr. H. 240: 815-828. 1967. Proposed correlation of data for isothermal two-phase. Actuators can be powered by electrical.W.D. Brown.. Geophysics.. R. Juch. Beggs. and Cleveland. K. Experimental study of pressure gradients occumng during continuous two-phase flow in small-diameter vertical conduits.E. 1977. Tex... Tech. and Beggs. Ney. Am. A Study of the Mulfiphase Flow Phenomena in the Direcfional Well.V.: 67-80.P. Tulsa. M. March-June. O.H. Concerning the calculation of inflow performance of wells producing from solution gas drive reservoirs.. Natural Flow and Gas Lift. Poettmann. Pet. Hagedorn. 22(11): 1399-1400. p.. Tech. 1973. Duns Jr. Halliburton Services. B-an approach through similarity analysis. Per. Inflow performance relationships for damaged wells producing by solution gas drive. 1977. A.I... J.A. Dukler. or pneumatic systems and are normally used when the application involves frequent changes in production rates... The prediction of flow patterns. Okla.B. Vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells. Dallas. Tech. JFT Forum. Prod. Handbook Section. M. I. Tubing Sire Selection. two-component flow in pipes. 1968. Pract. Tulsa.. Knowles. hydraulic. M. Eaton. The rnultiphase flow of gas. June 1963. A. 143. Tech. Frictional pressure drop in two-phase flow: a comparison of existing correlations for pressure loss and holdup. A. Andrews. 1956.R.R. Progr.R. J. Gregory.M. Prod..R.E. Dukler. Standing.E. A Laboratory Investigation of Holdup and Pressure Loss in Directional Multiphase Flow.W.. Pet. lO(1): 38-51. Per. Flowing and gas-lift well performance. F. Gas Assoc. Fuentes.. Drill. Eng.. A. Earlougher Jr. 1967. J. K. Elastic wave velocities in homogeneous and porous media. 257. Gas-Liquid Flow in Pipelines. DrilJ. Pap. O. SOC. 20(1): 83-93. 21(1): 41-70. Effect of uphill flow on pressure drop in design of two-phase gathering systems. Thesis. A. R. REFERENCES Baker.J.. The Technology of Artificial Lift Methoh. 1971.G.. Maracaibo. Sect. Soc.E. Vogel.Z..P. W.M. Gilbert. I.J. N.E. R. “Research Results”. L. Doherty Series.B...C. 11..H. A. 1969. Pet. and Ros. Okla. May. K.P. 23(9): 1141-1142. J.I. C.C. A. Pet. Eng.... Am. and Gardner.. Okla. 22-PD6. 1958. Univ. H... C.G.D.. 1963. Proc. 1949. Monograph Vol.T. liquid holdup and pressure losses occumng during continuous two-phase flow in horizontal pipelines.

A drillstem test is usually run when drilling has reached total depth and formation of interest has been evaluated by samples. The interpretation of these tests is a sophisticated and highly advanced subject. and extent of permeability damage around the wellbore due to drilling. Thus. The valve is then opened. mathematical interpretations. The various tests on a flowing oil well can be summarized as follows: (1) Drillstem test (2) Drawdown test (3) Buildup test (4) Isochronal test and modified isochronal test (for gas wells) (5) Flow-after-flow tests (6) Special tests (a) Interference tests for horizontal anisotropy (b) Pulse tests (c) Vertical interference tests (d) Injection and falloff tests. CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION Well testing and analysis is a well established procedure and there are various tests available for the evaluation of a formation. and cores. reducing the pressure in the zone opposite the formation. logs. 327 Chapter 10 WELL TESTING SANJAY KUMAR AND GEORGE V. 1962). Setting the packer against the borehole wall seals off the test interval from the drilling fluid column above. the formation fluids can flow . This test essentially consists of lowering a packer and a length of perforated tail pipe (coupled to the end of the drillpipe) with valve to the level of the formation (see Fig. 10-1). It can be used (1)to determine the static reservoir pressure. (2) to determine formation parameters like average permeability. because it simulates the conditions of a completed well (see Lynch. and knowl- edge of limitations of tests are of utmost importance. Fundamental understanding of the procedures for the various types of tests. and (3) to obtain representative samples of the formation fluids. DRILLSTEM TESTING Drillstem test (DST) is the most significant test available for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a formation.

Tex.) .. 10-1.A conventional straddle drillstem test tool assembly. Houston. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc.328 Fig.

The arrangement of various tools for drillstem testing are presented in Fig. as is the case in a straddle DST. it is necessary to use at least two pressure recorders. This recorder. the following are used: (1) Below-straddle recorder. Generally. resulting in test failure. In effect. The variation of pressure with time may be digitally recorded at the surface. 1962. It aids in setting the packer by holding the bottom part stationary. It should not rest on loose debris in the hole. the hydraulic jar and the surface control head. this is a temporary well completion and the produced fluids represent the well production upon final completion. 329 into the borehole and up through the drillpipe. Other auxiliary components are the disk valve. can indicate whether the packer has effectively sealed the bottom section of the wellbore from the formation being evaluated. The anchor shoe. It is also possible in such cases to use a set of dogs (or slips) below the lower packer. while weight is applied to the upper part of the packer. An equalizing line is used to connect the mud columns above and below the packers and equalize the hydrostatic pressure in these two zones. Pressure recorders The bottomhole pressure recorders are sophisticated versions of the bourdon type or the spring piston type of pressure gauges. If the bottom packer does . should rest on the actual hole bottom. If the bottom packer holds. It is made from the same material as the anchor shoe. By the addition of specialized devices to the test tool string. Additional devices in use include pressure recorders. (See Lynch. 10-1. the test has been improved with time and is capable of giving more information. this recorder will show hydrostatic pressure of the mud column above it. attached to the bottom of the perforated anchor pipe. the shut-in valve. and the choke. placed below the bottom packer. the safety joints. Perforated anchor pipe The perforated anchor pipe supports the weight of the drillstem and mud column. The anchor pipe also serves as a flow passage and allows drilling fluid communication through the perforations between the open hole and the inside of the drillpipe. It is generally made from heavy drillcollar stock and thus has a greater wall thickness. In order to safeguard against failure and for comparison purposes. The recorders are usually placed inside a recorder carrier to protect them in the wellbore. for greater details.) Component parts of a conventional drillstem tester Anchor shoe The anchor shoe supports the weight of the drillstem and the mud column. These slips provide enough support to set the packers. because failure of the anchor shoe (or pipe) will cause the packer to slip. The anchor pipe can also be used when the test is run far above the hole bottom. or on cylindrical charts.

A conventional packer assembly. Houston. Tex. 10-2.. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc.330 Fig.) .

which is placed above (Fig. keeping the bottom head supported in a fixed position. A comparison between the pressures recorded by the inside and outside recorders can thus reveal plugging or flow obstruction. 10-3. Houston.) . In this design. The rubber is vulcanized to two steel heads that are free to move relative to each other.Cross-section of an expanded packer. (or more) long rubber element mounted on a steel mandrel. The packer can be set by allowing a part of the drillpipe weight to act on the upper head. hydraulic jars. (See Fig. Packers Packers serve as sealing devices. Pressures reported by the outside recorders are also compared to those recorded by the inside recorder. which is normally open. Many variations of this basic design have been introduced over the years. The outside recorders are exposed directly to the formation pressure. 10-2. 10-1). the packer is inflated to approxi- mately 1700 psi above the hydrostatic head of the drilling fluid. One such design is shown in Fig. safety joint. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc.. 10-3. (25 mm) of the size of the borehole which has to be sealed. right-hand rotation of the drillstem activates a downhole pump. this recorder will indicate almost the same pressure as the recorders placed in the potential production zone. 331 not hold. which utilizes the annular fluid to inflate all the packers in the test assembly simultaneously. and past the inside recorder on their way up to the drillstring). A good testing procedure is to use a rubber size within about 1 in. When the formation fluids enter the perforations and flow up inside the test tool assembly (through the packers. is to allow drilling OUTER COVER STEEL BRAID INNER BLADDER Fig. This causes the rubber to be compressed and squeezed against the borehole wall. Tex. A conventional packer consists of a 20-60 in. (2) Inside and outside recorders in the producing interval.) Equalizing valve The purpose of the equalizing valve. the inside recorder is exposed to the formation pressure minus the hydrostatic fluid head between the formation and the inside recorder. Typically. Usually two such recorders are used in the test interval to safeguard against failure and also for checking and comparing the results.

Shut-in valve Shut-in valve is designed to close by the rotation of the pipe so that the shut-in pressure at the end of the test can be recorded. This valve. . gradual. Thus. Choke The choke is a small flow restriction placed near the main valve to control fluid flow rate from the test zone. carrying the test fluids ahead of it. Drilling fluid pumped down the annulus can then return through the drillpipe. which has a sand control effect. An accurate average production rate can be maintained during the test period by choosing the proper size of choke. a mechanical or hydraulic delay system is required to delay the opening of the valve until the packer has been set.332 fluid to bypass the packer through the inside of the drillpipe. Commonly used sizes range from 3/16 to 3/8 in. controls the flow of the formation fluids into the anchor pipe and then into the drillpipe. the pressure above and below the packer is equalized. A combination of circulating valve and shut-in valve is in common use. Circulating valve The purpose of the circulating valve is to allow drilling fluid circulation in order to remove the combustible test fluids from the drillpipe before withdrawing it from the hole. as in the case of setting the packer. This valve also relieves the pressuring action when the packer is run into the hole and the swabbing action when it is pulled out. By opening the equalizing valve. It is located above the main tester valve and is sometimes combined with the circulating valve in a single unit. closing it automatically. It is opened by supplying the weight of the drillpipe string. Other components Other minor components of the DST tool assembly include: Safety joint-to enable retrieval of the top section of the tool if it becomes stuck in the hole. Tester valve Tester valve is the main valve essential to the drillstem test. At the completion of the test. It is closed only during the test when the tester valve is opened. This makes it possible to shut the shut-in valve and simultaneously open the circulating valve simply by rotating the drillpipe through a specified number of turns. This valve connects the drillpipe and the annulus a short distance above the tester. The choke also maintains a back pressure against the formation face. an upward pull on the drillpipe relieves the weight on this valve. The pressure changes are thus made more. which protects the packer and other elements from the pressure shock caused by suddenly opening the tester valve. which is normally closed.

as seen by the sharp drop in the drilling fluid level. In addition. drilling fluid density. The drilling fluid density must be carefully measured in order to check the pressure that is indicated by the pressure recorders. so that on opening the main test valve a back pressure proportional to the hydrostatic pressure of this water column is exerted. and the main test valve is opened. The choice of tools is dictated by the well size and depth. Leakage in the drillpipe. The assembled length of the tool assembly must be determined for accurate setting in the hole. test duration. The absence of a blow indicates a malfunctioning tester. a non-productive formation. it is necessary to observe the utmost care and caution (see Gatlin. as well as the standby equipment. an appreciable pressure shock created on opening the main test valve is reduced to some extent by the choke. A high-pressure hose is connected to the control head. It . The packer should be set along a hard. the packer is set. drilling fluid should be circulated to remove all cuttings and the circulation should be continued until the test is started. Lost circulation. In the latter case. which causes the air to issue from the end of the drillpipe. Level of drilling fluid in the annulus should be carefully monitored while lowering the tool string. fluid loss will continue even after closing the shut-in valve. A slow drop in drilling fluid level indicates a leaking packer or fluid loss to adjacent zones. As soon as the test valve is opened. A good packer seal against the borehole wall is essential to the success of drillstem test. the blow of air from the drillpipe can be detected. leading to packer failure. and choke size. Blowout preventers should be checked. depth interval of test zone. Fluid sampler-to trap a sample of the formation fluid under flowing reservoir conditions at the end of the last flow period. which is installed for use in case of test failure. consolidated section of the formation. could arise from the fracturing of a weak formation from the pressure-surges created during the running-in process. An additional back pressure against the formation is provided by a “water cushion”. or a plugged tool. the other end immersed in a bucket of water. would also register itself in a similar manner. Hydraulic valve-to keep the drillstem dry while the tester is lowered into the wellbore. This involves filling of the drillpipe with water to a desired level. p. the tools should be lowered into the hole at a safe speed. During the drillstem test. number and type of packers and pressure recorders. 1960. the control head is connected. 333 Hydraulic jars-to impart sharp impact blows to the drillstring if the test string and drillstem become stuck in the hole. When the bottom is reached. Before beginning the test. Drillstem test procedure Inasmuch as the drillstem test is a very hazardous operation. 253). As mentioned before. because shales and unconsolidated sands may collapse (flow under) under the pressures involved. usually 75% of the normal value. the borehole and drilling fluid must be in good condition.

will then buildup. High-pressure nitrogen gas. which falls due to the production. the shut-in period should be kept at least as long as TIME AK-1 CHART . . 10-4. Houston.) Kuster K-3 chart records left to right. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc. In general. In low-pressure wells. have undesirable effects. If the shut-in time is sufficiently long. The blow of air from the drillpipe.. Upon opening the main test valve and allowing the well to flow. TIME Fig. however. The pressure in the wellbore opposite the formation. whereas Kuster AK-1 records right to left. an appreciable length of time will pass before the fluids reach the surface. Tex. Typical drillstem test chart. the pressure will approach the static reservoir pressure. can be used to avoid both of these complications. however. however. the produced fluids may mingle with the water. The shut-in valve is closed when the desired test period is over.334 may. a water cushion may inhibit production from the formation. If the recovery from the well is small. will indicate that the fluids from the formation are entering the drillpipe.

Additional rotation of the drillpipe reopens the valve for the usual flow period. The pressure buildup with respect to time. is the device employed for the double shut-in pressure test. this type of surging during the ISI cannot be caused by the formation pressure. Houston. after starting the mud pumps and establish- ing mud circulation. INFLATE @ INFLATE Fig.) ISI = initial shut-in. 335 the production period. Indicates a hydrostatic leak during the ISI. can be used for valuable quantitative evaluation of the formation. Tex. A five-position valve. as recorded by the bottomhole pressure recorders. permeability. (a) DST chart showing packer seat failure-lost seat after tool opening. The circulation valve is then opened. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc. At the end of the test.. e. 10-5. after an initial flow period of 5-10 min. and Bill Clark. extent of damage. and reservoir limits. It is closed again by a few clockwise turns of the drillpipe. (b) DST chart showing packer seat failure-communication from annulus to interval. This aspect is discussed in the section on buildup and drawdown tests. this valve is again closed upon a few more turns of the drillpipe. to record the initial shut-in pressure. presence of faults. run directly above the tester valve..g. .. reservoir pressure. This initial shut-in period varies from 20 min to 1 hr. Initially. the main test valve is opened and the five-position valve is set in the open position.

