In this section we will consider a number of BJT circuits and perform the DC circuit analysis.
For those circuits with an active mode BJT, we’ll assume that VBE = 0.7V (npn) or V EB = 0.7V (pnp). Example N12.1 (text example 5.4). Compute the node voltages and currents in the circuit below assuming ß = 100.
If the BJT is in the active mode, Vbe = 0.7V then With Ic Iae = then Consequently, using KVL
Vc=10-IeRc= 10-0.99*10-3>-4.7*103=5.3V Finally, using KCL IB+IC=IE,or IB=IE-IC=1-0.99=0.01mA Now we’ll check to see if these values mean the BJT is in the active mode (as assumed). • VCB = 5.3-4 =1.3 V. This is greater than zero, which means the CBJ is reversed biased. • VBE =0.7 V. This is greater than zero, which means the EBJ is forward biased. Because the CBJ is reversed biased and the EBJ is forward biased, the BJT is operating in the active mode. Note that in the text, they show a technique for analyzing such
circuits right on the circuit diagram in .
Example N12.2 (text example 5.5). Repeat the previous example but with VB =6 V. Assuming the BJT is operating in the active mode:
From the last calculation 2.57 C Vc = 2.57VÞ VCB = 3.43 V. Consequently, the BJT is not in the active mode because the CBJ is forward biased. A better assumption is the transistor is operating in the saturation mode. We’ll talk more about this later. For now, suffice it to say that in the saturation mode VCE| sat »0.2 V (see Section 5.3.4). Assuming this and reanalyzing the circuit:
This ratio is often called forced ß . Observe that it’s not equal to 100, as this ratio would be if the transistor were operating in the active mode (see Section 5.3.4). Example N12.3 (text example 5.7). Compute the node voltages and currents in the circuit below assuming ß = 100. To begin, we’ll assume the pnp transistor is operating in the active mode.
Now check if the BJT is in the active mode: • EBJ? Forward biased. • CBJ? Reversed biased. So the BJT is in the active mode, as originally assumed. Example N12.4 (text exercise D5.25).
Determine the largest RC that can be used in the circuit below so that the BJT remains in the active mode. (This circuit is very similar to the one in the previous example.)
We’ll begin by assuming the BJT is operating in the active mode. In the active mode, the CBJ needs to be reversed biased. The lowest voltage across this junction for operation in the active mode is VCB=0 ⇒VC=VB=0V Therefore, by KVL -10+R CIc=0 or
This value of RC and smaller is required for the BJT to operate in the active mode. Example N12.5 (text example 5.10). Determine the node voltages and currents in the circuit shown below. Assume the BJT is operating in the active mode with ß=100 .
First, we’ll use Thévenin’s theorem to simplify the base circuit
The Thévenin equivalent resistance and voltage are then
Using this Thévenin equivalent for the base circuit, the overall circuit is then
To find the emitter current, we’ll apply KVL over the loop shown giving 5=33.3*103.IB+0.7+3,000.IEThe
87 =0. by KCL The node voltages are then
Lastly. as originally assumed.7=[33. Consider the “conceptual BJT amplifier” circuit shown below:
. let’s check if the BJT is operating in the active mode. we find
Using this in the KVL equation 5-0.6=-4. Therefore the BJT is operating in the active mode.7 V originally assumed for a forward biased EBJ.57 -3.quantity of interest is IB.000(ß+1)]Ib With ß=100 then solving this equation we find Next. • VBC= VB -V C=4.VE = 4. With CB IC= Iß B=and IC =IaE for a BJT in the active mode. which means the CBJ is reversed biased.3*103+3.03 V. • BE B E VBE= VB.7 V This is 0.
One very useful application of the transistor is an amplifier of time varying signals. This is less than zero.57 -8.
From the circuit above. the total base-to-emitter voltage is Correspondingly.. We will assume the transistor is biased so that VC is greater than VB by an amount that llows for sufficient “signal swing” at the collector.e.The DC voltages provide the biasing.The time varying current in (4) Can be written as ic=gwVbe
. That is. The input signal is vbe and the output signal is vc.53) ic=Ice For small vbe such that Vbe<<2VVr (i. but the transistor remains in the active mode at all times. the smallsignal approximation). the transistor does not become saturated or cutoff during the cycle. then (3) can be approximated by
This is a familiar result: We saw something very similar with small signals and diodes back in Lecture 4. the collector current is or using (5.
the BJT behaves as a voltage controlled current source for small signals: The small-signal be v controls the small-signal ic Signal Voltage Gain
. Observe that: • The small-signal vbe assumption restricts the operation of the BJT to nearly linear portions of the iC-vBE characteristic curve. gm is the slope of the iC-vBE characteristic curve at the Q point: Consider the plot shown in Fig. Note that gmIc. the right-hand side of (8) becomes
therefore as we defined in (6). Its units are Siemens.
