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**Evaluation of Tension Capacity of Pile (Case Study in Sandy Soil)
**

Shooshpasha1 I., Kiakojoori2 M., and Mirzagoltabar1 R. A.

Abstract—High building constructions are increasing in south beaches of the Caspian Sea because of tourist attractions and limitation of residential areas. According to saturated alluvial fields transfer of load from high structures to the soil by piles is inevitable. In spite of most of these piles are under compression forces, tension piles are used in special conditions. Few studies have been conducted because of the limited use of these piles. Tension capacity of openended pipe piles in full scale was tested in this study. The length of the bored piles was 420 up to 480 cm and all were in 120 cm diameter. The results of testing 7 piles were compared with the results of relations given by researches. Keywords—piles, tension capacity, sand, shaft friction

⎛σ′ ⎞ ⎛ h ⎞ ′ σ rc =αqc ⎜ vo ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎝R ⎠ ⎝ a ⎠

Where

' σ vo

b

−c

(2)

is the vertical effective stress, pa is a reference

stress =100 kPa, R is the outer radius of the pile (with diameter D), α, b and c are constant values and qc is CPT end resistance. Equation (2) is used both by the Imperial College (IC) design method [4] and the Fugro design method [5]. II.

PILE TENSION CAPACITY

A. Alawneh Method On the basis of 34 pull out pile load tests collected from the literature, Alawneh [7] proposed a method for estimating the ultimate tensile shaft resistance of pile in sand. According to, Alawneh method, the ultimate uplift shaft resistance is written as follows: (3-a) ′ τ m ( z ) = σ rf tan δ f

(z )

HE most studies were conducted on the behaviors of piles, are mainly related to piles subjected to axial compression load, while in many cases due to uplift forces, piles will act in tension. Knowing behavior of piles under tension as well as parameters effecting on tension bearing capacity of piles is very significant. The ultimate shearing resistance that can develop on the shaft of a pile ( τf ) in sand has been confirmed by [1] to be a function of the radial equalized stress after installation, ( σ 'rc ), added radial stress due to loading ( Δσ 'rc ), and the interface

friction angle ( δ f ):

τ f = (σ′rc + Δσ′rd ) tan δ f = σ′rf tan δ f

T

I. INTRODUCTION

σ′rf (z ) = k (z )σ′v (z )

(3-b)

K max

**⎡ ⎛ L − Z ⎞⎤ (3-c) k ( z ) = k min + (k max − k min ) exp ⎢− 0.03⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ D ⎠⎦ ⎣ − 0 . 84 0 . 005 D ′ ⎛ σ vtip ⎞ ⎛ D + 0 . 45 ⎞ (3-d) ⎜ ⎟ = 0 . 35 exp (0 . 03 D )⎜ ⎟
**

R

r

⎝

2D

⎠

⎜ P ⎟ ⎝ a ⎠

Where (1)

' τ m (z) is the ultimate uplift shaft resistance; σ rf (z)

Lehane & Jardine [2] show that in sands the value of ' Δσ rd is relatively small for pile with diameters greater than 300mm and hence the radial effective stress at peak friction

' σ rf

is the radial effective stress at failure; coefficient;

δf

is the pile-sand

friction angle at failure; k(z) is the uplift earth pressure

**σ v' ( z ) is the effective vertical stress; z is the depth
**

' σ vtip is

**may be considered equivalent to σ rc for offshore piles. It
**

'

below ground surface,

the effective vertical stress at

has long been established that τf correlates well with the CPT end resistance qc [3]. This observation used in conjunction with an observation made by the Imperial College (study on closed-ended instrumented pile) that following form for

' σ rc varies with depth up

**to pile tip, h. Different equation has been established in the
**

' σ rc [2, 4, 5 and 6]:

1

Assist. Prof., Civil Eng. Faculty, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, P.O. Box 47144, Babol, Iran, Telfax: 981113231707, Shooshpasha@nit.ac.ir 2 Post-graduate student in geotechnic, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Mokiya_6211@yahoo.com

location of pile tip; Pa is the atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa), Dr is the sand relative density, D is the pile diameter, L is the pile length, kmax is the maximum earth pressure coefficient value at the pile tip obtained from Eq. (3-d) and kmin is the minimum earth pressure coefficient value. The minimum earth pressure coefficient kmin can be linked to Rankien’s active earth pressure coefficient ka. However, Alawneh recommended to use kmin=0.23. The average minimum k value calculated from data by Alawneh is 24% less than the corresponding ka value.

