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Intro to Concrete Mix Design

NH Structural Engineers Association


American Society of Civil Engineers
September 22, 2009
Traditional Concrete Making
Materials

• Portland cement
• Coarse aggregate
• Fine aggregate
• Water
Modern Concrete Making
Materials
• Portland cement
• Coarse aggregate
• Fine aggregate
• Water
• Chemical admixtures
• SCM’s
• Other admixtures/additives
• Air entrainers, fibers,
pigments
Objective In Designing Concrete
Mixtures

To determine the most economical & practical combination


of readily available materials to produce a concrete that will
satisfy the performance requirements under particular
conditions of use
Designing Concrete Mixtures
Factors to be considered

• Workability
• Placement conditions
• Strength
• Durability
• Appearance
• Economy
Designing Concrete Mixtures
Factors to be considered
• Strength – important to the
design engineer
• Durability – important to the
owner
• Workability – important to
the contractor
• Economy – important to the
owner

Proportioning concrete is the art of optimizing


the mixture to meet these requirement
Proportioning
Absolute Volume Method

• ACI 211.1: Normal, Heavyweight & Mass


Concrete
• ACI 211.2: Lightweight Concrete
• ACI 211.3: No-Slump Concrete
• ACI 211.4R: High Strength w/Fly Ash
• ACI 211.5: Submittal of Concrete
Proportions
Absolute Volume

• Concrete mixture
proportions are usually
expressed on the basis of
the mass of ingredients 1yd
per unit volume
1yd

1yd
Concrete is batched
weight
by weight

Concrete is sold
by volume
volume
Absolute Volume

Material Volume Density Mass


(yd3) (lb/ yd3) (lb)

Air 0.060
Water 0.150 1685 253
Cement 0.111 5319 590
Sand 0.245 4455 1095
Stone 0.434 4455 1937

Total 1.000 3875


Selecting Mix Characteristics
• Strength requirements • Cement content
• Determine W/CM • Cement type
• Coarse aggregate • Admixture effects
requirements • Fine aggregate
• Air content requirements
• Workability • Moisture corrections
• Water content • Trial mixes
Determine Strength Requirement
Specified strength, f’c, is determine from:
• Structural design considerations
• Durability considerations (ACI 318)
• Although the durability of concrete is not directly
related to strength-strength is used as an indirect
means of assuring adequate durability
• Proper concrete construction
– Proper mix design
– Proper placement & consolidation
– Proper curing
• Moisture/Temperature/Time
Requirements of ACI 318
Building Codes
Max W/CM Min. f’c
psi
Concrete intended to have low 0.50 4000
permeability when exposed to water

Concrete exposed to freezing & 0.45 4500


thawing in a moist condition or to de-
icing chemicals
Corrosion protection of reinforcement 0.40 5000
in concrete exposed to chlorides
Requirements For Sulfate
Exposure
Sulfate Exposure Max. W/CM Min. f’c
psi

Negligible ---- ----


Moderate 0.50 4000
Severe 0.45 4500
Very Severe 0.40* 5000

* - ACI 318 allows a W/CM of 0.45 & f’c= 4500 for this exposure
Determining Strength Requirement
• Probability that the average of three
consecutive tests(ave. of two cylinders) is
smaller than f’c is 1%
– f’cr = f’c + 1.34S
• Probability of an individual test being more
than 500 psi below f’c is 1%
– f’cr = f’c + 2.33S - 500

Select the higher value


Standard Deviation
If only 15 to 29 consecutive test are available-
multiply the standard deviation by the following modification
factors:
Number of Tests Modification Factor
Less than 15 ----
15 1.16
20 1.08
25 1.03
30 or more 1.00
Determine Required Water-
Cement Ratio
The W/CM is determine from:

• Durability
considerations

• Required strength
Requirements of ACI 318
Building Codes
Max W/CM Min. f’c
psi
Concrete intended to have low 0.50 4000
permeability when exposed to water

Concrete exposed to freezing & 0.45 4500


thawing in a moist condition or to de-
icing chemicals
Corrosion protection of reinforcement 0.40 5000
in concrete exposed to chlorides
Requirements For Sulfate
Exposure
Sulfate Exposure Max. W/CM Min. f’c
psi

