This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Maintenance - The work of keeping something in proper condition; upkeep.
By Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34) Department of Mechanical Engineering Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah - Pakistan
services and Enterprise Asset Management System (EAM System) Improvements to the maintenance management processes including the decision support and management systems.Objectives of Maintenance Engineering Improvements in the specific asset environment (physical plant and equipment) Improvements in resource utilization (people. . materials.
Introduction Maintenance Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying engineering concepts to the optimization of equipment. is increasing important due to rising amounts of equipment. machinery and structures have grown increasingly complex. requiring a host of personnel. Since the Industrial Revolution devices. and hence maintenance engineering. Maintenance. and departmental budgets to achieve better maintainability. and availability of equipment. equipment. systems. procedures. reliability. vocations and related systems needed to maintain them . machineries and infrastructures.
Reactive Maintenance Reactive maintenance is basically the run it till it breaks maintenance mode. . No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment as the designer originally intended to ensure design life is reached.
Preventive Maintenance Actions performed on a time. or mitigate degradation of a component or system with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life through controlling degradation to an acceptable level. . preclude.or machine run-based schedule that detect.
This maintenance is often most expensive because worn equipment can damage other parts and cause multiple damage.Equipment is maintained after break down. Corrective Maintenance .
Results indicate current and future functional capability. predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance by basing maintenance need on the actual condition of the machine rather than on some preset schedule. . Basically.Predictive Maintenance functional state). Measurements that detect the onset of system degradation (lower thereby allowing causal stressors to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component physical state.
A process used to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical asset in its operating context. Reliability Centered Maintenance . It recognizes that equipment design and operation differs and that different equipment will have a higher probability to undergo failures from different degradation mechanisms than others. It recognizes that all equipment in a facility is not of equal importance to either the process or facility safety. machine uptime. and a greater understanding of the level of risk that the organization is presently managing. It is generally used to achieve improvements in fields such as the establishment of safe minimum levels of maintenance. changes to operating procedures and strategies and the establishment of capital maintenance regimes and plans. Successful implementation of RCM will lead to increase in cost effectiveness.
The objective of maintenance is to maintain the assets of a company so that they meet the reliability needs at an optimal cost. protect Keep from failure or decline The ultimate goal of maintenance is to provide optimal reliability which meets the business needs of the company.Maintenance Reliability Most misunderstood about maintenance is the true objective of the function. In Webster¶s dictionary it defines maintenance as: Maintenance To maintain Keep in existing condition Preserve. Many people do not know the definition of reliability and it is: ³The probability or duration of failure-free performance under stated conditions´ .
.Reliability Engineering Reliability engineering is an engineering field. that deals with the study of reliability: the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. It is often reported as a probability.
. Reliability must be "designed in" to the system. the first step in the DFR process is to set the system s reliability requirements. While the predictions are often not accurate in an absolute sense. Typically. they are valuable to assess relative differences in design alternatives. Reliability design begins with the development of a model. is an emerging discipline that refers to the process of designing reliability into products. This process encompasses several tools and practices and describes the order of their deployment that an organization needs to have in place to drive reliability into their products. Reliability models use block diagrams and fault trees to provide a graphical means of evaluating the relationships between different parts of the system. These models incorporate predictions based on parts-count failure rates taken from historical data.Design for Reliability (DfR) Design For Reliability (DFR).
such as a backup system.Design for Reliability (DfR) Design Techniques Redundancy: This means that if one part of the system fails. there is an alternate success path. Physics of failure: Relies on understanding the physical processes of stress. strength and failure at a very detailed level. Then the material or component can be re-designed to reduce the probability of failure. However. Component derating: Selecting components whose tolerance significantly exceeds the expected stress. and is often the only viable means of doing so. as using a heavier gauge wire that exceeds the normal specification for the expected electrical current. and is therefore limited to critical parts of the system. Redundancy significantly increases system reliability. . redundancy is difficult and expensive.