1012

For SPT values lower than 15 it is recommended to scale down the side resistance by the reduction factor N/15 [14]. Based on 41 piles test.144⎜ vo ⎟ ⎜ p ⎟ qc ⎝ a ⎠ 0.081⎜ vo ⎟ ⎜ p ⎟ qc ⎝ a ⎠ 0. σ ' v is effective overburden pressure and R is the pile external radius. σ v is the vertical ' C.4 ⎟ ⎝R ⎠ −0.15 tan δ f (8-c) σ 'rc acting at any point on the pile shaft which was found to be almost equal to qc which is in directly proportional to the depth of the point.05 ⎛ h ⎞ ⎜ ∗⎟ ⎝R ⎠ −0.7 for piles in tension and compression. F.4 ± 0.13 f ⎡h ⎤ max ⎢ ∗ . The Imperial College experiments also indicated that radial effective stress during static loading test. σ′ is the vertical effective stress at depth z.90 tan δ f (8-a) by (4) τf ⎛σ′ ⎞ = 0.029⎜ vo ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ qc ⎝ α ⎠ 0. increases to a maximum value σ rf of about 1.245Z 0. The German Code of Practice – DIN 4014 σ ' rc ⎛σ′ ⎞ = 0. American Petroleum Institute (API) Method Field experiments performed by Imperial College London reported by [1. ICP-05 Method for Shaft Capacity The ICP-05 design method is based on results from load tests on jacked closed-ended instrumented piles [1 and 9] and was calibrated for open-ended piles primarily using tests on driven piles at Dunkirk [11].38 tan (δ f ) (6) effective stress and δ is the angle of friction in the interface between the pile and the soil which can be taken between ϕ peak to ϕcv . h. 9 and 4] on instrumented closed-ended displacement piles.90 for all sands and 0. The relation is based on a large number of tests for both cased and uncased borings.86 N In which Fs is the shaft resistance in kN/m2 and N is the SPT value. ' rf τf ⎛σ′ ⎞ = 0.85 (8-b) ′ q s = σ rf . 8. which is the interface friction angles used to calibrate the model. Engineering and Technology 58 2009 B. Neglecting increases in radial stress due to interface dilation.05 ⎛ h ⎞ ⎜ ∗ ⎟ tan δ f ⎝ 4R ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ max⎜ ∗ . and Equation 8c applies to piles in tension. The constant volume interface friction angle δ f is assumed to be 29o. After pile installation and prior to static loading. No distinction is made between the values in tension and compression. as discussed by [16]. respectively.029qc ⎜ v ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ 0. D. Based on measured σ 'rc from the medium dense and dense sand the following relationship is proposed [4]: Where equation 8-a applies to piles in compression with h/R*>4. was 1013 .25 < β <1. equations (1) and (2) were combined to deduce the following expression for local ultimate shaft friction τ f : τf ⎛σ′ ⎞ = 0.5 and 0.20 and τs < 200 kPa. equation 8-b applies to piles in compression with h/R*<4.38 (5) Where Pa is atmospheric pressure (equal to 100 kPa). E. Kraft and Lyons [15] also suggest using β = Ftg (φ ′ − 5°) which F = 0. z is the depth below ground level and. Fugro-04 Method for Shaft Capacity The Fugro-04 method for shaft friction is based primarily on the results of loading on instrumented large diameter openended piles cast in place in dense sands.12 ⎛h⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝R⎠ −0.2 σ rc .144⎜ vo ⎟ ⎜ p ⎟ qc ⎝ a ⎠ 0.8⎥ fc ⎣R ⎦ −0. ' ' This code does not distinguish between the shaft resistance in tension and compression.World Academy of Science.5 − 0.5 . The shaft friction can be obtained based on SPT as: (9) FS = 2. show that the peak local shaft friction qs can be related to the radial effective stress at failure σ the simple Coulomb failure criterion.72 for tension loading on a pipe pile) and R* is the equivalent pile radius (Req) defined as: R eq = R ∗ = R 2 − R i 2 (7) Where R is the outside radius of the pile and Ri is the internal radius of the pipe pile (which is zero for a closed-ended pile). It is assumed Z that 0. Where f/fc is capacity ratio (f/fc =1 for compression and 0.6 for silt. tan δ f τf Where the interface friction angle at failure δ f is measured in appropriate laboratory interface tests [10]. British/American Methods It is suggested to calculate the unit side friction from the following equation [12]: (10) τS = σ′r ⋅ tan δ = k ⋅ σ′v ⋅ tan δ Where k = 0. Separate equations are provided for tension and compression: G. the radial effective stress would be equal to pore pressure ⎛σ′ ⎞ = 0. UWA-05 Methods for Shaft Capacity The UWA database of static loads. the following equation is proposed for the unit side friction [13]: (11) τS = β ⋅ σ′Z Where β =1.

