Project Report

Submitted to the Department of Electronics

In Partial Fulfillment for the award of degree of

B.Tech (Electronics)
Under the Supervision of

MR. Anish chauhan
(Senior Engineer Assistant)




Ambala College of Engineering and Applied Research, Mithapur Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra


This is to certify that Mr. NITIN DHINGRA bearing Roll No. 2306218 Department of Electronics & communication Engineering , Ambala college of engineering & applied Research , Mithapur , Ambala Affiliated to Kurukshetra University, has completed six

weeks training at BEL ,405 ,Industrial Area, Phase-III, Panchkula. His work and conduct is found excellent to My knowledge .


MR . Anish Chauhan

Senior Engineer Assistance , (S.E.A)Bharat Electronics Ltd., Panchkula.



During the first two weeks of my training, we were introduced to various departments of Bharat Electronics. During that period, we came to know about their working, their motive behind work and in which way they are contributing towards the development

Here in the Panchkula unit, I had the previlege of going through products used by our Indian Defence Services, At the time of war and day to day activities and in commercial applications. Here are the following examples:
(a) STARS – V(secure tactical army radio system) – It was used in KARGIL WAR

and it is used to provide 2320 Channels with 25 kHz spacing , 250 hops per sec for FH radios and has inbuilt GPS services .
(b) CNR( composite net radio) - It is frequency controlled hopping radio based

on digital signal processing technology (DSP) . It has automatic re – broadcast facility and Modular construction.
(c) SECTEL( secure telephone ) -

It is compact , full duplex Subscriber end Secrecy Device (SESD) Providing a high grade of secrecy on telephone lines . grade digital secrecy. It has 16 preset frequencies, Antennas of helical and magnetic mount.

(d) SECURE UHF HANDHELD RADIO- It is UHF handheld radio with inbuilt high

(e) DBC ( dual battery charger )- It is used the battery which is used in VPS set . It

can charge the two batteries at the same time.


I am highly indebted BEL Panchkula, one of the leading organizations of our nation, for getting me undertake six weeks training course with them. It was really a very nice experience as we come to know how actually the company strives hard to keep up the national security at par with the rest of the world. I would like to express my gratitude towards Mr. Dinesh Kumar Dhiman (Manager HRD) who allowed us to join BEL as a trainee & helped us in every possible way so that we could complete our training successfully. I also thank Mr. Anish Chauhan (Senior Engineer Assistance, S.E.A), who was there to support us whenever we needed help at every point of our training. Last but not least I would like to thank all the staff members of BEL who made this training rich experience & a success. NITIN DHINGRA

UPPT NO. 3880



the student gets the real experience for working in the actual industry environment. And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd. Excellence is an attitude that whole of human race is born with. based on broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. A well planned. properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in including a professional attitude. During this period. It provides a linkage b/w the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving.INTRODUCTION With the ongoing revolution in electronic & communication where innovations are taking at the blink of eye. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. which is immensely helps in them in building their carrier. but for an industry it is most important and can be defined as “The totality of features and characteristics of a product / services that bear on its ability to satisfy given needs”. The word quality holds out different meaning for different people. 6 . I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many instruments. which increased my sphere of knowledge to great extent. it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures.

multi unit. On line computerization for materials management state-of-the-art test facilities. Solar systems. Telecommunications. BEL has grown into a multi product. Computer Aided Design and Manufacture have made BEL a modern professional Electronic Company. Police Wireless. etc. State-of-the-art manufacturing testing and quality assurance facility has been set up in all units of BEL. back-up support from Standardization Technical information and Documentation. BEL has the expertise in engineering Radar.the-art products in the field of Radars. has nine units in the country. Defence Communications. Doordarshan.REVIEW BHARAT ELECTRONICS AT A GLANCE Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) established in 1954 with its corporate office at Bangalore. providing network solutions to meet customer needs. It is engaged in the design development and manufacture of sophisticated of-the-art Stateelectronics equipments/components for the use of defence services. and multi technology company 7 . Antenna Testing facility. develops and manufactures state-of. All manufacturing divisions/units of BEL have been accredited with ISO 9002/ISO 9001. facilities for carrying out environment and reliability checks electro-magnetic interference/Electro Magnetic Compatibility Testing facility. With continuous upgradation of technology. Para military organisations and other governmental users like All India Radio. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) designs. commitment to quality and constant innovation. Opto-electronics. The BEL is also the premier indigenous source for professional electronic equipment. Department of Telecommunications. These systems are supplied and commissioned on turnkey basis. Sound and Vision Broadcasting. IT products and Electronic components. Telecom and Satcom networks. With over four decades of manufacturing experience Bharat Electronics Limited has pioneered the professional electronics movement in India. Meteorological Department.

