UNIVERSIT¥ GRANTS· COMMISSION NET BUREAU

Code No. 17

Subject: MANAGEMENT (includin'g Business Admn.

Mgt./Mar,ketinglMarketingMgt./Industrial Relations and Personnel Mgt., etc.)

SYLLABUS AND SAMPLE QUESTIONS

Note:

There will be two question, papers, Paper=-Il.and Paper-III (Part-A & B). Paper-II will cove~50 Objective Type Questions (Multiple choice, Matching type, True/False, Assertlon-Reasontng type) carrying 100 marks. Paper-III will have two Parts-A and B; Paper-Ill' (A). will have 10 short essay type. questions (300 words) carrying 16 marks.each. In it there will be one question with internal choice from each unit (t.e. 10 question from 10 units; Total marks will be 160). Paper-Ill (B). will be compulsory and there will be', one question from each of the Electives. The candidate will' attempt only one question (one elective only in 800 words) carrying 40 marks. Total marks of Paper-Ill-will be 200.

Unit-I

Managerial Economfes-Demand Analysis Production Function

Cost-output relations

Market structures

Pricing theories

Advertising

Macro-economics

National Income concepts Infrastructure=Management and" Policy Business Environment

Capital Budgeting

17

1

P.T.O.

Unit-II

The concept and significance of organisational behaviour-Skills and roles in an organisation-Classical, Neo-classical and modern theories of organisational structure-Organisational design-Understanding and Managing individual behaviour personality-Perception-Values-Attitudes-Learning-Motivation. Understanding and managing group behaviour, Processes-Inter-personal and group dynamics-Communication-Leadership-Managing change-Managing conflicts.

Organisational development

Unit-III

Concepts and perspectives in HRM; HRM in changing environment Human resource planning-Objectives, Process and Techniques Job analysis-Job description

Selecting human resources

Induction. Training and Development

Exit policy and implications

Performance appraisal and evaluation

Potential assessment

Job evaluation

Wage determination

Industrial Relations and Trade Unions

Dispute resolution and Grievance management Labour Welfare and Social security measures

Unit-IV

Financial management-Nature and Scope Valuation concepts and valuation of securities Capital budgeting decisions-Risk analysis Capital structure and Cost of capital

Dividend policy-Determinants

Long-term and short-term financing instruments Mergers and Acquisitions

Unit-V

Marketing environment and Env;ironment scanning: Marketing Information Systems and Marketing research: Understanding consumer and industrial markets: Demand Measurement and Forecasting; Market Segmentation-Targeting and Positioning: Product· decisions, Product mix,

17

2

Product Life Cycle; New product development; Branding and Packaging; Pricing methods and strategies.

Promotion decisions-Promotion mix; Advertising: Personal selling: Channel management; Vertical marketing systems; Evaluation and control of marketing effort; Marketing of services; Customer relation management;

Uses of internet as a marketing medium-other related issues like branding. market development, Advertising and retailing on the net.

New issues in Marketing.

Unit-VI

Role and scope of production management; Facility location; Layout planning and analysis; Production planning and control-production process analysis; Demand forecasting for operations; Determinants of product mix: Production scheduling; Work measurement; TIme and motion study; Statistical Quality Control.

Role and scope of Operations Research; Linear Programming; Sensitivity analysis; Duality; Transportation model; Inventory control; Queueing theory; , Decision theory; Markov analysis; ·PERTjCPM.

Unit-VII

Probability theory; Probability distributions-Binomial. Poisson. Normal and Exponential; Correlation and Regression analysis; Sampling theory; Sampling distributions; Tests of Hypothesis; Large and small samples; t, z, F, Chi-square tests.

Use of Computers in Managerial applications; Technology issues and Data processing in organizations; Information systems: MIS and Decision making:

System analysis and design; Trends in Information Technology: Internet and Internet-based applications.

Unit-VIll

Concept of corporate strategy; Components of strategy formulation; Ansoff's growth vector; BCG Model; Porter's generic strategies: Competitor analysis; Strategic dimensions and group mapping: Industry analysis; Strategies in industry evolution. fragmentation. maturity, and decline: Competitive strategy and corporate strategy; Transnationalization of world economy; Managing cultural diversity: Global Entry strategies: Globalisation of financial system

17

3

P.T.O.

and services; Managing international business; Competitive advantage of nations; :RTP and Wl'O.

