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Fieldbus Basics Agenda
H1 Basic Review. • What is Fieldbus?
• Integrated Architecture.
H1 Benefits. • More data is available.
• • • • • Expanded view of Process and Instruments. Reduction in System Hardware. Wiring Saving. Summary. 4-20mA versus Fieldbus.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Technology. • H1 network review technology.
• • • • •
© 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation
Intrinsic Safety. DD and CFF Files. Typical Fieldbus installation. Fieldbus Components. H1 Fieldbus Model.
Fieldbus Basics Agenda
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Technology, (cont’d). • User Application – Resource, Transducer and Function Blocks.
• • • • • Standard Function Blocks. Example of a Control Loop. H1 Link Master Redundancy. H1 Link Active Scheduler. H1 Link Schedule Optimization.
Demonstration (5 to 10 minutes) • Example of a H1 Fieldbus Link.
• Vendor Devices on a H1 Fieldbus Link. • Types of Control on the H1 Fieldbus Link. • Link Optimization on the H1 Fieldbus Link.
© 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation
H1 Basic Review 4 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
HSE (High Speed Ethernet.What is Fieldbus? 1. 100mbps) provides integration of high speed controllers. 3. multi-drop communication System. Data Servers 5 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . serial two-way. H1 link (31. 2. A fieldbus is an all-digital. subsystems (via Linking Device) and data servers and workstation. Actuators & I/O).25kbps) interconnects field equipment (Sensors.
and Human Machine Interface (HMI) access the H1 Fieldbus information via the Data Servers.Integrated Architecture 1. Management Information Systems (MIS). Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Data Servers MIS ERP HMI Data Servers HSE/FTE Business Enterprise and Plant Application Packages H1-Fieldbus Network H1 and HSE Factory/Plant Instrumentation and Control devices 6 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
H1 Benefits 7 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
etc. Diagnostics. trend analysis. Alarms. Variables.More Data is available 1. process optimization. predictive maintenance and for asset management. Fieldbus allows “multiple variables” from each device to be brought into the control system for archiving. H1 Digital Signal Traditional 4-20mA One Variable (One Direction) Fieldbus Multiple Variables (Both Directions) 8 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . 2. Fieldbus distortion-free characteristics digital communication enables improved control capability which can improve product yields. reporting. Control System Network HSE (FTE) Controller PV I/O Subsystem 4-20mA FIM4 PV. Mode.
Plant operation and Maintenance personnel can be notified and corrective actions taken quickly and safely. Self Diagnostics and communication capabilities of microprocessor based fieldbus devices helps reduce downtime and improve plant safety. Mode. H1 Digital Signal Traditional 4-20mA View stops at I/O Subsystem Fieldbus Extends View to Field Instrument 9 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . 2. Diagnostics. Variables. etc. Control System Network HSE (FTE) Controller PV I/O Subsystem 4-20mA FIM4 PV.Expanded View of Process & Instrument 1. Alarms.
Variables. Mode. Control System Network PID HSE (FTE) Controller PV I/O Subsystem 4-20mA FIM4 AI AO PV. Standard Function Blocks is used to implement the Control Strategy. H1 Digital Signal AI AO PID Traditional Control and I/O requires extra hardware Fieldbus Extends Control and I/O to Field Instrument 10 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . 2. Alarms. Distribution of control into field devices can reduced the amount of hardware needed. Diagnostics. 3.Reduction in System Hardware 1. etc. PID and AO can be performed by the field device through the use of these Standard Function Blocks. Many control system functions such as AI.
One I.S 4-20mA I. H1 PID AO Traditional 4-20mA wiring.S Barrier. Mode. 2.S Digital Signal FIM4 PV.S I. One wiring for each Device One I. etc.S Barrier. Alarms. One Wire for Many Devices 11 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .Wiring Savings 1. fewer intrinsic safety barriers and fewer marshaling cabinets.S I. The H1 fieldbus allows many devices to be connected to a single wire pair. This results in less wire. Control System Network HSE (FTE) Controller PV I/O Subsystem I. Variables. Diagnostics.
More information available for Operations.Summary 1. Increased accuracy of measurements. 11. better self diagnostics and remote diagnostics. Easier evolution due to standardized function blocks. 3. 12 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . 10. Increased sophistication and flexibility of instrumentation. Increased uptime due to less equipment. 8. 9. 2. Reduced size of equipment Rooms. 4. Reduced number of Input/Output Converters. Reduced number of Power Supplies and Cabinets. 7. 5. Remote configuration of devices. Reduced number of intrinsic safety barriers. Reduced number of wires and marshaling panels. 6.