Negligible ---- ----


Moderate 0.50 4000
Severe 0.45 4500
Very Severe 0.40* 5000

* - ACI 318 allows a W/CM of 0.45 & f’c= 4500 for this exposure
W/CM Required for Strength
• Use data from field or trial mixes using same material
• Where no data is available use table from ACI 211
Required W/CM W/CM
Strength Non-air Air
f‖cr
7000 0.33 ----
6000 0.41 0.32
5000 0.48 0.40
4000 0.57 0.48
3000 0.68 0.59
2000 0.82 0.74
Coarse Aggregate Requirement

• Grading

• Nature of particles
– Shape
– Porosity
– Surface texture
Max Aggregate Size
• Cover between steel & form,
C: Dmax < 3/4C
• Spacing between bars, S: Dmax
< 3/4S
• Distance between forms, B:
Dmax < B/5
• Depth of slab, D: Dmax < D/3
Max Aggregate Size
For pumped concrete

• Dmax < 1/3 diameter of


hose or 1-1/2 inch,
whichever is smaller
Fineness Modulus of Sand

• The FM is calculated from


particle size distribution of
the sand
• Values should range between
2.3 to 3.1
• Coarse sand has a higher FM
than fine sand
• FM influences the bulk
volume of coarse aggregate
Bulk Volume of Coarse Aggregate
Max Size Bulk volume of dry-rodded coarse aggregate
(in.) per unit volume of concrete for different FM
of fine aggregate

-------- 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00


3/8 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44
½ 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
¾ 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60
1 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65
1½ 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69
2 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72
3 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.76
6 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81
Bulk Volume of Coarse Aggregate

• Values in table are based on aggregate in a dry-


rodded condition(ASTM C-29)
• They are suitable for producing concrete with a
moderate workability suitable for general concrete
construction
• Less workable concrete(slip-form paving)-the bulk
volume can be increased by10%
• For more workable concrete(pumping)-the bulk
volume can be decreased by 10%
Air Content
The amount needed depends on:

• Max aggregate size


– Less paste as size
increases
• Level of exposure

Effect of air content on water demand:


Rule of thumb-
Decrease water by 5lb/yd for each 1% air
Workability Requirements
• Concrete must always be
made with a workability,
consistency and plasticity
suitable for job
placement
Workability Requirements
Workability Requirements
Concrete Construction Slump Slump
Max Min
Reinforced walls & footings 3 1
Plain footings, caissons, and 3 1
Substructure walls
Beams & reinforced walls 4 1
Columns 4 1
Pavements and slabs 3 1
Mass concrete 3 1
Water Content
Water demand is influenced by:
• Slump requirement
• Aggregate size
• Aggregate shape
• Air content
• Cementing materials
content
• Temp
• Admixtures
– Water-reducing
– Mid & High range
Water Content
Water demand is influenced by:
• Slump requirement
• Aggregate size
• Aggregate shape •Water demand

• Air content •Cement content


•Paste content
• Cementing materials •Cost

content •Shrinkage
•Heat evolution
• Temp
• Admixtures
– Water-reducing
– Mid & High range
Water Content
Water demand is influenced by:
• Slump requirement
• Aggregate size
• Aggregate shape
• Air content
• Cementing materials
content
• Temp
• Admixtures
– Water-reducing
– Mid & High range
Water Content
Water demand is influenced by:
• Slump requirement
• Aggregate size
• Aggregate shape
• Air content
• Cementing materials
content
• Temp
• Admixtures
– Water-reducing
– Mid & High range
Water Content
Water demand is influenced by:
• Slump requirement
• Aggregate size
• Aggregate shape
• Air content
• Cementing materials
content
• Temp
• Admixtures
– Water-reducing
– Mid & High range
Water Content
Water demand is influenced by:
• Slump requirement
• Aggregate size
• Aggregate shape
• Air content
• Cementing materials
content
• Temp
• Admixtures
– Water-reducing
– Mid & High range
Water Content
Water demand is influenced by:
• Slump requirement
• Aggregate size
• Aggregate shape
• Air content
• Cementing materials
content
• Temp
• Admixtures
– Water-reducing
– Mid & High range
Water Content
Water requirement for Non-Air-Entrained
concrete:

Nominal Max Aggregate Size(inches)


Slump
Inches 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 3

1 to 2 350 335 315 300 275 260 220

3 to 4 385 365 340 325 300 285 245

6 to 7 410 385 360 340 315 300 270


Same chart for Air-Entrained concrete
Water Content

• Values shown are for


angular crushed stone.
These estimates can be
reduced approximately:
• 20 lbs for sub-angular
• 35 lbs for gravel with
some crushed particles
• 45 lbs for rounded gravel
Water Content
Effects of admixtures
• Virtually all structural
concrete is placed with a
water-reducing
admixture
• Typical effects
– Normal:5-10% reduction
– Mid:5-18% reduction
– High:12-30% reduction
• Adjusting slump
– Increase/decrease by
add/delete 10lb/yd of water
Cement Content
Cement Material Content= Water Content
• Minimum cement content may be W/CM
specified for the purpose of:
– Durability
– Finishability
– Wear resistance
– Appearance
• Excessively high cementitious
contents should be avoided for:
– Economy
– Avoid adverse effects
• Workability
• Shrinkage
• Heat of hydration
Cement Content
General recommendations(PCA):
• Cementitious material > 564lb/yd³ for severe
freeze-thaw, deicer, and sulfate exposures
• Cementitious material > 650lb/yd³ for
concrete to be placed under water(also
W/CM < 0.45)
Cement Content
General recommendations(PCA):
• For workability, finishability, and durability
in flatwork cementitious material to follow
recommendations in table:
Max Aggregate Min Cement
(inches) (lbs)
1-1/2 470
1 520
3/4 540
1/2 590
3/8 610
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content
should be held to a
minimum to reduce
cement content by using:
– Largest practical max
aggregate size
– Optimum aggregate
gradation
– Optimum ratio of fine to
coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content
should be held to a
minimum to reduce
cement content by using:
– Largest practical max
aggregate size
– Optimum aggregate
gradation
– Optimum ratio of fine to
coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content Aggregate Retained Chart
should be held to a 8 -18
minimum to reduce
cement content by using:
– Largest practical max
aggregate size
– Optimum aggregate
gradation
– Optimum ratio of fine to
coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content
should be held to a
minimum to reduce Coarseness Factor
cement content by using: Coarseness Factor  % of total that is retained on 3/8 in. sieve and larger 100
% of total that is retained on the #8 sieve and larger
– Largest practical max 
11.7%  25.0%  12.5%
 100
11.7%  25.0%  12.5%  7.1%  5.0%
aggregate size 49.2%
  100
– Optimum aggregate 61.3%
 80.3
gradation
– Optimum ratio of fine to
coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content
should be held to a
minimum to reduce Workability Factor
cement content by using: Workability Factor  % of total that passes the #8 sieve  2.5  cm  565 lb/yd  3

 94 lb/yd3 
– Largest practical max  623  565 lb/yd3
 38.6%  2.5 

 
aggregate size  94 lb/yd3 
 58 lb/yd3 
– Optimum aggregate  38.6%  2.5 
 94 lb/yd3



gradation  40.1

– Optimum ratio of fine to


coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content
should be held to a
minimum to reduce
cement content by using:
– Largest practical max
aggregate size
– Optimum aggregate
gradation
– Optimum ratio of fine to
coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content
should be held to a
minimum to reduce
cement content by using:
– Largest practical max
aggregate size
– Optimum aggregate
gradation
– Optimum ratio of fine to
coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Admixture Effects
The use of admixtures may affect the water & air
content as follows:

• Water reducers typically decrease water by 5 to


10% and may increase air contents by up to 1%
• HRWR decrease water between 12 to 30% and
may increase air contents by up to 1%
• Calcium chloride-based admixtures reduce water
by about 3% and increase air by up to 0.5%
• Retarders may increase air contents
• Fibers will increase water demand
Cement Content
• Quality depends mainly on
w/cm & the water content
should be held to a
minimum to reduce
cement content by using:
– Largest practical max
aggregate size
– Optimum aggregate
gradation
– Optimum ratio of fine to
coarse aggregate
– Water-reducing & air-
entraining admixtures
– SCM’s(fly ash & slag)
Cement Type