Microwave Tubes . All the Units of BEL are certified for ISO 9001/1994. Tank Electronics. MOU rating for the past five years in succession is excellent. SATCOM. 5. Transmitters .Ray tubes.BEL meets a variety of requirements of the Services in the area of Radars.]. BEL pioneered the growth of the Electronic ‘Components’ Industry in the country by setting up the manufacture of electron tubes [TV Picture Tubes for the Consumer Electronics Industry. BEL is also playing a significant role in the Civilian ‘professional Electronics’ sector of the country particularly for the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting by supplying it with bulk of its infrastructural requirements for Radio and TV Broadcasting . Satellite . Action has already been iniated to graduate to ISO 9000:2000 standards.In the field of Telecommunication too . BEL has an important part to play . Around 72% of BEL’s turnover has been for the defence services and BEL’s contributions to the Services in their various modernization programmes have been very significant .. HISTORY & MILESTONES 8 . Hybrid Micro Circuits. Uplinks. Sonars.particularly in the area of transmission equipment where it had met the significant requirements of the Bharat Sanchar Limited (BSNL). 6. Integrated Circuits.1. Transmiiting Tubes for AIR/DD And the Industrial needs . Electronic Warfare Equipment etc. The Company won the “Golden Peacock” National Quality Award for outstanding achievements in pursuit of total quality. like Studio Equipment . Vaccum Interrupters etc. X. OB Vans etc . 4. product support. Communication Equipment and Systems. Semiconductors Devices . and meeting stringent Defence specifications with the assurance of Lifetime 2. 3.

With continuous upgradation of technology. gives an idea of the progress at BEL. commitment to quality and constant innovation. BEL has also established two joint ventures . 2003 2002 2002 2001 2000 1999 BEL celebrates its Golden Jubilee Year BEL acquires Category -I Mini Ratna status Foundation Stone laid for BEL's new corporate Office Building in Bangalore BEL bags National R & D Award in electronics Industry sector Bangalore Unit of BEL implements Rain Water Harvesting on an industrial basis Bharat Electronics Quality Institute 1998 . and multi technology company. A peep into Bharat Eectronics's Archives section. UK for paging systems and has a subsidiary company BEL Optronic Devices Limited for the manufacture of Image Intensifier tubes. MILESTONES-BEL has nurtured itself to be known as one of the best publisector units in the nation. BEL has set up impressive infrastructure and manufacturing facilities in their nine ISO certified production units around the country.HISTORY SINCE 1954 With over four decades of manufacturing experience Bharat Electronics Limited has pioneered the professional electronics movement in India. USA for X-ray tubes and Multitone. multi unit. BEL has grown into a multi product.with General Electric Medical Systems.Hyderabad unit gets ISO 9002 1998 Kotdwara unit gets ISO 9001 9 .

1985 Madras & Panchkula Units. Broadcast & TV.Switching & Transmission System and Mass Mfg. Bangalore Naval Equipment Division Kotdwara. Facility Central Research Laboratory.1996 1994 1993 Joint venture with Multitone and GEMS ISO-9001 Accreditation ISO-9002 Accreditation 1992 .Central Research Laboratory. Taloja & Hyderabad Units. Ghaziabad 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 SATCOM EMI/EMC Test Facilities & Computer Software Telecom . Digital Communication Equipment Divisions. Vacuum Interrupters 1983 (ASCO) Machilipatnam Integrated with BEL 10 . Klystrons & Traveling Wave Tubes.

Silicon Semiconductors Transmitting Tubes Radars Germanium Semiconductors Receiving Valves Equipment Production started at Bangalore ( present LPE Division) Incorporation of BEL MA NUFACTURING UNITS 11 .pune unit 1974 1972 1971 1970 1968 1967 1966 1962 1961 1956 1954 Ghaziabad unit B/W TV Picture Tubes Integrated circuits & hybrid Microcircuits X-Ray Tubes & Magnetrons HF & Broadcast equipment.1982 Space Electronics division 1979.