Some companies focus their efforts on developing reliability predictions when this effort instead could be better utilized understanding and mitigating failure modes. and the time pressures to bring a product to market limit the reliability improvements that might be made. thereby developing improved product reliability. . this focus is reactive in nature. Organizations will go through repeated (and planned) design/build/test iterations to develop higher reliability products.Design for Reliability (DfR) Reliability consideration has tended to be more of an after-thought in the development of many new products. Overall. Where reliability is actively considered in product design. Many companies' reliability activities have been performed primarily to satisfy internal procedures or customer requirements. it tends to be done relatively late in the development process.
Design for reliability (DfR) Finally. Use proven component parts & materials with well-characterized reliability. These lessons learned can be very useful in avoiding making the same mistakes twice. De-rate components for added margin. Reduce parts count & interconnections (and their failure opportunities). . Design to minimize or balance stresses and thermal loads and/or reduce sensitivity to these stresses or loads. Provide subsystem redundancy. Specific Design for Reliability guidelines include the following: Design based on the expected range of the operating environment. Improve process capabilities to deliver more reliable components and assemblies. the company should begin establishing a mechanism to accumulate and apply "lessons learned" from the past related to reliability problems as well as other producibility and maintainability issues.
Maintainability a successful repair action Maintainability is defined as the probability of performing within a given time. In other words. maintainability measures the ease and speed with which a system can be restored to operational status after a failure occurs. .
process. maintainability is the degree to which the design can be maintained or repaired easily economically and efficiently. Second. Increase product availability and decrease maintenance time. Decrease logistics burden and Life Cycle Costs. We can now define design for maintainability as a design strategy. Increase customer satisfaction. with the following objectives: Identify and prioritize maintenance requirements.Design for Maintainability Design is the transformation of an idea into a product. involving both the designer and end user. . or service that meets both the designers requirements and end users needs.
In the case of a durable good with a long life cycle or a product with parts subject to wear. . designing for maintainability/serviceability is not important. The design of the support processes needs to be developed in parallel with the design of the product. and the product must be designed for easy maintenance. maintainability/serviceability may be more important than initial product acquisition cost. When designing for maintainability/serviceability. there needs to be consideration of the trade-offs involved.Design for Maintainability Consideration of product maintainability/serviceability tends to be an after-thought in the design of many products. This can lead to lower overall life cycle costs and a product design that is optimized to its support processes. Personnel responsible for maintenance and service need to be involved early to share their concerns and requirements. In high reliability and low cost products or with consumable products.
Design so that they require simple procedures to replace. Mistake-proof fasteners so that only the correct fastener can be used in re-assembly. assemblies or parts so that they can be easily accessed. standard replacement parts. Use common. Use common handtools and a minimum number of handtools for disassembly and re-assembly. Use quick fastening and unfastening mechanisms for service items. removed and replaced.Design for Maintainability Basic design rules Identify modules subject to wear or greater probability of replacement. wear-out or need replacement in a small number of modules or assemblies. Eliminate or reduce the need for adjustment. . Use built-in self-test and indicators to quickly isolate faults and problems. Design these modules. Minimize serviceable items by placing the most likely items to fail. Mistake-proof electrical connectors by using unique connectors to avoid connectors being misconnected.
Maintainability of Piping Systems Mechanical piping systems offer a reduced need for maintenance. easily. Allowing workers to perform maintenance procedures quickly. . while providing speed and ease in accessibility and a safe environment for workers and building occupants. and safely makes mechanical piping a valuable option for projects that require regular maintenance procedures or when productivity cannot be interrupted for maintenance work.
. and material failure. add to an existing system. weld failure. Unscheduled repairs are the most pressing and time sensitive type of maintenance because they are unplanned and. and unscheduled repairs. Causes of these repairs can include erosion. Routine periodic inspections are performed to ensure that a system is intact and operating at peak efficiency. or replace old piping. leaks. require immediate action. such as pipe defects. Physical changes or expansions to a piping system are performed to adjust existing installations. in most cases. corrosion. physical changes or expansions to a piping system. cracks. such as pinholes and incomplete fusion.Maintainability of Piping Systems Three types of maintenance are performed on piping systems: routine periodic inspections.