IS1 = 11. FF = 6856 kPa. 10-7. the oil-bearing sections are capped to avoid spills. FSI = 11. The 6. The test fluids are diverted into a portable tank through a suitable metering device. FSI = final shut-in. Buildup in pressures during VO is due to the fact that orifice size was too small. Pressure chart indicating slight plugging during the final flow period.7 mm and then to 19. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc. 10-4.336 Fig. The diagonal line up to A is the record of the hydrostatic drilling fluid pressure during the @?I Jm. Qualitative drillstem test interpretation A typical pressure chart from a drillstem test is shown in Fig. DST chart indicating surface restrictions. whereas flow pressures at surface increased.858 kPa. Tex.35-mm choke was changed first to 12.05 mm. PF = 4915 kPa. the tools are pulled out at the end of the test very carefully. FF = final flow. Any sign of an upward flow of drilling fluid indicates possibility of a blowout and necessitates emergency operations.872 kPa. IS1 = 5460 kPa. FSI = 5536 kPa. IF = initial flow. IF = 4460 kPa. 10-6. as shown below. If the production is small. Considerable amount of qualitative information is also easily available from the drillstem test pressure charts. RESTIIC'ION SURFACE yp Fig. Shut-in pressures suggest very low permeability.. The recovery is equal to the difference between the drillpipe volume and the volume of the mud that was added to the annulus to bring the test fluids to the surface. Because of the danger of a blowout and fire. PF = 193 kPa. it may be measured in the drillpipe itself. . The drillstem test enables determination of the recovery and the composition of the formation fluids. IF = 586 kPa.as orifice size was increased. FF = 579 kPa. As the drillpipe is drawn up onto the surface.) PF = preflow. Houston. bottomhole pressure decreased.

must be equal to I H P .) At point A . whereas line CD shows the pressure buildup on shut-in.) lowering of the tools. From these and other charts it is possible to determine the The pressure may increase. final flow period. however. the pressure increases along line BC. the tool is opened for the second and. similar to the initial flow period (line B C ) . The rough. As tool is opened. or fuzzy appearance is attributed to the surges associated with running-in the tools. (Courtesy of Lynes-Inc. possibly. Houston. the shape of which depends upon the properties of the formation and fluids. FHP. As the packer is pulled loose on reaching point G . the recorder indicates an increase from the final shut-in pressure to the hydrostatic drilling fluid pressure at point H . This final pressure. the tools are at the bottom of the hole. decrease. Figures 10-5 through 10-12 show pressure charts that have been obtained under various test conditions. jagged. or remain constant depending upon the type and volume of fluid(s) entering the wellbore. the pressure drops to point E and ' then increases towards point F. Pressure at this point is the initial hydrostatic pressure ( I H P ) . (See Lynes. 10-8. 1980. 331 Typical Damage Curve I7 ' HIGH DIFFERENTIAL SHARP BETWEEN SHUT-IN RISE /ANDFLOW \ Fig. A typical DST chart in the case of wellbore damage. Excessive vibrations. . The point C represents the end of the flow period. the pressure at point D will approach the static reservoir pressure. Upon completion of the first shut-in. Tex. 10-4). Opening the main test valve leads to a sharp pressure drop below the packer to point B. for greater details. As the fluids are produced.. indicate bad hole conditions. The final shut-in is recorded as line FG (Fig. If the shut-in period is sufficiently long.

Possible Remedial Action Possible Cause a) Prepressure before each use. Possible Remedial Action Possible Cause a) Clean lead screw. c) Gas leaking into bellows. Possible Remedial Action line. Wavy baseline. trained personnel. 2. pressure into gauge. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc.) . Houston. 5. 6. Trace returns below baseline. a) Gauge was tightened after basi- line was drawn.338 1. c) Warm gauge to above freezing c) Gauge too cold when baseline- drawn. b) Temp. b) Adjust stylus tension.Clock stopped. a) Make sure all connections are Possible Cause snug before drawing baseline. expansion of fill fluid. a) Dirty lead screw. c) Replace bellows (check length). 7. b) Replace "0'-rings on all housing b) Recorder housing leaked allowing connections. 4. a) Over-relaxation of Bourdon tube. Fig. Stairstepping on chart. b) Utilize filter assembly. Possible Remedial Action Possible Cause a) Replace Bourdon tube (check a) Bourdon tube leaks resulting in bellows length). Tex. Possible Remedial Action Possible Cause a) Check and clean lead screw and a) Friction due to dirt or improper bearing. 3. L Possible Remedial Action Clocks should be repaired by trained personnel. adjustment. Trace does not return to baseline. Trace does not start or stop on base.. Clock ran away. b) Check chart holder bearing. b) Improper stylus tension. Possible Causes Many possible causes. Possible Remedial Action Possible Cause Clocks should be repaired by Many possible causes. shortened bellows.DST charts indicating pressure gauge malfunctions. c) Check stylus tension. 10-9.

Depth = 1155 m: pressures: I S f P = 7927 kPa.744 kPa. Inasmuch as the downhole gauge recorded a pressure of 17.42 kPa/m for fresh water.714 kPa... Tex. The actual amount of water (fresh) cushion was 1700 m. Point B is the point where tool was opened for the first flow period. 339 Fig. the tools operated correctly. Pressure chart from a high-rate gas well.) . Tex. Houston. and FFP = 319 kPa: times: 10. 60.42X 1700 = 17. Houston. Point A indicates where the " trip-in'' was halted to add the cushion. the hydrostatic head should be equal to 10. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc. fFP = 422 kPa.) High Rate Gas Test Fig. steady throughout final flow: 9 m-drilling fluid. 10-11. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc. A DST run with water cushion inside the drillpipe. the flow pressure dropped to a point equal to the weight of cushion (hydrostatic head of water cushion) which had been added. F S f P = 7875 kPa. Assuming a gradient of 10. 60 and 120 min: recovery: 169 m3/D gas. 10-10.

the reason for failure can be determined. recovery: 3 m of sulfurous condensate. BUILDUP AND DRAWDOWN TEST FUNDAMENTALS In order to develop a mathematical model of what is actually happening in the reservoir when a well is tested. 10-13. 10-12.1.340 Fig.0. and total compressibility ct. and Sg. there is a periodic pressure buildup as the gas chases water to the surface and then a pressure drop as the fluid is unloaded. (Courtesy of Lynes Inc... VO-weak to strong blow surging with heavy water spray. infinite extent. FF = 8521. constant and uniform porosity 9. and FSI = 90.6.6. Pressure chart from a well with slugging fluid. fluid saturations So. 10-13. pressures (kPa): PF = 7314.) recovery and whether or not the test was valid. On testing a gas zone on or near the gas-water contact. The gross formation fluid viscosity is p. blow: S I P on PF-GTS in 1 min. intercepts a homogeneous horizontal formation having constant thickness h . Depth = 1166-1191 m. IF = 7342. A simple model is illustrated in Fig. Tex. A vertical well of radius r. many simplifying assumptions have to be made. high permeability. estimated 252. permeability k. times: P F = 3. A simple model of the reservoir. The quantitative aspects of DST interpretation are identical to the drawdown and buildup test calculations presented in the next section. Houston. FSI = 9713. It is further assumed that the formation properties are not time dependent.000 m3/D. ISI = 75. S. In the case of test failure. IS1 = 9713. FF = 90. . Fig.

341 Taking a mass balance across the infinitesimal volume element (see Fig. ( P q ) r + A r l =2Trh@At(pt+At-p. The Darcy's law for radial flow can be presented as follows: (10-3) Substituting eq. 10-2. 10-1 by ( A t A r ) and taking the limit as A t + 0 and A r + 0. yields: a ( p q ) = 2 ~ r h +aP- . ( 10-2) ar at Equation 10-2 is the continuity equation for radial flow. 10-13): Mass-in . and At = infinitesimal time period. one obtains the following relation: (10-4) The compressibility of a fluid. is defined as the change in fluid volume per unit of total volume. Dividing both sides of eq. 10-3 in eq. cf represents the total compressibility and is as- sumed to be constant.) (10-1) where q = volumetric flow rate of the fluid. p = density of the fluid. Thus: (10-7) Inasmuch as: (10-8) . This equation may also be written as follows: (10-6) Assuming incompressible rock. per unit change in pressure: (10-5) where V is the volume and T is the temperature.Mass-out = Accumulation or At[(pq)r. c f .

Inasmuch as accord- ing to eq. 10-8.342 then: (10-9) Combining eqs. 10-12. ( ”) ar p c f Z = c -- a P aP f a r ar + pc. 10-4 and 10-9: i a wIa p (10-10) or: (10-11) Equation 10-11 is the diffusivity equation in terms of density. 10-11: or : (10-14) In order to obtain a linear equation. an additional assumption is required: either cf is very small or the pressure gradient a p / & is small enough (even around the wellbore) for cf ( a p / 3 r ) 2 to be negligible. and 10-13 into eq. )( ar2 S)+ a2p PCIS (10-12) In addition: ( 10-13) Substituting eqs. 10-14 becomes: (10-15) . 10-8: aP aP =P C f Z then: - ar2 a aZp = . Then eq.-a 2P = C f ( pc.

q. psi-’.) an ap- proximate result is similarly obtained with the fluid compressibility cf replaced by the total compressibility. and $I is the porosity. c. and the wellbore radius is negligible. These sets of units are commonly referred to as oilfield units or practical units. ft.) conditions to be used are: (1) I. t > O r-+ w (3) B.C. (c. psia. bbl/STB. therefore.C. 343 This is the familiar diffusivity equation in terms of pressure. p is the viscosity. ft. the well starts flowing at a constant rate q at time t = 0. r is the radius. the pressure at all values of r at t = 0 is p i . 0) = p i ( r > 0). t is the time.C. =-. The initial (Z. ” =constant 277kh The “line source solution” for the diffusivity equation using these conditions is: (10-17) where p is the pressure. + cf). the rock compressibility is not negligible and it is. hr. the “line source solution” first derived by Kelvin (1904) can be used.: It p ( r . md. bbl/D.C. The term k / + p c f is known as the hydraulic diffusivity. Thus. q is the flow rate. p i . dimensionless variables have been introduced: rD = r/rw (10-18) in particular: rDe = re/rw 0. Generally. k is the permeability. T o facilitate understanding and avoid confusion of different units. For pressure-dependent porosity (significant rock compressibility. h is the formation thickness. = c. In multiphase flow.) and boundary (B. t ) = p i .0002637kt tD = (in practical units) (10-19) . c. (2) B.: For constant flow rate at the wellbore: It r4O [r (?)I. cf = coSo+ cwSw+ cgSg.C. c. is the total compressibility. B is the formation volume factor. fraction. cP.: p ( r . ap- propriate to write the diffusivity equation as follows: (10-16) Solution to the diffusivity equation for infinite reservoirs If the reservoir is initially at an equilibrium uniform pressure.

809071 (10-23) The error in using eq.6qBp Pi-P(r. . or when r . 10-23 can be converted to the base-10 logarithm. the Ei solution does not hold because of the assumptions made in the derivation. . malung eq.i E i ( 2) (10-21) where Ei is the exponential integral defined as: Ei(-x) = -1 -du x e-u u (10-22) which is shown in Fig. 10-14 for comparison. 10-20: 162. 3 25. As a matter of convenience. to actual pressure drop using eq. t) = (10-25) kh Pseudosteady state fjow Inasmuch as no real reservoir is truly infinite in extent. 3 20 and tD/rh 2 0. . 4BP (in practical units) (10-20) kh In terms of these dimensionless variables.809071 and eq. after the initial infinite- acting period. > 100. . These solutions are shown in Fig./r./rh) -t 0.p = 141. 10-17) becomes: p. the solution (eq. The Ei solution is valid for t.Ei( . the log approximation is satisfactory.5. 10-23 more compact: (10-24) On converting p. For low values of I ./r. 10-14. for practical purposes.2-p.344 and : p./r. > 5.r6/4tD) [h(t. = . reservoirs will eventually either exhibit steady state or pseudosteady state behavior. 10-21 becomes: PD = 3 [In( tD/rA) + 0.. 10-23 is only about 1%for tD/rh > 55 and about 2% for t. For t D / r . the natural logarithm in eq. Van Everdingen and Hurst (1949) presented the wellbore solution and Mueller and Witherspoon (1965) gave the solution for intermediate values of r. and t. Thus.

10-2
10-2 10-1 I00 101 102 I 03
t / r D2
D
Fig. 10-14. Dimensionless pressure for a single well in an infinite system with no wellbore storage and no
skin. (After Mueller and Witherspoon, 1965, pp. 471-474; courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers
of AIME.)

346

we1 I bore
Distance from wellbore +
Fig. 10-15. Pressure distribution in pseudosteady state flow.

In steady state flow, pressure at every point in the system does not vary with
time. For radial steady state flow:
0.00708kh ( p , - p , )
4=
BPln(r,/rw)
which is simply the Darcy's law.
In pseudosteady state flow, the pressure change with time, d p /d t, is constant
throughout the reservoir. Figure 10-15 illustrates the above and also clarifies the
nomenclature for the pressures p , p , and pi.
The dimensionless pressure during pseudosteady state flow was given by Ramey
and Cobb (1971):

(10-26)

where A =drainage area, ft2; tDA = t D r:/A; and c, = shape factor, which is a
characteristic of the system shape and the well location. Values for C,, which were
given by Brons and Miller (1961), Dietz (1965), and others, are presented in Table
10-1.
Radius of drainage and stabilization time
Stabilization time is defined as the time corresponding to the beginning of the
pseudosteady state flow in the reservoir. It can be determined easily, using Table
10-1. For example, for a well in the center of a square, according to Table 10-1, the
pseudosteady state flow begins at t D , = 0.1:

341

Solving for stabilization time, t,:

(10-27)

For a well at the center of most symmetrically shaped areas, (tDA)pss= 0.1 (Table
10-1) and eq. 10-27 can be used.
The radius of drainage, also known as radius of investigation, depends largely on
the criterion used to determine it. Some engineers define it as the radius at which q
is 1% of the flow rate at the well, whereas others define it as the radius, r , at which
( p i - p , ) is 1, 2 or 5% of ( p i - pWr).
In most definitions, the drainage radius defines
a circular boundary with a pseudosteady state pressure distribution from the well to
this boundary. The drainage radius, rd, is equal to:

r d = 0.029
/ -
tc:
(10-28)

as given by Van Poollen (1964), Gibson and Campbell (1970) and Kazemi (1970).
As the well is allowed to flow, the drainage radius, r,,, increases. Eventually,
reservoir boundaries or drainage regions of adjacent wells will be encountered and
rd will no longer increase further. Thus, eq. 10-28 applies only until the initiation of
pseudosteady state as given by eq. 10-27 (or the ( t D A ) p svalues
s in Table 10-1).
Drawdown test
In drawdown test, the well is allowed ideally to flow at a constant rate and the
bottomhole pressure is recorded at regular time intervals or continuously. The
greatest difficulty is in maintaining the constant flow rate. Fortunately, multiple
rate testing techniques are available today to analyze a variable flow rate test.
A well, which has been shut-in for a long time, is suddenly flowed at a given rate
q. In the constant flow rate analysis, it is assumed that the flow rate versus time is a
step function, i.e., the flow rate instantaneously jumps from zero for the shut-in
condition to q when the well is opened to flow. As the flow continues, the
bottomhole pressure starts declining. These pressure decline characteristics convey
valuable information about the reservoir and the condition of the well (storage,
damage, etc.).
The bottomhole flowing pressure, pwr,can be recorded either at the flowing well
itself or at an observation well located at some distance r . The latter case is known
as an interference test. When pressure is recorded at the flowing well, r = r, and
thus rD = 1. The recorded pressure p ( r D = 1, t ) is equal to p W r ( t ) ,the wellbore
flowing pressure. The following equation describes the relationship for such a
situation, when t , 2 5:

4
p D( rD = 1, t ) = [In( t D ) + 0.809071 (10-23)

where rD = 1 at the wellbore.