In 1954 with a factory of Jallahali. Bharat Electronics grew into nine units. spread all over the India. The locations & products of the units are given below:- 1. BANGALORE: 12 .

Radars b. Radars d. Jallahali unit which is the mother unit is now a part of this complex. Antennae c. Microwave Components 3. Naval Systems c. In this branch around 700-800 employees are working here. GHAZIABAD: This is the second unit which was setup in 1974. Military Communications b. SATCOM(Defence) d. The products manufactured here are: a.This is also called BG Complex. Telecom & Broadcasting Systems e. MACHLIPATNAM: 13 . Electronic Components 2. This is the biggest unit with approx. PUNE: To diversify further one more branch was added in 1979 & this was in pune. 10000 employees working here. The product profile includes:  X-Ray Tubes  Batteries  Electro Optics 4. the important ones are: a. &approx. 2500 employees are working here. Among the products manufactured here.

Train Actuated Warning System c. 14 .P. This unit makes: a. This unit manufactures only Tactical Communication Equipment. But the place in U. multiplex equipments & exchanges etc. Electornic Equipment Assembly 6. KOTDWARA: This is a unit in Garhwal district of U. Shelters for Electornic Equipment b.The product includes:  Optical Products  Medical Electronics 5.P. It was proposed to setup one unit each in Haryana & Uttar Pradesh. it was decided & hence this unit started earlier. which was a sick unit. 7.There was one Andhra Scientific Company. PANCHKULA: Panchkula & Kotdwara were proposed simultaneously by the Government in 1985. This manufactures radio relay. for setting up a unit could not be decided while at Haryana. This was taken over by BEL & is called ASCO unit in 1983. TALOJA: This is an industrial place near Mumbai.

HYDERABAD: This is another unit of BEL which manufactures electronic warfare equipments. This unit manufactures: a.8. Optical Fire Control Systems 9. Tank Electronics b. CHENNAI: The eighth unit of BEL was established in Chennai. 15 .

248 million.BEL firmly believes in quality products and has proved itself by getting and retaining the ISO-9002 certificate since more than 4 years. The wireless set STARS-V being manufactured here is largely used by the armed forces . The construction work commenced in 1984 and the main Production and services buildings were occupied in 1987 . TRAINING WORK 16 .L PANCHKULA – A VITAL LINK In September 1982. marks an important milestone in growth Plans of B. the government approved proposal of Bharat Electronics Limited for the establishment of two equipment factories.E. Production of VHF Transrecievers from these sheds commenced in 1985. by govt. of Haryana in Industrial Area.L in 1984 set up temporary facilities in hired sheds. with an investment of Rs.B. Subsquently. Professional grade communication has been BEL’s primary business and the Panchkula unit contributes significantly towards this area with the production of radio communication equipments.E. for augmenting its manufacturing facilities and capacities.B. One of these was to be located in Haryana.It was used recently in OPERATION VIJAY in KARGIL . Panchkula was selected as location in Haryana and approximately 23 hectare of land was given free of cost to B.E.E. The establishment of the Panchkula unit. Phase-III in 1983.

• D & E CRYPTO – It is for designing of secure communication. 17 . • DRG OFFICE – It is the Drawing office. TL (Technical Literature) – It is the booklet with the project having the instructions PR (Public Relation) – It deals with public relations. 2. FGS (FINISH GOODS STORE) – After finishing the project it is sent to FGS for final packing. make the modifications to prepare design and related documents. MKTG (Marketing Division) • • • • Sales – It is to prepare ESO equipment source order.ORGANISATION BEL Panchkula has different divisions which are further divided into departments:- 1. • TIC (Technical Information Centre) – TIC is a library for designing purpose. D & E (Development and Engineering) • D & E (DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING) – It is to design the project.

MS/HRD (Human Resources Department) • HRD – It is the training centre. 18 . Module assembly.there are different types of work assembly i. • AMF (Advanced Manufacturing Facilities) – Advanced machines are used in the manufacturing of the projects as SMT(Surface Mounted Technology). • WF (Work Fabrication) – It is the department for the mechanical work.3. it is an automatic system to mount the item on the PCB • PE (Production engineering) – It is for the installation of the new machinery. Final assembly. It is also for the enquiry of an item. MFG (Manufacturing) • WA (Work Assembly). • PPC (Production. • SC (Sub Contract) 4. PCB assembly.e. • EDP (Electronic Data Processing) – It is the network system for copy. Planning and Control) – In this the work is planned.