1 -29.67 0.23 1.71 2. h is pile length.94 2.11 1.19 1. The UWA-05 method simplifies to the following form for full scale offshore piles.73 2.0 9.71 2.02 2.15 2.97 Cu 1.64 0.99 2.66 2.50 0.99 2.06 1.12 1.5 Where τ f is local shaft friction.56 0. The area has sediments from Paleozoic era and the quaternary which has turned into what it is now through years of weather changes and tides of the sea.49 0.0 2.48 0.8 -32.2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝D ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2 − 0 . Geological Conditions and Geotechnical Factors of Soil in the Studied Area The area of study is located in city of Mahmoodabad. qc is cone tip resistance.03 0. as IFR=1 and ignoring dilation term Δσ 'rd one has.68 2.80 2.56 0.13 1.5 4.5 SPT 22 21 32 37 57 40 38 27 46 60 50 61 C -0 ---0 ---0 φ -25.5 25 Fig.41 0.17 2. The field study started boring two 25m boreholes in 400 square meter site.5 tan δ (12) (13) ⎛D Ar = 1 − ⎜ i ⎜ D2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 7.51 0. one could say that sediments existing in the project area belong to the fourth geological era.70 2.14 1.5 m deep based on the evaluations from different holes.5 22. TABLE I SOIL PARAMETERS OF BH1 25. In the following section the test apparatus and setup is explained.0 2. Engineering and Technology 58 2009 employed to assess the predictive performance of the proposed UWA-05 method.61 2.5 7.01 7.98 Cu 2.65 2.49 0.59 0.13 2. D is diameter.64 2.7 ---- e 0.70 2.65 2. Depth (m) 1.15 2. III.51 0. This frame was put in the direction of tension force imposed 1014 .2 --- 0 32.5 22.16 2.68 2.12 1.67 2.11 1. TENSION CAPACITY OF PILES In the experimental part.43 6.68 2.0 17.49 0. the necessary laboratory tests were performed on samples obtained in filed in order to find out the physical and mechanical properties of soils.67 2.12 1.05 1.0 5.43 0.63 Cc 1.51 0.02 2.55 0.11 2.95 1.98 0.19 2. Besides SPT values the direct shear test in drain condition was done on samples prepared in various depths based on ASTM-D3080 for evaluating the mechanical properties of soil which the results are presented in table 1 and 2.67 Cc 0. 1 Standard penetration with depth in BH1 and BH2.5 7 9 11 13 15 17.0 9.08 Soil sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp τ f ⎡ ⎛ h ⎞⎤ = 0 .8 --30.53 Gs 2. Test Apparatus and Procedures A metal frame was fabricated and used with a hydraulic jack with a reading gauge to measure pile tension capacity.0 17.67 2.0 11.03 1.55 2.58 0. 03 × q c × Ar 0 .66 2. a test apparatus was designed and fabricate for measuring the tension capacity of piles.5 25.5 4 5.2 --31. Based on the evaluations made on samples from bored holes. Di is inner diameter of pile and Qs is ultimate tension capacity of pile.51 Gs 2.16 2. Ar is effective area ratio.1 A.3 ⎢ Max ⎜ .72 2.08 0.68 Soil sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp sp Sp sp The under ground water level is 4.94 0.00 0. Table 1 and 2 respectively summarize soil parameters of boreholes BH1 and BH2.78 2.dz ∫ (14) 11.14 1.0 5.0 15.0 13. Iran (South Caspian Sea the central of Alborz mountain).World Academy of Science.1 e 0.0 SPT 22 20 47 68 47 45 51 44 57 53 53 61 C 0 ---- φ 27.75 × π × D × τ f .93 6.60 0.68 0.75 0.57 0. The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was carried out according to AST-DIS86.0 Q s = 0.69 2.73 7.0 15.81 2.5 4.52 0.12 1. H.1 ---- 0 --- 29. Layer changes were recorded while boring holes and samples were taken for testing from various depths.71 2.42 0. 1 0 10 20 30 SPT 40 50 60 70 80 depth(m) BH1 BH2 2.49 1.61 0.5 22. TABLE II SOIL PARAMETERS OF BH2 Depth (m) 1.59 0.0 The following diagram of SPT changes with depth shows that the soil in the site is made of a layer of coarse soil in depth that is considered poor sand (SP) based on Unified soil classification. 0 ---- 25.21 2.0 13.