Wind Turbine Maintenance Cost Modern wind turbines are designed to work for some 120 000 hours of operation throughout their design lifetime of 20 years. Experience shows that maintenance cost are generally very low while the turbines are brand new. . That is far more than an automobile engine which will generally last for some 4 000 to 6 000 hours. but they increase somewhat as the turbine ages.
. causing greater financial loses than simply replacing the part.Lack of Maintenance Leads to The main Costly Repairs component causing downtown for turbines is the gearbox. failure to monitor and replace oil as needed can lead to wear on bearing and gears. Furthermore. which if it fails can cost 15-20% of the price of the turbine to replace.
erosion. You choose which form of maintenance to use depending on the degree of reliability you want or can afford. corrosion.Boiler Maintenance The purpose of maintenance is reliability and cost control. and predictive maintenance. vibration. . Maintenance includes many activities but the most important are monitoring and testing performed by the boiler operator. oxidation. Despite what you may have heard. breakdown maintenance. and breakdown. Maintenance methods fall into three general categories. preventive maintenance. each one has its place. We ensure reliability of the equipment and systems in the boiler plant by limiting or preventing wear. all three methods should be used to maintain your boiler plant. Proper maintenance prevents failures of equipment that can result in significant repair costs. There are many forms of maintenance and. contrary to many opinions.
Boiler Maintenance Between those two extremes are all sorts of variations on monitoring and maintenance but most of them relying on the skill and dedication of the boiler operator. all that is predictive maintenance. Each round of the boiler plant you will look and listen to the feed pump. look for signs of vibration or shaft leakage. . When you add oil or grease to bearings you re performing preventive maintenance. possibly feel the motor and pump bearing housings to get a sense of their temperature. noting its condition. Breakdown maintenance has the advantage of low cost because we basically do nothing to prevent a failure. Preventive and predictive maintenance require an expenditure of effort and materials which represent an investment in reliability.
result in failure. Water treatment. properly performed. can prevent very expensive and catastrophic failure and the probability of such a failure if water treatment is avoided or ignored makes it the principle concern in all plants. Proper operation of some systems can also be called preventive maintenance when they prevent erosion by ensuring velocities do not get too high. overheating and other problems that can be corrected to prevent eventual failure. or friction to occur. Predictive maintenance consists of monitoring. cracks. corrosion. Annual inspections of steam boilers and less frequent inspections of other pieces of equipment are conducted to detect formation of scale. scale. if allowed to continue.Boiler Maintenance Water treatment and lubrication are the two principle preventive maintenance activities in a boiler plant. examinations and tests to reveal problems that will. vibration. . wear. Those activities prevent failures by maintaining conditions that do not allow corrosion.
The best place to start working on that schedule is the operating and maintenance manuals. doing what the manufacturer recommends until you get some track record to find what you have to add and what requirements you can extend beyond the recommendations. Every piece of equipment that requires preventive or predictive maintenance should have that maintenance scheduled. If you ve done a good job planning and executing the maintenance plan you shouldn t have any failures. A schedule and a record of the work being done is the best evidence that you are doing your job and a failure will not reflect on your performance. An operator can detect changes in sound. the operator s ear. Boiler Maintenance . Constant attendance by a boiler plant operator is one investment in predictive maintenance that helps ensure no surprises consisting of major equipment or system failures. An operator can detect many problems indicating imminent failure and react to prevent the failure. vibration.Of course there s that one instrument in the plant that is the best investment in predictive maintenance. temperature (by simply resting a hand on the equipment) that would require a considerable investment in test and monitoring equipment. You have to generate the maintenance schedule for your plant because your plant is unique. Be certain you got everything because failing to maintain something can be hazardous.
get it to do so. . If your maintenance engineering function is not adding measurable financial value to your bottom line. or replace it with one that can. and will. produce at better quality or higher quantity.Engineered Maintenance To constantly improve the way maintenance gets done so that plant and equipment are more reliable. and that costs less to maintain.
The work of keeping something in proper condition. Science & Technology.Engineered Maintenance Maintenance . By Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34) Department of Mechanical Engineering Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering. upkeep.Pakistan . Nawabshah .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?