with ic= Ise from (2). Significance of the BJT Small-Signal Transconductance What is the physical significance of gm? First.is defined as the transistor small-signal transconductance. • From (6).
provided this input voltage remains small enough. So from (11). 5. c mbe ic= gm vbe = .
gm is a very important amplifier parameter since the voltage gain in (14) is directly proportional to gm. the total collector voltage is
where VC is the DC voltage at the collector. we can see that this transistor circuit can act an amplifier of the time varying input signal. the AC signal at the collector is Vc=-IcRc This result is negative. Using this result in (12) gives Vc=-gmVbeRc=-(gmRc)vbe Consequently.48a. the small-signal AC voltage gain Av is
In a broad sense.Second. time varying signals. From (6). gm has an important relationship to the signal voltage gain in this circuit. which means this circuit operates as an inverting amplifier for small. Using KVL in Fig.
Recall that we did this for the diode back in
In order to develop theseBJT_Small-signal models. the behavior of the BJT in the circuit changes if we interchange the terminals. active mode output resistance between the base and emitter. active mode input resistance between the base and emitter. Consequently. there are two small-signal resistances that we must first determine. as “seen looking into the base. Determine r p Assuming the transistor in this circuit
. We’ll focus on the npn variant in this lecture. Like a diode. re: the small-signal. These are:
1.” These resistances are NOT the same.” 2. which we will consider in the next chapter.
Our next objective is to develop small-signal circuit models for the BJT. r p: the small-signal.BJTs have a relatively large gm compared to field effect transistors. BJTs have better voltage gain in such circuits. Why? Because the transistor is not a reciprocal device. as “seen looking into the emitter.
Consequently. there is no time variation of the voltage. then
The AC small-signal equivalent circuit from
Notice the “AC ground” in the circuit. we “kill” the DC sources at that terminal: short circuit voltage sources and open circuit current sources.is operating in the active mode. Since the voltage at this terminal is held constant at VCC. So. we can set this terminal to be an “AC ground” in the smallsignal circuit. For AC grounds. from the small-signal equivalent circuit above:
we see that
. This is an extremely important concept.
using (2) in (3) This r p is the BJT active mode small-signal input resistance of the BJT between the base and the emitter as seen looking into the base terminal.
As indicated in Fig. this statement means we are fictitiously separating the source from the base of the BJT and observing the input resistance. 1 above. as indicated by the dashed line in Fig. re is theBJT_Smallsignal resistance between the emitter and base seen looking into the emitter:
. 2. (Similar to a Thévenin resistance. but beginning with
The AC component of iE in (5) is or with IE =I c|c .) Determine re We’ll determine re following a similar procedure as for r p.Hence.
but choosing one over the other sometimes leads to simpler analysis of certain circuits. There are two families of such circuits: 1.
. . Hybrid. then e be ve=-vbe and Using (7) in this equation we find But from (5. BJT Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits We are now in a position to construct the equivalent active mode. Both are equally valid models. Hybrid.p Model Version A. small-signal circuit models for the BJT. using this last result in (10) gives
This is the BJT active mode small-signal resistance between the base and emitter seen looking into the emitter.Mathematically. It can be shown that Rz=(b+1)re[ed] It is quite apparent
from this equation that e r r p . T model. this is stated as Assuming an ideal signal voltage source.87)
Therefore. as mentioned on page 1 of these notes.p model 2. This result is not unexpected because the active mode BJT is a non-reciprocal device.
86).p model is definitely the most popular small-signal model for the BJT. ic= gm vbe as required by (5. which is useful in certain situations.
. The alternative is the T model. We can also show from these relationships that ie= vbe| re. which we saw in the last lecture. using this result the second hybrid.p model is
T Model The hybrid.Let’s verify that this circuit incorporates all of the necessarysmall-signal characteristics of the BJT: ib= vbe|rp as required by (3). The T model also has two versions: Version A.
Version B. ib+ ic= ie as required by KCL. Version B. We can construct a second equivalent circuit by using
We will now consider three examples in this lecture of BJTs used as linear amplifiers. these small-signal models are identically the same. 2. Analyze the small-signal circuit for the desired quantities such as voltage. etc. Rewrite the small-signal circuit: short out DC sources and open DC current sources. Determine the
. Compute IC.14).1 (text example 5. Again. small-signal voltage gain. Example N15. Use the smallsignal model for the BJT. It is important to note that there is no change in any polarities (voltage or current) for the pnp models relative to the npn models. Determine the Q point of the BJT using DC analysis. Calculate the small-signal model parameters for the BJT:
3.The small-signal models for pnp BJTs are identically the same as those shown here for the npn transistors. Here are the steps to follow when solving small-signal transistor amplifier problems: 1. 4.
we determine the BJT smallsignal model parameters for the hybrid.