MM (Material Management) It is the management of the materials. • HS (Holding Store) – It has different bins that hold Items after inspection. PA (Product Assurance) • Testing – Products are tested by different tests. • PUR (Purchase department) – This department purchases the materials. • PS (Product Support) – It is done after sale services. • SELF CERT (Self Certification) – it is the department which visits the place where work is going on.5. MC (Material Contract) 6. • • IGS (Incoming Good Store). • C Test (Cipher Test) – It is the test for the secrecy. 19 . • ISM (Integrated Store Management).

• ESTD. electrical supply. horticulture. • PERSON. • MEDICAL – Medical facilities are also available. 8. (Personnel) – In this department the recruitment of employees is done. • CRECHE • CANTEEN • WELFARE 9. Services are water supply. P & S (Plant and Services) It is the department for providing the services to company.7. (Establishment) – It is to use manpower in different areas. F & A (Finance and Account) 20 . transport. P & A (Personnel & Administration) • SECURITY – this department look after the security of the company premises and the residential townships.

• • BUDGET – It is made for one year. • QCC (Quality Control Circle) – In this department there is group of employees who discuss the problems. find out its solution and present it to manager.It is the statistical technique for maintaining Quality. • QCC (Quality Control Circle) – In this department there is group of employees who discuss the problems. 21 . find out its solution and present it to manager. TES (Test Equipment and Support) – Calibration or Measuring of instruments.• FINANCE – Department for the sanction of money PAYROLL – It deals with the salaries of the employees. • AUDIT – Survey of the systems. • ACCOUNTS – It is the record of the money.QM (Quality Management) • ISO (International Standards Organization) – It is to sell our products in the international market. • • 6∑ . 10.

VHF. and TRANSRECEIVERS etc. Also the major products include RADARS. ground based systems. UHF. XRAY tubes. be it hand held mobile radios and terminals. and V/UHF frequency bands. BEL has been involved in providing state of art communication equipment to the Indian Army. BEL manufactures a lot of products which are very difficult to list but some of the major products are given below: o o o o o o o o o o o Integrated circuits and micro circuits HF & broadcast equipment Radars STARS-V SECTEL CNR HUD ACME MK II Space guiding equipments Airborne GPS receiver PRIME 22 . the data to be transferred is first encrypted using a microprocessor which could be read only by a similar device with same coding.PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED The products of BEL are mainly focused on defence purposes but later on BEL also started manufacturing some commercially useful items also. The major products include communication devices which provide secure mode of communication. The communication Equipments developed here cover HF. Now the latest technology of the frequency hopping is being implemented which is a very useful tool in making a secure data transfer system. air borne and even ship borne equipments. In STARS-V. The most important project of BEL under the communication equipments is STARS-V which provides secure mode of data transfer.

Intercom operation between radio set and RCU is also provided.VHF) is a family of fixed frequency and frequency hopping radio sets available in 5W and 25W power output configurations.o o o SECURE FAX SECURE TELEPHONE PRODUCTS :1. The radio set can be configured for fully automatic rebroadcast operation. All front panel controls (except ON/OFF) are extended using 2 wire cables to a Remote Control Unit (RCU) at the remote location. voice secure and data modes. STARS-V (SECURE TACTICAL ARMY RADIO SYSTEM) STARS-V (Secure Tactical Army Radio System . The radios provide communication in voice clear. They are designed to perform in conformance to MIL 461 class of EMI/EMC specifications. They can be controlled from a remote location upto 2 km. STARS-V radios find use in Manpack as well as vehicular applications for providing voice and data communications in VHF frequency range of 30-88 MHz 23 . External data interface is provided on the front panel to facilitate data communication with suitable modem The radios are fully modular in construction. It is also possible to setup rebroadcast over two wires for voice clear mode only.

