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1.What is DNS? On the Internet, the Domain Name System (DNS) associates various sorts of information with so-called domain names; most importantly, it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e.g. en.wikipedia.org, into the IP addresses, e.g. 220.127.116.11, that networking equipment needs for delivering information. It also stores other information such as the list of mail exchange servers that accept email for a given domain. In providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of contemporary Internet use. 2.What is proxy server? In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application program) which services the requests of its clients by forwarding requests to other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource, available from a different server. The proxy server provides the resource by connecting to the specified server and requesting the service on behalf of the client. A proxy server may optionally alter the client's request or the server's response, and sometimes it may serve the request without contacting the specified server. A proxy server that passes all requests and replies unmodified is usually called a gateway or sometimes tunneling proxy. A proxy server can be placed in the user's local computer or at specific key points between the user and the destination servers or the Internet. 3.What is cookies? HTTP cookies, sometimes known as web cookies or just cookies, are parcels of text sent by a server to a web browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it accesses that server. HTTP cookies are used for authenticating, tracking, and maintaining specific information about users, such as site preferences and the contents of their electronic shopping carts. 4. What is internet? The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.
data-link layer 3. TCP provides reliable. computers. time-servers. It is so important in the Internet protocol suite that sometimes the entire suite is referred to as "the TCP/IP protocol suite. in-order delivery of a stream of bytes. it is used for control.Define UDP. making it suitable for applications like file transfer and e-mail. An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a unique address that certain electronic devices use in order to identify and communicate with each other on a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol standard (IP)—in simpler terms. printers. the version of HTTP in common use 9. programs on networked computers can send short messages sometimes known as datagrams (using Datagram Sockets) to one another. culminating in the publication of a series of RFCs. Using UDP. a computer address. How many layer in tcp/ip? TCP/IP has five layers. switches. UDP is sometimes called the Universal Datagram Protocol. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. and some telephones—can have their own unique address 10.network / internet layer 4. and error reporting purposes.physical layer 2.they are 1. most notably RFC 2616 (June 1999). Define IP ADDRESS.What is ICMP? ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) also exists at this level. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. Internet fax machines. signaling. Development of HTTP was coordinated by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) and the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).application layer .Define HTTP.Define TCP. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. Any participating network device—including routers. which defines HTTP/1.1. Its original purpose was to provide a way to publish and retrieve HTML hypertext pages." 7.5. 6.transport layer 5. ICMP is connectionless. 8.
television) or inherently non-streaming (e.11.What is Streaming? Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by. radio. A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients. audio CDs). There are two common implementations of the API. The protocol underlying this Javaonly implementation is known as Java Remote Method Protocol (JRMP). denotes the RMI interface delegating most of the functionality to the supporting CORBA implementation.Define Web Hosting? A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to provide their own websites accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity. video cassettes. 15. whereas the term RMI-IIOP. the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. Define Web Servers. etc. and normally displayed to. Usage of the term RMI may denote solely the programming interface or may signify both the API and JRMP. which are known as web browsers. which usually are web pages such as HTML documents and linked objects (images. is a Java application programming interface for performing the object equivalent of remote procedure calls. The name refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than to the medium itself. The term web server can mean one of two things: 1. Define Socket. 2.g. and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents. A computer that runs a computer program which provides the functionality described in the first sense of the term. or Java RMI. The original implementation depends on Java Virtual Machine (JVM) class representation mechanisms and it thus only supports making calls from one JVM to another. 12. In order to support code running in a non-JVM context. The distinction is usually applied to media that are distributed over telecommunications networks. typically in a data center 13. books.). Socket is an end-point of a bi-directional communication link. a CORBA version was later developed. .g. 14. as most other delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e. REMOTE METHOD INVOCATION: The Java Remote Method Invocation API. read RMI over IIOP.
where routers create optimal distribution paths for datagrams sent to a multicast destination address spanning tree in realtime. A firewall's function within a network is similar to firewalls with fire door in building construction.Firewalls: A firewall is a hardware or software device which is configured to permit. situated between the Internet and a trusted internal network. A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text. handles lower-level network traffic to finalize the connection and then forks a new connection for reading or writing. 18. Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many Web pages at many websites by traversing these links. The word "Multicast" is typically used to refer to IP Multicast. is often referred to as a "perimeter network" or Demilitarized zone (DMZ). A firewall's basic task is to regulate the flow of traffic between computer networks of different trust levels. Multicast is the delivery of information to a group of destinations simultaneously using the most efficient strategy to deliver the messages over each link of the network only once. it is intended to contain and delay structural fire from spreading to adjacent structures. . The server socket continues to be available to accept other incoming connections. 17. The server socket accepts incoming connections. it is used to prevent network intrusion to the private network. Typical examples are the Internet which is a zone with no trust and an internal network which is a zone of higher trust. deny. Web browsers format HTML information for display. In latter case. or proxy data through a computer network which has different levels of trust. Text and images on a Web page can contain hyperlinks to other Web pages at the same or different website.Define Browsers. images. so the appearance of a Web page may differ between browsers. 19. creating copies only when the links to the destinations split. A zone with an intermediate trust level. In former case. music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. the implementation of the multicast concept on the IP routing level.Define Multicast.SERVER SOCKET: A server socket is a computer communications end point for new incoming connections.16. videos.