The first step in the solution is to determine the Q point through DC analysis. 5. we’ll force 0 i v = for this analysis. Next.53(a) after shorting the DC voltage sources (VBB and VCC). By superposition. assuming ß = 100 and the output voltage taken at the collector terminal. we insert a small-signal equivalent model of the BJT into the circuit of Fig. the results of the DC analysis are:
We see that the CBJ is reversed biased so this npn BJT is in the active mode because of this and the EBJ is forward biased. Assuming the BJT is in the active mode.p model:
Now. This gives the small-signal equivalent circuit:
.small-signal AC voltage gain for the circuit below.
15). the small-signal AC voltage gain.8 V. Av. is
For this particular problem
The negative sign indicates this is an inverting amplifier: the AC output signal is inverted with respect to the input AC signal.53c. 5. in the lab power supplies have a finite internal resistance. For the purposes of the AC signal analysis.) Next. This Thévenin equivalent resistance must be included in the AC circuit for analysis purposes.Notice the AC ground at RC. At the input while at the output vo=-Rcie=-RcgmVbe Substituting for vbe from (4) gives Therefore.2 (text example 5. Example N15. we perform the small-signal analysis referring to Fig. In the text. (As a side note. we can set this node to an AC ground. is the peak amplitude of the triangularinput voltage (= Vi in the text). Then from (4) above (and the fact that there are only resistors in the circuit)
. Repeat the analysis of the previous example but with a triangular input waveform of small amplitude. vip =0. This is an “AC ground” because the voltage at this node does not vary with time.
54c • In Fig. This is fairly small with respect to 2 VT = 50mV so we’ll go ahead and use the small-signal analysis and models.which is less that 10 mV. • In Fig. 5. Notice the enlarged vertical scale in Fig.54d. vBE has a DC part and an AC part (see Fig. 5. vc= Vc -icRc is 180° out-of-phase with
.5.54e.54a) that is “riding” on the former. Sketches of the total voltages and currents from this circuit are shown
A few things to take special notice: • In Fig.54c. 5. 5. ic is in-phase with the input voltage.
p model would work as well.the input. We’ll use the T model. though the hybrid. With these capacitors. Determine the small-signal AC voltage gain for the BJT amplifier circuit shown in
The two capacitors in this circuit serve as DC blocks. We can see how the AC ground works here. We call this “capacitively coupled” input and output.4V Next.16). at the operating frequency. we first determine the DC bias.
. Example N15.Ic . As always. Þ vc. we construct the small-signal equivalent circuit and analyze the circuit to determine the voltage gain. the DC bias is unchanged by the source or load attachments. We’ll assume the BJT is in the active mode and that ß = 100: From this result
From this result Ic=0. As vi .92mAÞvc=-10+Icrc=-5.3 (text example 5. They have a large enough C so that Xc=0 .
ie is a negative quantity. (Note that this positive gain did not occur just because this is a pnp BJT. With Veb=-Vithen Vi@10 mV for linear operation of the amplifier. Using (3) for the small-signal equivalent model of the BJT
From the small-signal AC circuit: • v0=-a ieRc • Because the base is grounded. for example. veb mV.
Notice that this small-signal voltage gain is a positive quantity. This can be a little confusing.) Now. with a = 0. The reason for this is the input is tied to the emitter. Also notice this is the first small-signal model of the pnp transistor we have used. for linear operation of this amplifier.8V A sketch of the output from this small-signal amplifier is shown
.Notice the two AC grounds in this circuit: one at RE and the other at RC. Ie=-Vi|reTherefore. The small-signal model of the pnp transistor is exactly the same as that for the npn with no change in the polarities of the currents or voltages. which implies that firstname.lastname@example.org then from (10) Lastly. Here.
this would no longer be the case and the BJT would first encounter nonlinear behavior and eventually saturate. DC basis analysis 2. If this input voltage were set to a larger value. This technique is primarily useful to develop physical insight. 5. AC small-signal analysis.
We can use graphical analysis to approximately analyze the response of simple transistor amplifier circuits. Both of these effects would distort the output voltage and it would no longer be an amplified copy of the input voltage. DC Bias
.in Fig. Consider once again the “conceptual BJT amplifier” circuit:
Similar to the analytical solution.57 for a sinusoidal input voltage:
We’re assuming the output remains linear and the BJT in the active mode at all times for the entire voltage swing in vC. there are two primary steps to the graphical solution of such smallsignal amplifiers: 1.
the CBJ is forward biased and the BJT is in the saturation mode. When vCE becomes large enough. 5. With this IC value and the iC-vCE characteristic curve of the transistor. The slopes of the lines in Fig.