CNR (COMPOSITE NET RADIO) VHF Transrecievers (CNR) is a software controlled frequency hopping radio (Transmitter and Receiver) in the VHF frequency band of 30 – 88 MHz the design of the radio is based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology making use of Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis (DDFX). The radio supports both Voice and Data communication in clear as well as secure mode.VHF frequency range of 30 . The radio works in Anti-jam frequency hopping and fixed frequency modes with built-in high grade digital secrecy.88 MHz 2320 channels with 25 KHz spacing 1W/2W/5W/25W power outputs in different models 250 hops per sec for FH radios In built GPS 32 preset crypto keys + 1 manual key BITE up to module level Built-in data modem Complaint to MIL 461 EMI specifications Manpack / Vehicular roles 2. 24 .

Radio is based on DSP technology Frequency range of 30-88 MHz with 25 KHz channel spacing Supports 2320 channels with 10 preset channels and 10 hop sets Scan and BITE facility Automatic re-broadcast facility Direct serial data interface (RS-232C) Modular construction 3. full duplex digital Subscriber End Secrecy Device (SESD) providing highest grade of secrecy on normal telephone lines. The encrypted speech is transmitted over the telephone line using a Full Duplex QAS 25 . SECTEL (SECURE TELEPHONE) Secure Telephone is a compact. It operates from 230 V AC mains using AC-DC adapter. It can operate over any standard voice channel of telephone networks like DOT hired miltrunk single link circuits and STD channels. It replaces subscriber’s normal telephone instruments. Key management is supported by Fillgun. Speech is digitized using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) technique and digitally encrypted by a highly complex crypto algorithm which ensures highest grade of secrecy.

High-grade speech secrecy Full duplex transmission in Secure and Clear mode Data rate 2. the encrypted data stream is demodulated / decrypted and the original speech is synthesized. SECURE UHF HANDHELD RADIO (LUP 291): 26 . At the receiver end. The user can switch between clear and secure mode during the Same call.4 kbps full duplex Memory dialing of 10 stored numbers Multi-function keypad for different functions Simple connectivity over standard two wire telephone lines 2 x 16 character LCD display to show the status 4.modem.

The radio set is provided with helical and magnetic mount antennas. The operator interface is user friendly with minimum number of controls. compact and light weight. VOX headgear is also available as optional accessory for hands free operation. 27 . The radio set is state – of – the art design.LUP 291 is a UHF handheld radio with inbuilt high grade digital secrecy. Interface is provided for Headgear and Crypto key loading. The radio set has in-built mic and speaker.

Password etc. Clone .5 /25 kHz Built –in high grade Crypto 32 Preset crypto keys + 1 manual key Selective call facility 16 Preset frequencies 28 . Fillgun/ Programmer etc. Erase and Whisper facilities 7. Handset.470 MHZ Channel Spacing 12.Continuous Tone coded squelch(CTCSS) RF Power Output : 5W /1 W (selectable) Various programmable features like Scan. Power Save. Frequency range 403 .2 V Primary & Secondary batteries Antennas : Helical and magnetic mount Complaint to MIL 461 EMI specs Optional accessories: Battery charger. Headgear. CTCSS frequency selection. Inbuilt Powerful Diagnosis feature (BITE) TX Inhibit (Sulk ) .

5. Can charge two batteries at a time Temp range. DBC is designed in such a way that it can charge two batteries at a time. discharging and overcharging Fuse used to prevent it from very high input voltage Controller card Is used Product group:29 . It’s working range is 0°C to 40°C. It is used to charge the battery which is used in VPS set.0°C -40°C Can work with AC as well as DC input Display for voltage indication LED’s used to indicate charging. DBC (DUAL BATTERY CHARGER):- DBC stands for dual battery charger. It can work with AC as well as DC input also.. It is also shockproof.

e. planning and control:This sub-department forms the most important section among the others present because it forms the ‘backbone’. The purchase now comes to the IGS (Inwards Goods Section) where it is tested in IGI. Right from the beginning till the end of the production of a particular set. Now comes material control. This function is called “Launching”. Here the PPC keeps track of production i. The pieces that are okayed are then stored in holding stores. 30 . it mainly performs three functions namely: Scheduling  Launching  Control The market section takes the order from the customer and gives the equipment stock order to PPC.Production. the responsibility lies in the hands of this section. Next function that comes is launched PPC prepares shop order and engineering documents such as drawings. The management servicing department prepares the work order and gives it to PPC. Now PPC makes the list of each component involved in product. the purchase requisition is given to purchase department and sub-contact department. This is called “Scheduling”.

done in the inspection department. These PCB’s are then sat properly in the complete set. It is divided into three sections:- • PCB assembly section • Coil winding section • Final assembly section This set reaches the final assembly section only after they pass all the tests. in this department all the components are mounted on PCB’s.ASSEMBLY SECTION :- As the name suggests. 31 .