friction between the pile and soil. Hence from the gage. 3 Imposing tension force to pile The following tables summarize the results of reading the tension capacity of piles neglecting pile weight. In this step the casing is pulled out about 10 cm to measure the force required to come over the side resistance resulted due to 1015 . Fig. the amount of applied force to pull out the pile is recorded. To install the pile.5 Displaying the amount of force required to pull out the pile. Fig. 4 Reading imposed force. The measured force included both outer shaft friction with soil and inner shaft friction with concrete. Digging inside the pile. Figure 3 and 5 shows the process of measurements. the first step was after installation of casing i. Engineering and Technology 58 2009 by a 40 ton crane. at first a 120 cm deep hole is bored then the pile is aliened. The second ring also transfers this force from its lower part into the pile with a cable to pull out the pile. before concrete casting. so that the first ring takes force from the crane by its top part and transfers it from the bottom part to the top part of the second ring. The second step was taken after casting.e. Figures 2 to 3 show the test setup and how tension force is transferred from crane to pile.World Academy of Science. Measuring tension force needed to pull out casing which was done in two steps. The mechanism of this frame is to transfer force from the crane to the piles is like a chain. B. Results and discussion Tests were carried out on 7 open-ended pipe piles with 420 cm to 480 cm long and a diameter of 120 cm. 2 Hydraulic Jack installation in the frame. casing is moved downward to the desired depths by its weight and additional weight. Fig. Fig .

875 7.25 (ton) The experimental results for each pile are shown in figure 7.94 8.75 7.0 10.875 4 Fig. 8.25 7.12 11. TABLE IV CALCULATION RESULTS FOR PILES WITH DIFFERENT L/D RATIO. 10 Comparison of results obtained from FUGRO-04 method with field measurements.0 10. tension bearing capacity of piles increases with increasing L/D ratio.75 L/D 3.12 7.5 3.6 3.8 3.01 8.0 12. al.37 10.73 7.28 7.9 4 4.80 8.31 450 3. 9 8 7 6 Q t(to n ) 5 4 3 2 1 0 3.5 Tention bearing capacity (ton) 0 3. FUGRO-04.75 3.75 3.0 Tension Load (ton) 8.00 3.4 3.75 Pile Diameter D = 120 (cm) Weight of pile = 2.72 11. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 Buried length of Pile L (cm) 480 420 450 420 480 450 465 Maximum pile Maximum displacement pullout (cm) loading (ton) 12.50 7.0 8.25 7.62 480 4 8.7 3.25 L/D 4.0 10.50 3.50 4. variation of measured and calculated tension bearing capacity of piles with L/D ration for each method were shown in figures 8 to 14.75 10.00 6.50 9.5 3. 8 Comparison of results obtained from Imperial College method with field measurements.00 7. The results were presented in table IV in accompany with field measurement results for piles with different L/D ratio.43 7. 12 10 8 Qt(ton) 6 4 2 Test Result Imperial college 8. 1016 .13 5.94 4.5 6 3.75 8.85 7.875 4 Fig.1 L/D Rratio 5 4 3 2 1 0 3.36 4.07 7. Pile length (cm) 420 3.73 6.World Academy of Science. Rees & O Neill UWA-05 ' Fig.0 8.25 7.63 7.07 12. 9 8 Test Result ICP-05 8 7.875 4 Test Result FUGRO-04 Based on aforementioned eight methods. Engineering and Technology 58 2009 TABLE III THE SUMMARY OF RESULTS FROM READING TENSION CAPACITY Pile No.50 6.25 8.5 3.42 465 3.75 L/D 3.00 3.96 6. As one can see.99 11. These figures show that results obtained from the methods of ICP-05.55 4.5 Qt(ton) 7 6 7 6.81 11.5 3.875 In order to compare the results. 9 Comparison of results obtained from ICP-05 method with field measurements.75 11.50 10. 7 Bearing capacity variation with L/D ratio Fig.75 L/D 3.50 10. Rees & O'Neill and UWA-05 has a good correlation with experimental results.0 10.61 6.50 9. the tension bearing capacity of piles was calculated using parameters obtained from the field.79 7.28 8.72 L/D Field measurement results Imperial College ICP-05 Fugro-04 DIN-4014 Fleming et.