. The results are shown below for different values of vBE. As vCE increases. This is the cutoff mode of the BJT. we can determine V We haven’t yet seen the iC-vCE characteristic curve of the BJT.19(a) below. This can be measured using the circuit in Fig. vBEis fixed at some value. then vCE is swept while measuring iC. iC is nearly zero.The first step in the bias calculations is to determine IB.
When vCE is very small. 5. the CBJ becomes reversed biased and the BJT enters the active mode.19 in the active mode are quite exaggerated in this figure. This is done with the iB-vBE characteristic curve and the load line:
Once IB has been determined we can compute IC knowing that Ic=b IB for a BJT in the active mode.
AC Small-Signal Analysis The first step in the AC small-signal analysis is to determine ib.19. then we use these
. This is performed using a slightly complicated interaction of the input waveform vi. 5. the subsequent time variation of the load line.So.28 and the iC-vCE characteristic curve of the transistor from Fig. 5. With ib known and ic=biB . and the iB-vBE characteristic curve of the BJT:
From this comes the small-signal quantities vbe and ib. With the IC=bIB value from Fig. back to the graphical solution. we can determine VCE:
Curve tracers are pieces of equipment that will measure and display families of iC-vCE characteristic curves for transistors.
it is important to choose the Q point properly to all for the desired
. These limits are readily apparent if we reexamine the previous figure of the small-signal variation:
Because of these limits on vCE.values on the vic characteristic curve to determine vce:
Cutoff and Saturation Notice that there are limits on vCE in which the BJT remains in the active mode: • Too large ( CC V = ) and the BJT cuts off • Too small (few tenths of a volt) and the transistor saturates.
of course). Alternate method for common emitter amplifiers 4.swing in the signal voltage (vce). the npn and pnp inverter circuits in Laboratory #3 are highly sensitive to variations in â.
It is important for the biasing of a transistor amplifier that it remains largely invariant to fairly large changes in â and temperature. That is usually a poor design (but was done on purpose for the lab. Single power supply 2. we will study four BJT biasing methods: 1. In this lecture. Current source. Proper biasing doesn’t happen by chance. For example. Single Power Supply Biasing Method Perhaps the most common method for biasing BJT amplifier circuits with a single power supply is shown in
. Dual power supply 3.
We analyzed a specific example of this type of circuit in Lecture 12 employing Thévenin’s theorem to simplify the analysis:
where VBB and RB are given in (5. we deduce that the answer is to choose
Furthermore. Using KVL in the loop shown above V BB=IBRB +VBE +IE RE With IB= IE|(b+1) then (1) becomes Consequently.68) and (5.
We can use (3) to design the biasing circuit so that it is largely insensitive to variations in b. we can design this biasing circuit so that it is largely insensitive to variations in
. When used as an amplifier. the input signal would be capacitively coupled to the base of the BJT while the output would be taken (through capacitive coupling) at the collector or emitter of the transistor. depending on the specific requirements for the amplifier.69) in the text. The question is then how do we make IE (and hence IC) largely insensitive to b variations? Examining (3).RE is part of this biasing method as well.
Design the bias circuit below for VCC = 9 V to provide VCC/3 V across RE and RC. (5) ensures that small variations in VBE (from its nominal 0. (4) makes the base voltage largely independent of â and determined almost solely by R1 and R2.) From (3) we can see that if we choose VBB >>VBE then we’ll have a biasing circuit design that is largely insensitive to variations in temperature. How? Because the current in the divider is much greater than the base current. as shown. So physically how do these conditions (4) and (5) make a good biasing circuit? • Eqn.2IE.5 mA. The effects of temperature enter this circuit because VBE is a relatively strong function of temperature having a temperature coefficient of -2 mV/°C.1. (We saw this same behavior with diodes. The rule of thumb for “much greater” is that the divider current should be on the order of IE to IE/10. • Eqn. The rule of thumb here is that VBB» VCC|3 and VCB (or VCE) » VCC|3 and .
. and the voltage divider current of 0. then find the actual value obtained for IE with a BJT having b=100. Additionally. there is an upper limit to VBB because a higher VBB lowers VCB and affects the small values of the positive signal swing.IC RC »VCC|3 Example N17.7 V) due to temperature changes are much smaller than VBB.temperature. IE = 0. Design the circuit for a large b.