This no. If not for the presence of machine. A casting (made of needles) of the base of the PCB is made. 60 lakhs. manually. such that one end of the needle holds the junction point ( where the components are soldered to the PCB ). connected branches of two components it gives the no. It should be noted that a very important advantage of using this machine is that testing of an individual component is done in such a way that it is guarded from the surrounding components. The machine bites its own numbers known as hybrid numbers. which is an approximately rs. Every path. At a time only one PCB is tested. It checks whether the particular component has been done without error. a program is fed into the machine. then the prepared PCB’s are brought to AAI. has to be fed in the program by entering through the keyboard to the In Circuit Tester. These numbers give information about wiring connections to be done during the checking of PCB. To one end of the casting the PCB is placed. The maker of the machine is GEN RAD. In AAI electrical test is done on each individual component. while the other end of the wire is connected to a particular nail where no. This is advantageous because the other components do affects the testing. is made.2372 Ckt. An automated machine known as In Circuit Tester does the checking. it would have been impossible to check the PCB’s manually. There is a monitor present for viewing the entire process being done. 32 .AUTOMATED ASSEMBLY INSPECTION (AAI):When the components have been mounted on the PCB’s. When all the numbering has been done. It really pays its cost. By the term guarding it means that the testing takes place as if only particular component is present. matches with the hybrid number given by the machine itself . It is a master of fine second in which the in circuit tester checks a PCB containing hundreds of components. this is very important department because it ensures that quality of BEL standards is maintained. The in circuit tester checks the value of all individual components. When a PCB is placed over the needle with the help of vacuum it is tightened to the casting. Firstly the drawing of Ckt.

the PCB’S are kept in chamber with a temp.Testing and inspection :AAI mentioned above is by itself apart and inspection section. The most important parameters that are to be followed during the inspection are as follows:1) The values of the various components 2) The visible characteristics of various active devices 3) Various interconnections 4) Whether the BEL standards are maintained or not Testing is very important in the production. of +50°C and -30°C. Firstly. As mentioned above it is a separate section in PG-I. This is called ageing process. 33 . This process is done for approx. Inspection is done in every stage of PCB namely at: Module stage  Sub-assembly  Final stage It is done after the environmental testing and before sending for testing. In PG-I manufacturing of STARSV is the main job. This is done to check the stability of characteristic of PCB as well as its components. Testing of STARSV is done in two main stages only. 80 hours. but due to its imp. ⇒ PCB level testing ⇒ Main testing PCB level testing takes place in many stages.

These test jigs provide perfect environment In terms of signals that actual set will face in the field. The first test is BUMP TEST. The air is filled inside set through a nozzle at a pressure of 3 PSI. These packed sets are now sent for main testing. Here the encryption part of PCB is enabled and checked. Characteristics of set are provided to them in addition to knowledge of working environment AMF 34 . Now in assembly section all components are packed finally. Thermal shocks are given. In testing. This is done to check the resistance of set against mechanical bumps and vibrations. LEAKAGE TEST is done to check the set for any leakage. Entry in this section is strictly restricted for anyone. The PCB is sent to assembly section back and they come out clear from test jigs. There is a spatial section in testing by the name CIPHER. In this the radio set is immersed in water. set is sent for repairing. if air bubbles appear . Next is THERMAL SHOCK test to check the adaptability of set to sudden change in temperature. The sets are subjected to temp. Range of 40°C-70°C. The main testing includes many tests. apart from authorized personnel. They are also provided the facility to check the set with help of instruments.The PCB that passes out of the ageing process are then brought out in the block to put them through test jigs. product is subjected to adverse condition to check the reliability of product under condition defence forces will use. PRODUCT SUPPORT:In this department customers come and see the product.

The stages involved are:- Figure 1 SMT LINE THE SMT LINE INCLUDING PICK AND PLACE 1. THE SMT LINE The various stages involved in the SMT in sequence are called the SMT line. Screen printer: In this stage. It is meant for fully automatic processes. the PCB is printed by solder paste in edges. Loader: The PCB is loaded by using equipment known as loader. 2. The PCBs are loaded into the stacks called as magazines. The surface mounting technology has got some disadvantages also that the process involved are irreversible and the components are costly.The Advanced manufacturing facility uses the surface mounting technology (SMT) which is used for making the sizes if the circuits are very small. This technology is Used in the mobile phones. This serves as the joint between the components and the PCB such that it holds the components on the PCB. 35 .