4-20mA versus Fieldbus 1. In addition. . .a bus-powered devices on a single wire pair. 13 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation 4-20mA P.a standardized physical interface to the wire.reduced wiring and terminations (multiple device on one wire).increased selection of suppliers (due to interoperability). A H1 fieldbus retains and optimizes the desired features of the 4-20mA analog system: . FOUNDATION Fieldbus enables: . . .S.intrinsic safety options.S.increased capabilities (due to full digital communication).single Loop integrity.connection to HSE backbone. . . . 4-20mA Fieldbus P. .reduced control room loading (control on wire). 2.
FOUNDATION fieldbus Technology 14 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
8. Can add Repeaters to extend > 1900 meters.H1 Network Review 1. Control on the Wire – single loop integrity 6. 7. Multi-Drop wire pair with Power and Signal on same cable. 3. Max. 5. Support Intrinsic Safety. Distance up to 1900 meters. 2. HSE (FTE) Fieldbus Signal FIM4 H1 Digital Signal R H1 Digital Signal 1900 meters 15 Distance > 1900 meters © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . of 4 repeaters can be used to a maximum distance of 9500 meters. Function Blocks built into Field Devices. 4. can have multiple Link Masters. Fault Tolerant.
S certified devices Trunk Power supply Conditioner T Wiring block T I.S certified devices 16 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .S Interface Host Control System I.Intrinsic Safety Control room Field Field device I.
4. Standard parameters present in devices. DDs and CFFs will be provided by the Device Supplier or Host Supplier. Device Description (DD). Instruments described with Device Description Language www. Configuration System DD & CFF 2. Parameters and Capabilities are defined in device files – DD and CFF.org FIM4 H1 Network 17 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .DD and CFF Files 1. 3. 5. Device files are key to off-line configuration. Option to include specific manufacturer parameters. Field Devices will consists of: • • • Actual Physical Device. Common File Format (CFF).fieldbus.
18 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Common File Format (CFF) is a file which describes the functions and capabilities of a field device.DD and CFF Files 1. 2. CFF files are standard ASCII text file. The CFF file is used in conjunction with the Device Descriptor file to enable a host system to configure the system off-line. Device Descriptor (DD) File allow operation of devices from different suppliers on the same fieldbus with single host system. 3.
Up to 1900 meters.Typical Fieldbus Installation Control System (Host) Fieldbus Interface Module • • • • • • 19 An example of the Chicken foot (tree) topology. T PC Power supply 24V DC Bulk power PC Power supply Trunk Spur T Field Devices FF-831 Segment © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Maximum of 9500 meters via repeaters. Typically 10-12 buspowered fieldbus devices per segment. Spur short-circuit protection. isolated power conditioning defined by FF-831. Fieldbus PST Specs. Redundant.
Fieldbus Component Power Supply Power Supply Workstation Workstation Fieldbus Interface Module Fieldbus Interface Module FOUNDATION™ Fieldbus System HMI HMI Conditioner Conditioner H1 Bus (Trunk) H1 Bus (Trunk) Terminator Terminator Junction Box Junction Box H1 Bus Wire (Spurs) H1 Bus Wire (Spurs) Transmitters Transmitters 20 HSE (FTE) Cable HSE (FTE) Cable Safe Area (Host) Hazardous Area (Field) Terminator Terminator Actuator Actuator © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
H1 Fieldbus Model FOUNDATION fieldbus H1 technology consists of: • • • The Physical Layer. Data Link Layer is OSI layer 2. 21 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . FMS is OSI layer 7. The Communication Stack. 5 and 6. The User Application Layer. • • • • • • Physical Layer is OSI layer 1. 4. FAS maps the FMS into DLL. The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) layered communication model is used to model these components. Communication stack is comprised of layer 2 and layer 7. Fieldbus does not use OSI layer 3.
The Physical Layer receives messages from the communication stack and converts the messages into physical signals on the fieldbus transmission medium and vice versa. start delimiters and end delimiters. 22 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . 2.H1 Fieldbus Model 1. Conversion includes adding and removing preambles.
the Data Link Layer (DLL) controls transmission of messages onto the fieldbus.H1 Fieldbus Model 1. Layer 2. 3. through a deterministic centralized bus scheduler call the Link Active Scheduler (LAS). The Communication Stack comprises of Layer 2 and 7. 3. 23 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . FAS uses the scheduled and unscheduled features of the DLL to provide a service for the FMS. FMS services allow user applications to send messages to each other across the fieldbus using a standard set of messages. 2.
The types of blocks used in a User Application are described as: • • • Resource Block. 2. 3. Transducer Block. Function Blocks. 5. 4.Blocks 1. Blocks are representations of different types of application functions. The Control Strategy is built using Function Blocks. The Fieldbus Foundation has defined a standard User Application Layer based on “Blocks”.User Application . 24 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Devices are configured using Resource Block and Transducer Block.
etc. 2.Resource Block 1. manufacturer and serial number. The Resource Block describes characteristics of the fieldbus device such as device name. FIM H1 link interfaces Device Transducer block Resource block Device Control Builder Project tab 25 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . There is only one Resource Block in a device.