7V Hence VB =VBE+VE =0. (This is only a -4% change from 0.7V Such that
A large b for a BJT in the active mode implies Ib»0.5 mA with b= ¥ . RI =90kb-R2 =53K b For the design with b = 100 it can be shown that IE =0.Ic RE =VCC /3=3V For I E =0.) Dual Power Supply Biasing Method When two power supplies are available.7+3=3. then RE =6Kb For the voltage divider .48 mA. a possible biasing method is
Using KVL around the loop L gives
. By Ohm’s law
Hence.5 mA .For the resistors Reand Rc. if this BJT is in the active mode then VBE »0.
. choose VCC VBE This latter requirement is most often very easy to meet! Biasing with a Current Source The last BJT amplifier biasing method we’ll consider is one using a current source. choose and for VBE to be insensitive to temperature variations.and temperatureinvariant design equations for this circuit are the same as those given earlier in (4) and (5) with VBB replaced by VEE. but with VBB replaced by VEE. Alternative Biasing for Common Emitter Amplifiers This biasing method has a resistor tied from the collector to the base as
As shown in the text. the b. for IE to be insensitive to b variations.This is the same result as (3). Consequently.
etc. where the battery voltage changes with use and the device operates in a range of temperatures. In this current mirror.This is a problem with mobile telephones. Very nice. E I I = . This is just a simple example. However.In this circuit. If we are using a “good” current source. Usually this means that the BJTs must be fabricated at the same time on the same substrate. These golden currents are replicated throughout a device using a current mirror:
There are better and more sophisticated approaches than this.” meaning they having the same b characteristic curves. it is very important that the BJTs be “matched. For proper operation of this circuit. For the analysis of this circuit. then IE will not depend on â. we assume that â is very large and that Q1 and Q2
. Q1 is called a diode-connected BJT because the collector and base terminals are connected together. There are sophisticated circuits consisting of tens of evices that can produce “golden currents” that are supply voltage and temperature independent. Current Mirror Simple biasing methods often fail to provide constant collector currents if the supply voltage or ambient temperature change. what we’ve done in this approach is to push the technical problem to the design of a good current source. of course. for example.
We’ll study the CE amplifier in this lecture and the next. Q1operates in the active mode or is simply cutoff. By KVL. We will now begin the analysis of the three basic types of linear BJT small-signal amplifiers: 1. Because of this. This implies that This current mirror circuit will supply this current I as long as Q2 operates in the active region: V > VBEVEE Notice that the diode-connected Q1 cannot saturate since thebase and collector terminals are shorted together. Therefore. since Q1 and Q2 are matched and they have the same VBE. Common collector (CC). The CE amplifier is excited at the base of the BJT with the output taken at the emitter:
Now. followed by the CB and CC amplifiers. Common emitter (CE) 2. we ignore the base currents in Q1 and Q2.operate in the active mode. the collector (and emitter) current through Q1 is approximately equal to IREF. then the collector currents must be the same. which is oftentimes called the emitter follower amplifier. Common base (CB) 3. Hence.
This is the finite output resistance of the BJT. There are a number of ways to bias this amplifier. its purpose is to shunt out the effects of the DC current source from the time varying signal.The capacitor CE is called a bypass capacitor. In other words. CE sets an AC ground at this node at the frequency of operation. At the operating frequency. What we’re primarily interested in here is the small-signal characteristics. Because the emitter is located at an AC ground is the reason this type of amplifier is called a “common emitter” amplifier.
Notice that we’ve included ro in this small-signal model. other than that shown above. Common Emitter Small-Signal Amplifier Analysis The small-signal equivalent circuit for the CE amplifier above is shown below. This accounts for thefinite slope of the characteristic curves of iC versus vCE mentioned briefly in
the “partial” small-signal voltage gain v o i Av= vo v i . the “overall” small-signal voltage gain GV = vo/ vsig . which means this CE amplifier presents a moderately large value of input impedance. Directly from the small-signal equivalent circuit. the short circuit small-signal current gain is os i Ais= ias ii . we see that Rin= RB || r p Oftentimes we select RB rp so that i Rin rp Oftentimes we select RB rp so that r p will often be a few kb. Gv. • Input resistance. At the output of this circuit Vo=-gmVp(ro||Rc ||Rl) while at the input
. Usually ro is fairly large. • Overall small-signal voltage gain. on the order of many tens of kb Our quest in the small-signal analysis of this amplifier is to determine these quantities: input resistance Rin. By “overall” voltage gain we mean
which is the actual small-signal voltage gain that would be realized in the circuit above. the overall small-signal current gain Gi= i0/ I i .and the output resistance Rout.where VA is called the Early voltage. Rin.
then we see from (6) that Gv would be directly dependent on b. as we learned when discussing biasing of such BJT circuits. By definition
.Substituting (4) into (3) gives an expression for the overall (i. This is only a partial voltage gain since we are calculating
At the input. This is not a favorable condition since. Gi. realized) gain of this CE amplifier
In the usual case that B RB>> rp . the partial small-signal voltage gain is Av=-gm(ro||Rc||RL • Overall small-signal current gain. • Partial small-signal voltage gain. then
Recall that rp = ß/gm If it also turned out Rsig>> rp . V0=-gmVp(ro||Rc ||RL) Therefore.e. Av. vi = Vp while at the output.. bita can vary considerably between transistors.