·Unit-IX

Concepts=-Typee, Characteristics; Motivation; Competencies and its development; Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Small business-Concepts Government policy for promotion of . small and tiny enterprises; Process of business opportunity identification; Detailed business plan preparation; Managing small enterprises; Planning for growth; Sickness in Small Enterprises; Rehabilitation of sick enterprises; Intrapreneurshtp (organtsational entrepreneurship) .

Unit-x

Ethics and Management. system; Ethical issues and analysis in management; Value based organisations; Personal framework for ethical choices; Ethical pressure on individual in organisations; Gender issues; Ecological consciousness; Environmental ethics; Social responsibilities of business; Corporate governance and ethics.

PAPER-III (B) (ELECTIVE/OPTIONAL]

Elective-I

Human Resource Management (HRM)-'-Significance; Objectives; Functions; A diagnostic model; External and Internal environment;

Forces and Influences; Organizing HRM function.

Recruitment and Selection-Sources of recruits; Recruiting methods; Selection procedure; Selection tests; Placement and Follow-up.

Performance Appraisal System-Importance and Objectives; Techniques of appraisal system; New trends in appraisal system.

Development of Personnel-Objectives; Determining Needs; Methods of Training & Development programmes; Evaluation.

Career Planning and Development=-Concept of career; Career planning and development . methods.

Compensation and Beneftts-e-Job evaluation techniques; Wage and salary administration; Fringe Benefits; Human resource records and audit.

17

4

Employee Discipline-importance; causes and forms: Disciplinary action; Domestic enquiry.

Grievance Management-Importance; Process and Practices; Employee Welfare and Social Security Measures.

Industrial Relations-Importance; Industrial conflicts; Causes; Dispute settlement machinery.

Trade Unions-Importance of Unionism; Union leadership; National Trade Union Movement.

Collective Bargaining-Concept; Process; Pre-requisites; New trends in collective bargaining.

Industrial . Democracy and Employee Participation-Need for

democracy: Pre-requisites for industrial democracy;

Participation-Objectives; Forms of Employee Participation.

Future of Human Resource Management.

industrial Employee

Elective-II

Marketing-Concept; Nature and Scope; Marketing myopia; Marketing mix; Different environments and their influences on marketing; Understanding the customer and competition.

Role and Relevance of ~gmentation and Positioning; Static and Dynamic understanding of BCG Matrix. and Product Life' Cycle; Brands-Meaning and Role; Brand building strategies; Share increasing strategies.

Pricing objectives; Pricing concepts. Pricing methods .

Product-Basic and Augmented stages in New Product Developments Test marketing concepts

Promotion mix-Role and Relevance of advertising Sales promotion-media planning and management Advertising-Planning. execution and evaluation

Different tools. used in sales promotion and their spectflc advantages and limitations

Public Relations-Concept and Relevance

Distribution channel hierarchy; Role of each member in the channel; Analysis of business potential and evaluation ofperformanceof the channel members

17

5

P.T.O.

Wholesaling and Retailing-Different types and the strengths of each one; Emerging issues in different kinds of retailing in India

Marketing research-5ources of information; Data collection; Basic tools used in data analysis; Structuring a research report

Marketing to organtsattons=Begmentatton models; Buyer behaviour models; Organisational. buying process

Consumer Behaviour theories and models and their specific relevance to marketing managers

Sales Function-Role of technology in automation of sales function Customer relationship management including the concept of 'Relationship marketing'

Use bf internet as a medium of marketing; Managerial issues in reaching consumers/ organisation through internet.

..

Structuring and managing marketing organisations. Export Marketing-Indian and global context.

Elective-III

Nature and scope of Financial Management

Valuation Concepts-Risk and Return; Valuation of securities; Pricing theories-Capital asset pricing model and Arbitrage pricing theory Understanding financial statements and analysis thereof

Capital budgeting decisions; Risk analysis in capital budgeting and Long-term sources of finance

Capital structure-Theories and Factors; Cost of capital Dividend Policies-Theories and Determinants

Working Capital Management-Determinants and Financing; Cash management; Inventory management; Receivables management

Elements of Derivatives

Corporate risk management

Mergers and Acquitions

International Financial Management

Elective-IV

India's Foreign Trade and Policy; Export promotion policies: Trade agreements with other countries; Policy and performance of Export zones and Export-oriented units; Export incentives.