348

TABLE 10-1
Shape factors for various closed single-well drainage areas (after Earlougher, 1977, table C.1, pp.
203-204).

31 62 3 4530 -I 3224 01 0 06 0.10

31 6 3 4532 -1.3220 0.I 0 06 0 I0

27 6 3 3178 -I 2544 02 0 07 0.09

27 I 3 2995 - I 2452 0.2 0.07 0 09

21 9

(Q o.oe
3 0865 -I 1387 0.4 0 12

v3

0 098 -2 3227 *I 5659 0.9 0 60 0.015

El 30 8828 3 4302 - I 3106 0.1 0 05 0.09

I2 9851 2 5638 -08714 0.7 0 25 0 05

EB '2 I 5070 -03430 0.6 0 30 0.025

H 3 3351 I2045 -0 igr7 0.7 0 25 0.01

21 8 x 9 3 0836 - I I373 0.3 OJ5 0 025

I0 6374 2 3830 - 0 7870 0.4 0 I5 0 025

4 5141 I5072 -0 3491 1.5 0 50 0 06

2 0769 0 7309 +00391 1.7 0 50 002

3 1573 I 1497 -0 1703 0.4 0 I5 0 005
B l

349

TABLE 10-1(continued)

CP I n CA

E€€Ell
2
0.5813 -05425 *O 67% 2 .o 0.60 0.02

0.1 I09 -2. I991 +1.5041 3.0 0.60 0.005

5.3790 I6825 - 0 4367 0.8 0.30 0.0I

2.68% 0.9894 -00902 0.8 0.30 0.01

Ep 0.2310 -1.4619 t I. I355 4.0 2.00 0.03

Ep 0.1I55 -2.1585 *I4838 (.O 2.00 0.01

2.3606 0.8589 -0.0249 I.o 0.40 0.025

USE [ x , / x f ) * IN PUCE OF A/r: FOR FRACTURE0 SYSTEMS

0.9761 -0.0835 0.175 0.08 CANNOT US€

0.7104 t0.0493 0.175 0.09 CANNOT USE

0 6924 *00583 0.175 0.09 CANNOT USE

1.6620 0.5080 t 0.1505 0.I75 0.09 CANNOT USE

,a I

1
1.3127 0.2721 +02685 0.175 0.09 CANNOT USE

-0.2374 t0.5232 0.175 0.09 CANNOT USE

2.95 -1.01 - - -
322 -1.20 - - -

350

There is an additional pressure drop due to the wellbore damage. This can be
accounted for by using a skin factor, S , in the right hand side of the above equation
(Hurst, 1953; Van Everdingen, 1953) as follows:

4 +
p D = [In( t D ) 0.809071 + S = [In( t D )+ 0.80907 + 2S] (10-29)

Combining eqs. 10-19, 10-20 and 10-29 and rearranging, the familiar form of the
drawdown equation may be obtained as shown below (Matthews and Russel, 1967):

kh
PWf =Pi - 162'6qBp [log t + log( &) - 3.2275 + 0.86859s
1 (10-30)

Inasmuch as k , cp, p , c , , r: and S are constant for a given case, a plot of pwr
versus log t will theoretically yield a straight line, with a slope, m , which is equal to:

m = - 162.6qpB/kh (10-31)
This straight-line relationship is as follows:

Pwf = log + Plhr
where:

k
- 3.2275 + 0.86859s
1
Thus, the formation permeability can be determined by plotting pwr versus log t
(10-32)

and using eq. 10-31:

k = - 162.6qBp/mh (10-33)

The skin factor, S , can be determined by using eq. 10-32:

S = 1.151 + 3.2275 (10-34)

where plhrcan be determined from the extrapolation of the semi-log straight line to
a flow time of 1 hour (note that log 1 = 0).

Multiple-rate drawdown testing

As pointed out earlier, it is usually impossible or impractical to maintain a
constant flow rate long enough for a complete drawdown test. Multiple-rate test
analysis techniques are required for such cases, which may range from totally
uncontrolled variable rates to a series of step changes in rates.

351

Provided eq. 10-23 applies, the following analysis can be used (Earlougher, 1977):

(10-35)

a straight line with slope:

m ’ = 162.6Bp (10-36)
kh

and intercept:

k
- 3.2275 + 0.86859s (10-37)

is obtained. The qN signifies the last rate at any time r.
The permeability can be obtained from the following equation:

162.6Bp
k= (10-38)
m’h

and the skin factor is determined by using the following equation:

(10-39)

Example 10-1
(1) Compute the transmissivity ( k o h / p o ) from the following pressure data:

0.1 1569
0.3 1560
1.0 1550
3.0 1542
5.0 1539
10.0 1533
50.0 1521
100.0 1516

352

Giuen: Flow rate, qo = 100 bbl/D, B, = 1.2 RB/STB, r, =9 i in. = 0.41 ft, p o = 2
cP, c, = 200 x psi--', and C+ = 0.20.

Solution:
Slope, m , can be determined from the pwrversus t plot (Fig. 10-16):
m = - 17 psi/cycle

Using eq. 10-33:
k = - 162.6qBp/mh

Thus transmissivity is equal to:

kh/p = - 162.6qB/m = - (162.6)(100)(1.2)/( - 17) = 1148 md-ft/cP

(2) If h = 40 ft, as determined from the logs, compute (a) the reservoir permea-
bility. Also, (b) check the validity of the semi-log approximation.
(a) k = (kh/p)oil(po/h) = (1148)(2)/40 = 57.4 md.
(b) Semi-log approximation is valid for t , 2 100.

Thus, almost all the available data are in the range of validity of the semi-log
approximation method used.

t
1520
1510-
9

-

Fig. 10-16.Semi-log plot for Example 10-1.

353

Pressure buildup test

In a buildup test, the well is shut-in after a producing period and the downhole
pressure is recorded as a function of time. Downhole pressure is also recorded
immediately before shut-in ( A t = 0).
It is important to stabilize the well at a constant flow rate, q, before shut-in. The
simple analysis technique presented here also assumes that the well has produced
long enough to establish pseudosteady state flow conditions before shut-in, i.e.,
producing time, t,, is greater than the time for pseudosteady state, tpS:.
If the flow rate during the production period was not constant, as is usually the
case, the general practice is to use an “equivalent producing time”, t p e , determined
by dividing N, (the total number of STB produced) by q (the last flow rate before
shut-in):

(10-40)

where N, = STB produced; q = flow rate just before shut-in, STB/day; and t,, =
equivalent producing time, hr.
A shut-in well can be viewed as flowing at a rate q - q ( A t = 0). What this means
is that a well originally producing at a rate q for a time t and then shut-in at At = 0
(and kept in this condition for a length of time A t ) is equivalent to a well flowing at
a rate q, superimposed by a flow rate of - q for time A t .
If p,, is the shut-in bottomhole pressure, then using the principle of superposi-
tion:

or: p i -pWs = (162.6qBp/kh) log([ + A t ) + (162.6 ( - q ) B p / k h ) l o g ( A t ) .

Thus:

(10-41)

Equation 10-41 indicates that if the recorded shut-in pressure is plotted versus
+
log(([ A t ) / A t ) , a straight line having a slope -m would result, where m is equal
to:

m = 162.6qBp/kh ( 10-42)

This plot proposed by Horner (1951), is known as the Horner plot. The
straight-line portion of the Horner plot can be extrapolated to a shut-in time, A t ,

354

ii
S h u t -in

I \-at- I
tp T1rne.t
Fig. 10-17. Idealized rate and pressure history for a pressure buildup test. (After Earlougher, 1977, p. 45,
fig. 5.1; courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME).

equal to 1 hr. The pressure at this shut-in time, as indicated by the extrapolated line,
is called plhr.It can be used to determine the skin factor as follows:

S = 1.151 + 3.2275 (10-43)

The straight-line portion of the Homer plot may also be extrapolated to ( t p +
A t ) / A t = 1 to obtain the initial reservoir pressure p i for an infinite system.
Inasmuch as no real system is truly infinite, the extrapolated pressure is known as
p * and is used as a calculation parameter to estimate the average reservoir pressure.

1100
I-L
1000
I000

1 800
n
n
0
600

500 -
I I I
0 I 2 3 4
Time, months
Fig. 10-18. Production schedule ( q o versus time) used in Example 10-2.

355

TABLE 10-11
Buildup test data used in Example 10-2.

At PWS (tp +At)/Ar
(hr) (Psi4
0 2200 -
3 2350 1401
3.5 2370 1201
3.82 2375 1100.5
4.20 2400 1001
5.25 2410 801
10.52 2440 400.2
21.10 2470 200.1
42.40 2500 100.1
85.71 2530 50.0
221.0 2570 20.0
466.0 2600 10.0
600 2610 8.0
840 2620 6.0
1400 2630 4.0
2100 2635 3.0

The most widely used techniques are those presented by Miller et al. (1950),
Matthews et al. (1954) and Dietz (1965).

Example 10-2
An exploratory well was placed on production according to the schedule pre-
sented in Fig. 10-18. Then a long buildup test was conducted and the data shown in
Table 10-11were recorded. If 9 = 0.18, r,,,= 0.25 ft, h = 125 ft, p o = 10 cP, B, = 1.25
RB/STB, and ct = 20 X psi-', determine:
(1) Reservoir effective permeability to oil.
(2) Skin factor and the pressure drop due to skin effect.

Solution :
Using eq. 10-40:
+ + +
t , = Np/qlmt= (24 x 30)(1000 1100 800 600)/600 = 4200 hr.
The p,, is plotted versus log[(t, + A t ) / A t ] in Fig. 10-19 (Horner plot). Slope m
can be determined from this plot:
m = 162.6q,pB0/k,h = 100 psi/cycle
(1) k , = (162.6)(600)(10)(1.25)/(100)(125) = 98 md
(2) Using eq. 10-43, the skin factor, S , can be calculated as follows:
S = 1.151[(p l h r- p W r ) / m- log(k/+pctr2) + 3.231
= 1.151[(2340 - 2200)/100 - 10g(98/0.18 X 10 X 20 X X (0.25)2)+ 3.231
= -3.46
This answer indicates that the well has a higher permeability near the wellbore.

356

2200
104 103 10 2 101 I00

(%)
Fig. 10-19. The Homer plot, pws versus log[( 1, + A r ) / A 11. for Example 10-2.

The pressure drop due to skin, Ap,, can be calculated using the following
equation:

Apski,= (141.2qpB/kh)S = 0.87 m S = (0.87)(100)( -3.46) = -301 psi

Buildup following a long producing time

Wells that have been producing for a long time may also be subject to a buildup
test. In such wells, the buildup time At will be very short, even negligible, as
compared to the producing time t , . Miller et al. (1950) suggested an approximate
technique that saves considerable amount of time. For t, >> At, log[(t, + At)/At] =
log( t,/At). Thus eq. 10-41 becomes:
p,, = p i - 162.6(qBp/kh) log(t,) + 162.6(qBp/kh) log(At)
or: pWs= constant + 162.6(qBp/kh) log(At).
+
Thus, instead of plotting p,, versus log[(t, At)/At] as in the Horner plot, a
much simpler plot of p,, versus A t can be used. It must be remembered, however,
that this technique is only valid for shut-in times much shorter than the producing
time.

Equivalent producing time
The following equation gives the simplest approximation for equivalent produc-
ing time, as suggested by Horner (1951):

t,, = 24Np/9 (10-44)

This simplification, which corrects for small variations in the flow rate, is not
applicable if sudden rate changes occur a very short time before shut-in. In other
words, it is applicable only in the case of stabilized rate changes.

357

Odeh and Selig (1963) proposed a more general technique. They suggested that t:
and q* should be used in the Horner's plot as follows:

1
N

i= 1
t; =2 t, - (10-45)

and:

(10-46)

This method is very often used to analyze drillstem tests with no production at
the surface. The flow rate at the rockface, which may be estimated from the pressure
variations, does not stabilize in this case. The Horner plot can still be used to
analyze buildup data, provided t: and q* are used instead of t and -4, as suggested
by Odeh and Selig.