– Type I – Normal
– Type II – Some sulfate resistance
low heat
– Type III – High early strength
– Type IV – Low heat of hydration
– Type V – High sulfate resistance

05 US production- 93 million tons from 113 plants in 37 states


Cement Type
Sulfate Cement
Exposure Type

Negligible No special type required

II,MS,IP(MS),IS(MS),P(MS),
Moderate
I(PM)(MS),I(SM)(MS)

Severe V(HS)

Very Severe V(HS)


Cement Type
The use of fly ash, slag or blended cements should
be considered in conjunction with Portland cement
wherever possible for the purpose of:
• Improving economy
• Improving workability
• Reducing heat of hydration
• Increase long-term
strength
• Improve durability
– Reduced permeability
• Freeze/thaw & corrosion
– ASR
– Sulfate resistance
Fly Ash, Slag, Silica Fume,
and Natural Pozzolans
Also known as —
Supplementary
Cementing Materials (SCMs)

— a material that, when used in conjunction


with Portland cement, contributes to the
properties of the hardened concrete through
hydraulic or pozzolanic activity, or both.
Supplementary Cementitious
Materials (SCMs)
From left to right:
• Fly ash (Class C)
• Metakaolin (calcined clay)
• Silica fume
• Fly ash (Class F)
• Slag
• Calcined shale
Why Use SCM’s
• Lower heat of hydration
• Improved
workability(silica
fume???)
• ASR resistance
• Higher strength
• Lower permeability
• Better concrete at lower Alkali-Silica Reaction
cost
Why Do SCM’s Work in
Concrete
• Have the same basic
minerals as in portland
cement
– CaO
– SiO2
– Al2O3
• Different proportions
than Portland cement
• Possibly different
mineral phases
Secondary Cementitious
Materials
• Cementitious Materials
– Fly Ash
– Ground Slag
– Silica Fume
• Chemically react
with cement and
water to make more
―glue‖
• Lower early strength,
higher later strength
• Better quality concrete
Secondary Cementitious
Materials
Cautions

• Less controlled than cement


• Composition depends on
origin
• Can change the properties of
the concrete(setting, water
demand,admixture behavior)
Cement Hydration Process

Cement + Water CSH + CaOH


Cement Hydration Process

Cement + Water CSH + CaOH


SCMs + CaOH more CSH
Secondary Cementitious
Materials
• Fly ash
– By-product of coal burning industry
– Finer than cement – round shape
• Easier to pump
• Reduces the amount of mixing water
• Fly ash bleeds less, improves finishing
• Sets slower – lower heat of hydration
• Less expensive than Portland cement
Secondary Cementitious
Materials
• Fly ash
– Does not lose slump as rapidly
– May be harder to entrain air
– Chemical composition varies
– Flowable fill market
Specifications and Classes of Fly Ash
ASTM C 618 (AASHTO M 295)

• Class F—Fly ash with


pozzolanic properties
• Class C—Fly ash with
pozzolanic and
Fly Ash cementitious properties
SEM Micrograph of
Fly Ash Particles
Secondary Cementitious
• Ground Slag
Materials
– By-product of the
iron making process
– Produces strong and
durable concrete
– Sets slower
– Lower early
strength but much
higher 28 day
strengths
Specifications and Grade of Ground
Granulated Iron Blast-Furnace Slags
ASTM C 989 (AASHTO M 302)