17

6

International marketing logistics; International logistical structures: Export Documentation framework: Organization of shipping services; Chartering practices; Marine cargo insurance.

International financial environment: Foreign exchange markets; Determination of exchange rates; Exchange risk measurement; International investment; International capital markets; International Credit Rating Agencies and Implications o~ their ratings.

wro and Multilateral trade agreements pertaining to trade in goods; trade in services and TRIPS; Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs); International Trade Blocks-NAFrA, ASEAN, SAARC, EU,wro and Dispute Settlement Mechanism.

Technology monitoring; Emerging opportunities for global business.

17

7

P.T.O.

SAMPLE gUESTIONS

. PAPER-II

1. What is the basis of monopolistic competition? (Al Product differentiation

(B) Agreement among producers (e) Cost of production

(D) None of the above

2. The sum and substance of Maslow's theory of motivation is (A) Satisfied need is a motivator

(B) Unsatisfied need is not a motivator (el Satisfied need is no more a motivator (D) None of the above

3. By hedging through derivatives the profit will be (Al increased

(B) stabilised

(el decreased

(D) None of the above

PAPER-III (A)

1. What are the barriers to communication?

Or

How do you measure the effectiveness of advertising?

PAPER-III (B)

11. What is the pricing strategy in a monopolistic competition?

Or

What are different theories of leadership?

Or

17

8

~:

ql&:l*ltj if ~ ~~;r-tB{ ffi, ~~-;:r-tB{-II ~m ~~;r-q?i....,...III ('qJTT-A ~ B) I ~~-;:r-1:ffl-II it 50 ~-~ ~~-;:r (GIS-PclCfl(rt41 ~, ~ ~, ~/~,i6lR-Cffi\UT ~) m-rt, ~ ~. 100 "iTrrr I ~~-tBI'-III t ~ ~--A .3fu: B m-rt; ~~-;:r:q?I'-IIl(A) ij ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 0 ~~. (300 ~~ G6T) mit ~ ~ ~~-;:r 16 ~ G6T m I .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~-;:r i311'"dRet> ~ffl (10 ~~-;:r, 10 ~ ~; ~ ~ 160 ~) I ~~-;:r-1:ffl-III (B) ~ ~, ~ ~ ~ if it ~-~ ~H ifiT I qfT!fff~ coT ~ ~ ~~-;:r (~ ~ ~ 800 ~ ~) ~trn, ~ ~ 40 Wrr I ~~;r-1:ffl-III ~ ~ i3Tcn 200 ffi I

~-I

~ -3T~~ 1ffrr-fcr:r#r~ur ~~ ~-~~ ~~

~~

Pcl$11 Q'1

~-3l~~~

utr:J i31F-T -3lCT~ ~~-~~~

~ cllt1IC1(OI

~-n

ij~16'iI~Cfl ~.q;r ~ ~m ~"---~~(f~ ... ~ ij ~ ~ ij~I&lI~Cf) ~ ~ #1lmCfl(ft, ~-Ck'IlfuCf)(f1~ -31T~~ e'16'11~Cf) rg\ifI~'1&1RWIt1 ~G6T w;r~?IT ~/ mPCT &lRb{q . ~~~ (~R)~-~ (cti)q~(1)~~, ~ ~ G6T ~ ~m ~ ~, ~~-@j(OjRbCfl ~m ~ l1fu~m~~ qRCla'i WFtr,--~ ~, e'16'1I~Cfl fcrCflm

17

9

P.T;O.

~~III

lfFICI" ~~ ~~ ctT i31Cf~ om ~~f; qRl:lfdd €HdlC4(UI if lfFICI" ~ ~ lfFICI" ~ P14t\ij'1~~(;f, ~ijb;qlit om ij(ij;f\fb