2.Transducer Block 1. FIM H1 link interfaces Device Transducer block Resource block Device Control Builder Project tab 26 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Transducer Blocks are required to Read sensors value and command output value. Transducer Blocks are used to configure devices.
The execution of each Function Blocks is precisely scheduled and there can be many function blocks in a single user application.Function Blocks 1. 2. The Control System Strategy is built using Function Blocks. Input and output parameters of Function Blocks can be linked over the fieldbus. PID Block AI Block AO Block 27 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
Function Blocks Analog Input Analog Output Bias/Gain Control Selector Discrete Input Discrete Output Manual Loader Proportional/Derivative Proportional/Integral/Derivative Ratio 28 Abbreviation AI AO BG CS DI DO ML PD PID RA Class Type Input Output Control Control Input Output Control Control Control Control © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .Standard Function Blocks 1. The Fieldbus Foundation has defined 10 Standard Function Blocks for Basic Control.
Eleven other Standard Function Blocks are also defined for Control. Function Blocks Device Control Output Splitter Signal Characterizer Lead Lag Deadtime Integrator (Totalizer) Setpoint Ramp Generator Input Selector Arithmetic Timer Analog Alarm 29 Abbreviation DC OS SC LL DT IT SPG IS AR TMR AAL Class Type Control Control Control Control Control Control Control Control Control Control Control © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .Standard Function Blocks 2.
Function Blocks Multiple Analog Input Multiple Analog Output Multiple Discrete Input Multiple Discrete Output Abbreviation MAI MAO MDI MDO Class Type Input Output Input Output 30 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .Standard Function Blocks 3. Four other Standard Function Blocks are also defined for Control.
a complete control loop can be built using a simple transmitter and a control valve. 2. Control in the Field does need a Controller. 31 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Example of a complete control module strategy Control on the Wire. AI Block PID Block HSE (FTE) FIM4 AO Block H1 Fieldbus PID AI AO Example of a complete control loop using Function Blocks located in fieldbus Devices. A Control Valve might contain a PID function block as well as the expected AO Block. Control Strategy can be built using Function Blocks built into field devices. 3.Example of a Control Loop 1. Thus. A simple temperature transmitter may contain an AI function block.
H1 Link Master Redundancy 1. 2. Basic Device do not have this capability. PRIM LAS BASIC Device BKUP LAS 32 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Two types of devices are defined in the Data Link Layer (DLL). Link Master and Basic Device. Link Master Device are capable of becoming Link Active Scheduler (LAS).
33 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Insures LAS Backup or LAS Redundancy.H1 Link Active Scheduler 1. 2. LAS provides unscheduled communication(**) control on the H1 network. 4. LAS provides scheduled communication(*) control on the H1 network. LAS maintain a live list (devices that response to the pass token) it uses to recognize devices on each H1 Link. (*) Sends a compel data (CD) message to a device which allows the device to publish specific data when it receives the CD message. (**) Issues a pass token to a device which allows the device to send message until it has finished or the token hold time expires. one of the Link Master will become the LAS and operation continues. Provides Data Link Time Synchronization so that all devices have exactly the same data link time. If one LAS fails. 5. 3.
Function blocks: AI 110 PID 110 AO 110 loop 110 period of execution Scheduled Closed loop control Function Block Execution Scheduled Communication Unscheduled Communication 34 Unscheduled Alarms/Events Maintenance/Diagnostic Information Program Invocation Permissives/Interlocks Display Information Trend Information Configuration © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . PID Loop scheduled and unscheduled communication.H1 Link Active Scheduler 1.
Link Schedule Optimization 1. Link Schedule Optimization provides a quantum improvement in the efficiency of Fieldbus Link bandwidth use. 4. Important for Control on the Wire. 2. Makes effective use of Fieldbus bandwidth. 35 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation . Allow for better time management on the Link. 3.
Triple Transmitters (Un-optimized) AI1 AI1 AI1-[OUT] AI2 AI2 ISel PID AO AI2-[OUT] AI3 AI3-[OUT] AI3 ISEL PID2-[OUT] AO Macrocycle Time 36 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .Link Schedule Optimization Optimizing Fieldbus Link Schedules Makes a Difference! • An Example .
AI3 AI3-[OUT] ISEL PID2-[OUT] AO Macrocycle Time 37 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .Link Schedule Optimization Optimizing Fieldbus Link Schedules Makes a Difference! • An Example . • Better unscheduled throughput. • Faster display call-ups. • Reduced latency. etc.Triple Transmitters (Optimized) AI1 AI2 ISel PID AO AI1 AI1-[OUT] AI3 AI2 AI2-[OUT] • More uninterrupted communications intervals.
Demostration (5 to 10 minutes) 38 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
Thank You www.fieldbus.org 39 © 1999 – 2005 Fieldbus Foundation .
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