method with field measurements.75 L/D 3. 15 Comparison of results obtained from different method with field measurements for L/D=3. 16 Comparison of results obtained from different method with field measurements for L/D=3. Fig. 9 8 7 6 Qt(ton) 5 4 3 2 1 0 3.5 Fig.875 4 Fig.875 4 Test Result Rees & O'Neill (L/D)=3. Engineering and Technology 58 2009 14 12 10 Q t(to n ) Test Result DIN-4014 9 8 7 6 Q t( to n ) Test Result UWA-05 8 6 4 2 0 3.5. Calculated pile tension capacity based on different methods and field measurements for different L/D ratio are shown in figures 15 to 18. Al.875 4 5 4 3 2 1 0 3.World Academy of Science.75. 13 Comparison of results obtained from Rees & O'Neill method with field measurements. A l. Fig. R e e s & O 'N e ill F U G R O -0 4 U W A -0 5 IC P .14 Comparison of results obtained from UWA-05 method with field measurements.75 L/D 3. 14 12 10 Q t(to n ) 8 T e s t R e s u lt 6 4 2 0 (L/D)=3.75 Im p e r ia l c o lle g e D IN . 12 10 8 R e e s & O 'N e ill 6 T e s t R e s u lt U W A -0 5 4 2 0 Im p e r ia l c o lle g e F U G R O -0 4 IC P .5 3. 1017 F le m in g e t.75 L/D 3.5 3.75 L/D 3. 11 Comparison of results obtained from DIN-4014 method with field measurements.5 3. Fig.0 5 D IN . A l. 9 8 7 6 Q t(to n ) 5 4 3 2 1 0 3.5 3.4 0 1 4 F le m in g e t.4 0 1 4 Q t(to n ) Fig. 12 Comparison of results obtained from Fleming et al.875 4 Test Result Fleming et.0 5 .

IV. The N value can be corrected based on information of soil layers. since no distinction is made between the values in tension and compression and also estimates shaft friction by a fixed value of k=0.0. For a deep layer it is better to divide the layer into several sub-layers in order to get the average N value for the method. the method FUGRO-04 as ICP-05 method also gives acceptable tension capacity in compare to field measured one. A good correlation between calculated and measured could be due to that this method is based on field results and especial equation is presented for tension capacity of piles. different theoretical and empirical methods were used to evaluate shaft friction capacity of piles. moisture etc. the results obtained from this method has no significant difference with field measurements (as shown in figure 13). 14 12 10 Qt(ton) 8 Test Result 6 4 2 0 (L/D)=4 Imperial college measurements. In compare to other methods. In UWA-05 method shaft friction appearing on piles is related to displacement of surrounding soil during installing piles. Fig. A l. unless layers are very deep.0 5 1018 . Moreover. number of impactions can be considered for layers. In order to use SPT results estimating tension capacity suggested by German code. Al. Correction factor of CN related to depth equal to σ v = 99.76 kPa and diminishes significant depth effect. Differences observed in results of these methods are made because of different parameters influential in shaft tension capacity in sandy soils and lack of enough suitable information from tests conducted in full scale especially on open-ended pipe pile and each method considered a few parameters to estimate shaft friction capacity. 18 Comparison of results obtained from different method with field measurements for L/D=4. results obtained from Imperial College method are higher than measured one. This method has a low accurate to estimate shaft tension capacity because it doesn't consider difference between side friction in tension and compression for piles. Engineering and Technology 58 2009 14 12 10 Q t(to n ) Im p e r ia l c o lle g e 8 T e s t R e s u lt 6 4 2 0 (L/D)=3.875 Fig.875.e.2 for β as a coefficient for vertical effective stress. As one can see from figure 8. Based on this criterion soil is homogenous with inner friction and cohesion as well as the friction capacity is constantly distributed along the failure plain.4 0 1 4 DIN-4014 F le m in g e t. D IN . These methods show differences in tension capacity value of piles buried in sand. Results obtained from DIN 4014 method as presented in figure 11 is far away from actual results i. So to calculate the shaft friction by N value with the relationship proposed by this method one needs a lot of patient. Results obtained from this method as shown in figure 14 is in good agreement with field measurement. Rees and O. So choosing value N to estimate tension capacity needs a high accuracy while SPT is carried out in deep points.9 for all sandy soil without considering parameters such as relative density.25-1. Field measurement results provided in full scale are in the range of results obtained from some methods. As one can see from figure10. Displacement is determined by effective area parameter both for closed-ended piles and open-ended one. Since this method was obtained from 41 piles testing and considers a limitation of 0. 17 Comparison of results obtained from different method with field measurements for L/D=3. field Fleming et. assessment on pile tests show that two methods of ICP-05 and UWA-05 gives the shaft friction capacity closed to field measurements in full scale. The formula provided by ICP-05 for estimating tension capacity is based on results from load tests on jacked closedended instrumented piles and was calibrated for open-ended piles too. That is why there is difference between results obtained with this method with field measurements. method is a conservative method in estimating tension capacity. This could be due to assumption is used by this method that the peak local shaft friction on the pile can be related to the radial effective stress at failure by mean of simple Coulomb failure criterion. R ees & O'Neill FUGR O-04 U WA-05 ICP-05 R e e s & O 'N e ill F U G R O -0 4 U W A-0 5 IC P .neill method estimated shaft friction by imposing a coefficient (which is a function of depth) to vertical effective stress. this code tries to estimate tension capacity only by SPT numbers.World Academy of Science. This theory suggests that failure wedge is a rigid body and the friction force is produced due to displacement of failure wedge between soil and shaft. Figure 12 shows that Fleming et al. However. CONCLUSION In the present study. As shown in figure 9 the results obtained from this method is too closed to the measured one.