~ fcr~m-iJiTIlf ~

lfFICI" mrr~ C6T ~

mfi/~~T, mtlflUT ~ fcrqmr ~~~~(~~)~~~~

~&jlcH \(it(jf.h'i

~\(it(if.b1

~ \(it( if.b'1

~~

~EilPltb w:q~ ~ lWf-~

~C6T~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ttl'1If}(f.b ~Iffl ~

~-IV ~~-~~~

\(it(jf.b1 -3fq~ ~ ~ em \\'i'!Iif.b1 ~~~-~fcr~ ~~~~ctT~

~~T ~-~ ffiCf

ifttff{)j@lf.h ~ ij{(iqf{)I@lf{) ~ mR q;B t ~

~~~

~-v

fcr:IuR c:mllCl(OI ~ Clldlq(OI t£tt1flUT; ~ ~ cf.J ~ ~ ~m:r; Mffil om ~ellfTlf{) ~ C6T ~; l1PTem 1lTtR ~ '{Qfj'1I'1; ~ 4'IT @Og,f.h(UI 211Jff2·, om ~~; ~ ~, ~ fi1cffi, ~ ~-~; -.rcfR ~ C6T fEIcorn; ~ om ~~fJPI; ~f.t~ qo.qffi;qj om ~ I

17

10

Bcr$rf.M<:r-#q$r!lt~i PcimIQ'1; dlRhlld ~; ~ w.r~i ~ (~) ~~; ~ w.:nm. qrr t@:li<:fH ~ ~; Um\3lt C6T fcmur;:r; ~ ~~ ~ I

~ l1T&r=r ~ w:J it ~;:C{~G~ ~ ~;:c{~a·~ ~ ~ ~ ~ m, ~~, PcimlQ1 'd'm~ ~ I

~~~it~~1

~-VI

~ w.r~ rtT ~ ~ ~; Wr~ ~ 1:f{ m~; ~ (~~) ~ ~ fcr~~; ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ fcr~~i QRillfi11 ~ ~ 'Ift1T qrr 'iqfj~11i ~ fircR:T ~.~ 'ffiCI'; ~~; m lfltFr, ~ ~ Tffu~; f1i~rtlll ~~I

qRillWl ~m.rrtT ~ ~ a)?r; ~ c:w:fifi~i ~~fUrRrr fcr~~; &lIl(i1Cbdl; qRch.H ~i ~ ~; ~ fB@~i ~ fB@~; ~ fcr~~; qil«to qyo ~o I

~-VII

~ ~; ~ ~-fu:trc::, ~, ~ ~ tmftq; f1~BI>GI'*-f ~ S4ct\q11'11 fcr~~; S4Riil<H fB@"'d; S4Riiltl1 ~; >!II${iq11 WlffOT; ~ ~ m ~~f; t. z, F, ~ crt qf'rlffOT I

fb"'1.l(1 qrr ~ 31jS4111·n if ~i !>1leiljTl~ ~ am Wfo;IT if SR:r l>I"'l~ffill; ~ fflr; w.r~ ~.~ ~ f.taf<:R; fflr fcr~~ ~ f%'J11~1; ~ !>1leO!lfTle61 it >lCJ:Rtllij~re{~G ~ ~re{qG ~ -31jS4111111

~-VIII

~ C2{${'q11 ctr ~; C2{tHiI'1l ~ "f.gq)j .~.qrr ~ ~; mo ~o mo ~; q)ir c6T 'J1IRiild C2{iHil1IQ; S4Rill"'pft fcf~~; i9{~{€HI(i1fb -3w:wr 3fn: ~ '1I1Ri=)lUI; ~ fcf~~;~ mrn if i9{iH'q1IQ, (Slut1Cb{OI, qRqCfqtll 3fn: ;rn; S4Rilllift ~ ~ ~~; fcr~q ~ qrr W-<I~tlCb{UI; f1i«eRiCb ~qrr >Jq~; 1!qostrflll ~~T i9{~<'q1Iq; fcrefrq ~ ~ W:n"\3lt CbT 1!IOjOSJ!Cb{Olj 31"'ddt\lI Cl:f"("q"R em ~; uW ~S4RilllfTldl(i1Cb ~; amo ito qyo ~ fcr~q arrtlR WJo;f·1

~-IX

~-w.fiR, fcr~~; ~j WffiT ~ ~ fcrCbrn; ;m ~ ~ '3tlf?idl; ~ dlCjflltl-3TCTtrr{UTT~ 'd'm ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ {1\Jic61?O:1 ~; OQCjBIi'4Cb ~ ~

17

11

P.T.O.

cCr ~; ~ 6wHilf"4Cb ~ ~~; ~ ~ C5T ~i ~.~ ~~; ~ t;qo:Hll4'j if WUT'ffi; Q1UT t;qcHilql C5T ~; -3Rf8-\3iaftti.11 i3l~ Blli5'1I("iq) i3iafi1d11