This is the smallsignal current gain of the amplifier but with a short circuitedload ( R L = 0):
Equivalently. • Output resistance Rout. we see that
Forming the ratio of these two currents. gives A is=-g m(r p||R B) In the usual case that R B r p then A is »-bita This result is not unexpected because bita is by definition the short circuit current gain for the BJT when operating in the active mode. we find that the current gain is
or. using (9)
• Short circuit small-signal current gain. Ais. A is=G i| R l=0 Using (11) in (13) with R l=0 .Referring to the small-signal equivalent circuit shown above. Using the small-signal
Consequently.equivalent circuit above. We will cover the second of the three families of BJT amplifiers in this lecture by discussing
. Why? Consider this simple Thévenin equivalent for the output of a small-signal amplifier:
The output signal voltage provided to this resistive load is
Now. if Rout<< RL then
This is not a favorable result if this Thévenin equivalent circuit is for an amplifier because the output voltage is beingattenuated. Con versely. This last characteristic is often not desirable. if there were a small output resistance such that Rout<< RL then then (17) becomes vout vo which is much more favorable for an amplifier. Input resistance is moderately large. Summary of CE Amplifier Characteristics Summary for theCommon_Emitter_Amplifier: Big voltage and current gains are possible. Rout= Rc|| r o which is generally fairly large. which is an open circuit for a current source. we short out the source vsig =0 which means that vp =0 as well. gm vp = 0. Therefore. Output resistance is fairly large.
Generally this is not desirable. Gv. though in the case of certain high frequency amplifiers input impedances near 50 bita is very useful (to reduce so-called “mismatch reflections” at the input). 5. 5. Rin. we see that Rin=re Since re is often small (on the order of 20 to 30bita). Ais. • Small-signal voltage gain. and Rout. • Input resistance. then Rin of the CB amplifier is very small.theCommon_Base_Amplifier shown in Fig. let’s determine the small-signal AC characteristics of this amplifier by solving or Rin.62b (ignoring ro):
As before. Gv.62a:
The small-signal equivalent circuit for this amplifier is shown in Fig. Gi. From direct inspection of the smallsignal equivalent circuit. We’ll first calculate the partial voltage gain
The overall (from the input to the output) small-signal voltage gain Gv is defined as
We can equivalently write this voltage gain as with Av given in (5). except the gain here for the CB amplifier is positive. vo=-aie(Rc||RL The small-signal emitter current is Substituting (3) and (4) into (2) gives the partial voltage gain to be
This is the same gain as for the CE amplifier (without ro).At the output. By simple voltage division at the input to the small-signal equivalent circuit Substituting this result and (5) into (7) yields the final expression for the overall small-signal voltage gain Since from (1) Rin= re then Gv simplifies to If 1 we can interpret this small-signal overall voltage
though if Rsig is nearly the same size as the total emitter resistance the gain will be small. it will be difficult to realize high gain. Potentially large output resistance (dependent on
. Referring to the smallsignal equivalent circuit above and shorting out the input vsig = 0 Rout= Rc which is the same as the CE amplifier (when ignoring ro). 2. Gi in (13) reduces to the short circuit current gain: • Output resistance.expression in (10) as the ratio of the total resistance in the collector lead to the total resistance in the emitter lead. Ais. though critically dependent on Rsig. Gv can be very large. Low input resistance. In other words.Summary Summary of the CB small-signal amplifier: 1. Ais= á 4. By definition Using current division at the output of the smallsignal equivalent circuit above Because ii = -ie this expression gives • Short circuit current gain. In the case of a short circuit load (RL = 0). Gi. • Overall small-signal current gain. This gain can be fairly large. 3. if this amplifier is connected to a high output impedance stage. Rout.
Even though this is a buffer amplifier. Notice that ro is connected from the emitter to an AC ground. One very important use of the CB amplifier is as a unity-gain current amplifier.RC). as shown in
. This type of amplifier accepts an input signal current at a low impedance level and outputs nearly the same current amplitude. The third. which is also called a current buffer amplifier. small-signal BJT amplifier we will consider is the common collector amplifier shown below:
The small-signal equivalent circuit is shown in
We’ve included ro in this model since it can have an appreciable effect on the operation of this amplifier. there is still power gain. but at a high output impedance level. and final. We can simplify the AC small-signal analysis of this circuit by moving the collector-side lead of ro to the DC ground.