Its construction consists of the two gantries:- Figure 2 Gantries DIFFERENT TYPES OF THE NOZZLES USED IN THE REVOLVER HEAD Gantry 1: Here. therefore. The machine creates the Vaccum between the nozzle and the component. picking the component.The components that can be worked by this machine are:• chip components at 13500 cph • fine pitch components at 3500 cph 4. The size of the nozzles differs with the size of the components. hence. It picks up the component & places it on to the PCB as per the program fed into the machine. Melting temperature of solder paste is 230-240 degrees Celsius. This temperature cannot be achieved by simple 36 . with the help of nozzles. the placement of fine pitch components takes place. Gantry 2: In gantry 2. the revolver head consists of 2 nozzles.3. Reflow oven – This is a machine that is used to create modeling between the components and the PCB. There are 6 heating zones provided in it. The revolver head picks 12 small components upto 18mm of size at a time. picking up 2 components at a time the speed 3500 cph. the placement of the components takes place with the help of revolver head. It is 5.5 mts long & it is made in Germany. Pick & Place Machine: It is fully automatic machine costing around 5 crores. Here. Its speed ranges upto 17000 components per hour (cph).

so the heating zones are provided which do this work. 5. The optical inspection is done by • Solid state • OCR (Optical character Resonator) that recognizes the letters. Can mount components on both sides of the PCBs. If the PCB boards have to be mounted by the components on both the sides. 7.6mm * 0. Mounts Flip Chip BGA (Ball Grid Array) . 8. SALIENT FEATURES OF SMT LINE 1. Flipping Machine – It flips the PCB through various sections. AOI (Automatic Optical Inspection) –This machine checks if the placement of the components on the PCB is correct or not. MELF (Metal Electrode Filament ) . It works like a ‘bypass machine’. PCB size from 500mm * 450mm to 70mm * 70mm. 6. CSP (Chip Square Package) . Fine Pitch Components upto 12mil. Handles component sizes from 0. here. 4. 5. 2.means. 3. It inspects the PCB optically. Unloader – Here. Buffer Stacker – The defective PCB boards are stored here. There is a zone called the active cooling zone that is to bring down the temperature from 240 degrees Celsius to room temperature. • OCV (Optical character verificator) that verifies the character about its size. Placement Accuracy 45 um at 6sigma. 6. the PCB is flipped. the machine unloads the PCB. 37 .3mm (0201) to 85mm * 85mm. Feeder Capacity: Tape/Reel/Stick (180mm * 8mm) or (135mm * 8mm) & 70 types of Matrix trays.

. .Tape feeder . 3. CSP. Tape size: .45 um at 6 sigma for fine pitch components. Feeder Capacity: . 8. Mini-MELF. 2. Built-in 2D inspection facility of solder paste print area. Edge Clearance of PCB – 3mm.50mm. Feeder Types: . Automatic Optical Inspection Facility.BGA.7. – 580mm.Stick feeder .Matrix Tray feeder 38 . Placement Speed: . 7. Component handling capacity: .180mm * 8mm tape feeder 6.0201 size to 85mm * 85mm.Fine pitch component upto 12 mil 4. . Accuracy of placement: .Fine pitch components – 3500 cph 5.8mm to 64mm 8. SALIENT FEATURES OF PICK AND PLACE MACHINE 1.Chip components – 13500 cph . MELF. min. PCB size handled: max.

Portability of CAD Data into machine. 10. Automatic Vaccum sensing of nozzles. 11.Bulk feeder 9. 39 . Off-Line feeder preparation..