~-x

~fdCf)i.1I.~ WR-T &:ir; N~ if~ ~. Q;Ct fcf~~;~ i3lT~ WRM; ~ ~ ~ ~ adih31ct IDm{; ~ it &ffin tR ~ GJ.ITq; ·fWT ~ ~; ~ ~; C:lltIlCl{uTltl ~raCbdli ClICiefti ~ eJ¥1IRiCb \3'i1{&I~(CI; ~ ~mR ~ ~~Cb(lll

lI~';{-q;{-nI (B)

~I

1lR"CI" ~ ~ (HRM)~i ~~"tI"; cnr:f; ~ ~&If.iCb. 1lTS1'l; ~ ~ \3iIOflRCb ClkilcHol; ~~ ~ ~; l{ACf ~ ~ C6T4 C5T WRM I

'mlf . ~. ~~1@ i5.lim; miT cCr SlOIl~tlii ~ cCr ~; ~ ttiT~; ~ ~ GW{ .c6t

CbI4C:1It'l I .

f1G01I&'1.\@:IiCb'1 &:ir~ ~ ~~; \(i4i6f)'1 ~. tt ctC6;fj~; t#liCb1 &:ir if m Slcffi"14i I Gf)~IR41 C5T ~~~"tI"; Gf)4tlli{q'j cCr i3lTCt~~ C5T f.t~; ~~ q;.g:Ri4i ~ ~ CbI%"I;.\(i'<:ljtb'1l