Gv. • Input resistance. From the circuit above. Gi. we’ll determine the characteristics of this one by solving for Rin. Referring to circuit above.) In the special case when r e<< RL<< r 0 then R ab ≈ (ß +1)RL which can potentially be a large value. Rin. and Rout. (We saw a similar result in Lecture 19 for the CE amplifier with emitter degeneration. Gv. Looking into the base of the BJT. Ais. the input resistance to the amplifier is
• Small-signal voltage gain.Similar to the previous BJT amplifiers. We’ll first calculate the partial voltage gain
. we see that Vb=ie(re+r0||RL Substituting this and 1b=i e/( ß +1) into (1) yields Rib=( ß +1)(r e+r 0||R L) This expression for Rib follows the so-called resistance reflection rule: the input resistance is ( ß+1) times the total resistance in the emitter lead of the amplifier.
In the special instance that r0<< RL then (12) simplifies to
from which we can directly determine that
The overall (from the input to the output) smallsignal voltage gain Gv is defined as
We can equivalently write this voltage gain as
with Av given in (8). so this overall small-signal voltage gain is less than unity.Beginning at the output. By simple voltage division at the input to the small-signal equivalent circuit
Substituting this result into (10) yields an expression for the overall small-signal voltage gain
We can observe directly that each of the two factors in this expression are less than one.
This means that
Because of this result. Ais. the common collector amplifier is also called an emitter follower amplifier. By definition
Using current division at the output of the smallsignal equivalent circuit above while using current division at the input
Substituting this into (17) gives
from which we find that
• Short circuit current gain. • Overall small-signal current gain. the smallsignal voltage gain is less than but approximately equal to one. In the case of a short circuit load (RL = 0). Gi. Gi in (21) reduces to the
.and if RB >>( ß+1)( re+RL) then this further simplifies to
We see from this expression that under the above two assumptions and a third RL>>re+ Rsig (ß + 1) .
Rout. as was used earlier. we’re left with
It is a bit difficult to determine Rout directly from this circuit because of the dependent current source. Overall. • Output resistance. The output resistance is computed from the ratio of these quantities as
Applying KVL from the output through the input of
. it has a very large small-signal current gain. the amplifier does provide power gain to the AC signal. With vsig = 0 in the small-signal equivalent circuit. The trick here is to apply a signal source vx and then determine ix. So even though the amplifier has a voltage gain less than one (and approaching one in certain circumstances). then Ais≈ ß + 1 which can be very large.short circuit current gain:
In the case that RB >>( ß + 1)(re+RL)=( ß + 1)re.
2. Ais can be large. 3.These characteristics mean that the emitter follower amplifier is highly suited as a voltage buffer amplifier. High input resistance. Low output resistance. and can be close to one. 4. Gv less than one.this circuit gives
Using KCL at the output
Substituting (26) into (25) Forming the ratio of vx and ix in (27) gives
Summary Summary of the CC (emitter follower) small-signal amplifier: 1.
lead inductances. As the frequency increases.e. less than infinity). there are multiple sources of effects that will limit the performance of these amplifiers including: 1. our analysis of small-signal BJT amplifiers up to this point has focused on the “Midband” frequency region.. though. Referring to Fig. the simple smallsignal models we used will work well. For large valued DC blocking capacitors and for frequencies of tens to hundreds of kHz. Internal capacitances of th BJT. Additionally.
. or halfpower frequencies. all real transistor amplifiers operate effectively only over a limited (but hopefully large) range of signal frequencies. the performance of many BJT amplifiers we’ve already examined will be sharply curtailed by DC blocking capacitors that have finite value (i. These are due to packaging and transistor construction that create additional capacitances.The BJT amplifiers we have examined so far are all low frequency amplifiers.71(b). 2. These are due to charge storage effects at and near the two pn junctions. Parasitic effects. which are the -3-dB gain frequencies. and resistances. 5. This frequency band is bounded by the frequencies fL and fH. For these reasons.
The junction capacitance effect was briefly mentioned earlier in this course in Lecture 4.The roll off in gain near fL and lower is due to effects of the DC blocking capacitors CC1 and CC2. Diffusion capacitance. or charge storage capacitance. Capacitance of pn Junctions There are basically two types of capacitances associated with pn junctions: 1. The width of the depletion region will change depending on the applied voltage
. This is related to the space charge that exists in the depletion region of the pn junction. though fL can be moved about by choosing different values for these capacitors. It’s not possible to eliminate this effect. Butlarge capacitors take up lots of space and can be expensive. however. and the bypass capacitor CE. 2. Junction capacitance. This is a new phenomenon we haven’t yet considered in this course. is the origin of the roll off in gain xperienced at higher frequencies near fH and higher. The primary focus of this lecture.