Drawdown and buildup tests in gas wells

Buildup and drawdown tests in gas wells may be analyzed using the same
relationships as for liquid oil. One simply needs to convert the gas rates in STB/D
and use the gas formation volume factor, Bg, instead of B, in the foregoing
equations. Wattenbarger and Ramey (1968) have shown that this method is reason-
ably correct at high pressures (above 3000 psi).
Gas viscosity and density vary significantly with pressure and, therefore, the
assumptions used in deriving the diffusivity equation (eq. 10-16) are not satisfied.
The most rigorous approach applicable to all pressure ranges is that of the real gas
pseudo-pressure, m( p ) , defined by Al-Hussainy et al. (1966) as follows:

( 10-47)

The pressure dependent p and Z are combined together with pressure and
integrated over the interval pb to p , where pb is any arbitrary base pressure and p
is the pressure of interest. Inasmuch as in pressure transient analysis one is only
concerned with the difference in pressures, the following relationship can be used:

.t(Pwr)= 2JPW'(P / P Z ) d P
Pb

m ( Pi) = P/~z)~P
Pb

358

and:

This relationship shows that the base pressure pb is automatically cancelled out
and does not enter into the calculation procedure.
The pseudo-pressure, m ( p ) , is used instead of the pressure, p , for gases as
follows:

where q is the flow rate in Mscf/day, T is the temperature in OR, and D I q I is the
additional rate dependent skin effect due to non-Darcy flow around the wellbore.
Examination of eq. 10-48 indicates that a plot of [ m ( p i ) - m ( p W f ) versus
] log f
would be a straight line having a slope b, from which kh can be computed:

b = 1.151 x 50,300( p s c / q c ) (q T / k h ) (10-49)

The total skin effect, [ S + D I q I ] , can be evaluated from the following equation:

S + D l q l =1.151([m(p,,,) - m ( p , , ) ] / b - l ~ g [ k / + ( p ~ ~ ) ~ r ~+3.2275)
Z] (10-50)

At low pressures, p Z is essentially constant for gases, whereas at high pressures it
is directly proportional to pressure. Thus, m ( p ) is proportional to p at high
pressures and is proportional to p 2 at low pressures. Equation 10-48, therefore, can
be simplified:

at high pressures ( p > 3000 psia) and:

at low pressures ( p .c 2000 psia). Equation 10-48 is recommended in the inter-
mediate pressure range: 2000 < p < 3000.
At high pressures, eq. 10-51 is similar to eq. 10-30 for liquid drawdown.
At low pressures, a plot of ( p ; - p $ ) versus log t should yield the familiar radial
flow straight line, having a slope b':

b' = 1.151 X 50,300( Zipgi)(p s c / q c ) (q T / k h ) (10-53)

The skin factor can be determined by using (p:,, -p,$)/b' instead of [m(plhr)-
m( p w f ) ] / bin eq. 10-50.

359

The non-Darcy skin coefficient D may be measured in a variable rate test by
plotting observed skin effect, S’, against the rate, q. Inasmuch as S’ is equal to
+
S D I q I, the slope of the straight line through the data point is equal to D.When
such an analysis is not possible, D can be approximated as follows:

(10-54)

where Gg is gas gravity with respect to air (air = 1).
Similarly, in the case of buildup tests for gas wells when the following relation-
ship is true:

m( pws)= m( p * ) - 1637(qT/kh) log[ ( 1 , +At)/At] (10-55)

an analysis analogous to that for oil wells can be used. At low pressures, when
m ( p ) is proportional to p 2 , one can plot p 2 versus log[(t, + A t ) / A t ] . On the other
hand, at high pressures, one can plot p versus log[(t, + A t ) / A t ] , because m( p ) is
proportional to p . The remaining analysis procedure remains as before.

Gas well testing

In addition to regular drawdown and buildup tests, the natural gas industry has
developed other tests based on the principles of drawdown and buildup. These tests,
which are essentially an elaborate combination of drawdown and/or buildup, are
intended to simplify the analysis, reduce the testing time, and gather more informa-
tion.
The two basic types of multipoint tests are (Fetkovich, 1973):
(1) “Flow-after-flow” test, which consists of producing the well at successively
increasing (normal sequence type) or successively decreasing (reverse sequence type)
flow rates, with no shut-in between the flows.
(2) Isochronal test and the modified isochronal test, which involve a shut-in
period between the flow periods.
These tests are based on the pseudosteady state form of eq. 10-52:

Substituting 14.7 psia for psc and 520”R for T,, the above equation becomes:

+ S + Dlql]
p~-p~r=1422(pgZ)i(Tq/kh)[ln(0.606re/rw) (10-56)

Instead of using the turbulence factor D,turbulence is accounted for by putting
an exponential, n , on the pressure drop term:

q = 7.03 X kh( p,‘ - p $ ) ” / [ ( pgZ)iT(ln(0.606re/rw) + S ) ] (10-57)

360

Taking the logarithms of both sides of eq. 10-57:

log q = log c + n log( p,‘ -p:J (10-58)

where:

C = 7.03 X k h / [ ( pgZ),T(ln(O.606r,/r,,,) +S)] (10-59)

Thus, if log q is plotted versus log( p,‘ - p;,), a straight line is obtained having slope
n and intercept log C .

Flow -after -flow tests
The “flow-after-flow” test consists of a series of increasing flow rates (normal
sequence) or decreasing flow rates (reverse sequence) on an originally shut-in well.

PWf,

___c
TIME

Fig. 10-20. Normal sequence for flow-after-flow test. (After Fetkovich, 1975; courtesy of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers of AIME.)

(3) Repeat the above for different flow rates (at least 4). A straight line should be obtained. may occur if it is necessary to change the orifice plate for a new desired flow rate. (After Fetkovich. Stable flow rates are indicative of a good test. Shut-in.p.) .' . ) on log-log paper.. For practical purposes. Bureau of Mines as follows: (1) Obtain the static reservoir pressure p . 361 Shut-in periods are not allowed between the flows. Pi Fig. The rate is fixed by a choke of appropriate size. 1975: courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. (2) Flow the well for a period of 3 to 4 hours. Record pressure versus time. (4) Plot flow rate q versus ( p. 10-21. The procedure for the flow-after-flow test has been described by the U.S. which is sufficient to achieve constant flow rate and flowing pressure. from the pressure gauge. however. Reverse sequence for flow-after-flow test. constant bottomhole pressure and rate of flow for a period of at least 15 min define stable conditions.

The isochronal test is based on the principle that the drainage radius is indepen- dent of the flow rate and is a function of dimensionless time only. ~ o r r n a i i y T. The latter is required only for purposes of superposition techniques to reduce testing time.') (see Figs. (After Fetkovich. The name of the test stems from the fact that the flow periods are of equal duration.=T. 1975: courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. ( T s Need not be equal ) T - Normally A TI # AT. If all the flow periods were not of the same duration. only the data for flow periods of equal duration are plotted to obtain the correct value of the slope n (see Fig. It is necessary to plot the rates and pressures at a particular time and not the average values. 10-24).362 (5) The absolute open flow potential is then obtained by reading q at pwr =0 (i. Normal isochronal test.) . Fig. Isochronal test The isochronal test offers the only method of obtaining reliable performance curves (Fetkovich. 10-20 and 10-21)..# AT. This test can be conducted on a constant rate or on a constant pressure basis.=T. 10-22. and a constant rate is not essential to obtain valid results.e. at p. 1975). = T.

10-23. 363 . Plotting of the test data and analysis of the drawdown. 1975. PWf2 Fig. because the variations are more pronounced at this stage (see Figs. and back-pressure curves during the test in the field are essential for obtaining valid results (Brown and Beggs. which are subject to response lag and the effects of friction and flow temperatures. It is also very important to clean the well prior to conducting the test. courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. as described above. 1977). Early time data is critical for this analysis. Surface pressures should be recorded with a dead-weight tester. the frequency of recording pressure and flow rate must be sufficient. The procedure for the isochronal testing of a well can be outlined as follows (Brown and Beggs. (2) Open the well to a specified choke size.) Fetkovich (1975) recommended the use of bottomhole pressure gauges instead of surface recorders. Modified isochronal test. periods as short as 10 min can sometimes be used. 1977): (1) Obtain p . .. Record the flow rate and pressure at specified time intervals. Although a flow period of one hour is preferred. Thus. p. (After Fetkovich. 10-22 and 10-23). (3) Shut-in the well until the static pressure returns to the original value. buildup. together with the flowing temperature.

Modified isochronal tests The modified isochronal test was developed for low-permeability reservoirs in order to reduce testing time. 10-24.&) versus q plot for the isochronal test. These tests can be taken on the same or different days. .364 2- - 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I l l Q. A series of parallel lines having the same slope n are obtained for the different time intervals. (After Fetkovich. ~ c f da t 14. 10-24). In this test the shut-in periods are kept equal to the flow periods. 1975: courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.' .p $ ) versus q as described before (see Fig. one flow test can be conducted for a long period of time (up to 15 days). even. Even after relatively short flow periods it may take several days to obtain a final buildup pressure.( p : . ( 6 ) In order to find stabilized conditions of pressure and flow rate. years. ( 5 ) Plot (p.) (4) Repeat the procedure with different choke sizes for different flow rates. months or.65 p s i a Fig.

which is frequently important to know. p = f(ln t ) . = k/r2p antilog[( pi -plh. which is the distance between the active and the observation well. the reservoir porosity-compressibility product. it is better to use the two-flow rate method of Carter et al. 10-42 and 10-43) with r.3. 1975). r 2 ) . To reduce test time. assuming-no skin effect: p l h r = p i + m [ l o g ( k / + p c . the pressure response at the observation well can be described by the logarithmic approximation to the Ei solution.22751 . This difference is then extrapolated for different flow rates. Special tests Interference tests Interference tests are also known as multiwell or multipoint tests because they require the use of at least two wells. can be determined by using the following equation: +c. Interference testing is considered to be superior to the single-well testing previously discussed. 365 The difference between the pressure obtained on shutting-in the well for a short period of time and the stabilized pressure obtained on shutting-in the well for a long period of time (greater than or equal to the stabilization time) is determined for one flow rate.)/m . If the distance between the active well and the observation well is much closer than the distance to the nearest boundary (or to another active well) in the system. replaced by r. (1963). 10-32). The pressure response characteristic at the observation well(s) gives the average forma- tion properties between the active and the observation wells. This method has never been justified either theoretically or by field comparisons with true isochronal tests (Fetkovich. with the producing (or injecting) well being called the active well.3. the relationship varies from p = f(ln t ) to p = f ( h ) for linear flow in fractured reservoirs (most low-permeability reservoirs have to be stimulated in order to be commercial). Thus if ( t D / r i ) > 100: The analysis techniques are the same as before (eqs.22751 (10-61) This is simply a rearrangement of the plhr relationship (see eq. Fetkovich (1975) did not recommend the use of modified isochronal test or any other method based on superposition techniques for shortening test times for low-permeability wells. In interference testing. Pressure is recorded at one or more observation wells. In order not to sacrifice the accuracy of test results. It has been assumed that the pressure is a function of the log of time. In reality.

.)] (10-62) t k x x = 0 4 k. . . In isotropic formations...)/k.. k .. + k Y Y )+ J( k..k J 2 +4 4 = k.Y ) . Based on the work by Papadopulos (1965). Ramey (1975) presented the tech- nique described below.k:.fEi[ ( -@pct/0..".2 k . . In anisotropic formations.. . this is not the case.k.or k x x .. x y ) / ( k. is the direction of the major and k . permeabil- ity anisotropy (i. (10-63) (10-64) e = arctan[ ( k X x. Using any x-y coordinate system. and 0 (the angle between the arbitrary coordinate system x-y and the major-minor permeability axes X . The following basic equations. the pressure gradient becomes: There is one particular system of coordinates where the permeability matrix reduces to: where k . pressure gradient is proportional to flow rate: v p = akq' where 4' is the flow vector. is the direction of the minor permeability axes (Fig.e.] (10-65) ..... A well-defined permeability anisotropy can be of great value in the location selection for development wells and in the design of enhanced oil recovery projects...kx.00105t)( k. k.y2 + k.. There are three unknowns: k. which allow type curve matching on the Ei function. the variation of permeability with direction) is exhibited by many reservoirs. and k. have been presented by Ramey (1975): = .366 Interference tests for permeability anisotropy Inasmuch as perfectly homogeneous reservoirs are rarely encountered. .".x2 . This has an important effect on the efficiency of fluid injection and oil recovery. 10-25).

k.. 1975..y. data from two observation wells are needed to determine the permeability matrix. courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. On the type curve. Nomenclature for anisotropic permeability system.Schematic pulse-test rate and pressure history showing definition of time lag ( t L ) and pulse-response amplitude ( A p ) . courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.)2 4k:. 112. (After Ramey. Then principal permeabilities and their orientation may be determined using eqs./ \ kmin\\ Active well f Well pattern / \ coord i nates / / \ / / \ Minor / \ \ permeability / \ axis \ Fig. 10-26. pressure + match yielded the value of [( k. data from three observation wells are needed. . 12. Its main advantage is the reduction in testing time. Pulse testing Pulse test is an interference test where the active well is alternately produced and shut-in for short periods of time. and 10-65. (After Earlougher.. 10-25. 10-64.) If the cpct product is known. A field example was reviewed by Ramey (1975). p. Otherwise. p. Fig. 9-14.) . and the two time matches gave the values of k.. 367 Y Observation Well at(x.]. and k./ axis 1 \ \ . 1977. 10-63. fig.y) \ Major \ permeability \ .

Many other techniques require the use of computers. Vertical interference and pulse test nomenclature. causing a change in mobility ratios and necessitating a more specific analysis. If cold water is injected into a hot water interval. Figure 10-26 illustrates a pulse-test rate and pressure history. They generated type curves that are easy to use in hand calculations. or an oil zone. Falade and Brigham (1974) proposed a simpler method which applies only to situations with negligible wellbore storage. cold) If water is injected into a transition zone. Figure 10-27 shows how the top part of the formation is produced while pressure is recorded in the lower part of the layer. The basic underlying assumption in doing this is that mobility of the injection fluid is the same as that of the reservoir fluid. 10-25. 1977. Earlougher (1980) reviewed two methods derived from Prats' tech- nique to analyze vertical well tests taking into account wellbore storage effects. (After Earlougher. Vertical interference tests Vertical interference test was first proposed by Prats (1970) to investigate vertical permeability. Kamal and Brigham (1975) presented a very simple technique for analyzing pulse tests. 10-27.) h = formation thickness. Observation perforations Fig. fig.368 -1 Flow p e r f o r a t i o n s Casing packer Pressure gauge . The upper part is produced at a constant rate (simple vertical interference) or production may be scheduled as pulses (vertical pulse test). The two zones are located on the two sides of the interface between the injected fluid and the reservoir fluid. both relative permeabilities and viscosities are different in the two zones created. p. courtesy of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. water viscosities are not equal in the two zones created (hot and '. Injection and fall-off tests A water injection test in a water zone is often analyzed as a production test using a negative value of flow rate (and a fall-off test is analyzed as a pressure buildup test). . and the standard nomenclature used in characterizing the test. 135.