• Grade 80
Slags with a low activity index
• Grade 100
Slags with a moderate activity index
• Grade 120
Slags with a high activity index
SEM Micrograph of
Slag Particles
Secondary Cementitious
Materials
• Silica Fume
– By-product of electric furnaces in silicon metal
production
– 100 times smaller than a cement particle
– Used in structures
where durability is
important
– Very low addition rate
10% by weight of
cement or less
– Expensive – limited
supply
Specification for Silica Fume
ASTM C 1240
Silica Fume—finely divided residue
resulting from the production of
silicon, ferro-silicon, or other
silicon-containing alloys that is
carried from the burning surface area
of an electric-arc furnace by exhaust
gases.
SEM Micrograph of
Silica Fume Particles
Typical Amounts of SCM
in Concrete by Mass of
Cementing Materials
• Fly ash
– Class C 15% to 40%
– Class F 15% to 25%
• Slag 20% to 70%
• Silica fume 5% to 10%
• Calcined clay 15% to 35%
– Metakaolin 10%
• Calcined shale 15% to 35%
Effects of SCMs on Freshly Mixed Concrete
Reduced no/little effect
Silica
Fly ash Slag
Increase varies Fume
Water requirements
Workability
Bleeding & segregation
Air content
Heat of hydration
Setting time
Finishability
Pumpability
Plastic shrinkage cracking
Effects of SCMs on Hardened Concrete
Reduced no/little effect
Silica
Fly ash Slag
Increase varies Fume
Strength gain
Abrasion resistance
Freeze thaw/scaling resistance
Drying shrinkage
Permability
Alkali silica reactivity
Chemical resistance
Carbonation
Concrete color
Effect On Reducing ASR
ASTM C 441

• Type F Ash:
– 15% replacement: 47%
– 25% replacement: 66%
– 35% replacement: 81%

• Type C Ash:
– 15% replacement: 3%
– 25% replacement: 14%
– 35% replacement: 20%
Concrete can play a major role in
attaining LEED certification
LEED version 2.1
Materials & Resource category

•Credit 4-Recycled Content: up to 2 points for using building


products that incorporate recycled content materials
•Masonry products are ideal candidates for incorporating recycled
materials because of the inert nature
•SCMs such as fly ash, slag cement, silica fume are considered
post-industrial material
•Glass, slag, recycled concrete masonry, or other recycled materials
as aggregate are considered post-consumer material
LEED version 2.1
Materials & Resource category

•Credit 5-Local/Regional Materials: up to 2 points for using


building products that incorporate materials produced locally.
•Selecting materials & products from local manufacturers to a job
site supports the regional economy.In addition, selecting local
vendors minimizes fuel & handling cost for shipping products
•1 point earned for using a minimum of 20% of building materials
produced regionally within a radius of 500 miles
•Additional 1 point added if 50% of building materials produced
regionally within a radius of 500 miles
Cement Type
The use of fly ash or slag impact the mix proportions
in a number of ways including:
• Changes in water demand
– Fly ash reduces
– Slag has minimal effect
– Silica fume increases
• Changes in volume due to different
specific gravities(Portland cement =
3.15)
– Fly ash = 1.9 to 2.8
– Slag = 2.85 to 2.95
– Silica fume = 2.25
• Changes relationship between w/cm
& strength
Cement Type
ACI 318 Building Code also places limits on the
maximum amount of SCM allowed in concrete
exposed to de-icing salts as follows:
• Slag < 50%
• Fly ash < 25%
• Silica fume < 10%
• Total SCM in concrete
with slag < 50%
• Total SCM in concrete
without slag < 35%
Fine Aggregate Requirements
Mass Proportions(lb/yd³)
• Cement content
• Water content Already determined
• Coarse aggregate

• Convert to volumetric proportions using


appropriate material density
• Calculate the volume of sand required to make up
a unit volume(1yd³)
• Convert volume of sand to mass quantity using
appropriate density
Moisture Corrections
• Mix proportions are
calculated in a SSD state
• But corrections to free water
in both fine & coarse
aggregate are needed to
maintain proper design
volume
• Total free water from
aggregates is than subtracted
from total batch water
• Most ready mix facilities now
have moisture probes and
moisture adjustments are done
continuously
Trial Mixes
• Trial batches are
performed to determine
whether the slump, air
content and strength are
as required
• If not, modifications to
the mix are made and
further trials are
performed until all
properties are met
Absolute Volume Example
Conditions & Specifications