~ wr (~) f.Nl'i11 ~ ~-$r;r 'fff.c€'r~; ~ ¥ f4ql\i11 ~ ~ c€'r

. Q uliRii 41 I

~-~ ~ ~~ \@:IiCb'1 (lqAI~; .~ ~ ~ ~; ~ ~; JfRq mn~ fumt

~~~t ..

Cbrftlltl ~~mR-~; Cf)1'{'UT ~ ~;~~IIB'1I~Cb CbF:[ClI@; ~ 'i1fq I

~ Wf.tT~; ~ ~ ~; i!brfillfl ~ Q;Ct {WiIRiCb ~ i3"CIT<:r I ~tiW'ICf) ~~.; -ittl'Ifl'1Cfj~; ~; ~ ffl"cR:R ~ I

-8ll1~~ mrr·q;r ~; .sr:r mrr q;r ~; ~ .sr:r *" \3i 1~(rj11

(11~Cb 4l&all\i:n~; ~; w-r~i aI~r~Cb 4'I~qJ~1 ~ !IDf if m 5!~tlll

~tllfflq) ~ ~ Cfjrftll{1 ~~ ~ c6T ~~; -3fl~lfTlq) ~ cCr w-rw; q)~,Rql cCr ~~~t:1; Cbqtlln ~ Eo ~ I

lfRCf mntR" ~ cpr ~ I

17

12

~II

~---<31cT~; ~ ~ ~; Fer1uR ~; ~ fll~; ~ qldlq{OI ~ \R'CPT ~ tf{wmcr; ~.~ Qfat:t'>lfTldl qrr W'f I

@Ot'tCb(OI. qprr~Tf.M ctT ~ ~ QlijfTlCbdl; ~omo ~o ~"ffl!lT ~ ~-'qSfi qrr ~ ~~I~fTICb~; ~~~~; mus f.:rriur ~ ~~('Cl'·lIq;'qTTf-fcm:rR~..tft

0!{~('t:I'11 ({'ii'i .

. ,

~ f.1imuT ~ ~~-q-; ~ ~ ctT~; ~ ~ ctT ~

~-m~mmif~~~WUT qfr~Fer1uRctTl3{q~

WIeR fll~ fcl$1lq'1 ctT ~ ~ QI«fTltbdl . ~WI$r~qrr~~~ fcl$1lq'1~, CbIQf;:qll'1 ~ 1_@:'IiCb'1

~ WI*' if ~.~. \3QCb(OI "ffm ~ fclfm· m-q ~ ~ \i1'H'lA:fc:6---<31cTmrurr ~ ~mifTlCbdl

fmRuT ~ *i¥iiSl@:1I; ~ if ~ ~ ctT~; $wr ~ ~ cCr &jqijlfi:lCb~ nl!lT f.iUlIG1 qrr \~iCb.11

~ Fcrn;-q ~ ~ ~-~ ~ fclf1:rn SJffi11 ~ ~1fffiqT; 'qffi{ if ~ «:rTtrR ~ ~ mw:ITir~m~1

~ ~Trci-~~ ~; m ~t m fcl'~~ if ~. ~ \3qq:)(OI; .~ Qffi~&1 qjJ~1

~ ~ ~ fcl'troR @O~"ICb(OI~; ~ ~ ~; ijJI61(~Cb ~ ~ I \3qtflffi( ~ ~ i"B"<9:("d ~ lf1S(if om ~ ~ ~ fum; ~ ~ Q(ijiTlCbctll ~ qm;f-~ qm;f ctT ('CI't:I(Ritctctlif «1i!flfTlcCt c6t ~ I ~~N~~~w.r~qft~1

~ ~ tmZrl ~ w:r if ~002{~2 qrr ~; ~"'2(~2 ~ lfrtzrq it ~~/Wro1T.ncn ~ it~~~1

~~ctr.~~~1

f.tqfu ~-~ ~ ~4s~"IQ ~ if I

17

13

P.T.O.

~III ~~cpr~~~

\(iqiCf)1 arq~-~ tzyf ~i ~ cpr \@ii;f)1; ~ R~ ~-Ttm-~ ~ R~ ~ ~ -3HHqol'1 ~ ~ fB@Ofi

~ fC:Iq(ofi ~ ~ fC:I"~~ cpr mol

i'ffl. ~ ~; ~ ~ it ~ fC:I"~~ .~. ~ cCr~efCf)IRrli;f) ~ ~ ~ ~-~ tzyf ~i ~ cCr ffiTRf

~~T ~-fu@Ofi ~ ~ rnq

~~fuir 1?fr ~-R~ rnq ~ fcffi ~; %~T ~; ~ N.tl; mfFJm cpr ~ g(lif~fuOif ij) rnq

~. \1llfurT N.tl

~.~

~ .

i3HHftlll ~ N.-!C:f

~IV

mm cpr ~~1t ~ tzyf~; ~ ~$1~; ~ um ij) m~ ~~; ~ ~ ~ Flqfd'ji«l ~Cf)1~~1 cCr ;frft1l:{Ci f.ifS4IG1; ~ S'll~I~Cf) I

01;:<'Hft'l4 ~. MIRrlRCffl; 3iOfi(fetq MIRrlfR:Cf){i1 <1<il1Iq; ~ ~ cpr mw:r; \it~I\ij(I4'I ~an cpr WR;;r; ~.~~, ~ lffiff cpr ~ I

3iOfi(ftlq ~ C110Ic4<01; ~~1t ~ &l\iiTt; ~ GU cpr~; fC:If.:l'1q ~ cpr l{l1:R; 3i0fi<T~4 fC:Ip,~'",; \:jHHf~q ~ ~; i31Ofi<ft'lq ~ mrr· cMFflqj ~ ~ ~ ij) frlfurrdl

~~ aw:m: Wfo;:r ~ ~\3TI, W-rran om ~it ClJTtfR wq..tfi ~~ ~ ~; ~~ cUdlC1(U~q ~ (MEAs); 3im<f~4 a:rrqr{ ~-NAFfA, ASEAN, SAARC. EU, wro ~ ~~~mtl

sthi)Pttt 3fJ~; ~4:S('1'"'lq &fT1=IR ij) ffi'Q; ~ ~ ~ I

17

14

1. ~ SfRttil ffldI q;r ~ CR:IT l?

(A) ~~

(B) '3~IGcb1 if e'1~h:11

«» ~~

(D) ~if~~~

2. iffi;fr ~ ~ Rl'Al"*1 C6T mU~T l

(Al ~ -3TfCT~~ ~ ~ ~

(B) ~ -3TfCT~~ ~ ~ ~ l

(C) ~ -3TfCT~~ i3lGf ~ ~ ~ l

(D) ·~if~·~~

3. ~(I{~R:CiJ1 ~ am ~ m ~ (tfJ'q (A) qq;~~'

(B) ~ -um ~

(C) tfG ~ ~

(D) i3'tRlm if ~ ~ 1"ti

JI~';{-tJ$I'-III (A)

17

15

P.T.O.

11 .. ~ ma-~ ~ ~~'~~oiffi'rqmmm %"? ~~

• ~ ciR--«· ~ fij~,~ .: ~? ~~

***

17

16

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.