05 350 2 Well A at the center is not producing or injecting.flow times for wells B. This empirical approach was examined by Weller (1966) and Earlougher et a]. k = 300 md. and t . however. SAMPLE QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS ( 1 ) Show a log-log plot of pressure data for a test where the wellbore storage coefficient goes through a continuous change: (a) increasing. The flow rates and. (1967). and E are as follows: Well Distance from Rate. Interpretation of two-phase well tests enables estimation of single-phase perme- ability rather than the effective permeability to each of the flowing phases. ( 2 ) Consider a general partial differential equation: Discuss the solution to this equation for n = 0. D. C . Fill in the blanks below: Case Flow regime Relationship between p . demonstrated that Perrine’s approach is valid in the presence of a very small gas saturation. ft B 2210 250 10 C 2037. days well A. 369 Well test analysis in the presence of a gas phase The various methods presented here for the interpretation of well tests are based on the assumption that the reservoir contains a single fluid having a constant and small compressibility and constant viscosity.39 300 5 E 1562. and n = 2. Analysis becomes less accurate. c.08 150 20 D 901. and h = 60 ft. and (b) decreasing.2. n = 1. c$ = 0. These methods have been used (Per- rine. . This is done by incorporating changes in reservoir fluid properties and relative permeability due to the presence of gas saturation in the reservoir.35. 1956) to interpret well tests performed on reservoirs containing both oil and gas by introducing the effective total properties of the multiphase system (corre- sponding to the single-phase properties of the different fluids). = lo-’ psi-’. (infinite system) n=O - n=l - n=2 - ( 3 ) Determine the pressure drop at well A given the following information: p o = 5 cP. STB/day Duration of flow. Bo= 1. as gas saturation increases. who .

1966. . B = 1. H.. Tech. ct = psi-'. Ramey Jr. 18(5): 637-642. How would you plot pressure buildup or drawdown data for this reservoir if the pressure range is from 1600 psia to 3000 psia? Also.= 300 md.8 CP at 100 O F . 1966. A q = 500 bbl/day. p . and Ramey Jr. T = l0O0F. 1240 324 8:20 a. Bottomhole pressure bbl/day before change. and $I = 0. 994 157 Given: h = 50 ft.m. and A p .5 ft. psia 8:OO a.75 cP. 1320 375 8:lO a. = 0. p . r.370 (4) Design a pulse test for injection into a watered-out reservoir.J... J .5 X lo3 1000 86 X lo6 1000 x103 1500 192 X lo6 225 x104 2000 330 X lo6 400 x104 2500 468 x lo6 625 x104 3000 606 x lo6 900 x104 (6) A variable injection rate test produced the following data: Time Rate before change..m. Tech. at So. Pet.2. c.. Find formation permeability and skin factor. (5) The m( p ) versus p for a gas reservoir has been computed and is given below. cf = 3. Pet.. Estimated conditions are as follows: + p = 1000 psi.. Al-Hussainy. H. = 1 psi.01.m. 18(5): 624-636. and Crawford. r = 660 ft. R. Application of real gas flow theory to well testing and deliverability forecasting. = 4 x psi-'.5 x l o p 6 psi-'. R.m. = 0.B.m. k. h = 50 ft.15. = 0. 1042 193 8:40 a. J . =0. REFERENCES Al-Hussainy.J. 1145 262 8:30 a. P. for a pressure range of 500 to 1000 psia? 750 50 X lo6 562. The flow of real gases through porous media.

Pet. Dyes..A.A. and Witherspoon. Houston. AIME. Dolan. 1977. J. Reprint Ser. Miller. Earlougher Jr..... Pet. Brons.. 4-7. Earlougher Jr. F. Press.Pet. Use of data on the build-up of bottom hole pressures. 1974.. 15 pp.. and Campbell Jr. 11-24. . Matthews.P. Fall Meet. 1962.. Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests in Wells.J. Doherty Ser.. Trans.D.. pp. Tex. Tech.A.. Lynes Inc. M. Multipoint Testing of Gas Wells. Soc. Fall Meet. Earlougher Jr. 1970. Pet. Vol. A I M E .. Tech. C. T..Well Test Analysis. W. A I M E . Eng. D. 123: 44-48. J.. H. Lynes Inc.. 1975.E. The Technologv of Artificial Lifr Methods. Tech. Tex. Testing and Chart Interpretation.C.. 1973. J . 1951. 17(4): 471-474. S.J. 201: 182-191.G. Eng. 6-9. Pennwell.. Pressure interference effects within reservoirs and aquifers. 422 pp. Matthews.C. Einarsen. Eng. Carter.A. Pet. 341 pp. M. Also 1967.A. Establishment of the skin effect and its impediment to fluid flow into a wellbore.. Eng... Tex. 1965. Tech. Tex. Vol.P. AIME. C.K. SOC. Pet.G. Soc. Tulsa.J.. The isochronal testing of oil wells. Third World Pet.. Miller. and Mueller.. F. Pet.. Tech. SOC. 1937. and Riley. 1977. K. 1980. R.. R.C.. Houston. Eng. 167 pp... W. Oct.. 45th Annu. Pet. Vol. and Brigham. Eng. AIME.. Harper and Row. 25(10): B-6-B-16. 1975. Special application of drillstem test pressure data. New York. AIME. 32(3): 505-514. Drilling und Well Completions.D. The Hague. 1973. SPE 3016. Eng.E. pp. Pulse-testing response for unequal pulse and shut-in periods. J. SOC. SOC. SPE 4529. 17 PP. C. Proc. and Begs.. D. G. 6 pp. AIME. SOC. F. Eng.S.S. 1974. Muskat. 15(6): 651-658. 5.. 1841-1904. H. Okla. Pet. A method for determination of average pressure in a bounded reservoir. Tex. N. Cambridge Univ. Determination of stabilized gas well performance from short flow tests. Englewood Cliffs. SOC. Soc.G. Dietz. Tex. 210: 318-324. 1965. The estimation of permeability and reservoir pressure from bottom hole pressure build-up characteristics. Sec. Kamal. P. and Hill.. and Miller. Also 1967. I.. N. Pet. Cambridge. Trans.T. A I M E . 1950. Petroleum Engineering.Pet. and Brigham. Eng. Collected Mathematiml and Physical Papers. in: Pressure Analysis Methods. SOC. J . Falade. 1954. Nev.Y. W. 49th Annu. 487 pp. Trans. 1961. Soc. 259: 399-410. 9. 189: 91-104. Dallas. Pet. Oct. AJME.. Fetkovich.Pet. J . 1967. SOC.. Eng.R.. 3. Continuing Education Course .B. C. J. 371 Brons. Sept.. Gibson.. AIME. Pressure buildup in reservoir limit testing of stratified systems. J.. Kelvin. AIME.T.... Reprint Ser. SOC. 17(8): 955-959. Houston.. Congr.Pet. Dallas.N. H.D. Trans... S. 264 pp. Tex. Calculating the distance to a discontinui(v from D. 1970. 1967..Pet... Advances in Well Test Analysis. Fall Meet. Richardson... Homer. AIME kd-continent Sect.. Monogr. Pet. 503-523. and Hazebroek. Eng.Pet. Pressure buildup behavior in a two-well gas-oil system. 48th Annu.C. 1960.. E. and Russel. Monogr.. 11. The unulvsis of single well pulse tests in a finite-acting slab reservoir. A. Doherty Ser..E. Eng. A I M E . Tech... W. R. 9. M. Henry L. Trans.Pet. Hurst. M. pp. SOC. Mueller. J... Pressure build-up in wells. 1953. A simple method for correcting spot pressure readings. and Hutchinson Jr. Lord Sir W. 1963. Kazemi. Prentice-Hall. Gatlin. Eng. T. Pet.T.J. Pet. Dallas. SPE 5055B. dutu. Brown. 13(8): 803-805. Henry L. 1980.S.. . Las Vegas. Analysis and design methods for vertical well testing.C. D. C. Formation Evalution. R. Lynch. Eng. G. 25-43.E. 1970. March 17.C. 1957. 1. Tex. P. Determination of average reservoir pressure from build-up surveys.. 7(2): 195-204. Fetkovich.D. Dallas. 30-Oct. 22(4): 503-51 1. A. in: Pressure Analysis Methods.. C. Miller. Eng.. Pet.

. Prats.F. Hydrol.. 9. Penine.. Reservoir performance during two-phase flow. Eng.. Tech. 1965. W. A. Tex. 1959. Van Poollen.J. 198: 171-176. Tech.M. in: Pressure Analysis Methodr. 1961. Pet. Int. Status of drill-stem testing techniques and analysis.. Pract...L.. AIME. 23(12): 1493-1505. Gas well testing with turbulence. AIME.K. I.. SOC. R. Pet. A method for determining the net vertical permeability near a well from in-situ measurements. H. and Cobb.. 1956.A general buildup theory for a well in a closed drainage area. Drill.S. J. J. 13(4): 333-339. Sci.T. Tech. Wattenbarger. 1953. Soc. Van Everdingen. Pet. Pet. SOC. damage and wellbore storage... A.The skin effect and its influence on the productive capacity of a well. Papadopulos. Eng. H. 45-50. . on Hydrology of Fractured Rocks.. 1963. AIME.. 228: 790-794.F. Tech. and Selig. Assoc. Eng. SOC.. Trans. pp. J. AIME. 131-135. 186: 305-324. Tex. Schlumberger Formation Tester. Analysis of pressure buildup curves. Pet.K. pp. Trans. Reprint Ser... H. Prod. Van Poollen.A. Reprint Ser. J. Dubrounik Symp. W. Tech. Nonsteady flow to a well in an infinite anisotropic aquifer. H. J.in: Pressure Analysis Methods.. 1965. AIME. J. Pet. Weller.. Oil Gas J. W. 1970.372 Odeh. Eng. and Hurst.. Ramey Jr.. Also in: Trans. A. 27(10): 1290-1298.Pet. Pet.. Pet. Radius-of-drainage and stabilization-time equations..J. Tech. Dallas. J.. 1949. SOC. Also 1967. Proc. H. 1: 21-31. Pressure build-up analysis. Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation.. Eng. Ramey Jr. 22(5): 637-643.S. Pet. Pet.. variable-rate case. Tech. 18(2): 240-246. 15(7): 790-794. 1975. M. The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs. R. and Ramey Jr. Van Everdingen..Pet. Dallas. 1964.J. 1971. F. 1966. Supplement No. Also 1967. 1.. 20(8): 877-887. 62(37): 138-146. API: 482-509. 9. 1968. Interference analysis for anisotropic formations-a case history.

etc. (2) Gradiomanometer. (3) Detection of anomalous fluid movements. Production logs are used for the following purposes (Allen and Roberts. tubing. Inasmuch as each one of the production logging devices has its own limitations. (b) Corrosion damage. They are run after the production casing string has been cemented and the well placed on production. multiple logs are run and data is evaluated. (4)Reservoir management. (c) Plugged perforations. coning. (a) Casing. 1978): (1) Evaluation of completion efficiency for production as well as injection wells. (b) Productivity (or injectivity) index of each zone. ( 5 ) Design and evaluation of stimulation treatment. LOGGING DEVICES The most widely used through-tubing production logging tools are: (1) High-resolution thermometer. breakthrough. (a) Flow profile. or packer leaks. (d) Encroachment. (b) Channeling behind casing due to poor cement job. (d) Flow profile. (a) Initial fluid saturation in each zone. 373 Chapter I I PRODUCTION LOGGING SANJAY KUMAR and GEORGE V. (b) Changes in these saturations due to production and/or extraneous fluid movement. Precise and reliable answers to these questions require careful design and applica- tion of production logging techniques. (a) Thief zones. (2) Mechanical condition of the well. . CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION The subsurface measurements in production (or injection) wells which yield information on the nature and movement of fluids within the well are referred to as production logging. (c) Reservoir depletion pattern.

Inc. a short distance apart. Gradiomanometer The gradiomanometer records the pressure gradient. 11-2) measure the difference in pressure over the provided spacing of 2 ft. controls the frequency of an oscillator in the downhole electronic cartridge (Fig. The sensing element (metallic filament) constitutes the fourth arm of a sensitive bridge circuit. courtesy of Oil and Gas Consultants International.. The two sensing bellows (Fig. Radioactive tracer survey. resistor Fig. Tulsa. represents . the pressure difference. Thus. 11-1. in turn. fig. This pressure difference is the sum of the hydrostatic. as reported by the gradiomanometer.Electronic cartridge Temperature-rensit ive. The kinetic effect is also nil. and kinetic heads between the two points. Absolute temperatures are usually recorded. p. Caliper. 1978.04"F and the range is 0-350°F. The resolution is about 0. 12. 11-1). 2-2. This. At usual flow velocities.. Continuous flowmeter. High-resolution thermometer High-resolution thermometer is used to record the subsurface temperature profile in a temperature-versus-depth readout. (After Allen and Roberts. Bottomhole pressure device. 374 cc L . Okla. friction. High-resolution thermometer. Manometer. friction is negligible and the flow velocity remains unchanged over the small vertical interval of 2 ft. In addition. Inflatable packer flowmeter. there are provisions for recording the differential temperature ( A T ) curve that compares temperatures at two points.) Fullbore spinner flowmeter. on a more sensitive temperature scale.

(11-1) Pw . After a short period of time. The water holdup' yw can be calculated at various depths from the following equation: PI . then: (11-2) (11-3) and 40 + 4 w = 4t (11-4) ' Water holdup is defined as the fraction of water in the total volume of fluid at a particular level. the oil and water will segregate. The total fluid volumetric flow rate.2. This feature renders the tool most effective for identifying gas entry and computing water holdup and.(Courtesy of Schlumberger. From dynamic (flowing well) gradiomanometer measurements. respectively. after the production logs have been run under dynamic conditions. 11.Po Yw = . -SLOTTED -FLOATING HOUSING CONNECTING TUBE LOWER SENSING BELLOWS EXPANSION BELLOWS Fig. . the well is shut-in. subsequently. If A is the cross-sectional area of flow.) the average fluid density difference only. the apparent fluid density pt is established at various depths. and u.uw. q t .-UPPER SENSING BELLOWS t SPAC ING 2 FEET -. The gradiomanometer is then run (under these static conditions) again to determine the oil and water densities po and pw. Then. 315 -ELECTRONIC CARTRIDGE --TRANSDUCER . locating the standing water levels. = density of produced fluid (water + oil). is determined from a flowmeter measure- ment. Gradiomanometer. The slippage velocity us = uo . where uo = velocity of the oil stream.Po where p. = velocity of the water stream.