• Concrete pavement
• 8 inches thick
• Exposed to moisture
& deicer salts in
severe freeze-thaw
environments
• Slump 0f 3 in. +/- 1 in.
• No statistical data
Absolute Volume Example
Conditions & Specifications
• Coarse aggregate • Fine aggregate
– Well graded gravel w/ – Natural sand
some crushed particles
– S.G. = 2.64(SSD)
– 1 in. nominal max size
– Fineness modulus, FM
– S.G. = 2.68(SSD)
= 2.70
– Dry-rodded bulk
density = 2700lb/yd³ – Absorption, abs. =
(100lb/ft³) 0.9%
– Absorption, abs. = – Moisture content, mc =
0.5% 3.5%
– Moisture content, mc =
2.0%
Absolute Volume Example
Conditions & Specifications

• Admixtures
– Water-reducer:
• 7% water reduction at 5.5 fl. Oz. Per 100 lb of cement
• S.G. +/-= 1.0

– Air-entraining admixture
• Manufacturer recommends 1.0 fl. Oz. Per 100 lb of cement for
6% air
• S. G. +/-= 1.0
1.0 Strength

2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone

4.0 Air

5.0 Slump

6.0 Water
From this information a trial mixture is
7.0 Cement proportioned to meet the conditions and
specifications
8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Specified strength for design = 3500 psi
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Note requirements of ACI 318 Building Code


4.0 Air
Max Min. f’c
5.0 Slump W/CM psi
6.0 Water
Concrete intended to have low 0.50 4000
7.0 Cement permeability when exposed to
water
8.0 Type
Concrete exposed to freezing & 0.45 4500
9.0 Admixture thawing in a moist condition or
to de-icing chemicals
10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture Corrosion protection of 0.40 5000


reinforcement in concrete
12.0 Trials exposed to chlorides
1.0 Strength
Specified strength for design = 3500 psi
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Note requirements of ACI 318 Building Code


4.0 Air F’c = 4500 psi
5.0 Slump
Since less than 15 consecutive test are available
6.0 Water Specified Strength Required Average
7.0 Cement F’c (psi) Strength F’cr (psi)

8.0 Type
Less than 3000 F’c + 1000
9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand 3000 to 5000 F’c + 1200

11.0 Moisture
Over 5000 1.10 F’c + 700
12.0 Trials F’cr = 4500 + 1200 = 5700 psi
1.0 Strength
W/CM required for strength
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Required W/CM W/CM


Strength Non-air Air
4.0 Air
f‖cr
5.0 Slump 7000 0.33 ----
6.0 Water 6000 0.41 0.32
5700 0.34
7.0 Cement
5000 0.48 0.40
8.0 Type
4000 0.57 0.48
9.0 Admixture
3000 0.68 0.59
10.0 Sand
2000 0.82 0.74
11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
W/CM required for durability
2.0 W/CM
Note requirements of ACI 318 Building Code
3.0 Stone
Max Min. f’c
4.0 Air
W/CM psi
5.0 Slump
Concrete intended to have low 0.50 4000
6.0 Water
permeability when exposed to
7.0 Cement water
Concrete exposed to freezing & 0.45 4500
8.0 Type thawing in a moist condition or
9.0 Admixture
to de-icing chemicals

10.0 Sand Corrosion protection of 0.40 5000


reinforcement in concrete
11.0 Moisture exposed to chlorides
12.0 Trials W/CM = 0.34 is to be used
1.0 Strength Bulk Volume of Coarse Aggregate
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone
Max Size Bulk volume of dry-rodded coarse aggregate
4.0 Air (in.) per unit volume of concrete for different FM
of fine aggregate
5.0 Slump
-------- 2.40 2.60 2.70 2.80 3.00
6.0 Water 3/8 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44
½ 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
7.0 Cement
¾ 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60
8.0 Type 1 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.65
9.0 Admixture 1½ 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69
2 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72
10.0 Sand
3 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.76
11.0 Moisture
6 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Mass of Coarse Aggregate
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone
Oven dry mass = bulk volume X bulk density
4.0 Air

5.0 Slump Oven dry mass = 0.68 X 1650 = 1836 lbs

6.0 Water Mass in SSD = 1836 X 1.005


7.0 Cement
absorption
8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand Coarse Aggregate Content(SSD) = 1845 lbs


11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength Specified Air Contents (tolerance +/- 1.5%)
2.0 W/CM Air required = 6.0% +/- 1.5%
3.0 Stone
Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size(in.)
4.0 Air Exposure
5.0 Slump
-------- 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 3
6.0 Water