to make it unencrypted). “software for encryption” can typically also perform decryption). Most systems using NAT do so in order to enable multiple hosts on a private network to access the Internet using a single public IP address (see gateway). akin to other techniques for managing information overload. and mobile search engines. encryption is the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge. VPNs. and dedicated for a specific network. Native Address Translation or IP Masquerading) is a technique of transceiving network traffic through a router that involves re-writing the source and/or destination IP addresses and usually also the TCP/UDP port numbers of IP packets as they pass through. Nonetheless. The result of the process is encrypted information (in cryptography. Network Address Translation (NAT.20. NAT can introduce complications in communication between hosts and may have a performance impact. decryption (e. A virtual private network (VPN) is a communications network tunneled through another network. which search on intranets. SEARCH ENGINE: A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. such as authentication or content encryption. .NAT(NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION) In computer networking.Define VPN. In many contexts. the word encryption also implicitly refers to the reverse process. usually referred to as a key. desktop search engines. also known as Network Masquerading. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features.g. 21.e. Checksums (both IP and TCP/UDP) must also be rewritten to take account of the changes. 23. Other kinds of search engines include enterprise search engines. for example. The most popular form of a search engine is a Web search engine which searches for information on the public World Wide Web. Search engines help to minimize the time required to find information and the amount of information which must be consulted. Many network administrators find NAT a convenient technique and use it widely. to make the encrypted information readable again (i. 22.Encryption: In cryptography. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet. referred to as ciphertext). but a VPN need not have explicit security features.
24. or is capable of operating within a reduced amount of memory storage. the port number). the servers are typically operated by the company selling the game. SMTP. . The most basic type of client-server architecture employs only two types of nodes: clients and servers. The system may be a single computer program. It allows devices to share files and resources. the architecture remains fundamentally the same. its protocol. 26. or reject it (discard it.CLIENT – SERVER MODEL: Client-server is a computing architecture which separates a client from a server. formerly called Internet Information Server) is a set of Internet-based services for servers using Microsoft Windows.PACKET FILTERING: Packet filters act by inspecting the "packets" which represent the basic unit of data transfer between computers on the Internet. 27. and return the requested information to the client. Although this concept can be applied for a variety of reasons to many different kinds of applications. the servers can accept these requests.The servers currently include FTP. for other games one of the players will act as the host by setting his game in server mode. and is almost always implemented over a computer network. a computer program may be optimized so that it executes more rapidly. the packet filter will drop (silently discard) the packet. Servers typically include web servers. process them. and send "error responses" to the source). If a packet matches the packet filter's set of rules. In turn. and. These days. Online gaming is usually client-server too. it filters each packet based only on information contained in the packet itself (most commonly using a combination of the packet's source and destination address. For instance. a collection of computers or even an entire network such as the Internet. This type of packet filtering pays no attention to whether a packet is part of an existing stream of traffic (it stores no information on connection "state"). Each client or server connected to a network can also be referred to as a node. or draws less battery power in a portable computer. database servers and mail servers. although that has not always been the case. It is the world's second most popular web server in terms of overall websites. Each instance of the client software can send data requests to one or more connected servers.INTERNET INFORMATION SERVERS: Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS. 25. and HTTP/HTTPS.OPTIMIZATION: optimization is the process of modifying a system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources. Instead. which comprises most internet communication. for TCP and UDP traffic. In the specific case of MMORPG. NNTP. clients are most often web browsers. This type of architecture is sometimes referred to as two-tier.
Threads and processes differ from one operating system to another.28. An applet is written in a language that is different from the scripting or HTML language which invokes it. Thread in computer science is short for a thread of execution. . hence the greater performance or functionality of the applet. certain capabilities are restricted by the container. Unlike a "subroutine.Define APPLET. Also. The applet is written in a compiled language. 29." a complete web component can be implemented as an applet. Threads are a way for a program to fork (or split) itself into two or more simultaneously (or pseudosimultaneously) running tasks. for example a web browser. in contrast with a subroutine. while the scripting language of the container is an interpreted language. an applet provides functionality or performance beyond the default capabilities of its container (the browser). but in general.Define THREAD. An applet usually performs a very narrow function that has no independent use. An applet is a software component that runs in the context of another program. the way that a thread is created and shares its resources is different from the way a process does. As such.
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