Inflatable packer flowmeter Inflatable packer flowmeter. (11-5) and 4w 'Yw[4t .3. Inflatable combination tool. i. the fraction of water in the total flow stream moving past a particular level in the wellbore. 11.4 ( l -Yw>l (11-6) The water cut. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. 11-3). . is a spinner type velocimeter. which is used for recording injection and production profiles. The inflated packer forces all flow through the metering section consisting of the spinner flowmeter.) Using these relationships. (11-7) 41 Thus.e. the zone contributing water can be identified. The packer is inflated by pumping well fluids into it (see Fig. and a capacitive water-cut meter. is equal to: 4W water cut = .316 E LECTRON It CARTRIDGE YATERCUl METER -D E N S l l l E l I R __ PACKER SPRING FLUID ENTRANCE PORT Fig. vibrating densimeter. The measurements have to be made step by step because the packer must be inflated and deflated for each measurement.

300 This tool is most effective for wells with high production rates and/or small- diameter casing and single-phase flow conditions. At higher rates. The spinner speed is significantly affected by the fluid viscosity. operational complications limit its use.) (bbl/day. only the continuous emulsion phase is identified by this meter. It is.) Experience shows that the average velocity is about 83% of that measured at the center. therefore. provided the tool is precisely centered in the well. Fullbore spinner flowmeter The fullbore spinner flowmeter is very similar to the continuous flowmeter. Thus. The water-cut meter. Figure 11-4 illustrates the construction of a continuous flowmeter. Although it is one of the most precise flow-measuring and fluid-differentiating tools available. through which the fluid stream is directed. viscosity = 1 cP) 5 100 7 150 9. densimeter differentiates between oil. Unlike the packer flowmeter. 11-3. important to establish the relationship between the downhole spinner speed and fluid viscosity. differentiates between water and hydro- carbons through the measurement of the dielectric constant (80 for water and 2-6 for hydrocarbons). a correction factor of 0. The lower limit of the flow rate below which the tool will not operate is as follows (after Schlumberger. In addition to the requisite calibration. The range of the tool is about 10-1900 bbl/day (7-in. The densimeter determines fluid density by measuring the resonance frequency of the hollow cylinder containing radial blades as shown in Fig. Thus. casing). It consists of a collapsible blade spinner velocimeter that can be lowered through a 24 . water. In case of formation of emulsions. the pressure drop across the packer and the altered flow profile due to the restriction may force the tool up the hole. 1980): Casing and tubing size Monophasic flow (in. on the other hand. and gas.83 can be used to obtain the average velocity (after Schlumber- ger. (The velocity in a circular conduit is maximum at the center and decreases to zero at the walls. leading to recording of a higher rate at the surface. a correction factor has to be used to account for the flow profile. however. 1980). Continuous flowmeter The continuous flowmeter is also a spinner-type velocimeter. 311 The spinner response is essentially linear with the volumetric flow rate and the viscosity effect is minimal. even in the case of gas. it records a continuous flow profile versus depth. Decrease in fluid viscosity causes increase in spinner speed.

and reduced viscosity effects on spinner speed. (or larger) tubing to measure flow rates in the casing below. The downhole calibration of the fullbore spinner flowmeter is similar to the continuous flowmeter. the spinner blades open (Fig. viscosity = 1 cP) 5 20 7 30 95 60 Below the tubing. better response at lower flow rates. The caliper essentially mea- sures the borehole diameter and is particularly important for determining openhole . This results in higher sensitivity. 1980): Casing size Monophasic flow (in) (bbl/day. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. 11-5) and are exposed to a large cross-section of the casing. Caliper A through-tubing caliper is presented in Fig.4. 11. Continuous flowmeter.378 . CABLE CONDUCTOR -MAGNET /PICKUP COIL WELL CASING Fig.) in. above the following minimum flow rates (after Schlumberger. 11-6.

11-6. Through-tubingcaliper. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. 11. 319 Fig.) Fig.5. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. Full-bore spinner flowmeter: left-tool closed for running through tubing: right-tool open for logging flow in casing.) .

are not very effective for defining multiphase flow. As an example. On using a suitable radioactive isotope and a well-planned tool combination and logging program. because this isotope is water-miscible and has a very short half-life of 8. Figure 11-7 shows a two-detector velocity shot. Tracers. accuracy is k0. It is not recommended for producing wells. because of the complications created by water holdup and slippage velocity. This method is most suitable for water.380 flow profiles.2 in. 4. (11-8) In a cased hole. radio- iodine (13’1) in water solution is used for water injection well surveys. A is the cross-sec- tional area. It is preferable to use two detectors instead of one in order to establish a more accurate ejection time. The range of the instrument is 2-12 in. The tool is stationary and the log is a function of time. (see Schlumberger. then the flow rate. bottom- hole temperature.000 psi (see Schlumberger. It is also used inside casing for evaluating damage and scale of paraffin deposits that can seriously affect the flow-rate logs.1 in. Radioactive (RA) tracer survey methods are listed below: ( I ) Velocity-shot method In the velocity-shot technique. Similarly. the half-life. The parameters to be evaluated are the radiation intensity. and t is the time recorded. The accuracy of pressure measurements by the manometer (about 2%) is limited by the accuracy of the potentiometer.or gas-injection wells. Manometer The manometer consists of a Bourdon tube that drives a potentiometer. 1980). ethyl iodide or methyl iodide are used in surveying gas injection wells. 1980). tracer surveys yield the best possible records of (1)quantitative fluid movement in water injection wells. If h is distance between the gamma ray detectors. Radioactive tracer surveys There are several different types of radioactive tracer surveys suited for specific applications in fluid-flow determinations... and the problem of producing RA fluid at the top. and compatibility with the wellbore fluid. is equal to: hA 4=7. The usual pressure ranges are 0-5 psi and 0-10. the velocity of the RA shot ejected into the flow stream is measured. because both are liquids containing 13’1iodine isotope having a half-life of 8. and (2) the flow behind the pipe. however. . and the resolution is 0.1 days.1 days. A may be assumed to be constant. by recording the time necessary for the tracer to reach the downstream gamma ray detector(s) from the injector.

3. The RA slug (points a. (Schlumberger. m . d . 3. 21. and q. n. with a gamma-ray tool recording the position of the slug. Finally. Fluid appears to be entering sand No. After entering the perforations opposite sand No. e . some RA material is also trapped in a turbulence pattern just below the tubing as shown by points b. courtesy of Schlumberger. and u ) channels up the casing annulus to sand No. 1973. a part of the RA slug (points f. fig. a large amount of the RA tracer is ejected at the bottom of the tubing. c. 2. Subsequently. logging runs are made at definite time intervals. 4. p. Figure 11-8 presents a Schlumberger example of a timed-run RA tracer survey. The times of the ejection and of each run are carefully noted. g. Radioactive-tracer survey: velocity-shot analysis. 1. j . Quantitative measurements in the casing annulus are impossible because of variations in the cross-sectional area of the flow path. . and k . because of the stationary readings at points i. 11-7. 381 VELOCITY SHOT Fig. and h ) moves down the casing as shown. 2-13. After entering sand No. part of the RA slug (points i and p ) channels down the casing annulus to sand No.) (2) Timed runs (controlled-time method) In controlled-time method.

fig. p. 1973. Radioactive-tracer survey: timed-runs analysis. Courtesy of Schlumberger. in either the casing or the annulus.382 WELL SKETCH GAMMA RAY SURVEVS AT TIMED I N T E R V A L S tI tz tr t4 ts Fig.) The timed-run method only qualitatively detects the flow of fluids up or down the hole. . 11-8. 22. 2-14. (Schlumberger. The use of this method is thus limited to the detection of any undesirable movement of injected fluid in the casing annulus.

and a water-cut meter. In this method. (4) manometer. fig. the individual rates in these two flow paths are varied. In limited areas. 4 = 400 bbl/D. the fluid sampler is used for getting a depth-controlled and pressure-sealed fluid sample for PVT analysis. This tool combines a packer flowmeter.) SR = slightly radioactive. p. . which is used in high-flow-rate wells. and ( 5 ) thermometer. the two waters will form an interface in the well. The production combination tool (PCT). These interfaces are detected by the gamma ray tool and the complete injection profile is then plotted as shown in Fig. (Schlumberger. (3) gradiomanometer. 2-15. a densimeter. consists of: (1) continuous flowmeter. 383 Fig. 23. determined by the rates at which the water is being taken by the formations. 1973. A casing collar locator is routinely used together with all production-logging tools for providing positive depth correlations. Radioactive-tracer survey: differential injection technique. Miscellaneous tools In very low-flow-rate wells. 11-9. 11-9). The water in either one is made slightly radioactive to distinguish one flow path from the other. 3 = 300 bbl/D. TL = total. Keeping the total flow rate constant. 1 = 100 bbl/D. 11-9. 2 = 200 bbl/D. courtesy of Schlumberger. For each combination of flow rates in the tubing and the tubing-casing annulus. the tubing is run to the bottom of the openhole section and the water is then injected through both the tubing and the tubing-casing annulus (Fig. the inflatable combination tool (ICT) is used. (3) Differential injection method Differential injection method is a special technique developed for openhole completions where the hole size is unknown. (2) fullbore spinner.

.. 11-11.. As pointed out earlier. 11-10.) . 1. The measured fluid velocity.. c. u. A correction factor. Spinner in monophasic flow. 11-11)can be used to account for this as follows: uavg. in monophasic flow. inasmuch as the tool is usually centered in the wellbore. 11-10). is different from the average fluid velocity. N R c . therefore. and Reynolds number. (11-9) urn.) INTERPRETATION OF FLOWMETER LOGS Monophasic flow In the spinner type flowmeter logs.384 Fig. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. which is maximum. c=. the spinner responds to the velocity at the center of the well (Fig.0 09 08 Lz P0 2 07 z Q MONOPHASIC FLOW 06 LL 5 0 0. the spinner responds to the velocity of the fluid. Relationship between the correction factor. (Fig..5 lo3 lo4 lo5 106 REYNOLDS NUMBER N R ~ Fig. c.. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.

Spinner response characteristics. which leads to tool inaccuracy at low flow rates. (3) With both mechanical and viscous effects: this describes the real case in the presence of spinner friction and viscous fluid. the threshold velocity. the spinner will start turning again.. The velocity. a point is reached where the fluid and tool velocities are equal and the spinner does not turn. u.) Extensive field experimental studies show that c = 0. 1980): (1) Ideal response: frictionless spinner in ideal (non-viscous) fluid. overcomes this problem. If tool speed is incrr ised further. p .however. 11-13. but in the opposite direction. When the tool moves with increasing velocity along the direction of flow. u. 385 CL FLUID VELOCITY.e. i. the intercept of the asymptotic response. however. therefore. The spinner speed is plotted versus cable . (2) With mechanical friction: real spinner in ideal fluid. the rotation speed of the spinner continues to decrease.5% at usual flow regimes. U . increases when it moves against ihe flow. The in-situ calibration is based on the above-described principles.83 f 0. Inasmuch as viscosity of the wellbore fluid at bottomhole conditions is unknown to some extent. increases with increasing viscosity. is also unknown. The in-situ calibration technique. and decreases with increasing density.. as shown in Fig. and decreases when it moves with the flow. Eventually. The spinner response is recorded over the whole of the producing interval (zone by zone if the producing interval is not continuous) by moving the tool both along as well as against the direction of flow of the fluid. Its rotation speed. 11-12. For the last case. p. Figure 11-12 shows the spinner response (rotations per' second) to fluid velocity for different theoretical cases (Schlumberger. gives better results.. Figure 11-11. depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid. In-situ spinner calibration The spinner responds to the relative velocity between the fluid and the tool. V "t Fig. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.

. Cable speed 0) Flowmeter. can be determined as shown in Fig. Polyphasic flow Polyphasic flow is defined as the concurrent flow of immiscible fluids.e. v o + Vc Relative velocity ROTATION .386 v. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. (2) water and gas. this involves the flow of the following combination of phases: (1) oil and gas. uo. In oil field operation. 11-13. 11-13. Upon establishing the response line of the spinner. in moving fluid lllllli Frequency of V. VO - Fig.) speed (i. ut and the fluid velocity. (3) oil and water.. and (4) oil. and gas. (Fluid v e l o c i t y ) A rototion b ) F l o w m e t e r response versus relative v e l o c i t y V. tool velocity). In-situ calibration of a spinner flowmeter. water.

if not impossible. on the other hand. the continuous phase is either the light or the heavy one. Flow patterns in polyphasic flow. is very heterogeneous and thus difficult to measure. slug flow and mist flow are also possible. 11-14). Some important concepts are discussed below. flow. emulsion: liquid-liquid. In the case of bubble flow (Fig. In the case of mist. It is important to note that polyphasic flow is always turbulent.e. several measurements are needed. mist flow: tiny droplets of liquid move with the same velocity as gas. tiny droplets (mist) of liquid move with the gas. implies the intimate mixing of two phases (on a macroscopic scale) to form a single very viscous phase.) Flow types Liquid-liquid flow types Diphasic liquid-liquid flow types include bubble flow and emulsion flow. on the other hand. gas bubbles dispersed in liquid. Slug flow. . (Courtesy of Schlumberger. Slug flow. the two having the same velocity. (See Schlumberger. which is the alternate flow type of gas and liquid. 387 For quantitative evaluations of the flow rates of each phase.. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bubble flow Emulsion Slug Mist Fig. In addition. slug flow: gas-liquid. both phases moving at different velocities. 11-14. Gas-liquid flow types Gas-liquid flow is usually a bubble type flow.) Bubble flow: liquid-liquid or gas bubbles in liquid. 1980. Bubble flow can be quantitatively evaluated by use of correlation charts. Emulsion. i. Emulsion and mist flows can be considered as approximating monophasic flow and can be easily handled by the logging tools. is difficult. to measure and the logging results can only be qualitatively interpre- ted.

a good approximation can be made. through the slippage velocity as follows (Schlumberger. These charts. which shows a typical correlation between the slippage velocity and (1) the density difference and (2) water holdup. Alternatively. i..e. and (3) phase concentrations. (2) water velocity. In some cases. To date. q t . All the flow patterns described previously are possible in this type of flow. which are established in the laboratory.. This is obvious from Fig. .388 Triphasic flow types An increased amount of complexity is introduced by triphasic flow and produc- tion logging becomes more qualitative than quantitative. then the total flow rate qt = qo + qw and the water cut = q w / q t . it is necessary to know: (1)oil velocity.(l .g. 41): (11-6) This may be misleading. It is necessary. however. some features of this type of flow are discussed below. should be valid for downhole conditions and can be used for oil-water bubble flow. when the gas forms slugs. and (3) phase concentrations.y . it is practical to consider the liquid phases to be an emulsion. Inasmuch as the slippage velocity cannot be measured. If uo=velocity of the oil bubbles and uw = water velocity. yw. and holdup. one decreases when the other increases. however. For gas-liquid flow. The water cut and water holdup are related. the slippage velocity for large gas bubbles is almost always close to 60 ft/min.u. p. The influence of slippage velocity is due to the product u. when oil bubbles move in water. to resort to experimental correlations. Also. 11-15. and the water holdup. as previously described (eq.. then the slippage velocity us = uo . These concepts can be easily extended to other flow types. The slippage velocity. 1980. The slippage velocity is relatively viscosity-independent and depends mainly on the buoyancy forces arising from the density difference between the two phases. production logging tools only provide the total flow rate (flow-meter) and the average density (gradiomanometer). us. e.. ) in the above equation. The production logging tools (flowmeter and gradiomanometer) determine the total flow rate. y. and presents the main problem in production logging. Flow parameters At least three flow parameters are usually required: (1) total flow rate. if qo = volumetric oil flow rate and qw = volumetric water flow rate. (2) slippage velocity. experimental corre- lations have to be used to relate the measured holdup with the unknown slippage velocity. vary inversely. therefore. 11-6). Inasmuch as bubble flow is representative of polyphasic flow in many respects. and from field experience.