7.0 Cement

8.0 Type Mild 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5
9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand Moderate 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5

11.0 Moisture
Severe 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength

2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone

4.0 Air

5.0 Slump Slump specified at 3 in. +/- 1 in.


6.0 Water

7.0 Cement

8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength

2.0 W/CM
Water Requirements(lbs/yd³) for air-entrained concrete
3.0 Stone

4.0 Air

5.0 Slump

6.0 Water Slump Nominal Max Aggregate Size(inches)


Inches 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 3
7.0 Cement

8.0 Type
1 to 2 305 295 280 270 250 240 205
9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand 3 to 4 340 325 305 295 275 265 225


11.0 Moisture
6 to 7 365 345 325 310 290 280 260
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength

2.0 W/CM
Water Requirements(lbs/yd³) for air-entrained concrete
3.0 Stone

4.0 Air
295 - 35 = 260
5.0 Slump
(from table) (for rounded gravel
with some crushed
6.0 Water
particles)
7.0 Cement

8.0 Type 260 - 18 = 242


9.0 Admixture (7% reduction for water
Reducing admixture)
10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture Water content = 242 lb/yd³


12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength

2.0 W/CM Cement Content Requirements


3.0 Stone
Cement content = Water content
4.0 Air W/CM
5.0 Slump

6.0 Water
Cement content = 242
7.0 Cement
0.34
8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand Cement content = 712 lb/yd³


11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength

2.0 W/CM
Cement Type Requirement
3.0 Stone
No special requirements
4.0 Air

5.0 Slump
Type I (ASTM C 150)
6.0 Water
Use either
7.0 Cement Type GU (ASTM C 1157)
8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand
Note: if SCM are used ensure that proportions do
Not exceed limits of ACI 318 Building Codes for
11.0 Moisture Concrete exposed to deicer salts
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength

2.0 W/CM Admixture Requirements


3.0 Stone

4.0 Air Water-reducer dose


5.0 Slump
5.5 fl. oz. / 100 lb X 712 lb/yd³ = 39.0 fl. oz./yd³
6.0 Water
Air-entrainment dose
7.0 Cement

8.0 Type 1.0 fl. oz. / 100 lb X 712 lb/yd³ = 7.0 fl. oz./yd³
9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Sand Requirements
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone
Mass Density Volume
4.0 Air Material (yd³) (lb/ yd³) (yd³)
5.0 Slump
Cement 712 5308
6.0 Water

7.0 Cement
Water 242
8.0 Type Stone
9.0 Admixture (SSD) 1845
10.0 Sand 6% by
Air volume
11.0 Moisture
Total
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Sand Requirements
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone
Mass Density Volume
4.0 Air Material (yd³) (lb/ yd³) (yd³)
5.0 Slump 712
Cement 712 5308 5308
6.0 Water

7.0 Cement
Water 242
8.0 Type Stone
9.0 Admixture (SSD) 1845
10.0 Sand 6% by
Air volume
11.0 Moisture
Total
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Sand Requirements
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone
Mass Density Volume
4.0 Air Material (yd³) (lb/ yd³) (yd³)
5.0 Slump 712
Cement 712 5308 5308 0.134
6.0 Water

7.0 Cement
Water 242
8.0 Type Stone
9.0 Admixture (SSD) 1845
10.0 Sand 6% by
Air volume
11.0 Moisture
Total
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Sand Requirements
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone
Mass Density Volume
4.0 Air Material (yd³) (lb/ yd³) (yd³)
5.0 Slump 712
Cement 712 5308 5308 0.134
6.0 Water
242
7.0 Cement
Water 242 1685 1685 0.143
8.0 Type Stone 1845
9.0 Admixture (SSD) 1845 4516 4516 0.409
10.0 Sand 6% by 6
Air volume 100 0.060
11.0 Moisture
Total
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Sand Requirements
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone
Mass Density Volume
4.0 Air Material (yd³) (lb/ yd³) (yd³)
5.0 Slump 712
Cement 712 5308 5308 0.134
6.0 Water
242
7.0 Cement
Water 242 1685 1685 0.143
8.0 Type Stone 1845
9.0 Admixture (SSD) 1845 4516 4516 0.409
10.0 Sand 6% by 6
Air volume 100 0.060
11.0 Moisture
Total 0.746
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Sand Requirements
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone

4.0 Air Volume of sand = 1.000 – 0.746 = 0.254 yd³


5.0 Slump

6.0 Water Mass of sand = volume X density


7.0 Cement

8.0 Type Mass of sand = 0.254 X 4448 = 1130 lb(SSD)


9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand
Fine Agg. Content(SSD) = 1130 lb/yd³
11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Mixture Proportions
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone

4.0 Air Material Content


(lb/yd³)
5.0 Slump
Cement 712
6.0 Water

7.0 Cement
Water 242

8.0 Type Coarse Agg.(SSD) 1845

9.0 Admixture Fine Agg.(SSD) 1130


10.0 Sand Total Mass. 3929
11.0 Moisture
WRA 39 fl.oz./yd³
12.0 Trials AEA 7 fl.oz./ yd³
1.0 Strength
Moisture Corrections
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Mbatch = MSSD X 1 + mc


1 + abs
4.0 Air

5.0 Slump

6.0 Water

7.0 Cement

8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Moisture Corrections
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Mbatch = MSSD X 1 + mc


1 + abs
4.0 Air

5.0 Slump Coarse Aggregate

6.0 Water Mbatch = 1845 X 1.020 = 1873 lb/yd³


7.0 Cement 1.005

8.0 Type Fine Aggregate


9.0 Admixture
Mbatch = 1130 X 1.035 = 1159 lb/yd³
10.0 Sand
1.009
11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Moisture Corrections
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Wcorr = MSSD X (abs – mc)


1 + abs
4.0 Air

5.0 Slump

6.0 Water

7.0 Cement

8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Moisture Corrections
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Wcorr = MSSD X (abs – mc)


1 + abs
4.0 Air

5.0 Slump Coarse Aggregate

6.0 Water Wcorr = 1845 X (.005 - .020) = -28 lb/yd³


7.0 Cement
1.005
8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture Fine Aggregate


10.0 Sand
Wcorr = 1130 X (.009 - .035) = -29 lb/yd³
11.0 Moisture 1.009
Total water correction = 28 + 29 = 57 lb/yd³
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Mixture Proportions
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Moisture Batch


Corrections Proportions
4.0 Air
Cement 712 lb/yd³ 712 lb/yd³
5.0 Slump
Water 242 lb/yd³ -57 185 lb/yd³
6.0 Water

7.0 Cement CA(SSD) 1845 lb/yd³ +28 1873 lb/yd³


8.0 Type
FA(SSD) 1130 lb/yd³ +29 1159 lb/yd³
9.0 Admixture
OK
Total Mass 3929 lb/yd³ 3929 lb/yd³
10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture WRA 39 fl.oz./yd³ 39 fl.oz./yd³


12.0 Trials
AEA 7 fl.oz./yd³ 7 fl.oz./yd³
1.0 Strength
Trial Batch
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone For a 2 cubic foot (0.074 yd³) batch:

4.0 Air
Batch
5.0 Slump Quantities
Cement 712 lb/yd³ X 0.074 52.688 lb
6.0 Water Water 185 lb/yd³ X 0.074 13.690 lb
7.0 Cement C.A. 1873 lb/yd³ X 0.074 138.602 lb
F.A. 1159 lb/yd³ X 0.074 85.766 lb
8.0 Type

9.0 Admixture Total Mass 3929 lb/yd³ X 0.074 290.746 lb


10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture WRA 39 fl.oz./yd³ X 0.074 2.89 fl.oz.


AEA 7 fl.oz./yd³ X 0.074 0.51 fl.oz.
12.0 Trials
1.0 Strength
Trial Batch
2.0 W/CM

3.0 Stone Trial batches tested for:


• Slump
4.0 Air
• Air Content
5.0 Slump • Strength
Adjustments made:
6.0 Water • Water Content
7.0 Cement • Admixture Dose
• Cement Content
8.0 Type • Sand Content
9.0 Admixture

10.0 Sand

11.0 Moisture

12.0 Trials
Thank You
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