In short. The next component in this machine is air knife where the excess flux is removed. This stand moves over the conveyer belt whose speed is 60 – 80 cm/sec. The thinner is added to the flux so as to make the flux thinner. which has the capacity of 400kg. 40 . The solder nozzle then produces a solder wave. This machine also consists of the sensors which sense the green mask as well as the spot mask on the PCB such that the solder does not stays on it. the conveyor belt is set on the angle of 4 – 7 degrees. The solder temperature is continuously controlled by the PID controller and its thermo couples.WAVE SOLDERING MACHINE Wave soldering machine consists of the PCB carrier stand. the description of the process is as follows: To arrest the air pollution by fume emission from wave soldering machine. The flux used for soldering is Rosion R8. It consists of 6 per-heaters. for next two pre-heaters the temperature is 140 degree Celsius. the pump arrangement provides for the hot solder to flow. Next comes the pre-heater zone. The waste material of the machine is known as dross. The temperature of the solder bath is 250 – 270 degree Celsius. After the solder bath. The temperature for the first 2 heaters is 100 degree Celsius. which can hold 10 PCBs at a time. and the temperature for last two chambers is 180 degree Celsius. The box containing the solder is called the solder bath. This machine costs around 30 lakhs. While the solder is heated up inside the solder bath.


It consists of 2 tanks. i. 5000/L. PCB Cleaning machine uses the solvent. HFE 71 is an expensive solvent. The capacity of Tank 1 is 60L. its capacity Being 75L. The temperature of operation is 65 degrees Celsius. with 60% of HCEL20 and 40% of HFE 71. Tank 1 consists of HC EL20 (hydrocarbon) in addition to HFE 71 (hydro fluoro ether). The movable Trans can lift upto 30 kg of the load that is to be fed into the machine for cleaning. iso –propyl alcohol is used.PCB CLEANING MACHINE Figure 3 PCB CLEANING MACHINE When the PCB is to be cleaned manually.. 42 . Rs. Tank 2 consists of HFE 71.e. The refilling of tanks takes place through Tank 2.

This is done for the efficient soldering of the PCBs. 4. IC Lead Straighten Machine : Used for straightening of IC leads.OTHER MACHINES AT AMF DEPARTMENT 1. Its Performance is as per ISO 9000. 43 . Burn-In Chamber (Oven): Baking of PCBs take place. PCB Cutting Machine : Used for cutting the rough edges of PCBs. 3. Temperature Range: -5 degree Celsius above ambient to 150 degree Celsius. 2. Component Lead Bending Machine : Used for bending of leads of resistors and capacitors.

SECURE UHF HANDHELD RADIO – this radio set is provided with helical and magnetic mount antennas. At the receiver end. VOX headgear is also available as optional accessory for hands free operation. SECTEL- Here the encrypted speech is transmitted over the telephone line using a FULL Duplex QASK modem. During my training in B. It can work with AC as well as dc input also . ranging from communication equipments to hardware to software equipments and it goes in every strata of society like it is now usually used in police training academies . DBC. The user can switch between clear and secure mode during the same call.It is to charge the two batteries at the same time which is used in VPS set. This being a large organization deals with wide spectrum of technologies. 4.It is also shockproof.E.L.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The industrial training at B. STARS. 44 . APPLICATIONS OF PRODUCTS :1. I came to know about different range of products . has given me an exposure of the activities of a defense unit. 2. 5. 3.L.V. the encrypted data stream is demodulated / decrypted and the orinal speech is synthesized. The radio set has in –built mic and speaker. CNR – This radio works in Anti – jam frequency hopping and fixed frequency modes with built –in high grade digital secrecy.E.These radios are used in Manpack as well as vehicular applications for providing voice and data communications in VHF frequency range of 30-88 MHZ.

my own understanding of this subject and also the motivation to acquire more knowledge would have remained incomplete. I was fortunate to have personal guidance from experienced professionals who took been interest in explaining the working details of various equipments. PKL unit generated a lot more interest in my subject.The six weeks of summer training at BEL. regarding future scope I think my training has given me enough motivation and an exposure that I will try to join defence services or get linked up with the defence of the country. 45 . It made me more aware of the scope of Electronics & Communication Engineering. I feel that without this opportunity. It has also made me appreciative of an industrial work environment. Undergoing training on the indoor substation has helped me integrate conceptual knowledge with real life application. Well.

SiGe heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (for high Ft). FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS PLANS • • • • • • • Super Bright White LEDs for home lighting Thermal imagers. SOI Technology. 46 . in the near future. Complimentary bipolar process technology using self aligned double poly. BiCMOS technology. Double sided detectors.FUTURE PLANS BHARAT ELECTRONICS Plans to introduce world class Products with state – of – the – art technologies.


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