Moreover.5 Denslty difference. Slippage velocity versus density difference between water and oil at various water holdups. Thus. It was observed that: DIPHASIC F L O W OF OIL AND WATER I / FREOUENCY OF ROTATION .) . Obviously.= 5.9" WITH FLOW i 50 5c AGAINST 100 FLOW - CABLE SPEED ( F P M 1 Fig.1 0. Laboratory studies have shown that the spinner speed versus cable speed relation- ship for diphasic flow is the same as for monophasic flow (Fig. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. Spinner response in diphasic flow In diphasic flow. usually the two fluids move with different velocities. 11-15. if the well is inclined. 11-16).0 0. g/cc Fig.= 500 B W P D pipe LO. 11-16.2 0. The lighter oil flows through the upper part of the tubing. the flow is strongly perturbed and it has to be dealt with differently. the buoyancy forces tend to segregate the fluids. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. In-situ calibration of the spinner flowmeter in diphasic flow. 389 0' I I I I I 0.) The above-described discussion is true for bubble flow type only. qOr65o Bop0 Q.3 0.4 0. it is important to know which one of these two velocities govern the spinner response.

but viscosity is different from that of either of the flowing fluids. Inasmuch as the water holdup varies with depth in a well. (3) As far as the spinner response is concerned. 1980. (2) The uf (Fig. This is significant and can be observed when the fluid velocities across the upper and lower parts of the gradiomanometer are different from each other. as follows (in the case of oil-water diphasic flow) (Schlumberger.390 (1) The threshold velocity u. 11-16) is related to the total flow rate as follows (Schlumberger.Po (11-1) Yw = . p. pf. 1980. depends on the water holdup. 49): PGr = Pf (1 +K +F ) (11-10> where K = kinetic term and F = friction term. diphasic flow spinner calibration should be carried out over the whole producing depth interval. As mentioned earlier. 54): where A = cross-sectional area of the pipe and c = correction factor for flow profile ( = 0. which can be estimated by moving the tool at different speeds (similar to flowmeter calibration described earlier). 49): Pf = P W Y W + P o 0 -Yw) (11-12) or Pf . and the friction and kinetic effects (Schlumberger. . where 8 = angle of inclination of the well with respect to the vertical axis. p.Po ~ Pw This is the relationship always used in gradiomanometer measurements. The kinetic term appears in the logs as noise. The friction term includes: (1) pipe wall friction (can be accounted for by standard charts). In inclined wells. scaled in the terms of density (g/cm3). p. the diphasic flow behaves as a monophasic flow. The average fluid density pf is related to the holdup y. 1980. (2) friction at the tool-fluid interface. INTERPRETATION OF THE GRADIOMANOMETER The gradiomanometer measures the pressure difference across the 2-ft spacing of the two sensing bellows. the gradiomanometer reading por is the sum of the average fluid density.83 as before).

391

TEMPERATURE SURVEYS

Temperature surveys are carried out using the high resolution thermometer under
static (shut-in well) as well as dynamic (flowing well) conditions. The subsurface
temperatures can be recorded downhole in the wellbore or at the surface. Subsurface
recording requires only a wireline to lower the instrument to the desired depth,
whereas surface recording necessitates an additional conductor cable to transmit the
data from the measuring device to the recorder at the surface.
Usually tools for spinner surveys or radioactive tracer surveys incorporate a
temperature measuring device. Temperature variations downhole are recorded versus
depth or time, by the recorder at the surface. A temperature-measuring instrument
can also be permanently installed at the bottom of the tubing in the wellbore. As
pointed out by Bogart and Woodruff (1969, p. 309), in order to run temperature
surveys with wireline equipment, it is necessary to enter the well through a lubrica-
tor. Fluid loss (water, oil, or gas) through the lubricator could invalidate the results
of the temperature survey. The temperature profile will be distorted and displaced
upward if water is lost through the lubricator in a water-injection well which has
been shut in to obtain equilibrium conditions (Fig. 11-17). Erroneous conclusions
from interpretation of temperature surveys are obtained if the fluid loss through the
lubricator is overlooked. On examining Fig. 11-17, the obvious and immediate

Fig. 11-17. Temperature survey showing the effect of fluid loss through the lubricator. (After Bogart and
Woodruff, 1969, p. 310, fig. 4; courtesy of American Elsevier Publishing Co.,Inc., New York.)

392

conclusions would have been that water was moving upward behind the casing and
behind the blank section of pipe in the liner.
Calibration of the temperature-measuring element is necessary when correct
absolute temperatures are required. Differences in absolute temperatures recorded
during different temperature surveys may be attributable to utilizing different
temperature elements which were not calibrated just prior to the surveys.
Normal procedure with wireline equipment is to start at the bottom of the well (or
at the bottom of the interval) and to run the temperature survey coming out of the
well. Exact location of the instrument in the wellbore is known unless there is
considerable stretch of the wire. In this case the operator should note the depth and
the force needed to pull the instrument. Going down the wellbore, the instrument
can hang up; therefore, its exact location will be unknown (Bogart and Woodruff,
1969, p. 309). In the case of the bomb type of instrument, a time period from one to
several minutes is required for the temperature element to reach equilibrium with the
environment. A period of ten minutes may not be sufficient to reach temperature
equilibrium at the bottom of the wellbore (see Fig. 11-18; Bogart and Woodruff,
1969, p. 309).
Temperature surveys can be carried out under either dynamic or static conditions,
as described below.

STOP-TYPE SURVEY
STARTEDAT BOTTOM
xx OF EACH INTERVAL

X
RUN NO.2
X
ia, '!
u. .-
\.
X-
X-X-~_ \- RUN N O . ~
x-x.
\
ZURVES DUE TO 'xx, RUN No.3 RUN No. 2
-ACK OF TEMP.
CQUILIBRIUM
X
a
X
X
.\
" \

'X *
X
X RUN No. 1: TOO FEW STOPS "2
'1 AND LACK OF EQUILIBRIUM
DEPTH CONDITIONS DUE TO WIDE
x.x-fx VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE

Fig. 11-18. Temperature surveys showing the importance of reaching equilibrium with the surrounding
environment. (After Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 312, figs. 5 , 6; courtesy of American Elsevier
Publishing Co., Inc., New York.)

393

Dynamic conditions

The temperature profile in a producing well depends on the production flow rate,
the geothermal gradient, system geometry, formation and fluid thermal properties,
size and depth of producing interval, and the producing time. In an injection well,
injection time and flow rate govern the profile, other factors being the same as
before. An additional factor here is the temperature of injected fluid.

Static conditions

Where large volumes of fluids have been injected over long periods of time, the
temperature anomalies persist for extended periods of time. Best results are obtained
by running the temperature log after the well has been shut in for at least twelve
hours.
The rate at which the temperature along the wellbore returns to thermal equi-
librium is a function of: (1) rate at which fluids were injected; (2) injection time; (3)
temperature of injected fluid or, alternatively, the temperature difference between
injected fluid and the formation; (4) system geometry; ( 5 ) thermal capacity and
thermal conductivity of beds; and ( 6 ) temperature variation during the injection.
For all the examples presented here, the geothermal profile is assumed to increase
linearly with depth. The geothermal gradient is normally obtained from a tempera-
ture survey in an idle well that has been shut in for some time. For best results, the
wellbore should be full of static fluid. Obviously, well conditions prior to, and
during, the survey determine the usefulness of the data. Presented below are some
specific applications of temperature surveys.

( I ) Lost circulation
Lost circulation may be defined as the loss of fluid to a formation during drilling.
The degree of fluid loss may vary from gradual seepage to complete loss; in the
latter case only a few feet of hydrostatic head can be maintained in the hole.
Spinner surveys have been used, but the tool may become jammed by the fibrous
or flaky materials commonly added to muds to restore circulation. Temperature
surveys complement radioactive tracer surveys.
As indicated in Fig. 11-19, the wellbore has been cooled by the mud. The two
points of deflection are the results of fluid loss at each interval. Below the last zone
of lost circulation, the temperature increases toward the normal geothermal gradient
(see Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 311).

(2) Cementing
Cementing operation is the process of displacing cement slurry down the casing,
tubing, or drillpipe to a predetermined point. The slurry is formed by mixing water
with cement or with cement blended with other materials. Squeeze cementing and
cementing the casing or liner are the usual purposes of cementing operations.

394

\ LOST CIRCULATION

-* ZONES O F

CIRCULATION

Fig. 11-19. Temperature surveys showing zones of lost circulation (cooled by the mud). (After Bogart and
Woodruff, 1969, p. 312, fig. 7; courtesy of American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., New York.)

1 CEMENTING OPERATIONS

I

\-
TOP OF
CEMENT

I

CHANGE IF
HOLE SIZE

Fig. 11-20. Temperature survey during cementation operation, showing height to which the cement rose
behind the pipe. (After Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 312, fig. 8; courtesy of American Elsevier
Publishing Co., Inc., New York.)

395

The cement bond log, radioactive tracer survey, and temperature survey are used
to detect the top of the cement column and to measure the effectiveness of the bond
between casing and cement column.
The amount of heat evolved by the setting of cement placed behind the casing is
sufficient to be measured inside the casing. The temperature increase enables the
determination of the height to which the cement rose behind the pipe (Fig. 11-20).
The amount of heat given off is a function of the volume of cement, and changes in
this volume are caused by changes in hole size or by channeling of the cement (see
Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 311).

(3) Fracturing
Hydraulic fracturing can increase the productivity of a well and may increase the
ultimate oil recovery. Fracturing is most effective in tight formations or when a
damaged zone exists uound the wellbore.
The effectiveness of a fracturing operation can be determined by taking a series of
temperature surveys after the fracturing operation. Radioactive tracers are also
useful in this regard.
According to Bogart and Woodruff (1969, p. 311), during hydraulic fracturing,
there is a considerable heat, transfer between the injected fluid and the formation

\ FRACTURING
WITH
HOT FLUID

INTERVAL
INTERVALS TAKING FLUID
TAKING
FLUID

Fig. 11-21. Temperature anomalies after fracturing: (a) fracturing fluid colder than the formation and (b)
fracturing fluid at a higher temperature than the formation. (After Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 314,
figs. 9 and 10; courtesy of American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., New York.)

396

surrounding the borehole. The temperature change is greater for the formation
which breaks down and accepts fluid than for adjacent formations which do not
accept fluid. A quantitative interpretation can be made from the amplitude of the
anomaly. Temperature anomalies obtained with fracturing fluids colder than the
formation are indicated by Fig. 11-2l.a, whereas anomalies from fracturing fluids
with a temperature above the temperature of the formation are indicated by Fig.
11-21.b.

(4) Production
Temperature surveys will complement radioactive tracer surveys in determining
production profiles in oil wells. The points of deflection (Fig. 11-22.a) result from
fluid entry into the wellbore. At the bottom of the well, the temperature curve
deviates from the geothermal gradient when fluid (water and/or oil) enters the
wellbore and moves up. This fluid is warmer than the fluid in the intervals it is
flowing past and is cooled by fluid entering the wellbore at a lesser depth (Bogart
and Woodruff, 1969, p. 313).
In a gas well, the pressure in the wellbore is less than the pressure in the reservoir
and the gas cools as it expands due to the change in pressure. The degree of cooling
is dependent on the composition. of the gas and the extent of the expansion. A

1 I

I
I\
OIL PRODUCING WELL

I GEOTHERMAL\
I GRADIENT
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
\
d
G
Fig. 11-22. Temperature surveys in (a) an oil-producing well and (b) a gas-producing well. (After Bogart
and Woodruff, 1969, p. 314, figs. 11 and 12; courtesy of American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., New
York.)

397

deviation from the geothermal gradient indicates that gas is entering the wellbore
(Fig. 11-22.b). A quantitative interpretation can be obtained from the amplitude of
the anomaly (Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 313).
Casing leaks, tubing leaks, and flow behind the pipe from one zone to another
can also be detected by temperature surveys.

(5) Fluid injection
Fluid injection occurs during pressure maintenance, secondary recovery, or
tertiary recovery. The purpose is to increase oil recovery by some means of artificial
stimulation.
In gas-injection wells, temperature surveys are used in combination with spinner
surveys or radioactive tracer surveys to determine the injection profile during
injection operations. The injected gas will be at a temperature higher than the
temperature of the formation (Fig. 11-23.a). The amount of gas injected will
influence the cooling of the gas. The increase of the temperature profile toward the
geothermal gradient indicates that gas is not flowing past the interval.
In a water-injection well, the temperature curve will be almost a straight line
during injection operations owing to the cooling effect of the cold water (Fig.
11-23.b). The deviation to,ward the geothermal gradient indicates that a small

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
Fig. 11-23. Temperature survey in injection wells. (a) Gas-injection well. (b) Water-injection well. (After
Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 316, figs. 13 and 14; courtesy of American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc.,
New York.)