1994. 1998. Investigations into the behavior of displacement piles for offshore structures. University of London (Imperial College). thesis. on Design and Construction of Deep Foundations. 1994. [12] Fleming W. Elson W.41-9. DC. Behavior of pile plug in sandy soils during and after driving. Experimental investigations of pile behavior using instrumented field piles. Transportation Research Record No. [14] O'Neill.F.. [13] O'Neill..137-187. Pile bearing capacity by means of static penetrometer CPT: In Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on Penetration Testing. pp. [5] Fugro Engineers B.A. Weltman A. R.J. 1982. National Research Council.. London. B. Jardine. K. 2005. 1.. F. [4] Jardine. U. Randolph M.V.990092. B.. 1.G. Evaluation of design methods for displacement piles in sand. In proceedings of a Conference on the Behavior of Offshore Structures.. London and New York. Hassan.J.J. B. Proc. R. pp.M. London.. J.. [15] Kraft. p. Overy. 493-500..M.M. Axial pile design method for offshore driven piles in sand. 1974.. Highway Admin.K.C. Int. 1998. M. 185-206. 5 August 2004: 122 pp. J. Vol.1. Vol. Houston. D. Constr.. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.M. Texas. Engineering and Technology 58 2009 REFERENCES Lehane BM.K.M. Proceedings of the 6th Annual OTC. Bond AJ.485-504. Axial capacity of offshore piles in dense North Sea sand. Washington. F.. N. C. 1997. Conf. Tension piles in sand: a method including degradation of shaft friction during driving. [7] Alawneh AS. State of the art. A review of soil-steel interface testing with the ring shear apparatus. 1992.J. Lateral stress changes and shaft friction for model displacement piles in sand. [3] Bustamante.F.. Schnider. and Ridly. [16] Lehanc.D. L. In proceedings of the 6th Conference on Offshore Site Investigation and Foundation Behavior. Frank R.J. Drilled Shafts. 1994. (Fugro) 2004. F. Drilled Shafts: Effects of construction on performance and design criteria. GEO: 05341.M. Deep Founds. OTC 6514. UWA Report. M. and Xu. U. pp. 119 (1):19-35.C. Houston: 145-154. London. 124(2): 171-178. White. X. 1.World Academy of Science. M. [10] Ramsey. Mass. Mechanisms of shaft friction in sand from instrumented pile tests. University of London (Imperial College). 1992 Piling Engineering. and Gianeselli.. [9] Chow. Lehane. 2005. 23-36. 1999. J. Washington. and Chow.. B. [6] Lehane. Fed..K..P1003. 1993. L. proc. Society for underwater technology. D. ASCE. FHWA. Issue 3 to API.. B.. and Jardine. [2] Lehane. Amsterdam.. 237-258. 1991. & Nauroy.-F. International Conf.M. [11] Brucy.K.. J Geotechnical Eng.G.W. Orlando. Meunier. [8] Lehane. U. A. 23rd Annual OTC.. Shaft capacity of driven piles in sand: a new design approach. Ph. pp.ultimate axial capacity of grouted piles.. [1] 1019 . Canadian Geotechnical Journal 42 (4): 1039-1052 August 2005.. R. Boston.. Proc. Taylor & Francis Group. Paper No. Jardine RJ. R. PhD thesis. Des. Lyons.K.W. Fugro Report No. 1663.

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