The second basic type of capacitance. diffusion capacitance.and whether the junction is reversed or forward biased:
The time-varying E due to the space charge in the depletion region is a so-called displacement current that can be modeled by a junction capacitance.
In this state.
The concentrations of these electrons and holes
. of course. current will flow across the junction.49 and the voltage dropV. is associated with pn junctions that are forward biased. 3. holes are injected a cross the junction into the n region while electrons are injected across the junction into the p region. Because of the current source in Fig.
there is a junction capacitance associated with the reversed biased CBJ. BJT High Frequency Small-Signal Model The active mode BJT has one forward biased pn junction (the EBJ) and one reversed biased pn junction (the CBJ). or diffusion capacitance. and the overall effect can be modeled by what is called the charge storage capacitance. though. There will be a junction capacitance. due to recombination effects. 3. In the latter case. This electric field is directed from the n to p region. These latter tw o capacitances appear in parallel and so can be combined as Typically C ì ranges from a
. which is labeled C ì as shown above.50.decrease in value away from the junction. the diffusion capacitance usually dominates. The important point here is that these concentrations of charges create an electric field across the pn junction that will vary with time when a signal source is connected to this device. the capacitive effects of a reversed biased pn junction are described by the junction capacitance while those of a forward biased pn junction are described by both a junction and a diffusion capacitance. associated with the forward biased EBJ as well as a diffusion capacitance abeled Cde. To summarize. In the case of an npn BJT the capacitances associated with the pn junctions in the device are labe ed as:
As we just discussed. Cje. as shown in Fig.
It’s there to approximately model the resistance of the base region from the terminal to a point somewhere directly below the emitter:
C ì is sometimes referred to as Cob (or Cobo) in datasheets. Your textbook has switched to sinusoidal steady state notation for this high frequency discussion. from the Motorola P2N2222A datasheet:
Actually. which is dominated by Cde.fraction of pF to a few pF while C ð ranges from a few pF to tens of pF. which is mostly important at high frequencies. For example. the high frequency smallsignal model of the BJT becomes
Note the use of the V ð notation in this small-signal model. This designation reflects the fact that C ì can be the output resistance when the BJT is used as a common base amplifier. With these capacitances. 5.67 also includes the resistance rx. In
. we would expect these capacitances to vary with the voltage across the respective pn junction. The high frequency small-signal model in Fig. The values of these smallsignal circuit model elements may or may not be available in a datasheet for your transistor.
fT. A test circuit for this measurement would look something like:
The small-signal high frequency model of this test circuit is:
Applying KCL at the collector terminal provides an equation for the short-circuit collector current
. (Perhaps t he labeled voltage for Ceb should be “forward voltage”?)
Unity-Gain Bandwidth An important high frequency characteristic of transistors that is usually specified is the unity-gain bandwidth.the following figure from the Motorola P2N2222A datasheet. we see the dependence of “Ceb” (= C ð ?) and “Ccb” (= C ì) for a range of junction voltages. This is defined as the frequency at which the short-circuit current gain has decreased to a value of one.
the frequency at which ùC ì is important relative to gm is much higher than what is of interest here. for the frequencies of interest here. while the 3-dB frequency of | hfe| is given by
. (5.At the input terminal B’
Substituting (4) into (3) gives Using the definition of hfe from (2) we find from this last equation that
It turns out that C ì is typically quite small and for the purposes of determining the unity-gain bandwidth. gm is | | j Cì . Consequently.93)]. from (5)
We can recognize this frequency response of hfe in (6) as that for a single pole low pass circuit:
β 0=gmrπ in this plot is the low frequency value of | hfe|. In other words. as we’ve used in the past [see eqn.
small-signal model of Fig.67 is fairly accurate up to frequencies of about 0.5. On page 8. Above that. for example. the high frequency. Furthermore. f r =300 MHz for the Motorola P2N2222A. rx becomes the only resistive part of the input impedance at high frequencies.2 fT. Using (9). Lastly. at frequencies above 5f β to 10 f β . the effects of r ðare small compared to the impedance effects of C ð.The frequency at which hfe in (6) declines to a value of 1 is denoted by ùT. Consequently. hybrid-ð. which we can determine from (6) to be
This unity-gain frequency fT (or bandwidth) is often specified on transistor datasheets. rx is a very important element of the small-signal model at these high
. this fT can be used to determine C π + C π for a particular DC bias current.
but much less so atlow frequencies.frequencies.