398

L WATER I \

8 HOUR AND
30 HOUR
SHUT-IN TIME

PRODUCED FLU,D
MOVING

.. DOWN

I 11- FLUID INJECTED

Fig. 11-24. Temperature survey under 'static conditions in a water-injection well (8-hr and 30-hr shut-in
time). (After Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 316, fig. 16; courtesy of American Elsevier Publishing Co.,
Inc., New York.)

amount or no water is passing through the interval. This temperature curve indicates
the injection profile at the time the survey was run and does not take into account
past performance.
A spinner survey or radioactive tracer survey indicates where the water is leaving
the wellbore in a water-injection well. The distribution of the water into the
formation can be determined from a temperature survey in a shut-in water-injection
well. Usually two surveys are run approximately 8-12 hrs and 24-30 hrs after the
water-injection well is shut in. The temperature curve will move toward the geother-
mal gradient in the intervals not taking water at the present time or in the past.
An anomaly might be detected during a temperature survey in a water-injection
well that is shut in (Fig. 11-24). Water from a sand with high pressure enters the
wellbore and moves down toward the low-pressure sand. Fluid leaves the wellbore
opposite the sand with the low pressure.
A leak of the casing shoe might be suspected if a spinner survey or radioactive
tracer survey indicates a large amount of water leaving the wellbore at the casing
shoe in a water-injection well. Only a temperature survey in a shut-in water-injection
well will definitely show when water is flowing past the casing shoe and behind the
pipe into another sand formation (Fig. 11-25). Usually two surveys are run ap-
proximately 8-12 hrs and 24-30 hrs after the water-injection well was shut in.
The advance of the flood front in a waterflood project can be followed by running
temperature surveys in a producing well that is under static conditions (Fig. 11-26).

399

WATER \
I INJECTION \

\ /
\
\\\
f

SHUT-IN TIME

I I LEAK O F
I I CASING SHOE

J \ -----
Fig. 11-25. Temperature survey showing leak around casing shoe at 12-hr and 30-hr shut-in times in a
water injection well. (After Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 318, fig. 17; courtesy of American Elsevier
Publishing Co., Inc., New York.)

1-7-
SECOND SURVEY
SIX MONTHS AFTER
FIRST SURVEY

- BLANK PIPE

PRODUCING WELL
UNDER STATIC
CONDITIONS

Fig. 11-26. Temperature survey in a producing well under static conditions, for quantitative interpretation
of the flood front advance. (After Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 318, fig. 18; courtesy of American
Elsevier Publishing Co.,Inc., New York.)

400

1 DAY SHUT-IN
TIME AFTER
STEAM INJECTION

X

,1 I

___j
6 DAY SHUT-IN
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I-
I
Fig. 11-27. Temperature survey during “soaking” and production periods at one day and 6 days shut-in
times after steam injection. (After Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 318, fig. 19; courtesy of American
Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., New York.)

The sand to be investigated has to be behind a blank pipe. A quantitative interpreta-
tion of the flood front advance can be made from the amount of water injected and
from temperature surveys at different time intervals.
Temperature surveys and sometimes spinner surveys are used to determine
profiles of steam injection in producing wells during the “huff-and-puff” method of
steam injection. A quantitative interpretation can be obtained from temperature
surveys at different time intervals. Usually steam is injected in a producing well for a
period of five to twenty days; then steam injection is halted and the well is allowed
to “soak”. During this soaking period, the pressure around the wellbore decreases
and heat is transferred farther into the reservoir. After the soaking period, which
lasts from one day up to ten days, the well is put back on production at a rate
sufficiently high to take advantage of the increased production capacity resulting
from increased oil mobility. Temperature surveys normally are obtained during the
soaking period and during the production period (Fig. 11-27). Immediately after the
steam injection is halted, the temperature profile becomes almost a straight line.
During the production period, the temperature profiles will indicate the intervals
which have been heated by large quantities of steam or hot water during the
injection period (Bogart and Woodruff, 1969, p. 317).

401

APPENDIX 11.1-PRODUCTION LOGGING (FIELD EXAMPLES) (Courtesy of Schlumberger Inc.)

Example lI.I-I-PCT survey in a gas well

The production continuous tool (PCT) was run during a multipoint test in this
high gas producer. The test was run on 48/64 in., 36/64 in., and 28/64 in. chokes.
A typical sequence of PCT surveys for each flow rate includes (see Fig. 11.1-1):
(1) A record of the bottomhole pressure from the moment the well is opened until
it is stabilized. In this example, the manometer log shows that the well is practically
stabilized in less than ten minutes. The bottomhole flowing pressure is also necessary
for conversion of downhole flow rates to surface production rates.
(2) Several flowmeter surveys at various cable speeds. This provides an “in-situ”
calibration of the flowmeter (seee Fig. 11.1-2). From this calibration and the
knowledge of the pipe inside diameter, the downhole flow rate can be computed at
each depth.
(3) A gradiomanometer survey. In this example, this survey is necessary to
evaluate the flow rate between the two lowest sets of perforations (depth = 400 ft),
where gas is bubbling through water. Under these conditions, the flowmeter is not
reliable.
(4) A temperature survey. It is necessary to know the flowing temperature and
pressure to convert the measured downhole flow rates to surface production rate.
Such logs provide a rough estimation of the producing capability of each
producing horizon. As an illustration, the figure shows the determination of the open
flow potential for that well deduced from log measurements: 55 MMcf/D. The
result obtained from conventional testing, including a test on 1-in. choke, was 50
MMcf/D (the PCT was not run during that test; see Fig. 11.1-3).

Example I I . I-2- Completion evaluation: initial flow profile

The well was drilled through a carbonate reservoir, as can be seen in Fig. 11.1-4
where the computer processed interpretation of the open-hole logs is reproduced.
A 7-in., 26-lb casing was set, cemented and one 90-ft long interval was perforated
in the oil zone as shown in Fig. 11.1-4.
The well was acidized and then produced.
Shortly after, PCT (production continuous tool) and TDT (thermal decay time)
surveys were performed while the well was producing. The gradiomanometer,
flowmeter and TDT logs are shown in Fig. 11.1-4.
An interpretation of the logs indicates that:
(a) Despite the apparent homogeneity of the reservoir, most of the production
comes from the upper five feet of perforations (3830-3835 ft) (see flowmeter log in
Fig. 11.1-4). The acid effect apparent in the TDT log proves that acid was injected
mostly in the upper part of the perforated interval.
(b) Between 3835 ft and 3920 ft, oil bubbles through water: the flowmeter

402
~ - ~~

CONTINUOUS FLOWMETER SRADIOMANOMETI THERMOMETEF MANOMETER

peed spinner velocity ( gm /cc ) ('F) at depth 510
in I ( r.p.s .)
1 ,2 11.7 12:
iurfoce
Iroduction r a t e :
!4.4 MMcf/D opened well
a t 03.00

22.7 MMcf / D

-!iz2
)

I
I
3,4MMcf/D
I
-
0 ;\ closed
a t 05.15
well

Logs run w;th we
flowing on 48/64'
choke

-

Fig. 11.1-1. Production continuous tool (PCT) survey in a flowing well with 2-in. choke. Example No.
11.1-1. (Courtesy of Schlumberger, Well Surveying Corp.)

frequency increases slowly on the way up, while the water holdup is around 40%
(downhole oil density = 0.45 g/cm3).

Conclusion
The completion is not very efficient. Only five feet of perforated interval out of
ninety contribute significantly to the production of oil.

403

spinner 100

100 200 300 400 500
I cable speed
( I t Irnin)

Fig. 11.1-2. In-situ calibration of the flowmeter. Example No. 11.1-1.(Courtesy of Schlumberger.)

This set of logs (CPI, PCT and TDT) form a sound reference for the control of a
re-stimulation, or for the analysis of future reservoir and well problems.

Example 11.I - 3 - Evaluation of completion: monitoring of acidizing

Figure 11.1-5 shows the result of acidizing in an oil well. Before the acidizing, the
well was producing 2660 bbl/D, and 8250 bbl/D (measured at the surface) after
acidization. A flowmeter was run before and after acidizing at the same logging

squired drawdown
(psi*)
--- -----------
Pwf2-patrn2
10). ----

los.

I
I
1 open flow
I potential
lo5

Fig. 11.1-3. Determination of the openflow potential of the well. pwr = flowing pressure measured by
manometer. Example No. 11.1-1. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.)

404

TOT-K G F

, 30 Dl

RATIO s/sm3 RPS

PO 41

490(

500(
PRODUCTION
3900 bbl/D
/OF OIL

(NO WATER I

Fig. 11.1-4.Flowmeter, gradiomanometer, and TDT logs for Example No. 11.1-2. (Courtesy of Schlum-
berger, modified.) FM CH = formation characteristics, average core density, g/cm3; TDT = thermal
decay time; neutron capture cross-section; G = gradiomanometer; F = flowmeter; S, = water saturation,
I; OHL = openhole log, April 1974.

speed (70 ft/min). After redrawing the two logs on the same paper, a scale in bbl/D
can be fitted so that the full flow is 2660 bbl/D for the first run and 8250 bbl/D for
the second run. Then the contribution of each producing zone can be read directly,
before and after acidizing.
Zero flow cannot be taken directly from the logs in Fig. 11.1-5. Below interval A ,
there is a fluid of different nature, probably completion water, having a lower
viscosity. Run No. 2 reads zero at the very bottom of interval A . Run No. 1 reads
below the zero line at the bottom. The shape of the log and this low reading are
typical of the response in oil bubbling up through a standing column of water.

Example 11.I-4- Evaluation of completion: monitoring the perforating of a two-stage
completion in a gas well

Figures 11.1-6 and 11.1-7 are PCT logs on a well which has been completed with
7-in. casing, filled with water, and flushed by perforating zone A (trigger zone) at the

405

Fig. 11.1-5, Flowmeter logs before and after acidizing. Example No. 11.1-3. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.)
Flowmeter reading is in rps.

base of the gas reservoir. Completion No. 1 was intended to open zones B and C by
perforating in gas. A series of production logs were then recorded at two different
flow rates, 240,000 m3/D and 1,000,000 m3/D, as well as with the well shut in. Final
completion No. 2 was achieved by opening zone D,known beforehand to be the
zone of the highest permeability. Another series of production logs were performed
with the well shut in and at flow rates of 500,000 and 1,400,000 m3/D (Fig. 11.1-7).
Comparison between logs recorded at the high flow rates for completions No. 1
and No. 2 makes it obvious that zones A and B are not going to contribute much to
the total production because a pressure drawdown of 49 kg/cm2 (700 psi) is
necessary to bring them alive (Fig. 11.1-9), whereas the final pressure drawdown is of
the order of 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi). This result suggests that another type of completion
could increase the well deliverability or at least that a stimulation of zones A , B , and
C is advisable before opening zone D (of course, the stimulation efficiency should
be determined with another series of PL logs).
From the data obtained from the logs (see Table 11.I-I), flow rates from in-situ
calibration of the flowmeter (Figs. 11.14 and 11.1-9), and pressure drawdown from
the manometer readings, it has been possible to determine with fair accuracy the
openflow potential for each stage of completion (Fig. 11.1-10).

406

F G T F 0 T

RPS OC RPS OC

100
2 3 0 2c I 2 62.6 66 '

!
I

I

i
,

II

!
f
+
I

:
Y)

B
MANOMETER

'DG
!.- MANOMETER

m
f
\
s
0

-m
Y)

WELL FLOWING 1000000 M3/d GAS
!EE
WELL FLOWING 1400000 M 3 / d GAS

Fig. 11.1-6. (Left) Production continuous tool (PCT)-A logs run after completion No. 1. Example No.
11.1-4. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.) I = tension device; 2 = speed; 3 = CCL (caliper log); F = flowmeter;
G = gradiomanometer; T = thermometer.

Fig. 11.1-7. (Right) Production continuous tool (PCT)-A logs run after completion No. 2. Example No.
11.1-4. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.)

TABLE 11.1-1
Flow rates, flowing pressure, drawdown and openflow potential for Example 11.1-4

Flow rate, q Flowing pressure Pressure Open flow
(m3/D) (kg/cm2 ) drawdown potential
(m'm
0 219 0
Completion No. 1 240,000 214 5 1,800,000
1,000,000 170 49

0 219 0
Completion No. 2 500,000 217.5 1.5 8,200,000
1,400,000 212 7

11. In-situ calibration of flowmeter at several depths and different flow rates following comple- tion No. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.143. In-situ calibration of flowmeter following completion No. 11.1-10. (Courtesy of Schlumberger.Relationship between ( p z .~) Fig. .1-4. 2. 2 - OPEN FLOW POTENTIAL COMPLETION NO I- PRODUCTION RATE OIM~/~. 11. 1. Example No.) W so 100 CABLE SPEED (rn/min) Fig.1-4.1-9. 11.p : ) and production rate for determining openflow potentials. 11.) OPEN FLOW POTENTIAL COMPLETION NO.) pi = average reservoir pressure and p r = flowing pressure. (Courtesy of Schlumberger. Example No. 407 Fig.

see Fig.64 g/cc . therefore. 11. The well produces oil and gas. liner: Density = 0.5% water cut.1-11).h . bit. The flowmeter shows a flow rate of 540 bbl/D.1-12). A cement plug set at a depth of 5600 ft eliminated the water completely.Diagnosis of a problem: oil well producing water A well produces 6900 bbl/D of oil with a 7. and a 4 i . with no water.I-6-Diagnosis of a well problem: gas channeling behind liner A well is completed with a 9$-in. casing: Density = 0. The PCT log could not reach the open hole because of obstructions in the open hole. The PCT was run in order to determine the origin of water (only the bottom part of the logs is reproduced here. a 5-in. Gradiomanometer indicates that at point 1 only water is flowing.7 g/cc (c) In the 9$-in. open hole. Example 1l. the gradiomanometer shows an important friction effect in the small liner (see Fig. 11. casing. liner.408 (Courtesy of Schlumberger. the completion is open hole: 5i-in.78 g/cc (b) In the 7-in. With the well flowing. The readings are as follows: (a) In the 5-in.) Example 11. a 7-in. which is close to the surface flow rate of 520 bbl/D (= 6900 X 0. liner. The log was run down at 50 ft/min. All the water.075).I-5. liner: Density = 0. is produced from the bottom part of the well.

the flow rate is 12.1-13). (Courtesy of Schlumberger.71 g/cc in the 5-in. and 0. The friction effect for the gradiomanometer is (see Schlumberger. Chart 6-14): 1096 in the 5-in. the fluid density is around 0. liner. because the gas leaves the formation at that . 409 Fig.7 g/cc and the decrease in the 9i-in. 1973. 11. 0.69 g/cc in the 7-in. A temperature log was run just after shutting-in the well (see Fig. It indicates very clearly a cool sink some 550 ft below the liner lap. The temperature log indicates a fluid entry at the liner lap. liner.000 bbl/D. liner nil in the 93-in. Production continuous tool (PCT) for Example No. The corresponding densities are: 0. liner. 11.1-12. g/cm3.) According to the flowmeter calibration in the 5-in. liner 1012 in the 7-in. flowing well.1-6. casing where pGr= gradiomanometer reading. g/cm3. and p = average fluid density. casing. casing is not due to a lower fric