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# 6

Stresses in Beams (Advanced Topics)

Composite Beams

When solving the problems for Section 6.2, assume that the component parts of the beams are securely bonded by adhesives or connected by fasteners. Also, be sure to use the general theory for composite beams described in Sect. 6.2. Problem 6.2-1 A composite beam consisting of fiberglass faces and a core of particle board has the cross section shown in the figure. The width of the beam is 2.0 in., the thickness of the faces is 0.10 in., and the thickness of the core is 0.50 in. The beam is subjected to a bending moment of 250 lb-in. acting about the z axis. Find the maximum bending stresses face and core in the faces and the core, respectively, if their respective moduli of elasticity are 4 106 psi and 1.5 106 psi.

y 0.10 in. z C 2.0 in. 0.50 in. 0.10 in.

Solution 6.2-1

Composite beam

y 1 0.10 in. z 2 C 2.0 in. 0.50 in. 0.10 in.

b h hc M E1 E2 I1 I2 E1I1

2 in. 0.7 in. 0.5 in. 250 lb-in. 4 106 psi 1.5 106 psi b 3 (h 12 bh3 c 12 E2I2 h3 ) c 0.03633 in.4

From Eq. (6-6a): sface

;

M(h 2)E1 E1I1 E2I2 M(hc 2)E2 E1I1 E2I2

; 1980 psi From Eq. (6-6b): score ;

; 531 psi

0.02083 in.4 176,600 lb-in.2

375

which is a cross-sectional view. wide. The modulus of elasticity for the plywood is 1.0 kN m 450 54 14. (6-6a): Mmax (s1 ) allow B (s2 ) allow B E1I1 E2I2 R (h 2)E1 E1I1 E2I2 R (h 2)E2 Mmax 93. the flanges are 2 in. y z C 300 mm 200 mm 12 mm 12 mm Solution 6. 1 in. (actual size). respectively. (6-6b): Mmax 63. y 2 in.600. thick and 12 in.2-3 A hollow box beam is constructed with webs of Douglas-fir plywood and flanges of pine as shown in the figure.000 psi and for the pine is 1. Calculate the maximum permissible bending moment Mmax when the beam is bent about the z axis.1 kN m C 300 mm 200 mm 12 mm 12 mm w s b t h E1 E2 200 mm 12 mm 300 mm Ew 8. Also. 4 in. 1 in.5 GPa Es 204 GPa MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (2) From Eq.376 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Problem 6.0 kN m ( 1)allow ( 2)allow I1 I2 E1I1 bh3 12 2th3 12 E2I2 8.200.84 Problem 6.2-2 1 2 z Composite beam y MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) From Eq.000 psi. If the allowable stresses are 2000 psi for the plywood and 1700 psi for the pine. z C 12 in. find the allowable bending moment Mmax when the beam is bent about the z axis.2-2 A wood beam with cross-sectional dimensions 200 mm 300 mm is reinforced on its sides by steel plates 12 mm thick (see figure). . 63.0 MPa. The moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are Es 204 GPa and Ew 8. 2 in.5 GPa. the corresponding allowable stresses are s 130 MPa and w 8. 4 in. The plywood is 1 in.0 MPa 130 MPa 106 mm4 106 mm4 106 N m2 STEEL GOVERNS.

2-3 t Hollow-box beam t 1 I1 I2 h1 2 h E1I1 b 3 (h h3 ) 405. E1 1. (6-6a): Mallow Mallow I1 64 d 3s3 ¢ 15 512 Ea ≤ Es . MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE PLYWOOD (2) From Eq. h 12 in. (Assume that the moduli of elasticity for the steel and aluminum are Es and Ea. E2 1.2 106 lb-in. (6-6a): Mmax (1) WOOD FLANGES b 4 in.2-4 Steel tube with aluminum core Core (2): d/2 Ea d — d 2 steel 1 S A diameter modulus of elasticity 64 EsI1 (d 2) 4 EaI2 d4 1024 ss B d4 (15Es 1024 E1I1 E2I2 R (d 2)Es Ea ) I2 E1I1 E2I2 aluminum 2 Tube (1): d Es s outer diameter d inner diameter 2 modulus of elasticity allowable stress [d 4 (d 2) 4 ] 15 d 4 1024 From Eq. h 12 in.4 1 12 1 2 ¢ ≤ (th3 ) 288 in. 197 k-in.3 in. Derive a formula for the allowable bending moment M that can be carried by the beam based upon an allowable stress s in the steel.4 12 E2I2 947.) S A d — 2 d Solution 6.000 psi ( 1)allow 1700 psi (2) PLYWOOD WEBS t 1 in. respectively. 197 k-in.SECTION 6.000 psi ( 2)allow 2000 psi h1 8 in.2 Composite Beams 377 Solution 6.2 MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) 1 2 b From Eq. PLYWOOD GOVERNS Problem 6.2-4 A round steel tube of outside diameter d and an aluminum core of diameter d/2 are bonded to form a composite beam as shown in the figure.600.200. (6-6b): Mmax (s2 ) allow B E1I1 E2I2 R (h 2)E2 Mmax (s1 ) allow B E1I1 E2I2 R (h 2)E1 224 k-in.

(6-6a and b): sw ss Mmax (h1 2)Ew E1I1 E2I2 Mmax (h1 2)Es E1I1 E2I2 365 psi 7630 psi y Problem 6. h 12 in. C Solution 6. 11.25 in. 30 106 psi b 3 [h h3 ] 69. The plastic liner has inner diameter d1 82 mm.96 in. The moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are Es 30 106 psi and Ew 1. y 0.042 in. respectively.2-5 Simply supported composite beam t q h1 z 1 y 2 steel h wood L t b L 10 ft q 800 lb/ft 2 qL Mmax 10. 1. The beam consists of a wood member (4 in.5 in. Determine the allowable bending moment Mallow if the allowable stress in the steel is 35 MPa and in the plastic is 600 kPa.000 lb-ft 8 120.25 in.5 106 psi bh3 1 12 506.25 in. in cross section) that is reinforced by 0. thick steel plates on top and bottom. 4 From Eqs. t 0. h1 11. The steel pipe has outer diameter d3 100 mm and inner diameter d2 94 mm. z C d1 d2 d3 . The modulus of elasticity of the steel is 75 times the modulus of the plastic. 11. 800 lb/ft z 0.2-5 A simple beam on a 10 ft span supports a uniform load of intensity 800 lb/ft (see figure).000.2 WOOD BEAM WITH STEEL PLATES Wood (1): b Ew I1 4 in.5 in. Calculate the maximum bending stresses s in the steel plates and w in the wood member due to the uniform load.5 in.832.5 106 psi.000 lb-in.4 1 12 Ew I1 Es I2 2.25 in. 10 ft 4 in.2-6 A plastic-lined steel pipe has the cross-sectional shape shown in the figure.378 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Problem 6. Plate (2): b Es I2 E1I1 E2I2 4 in.000 lb-in.

(total height h 6. 10.. and the height hc of the core is 5.92 in.SECTION 6.0 in.0 in. The moduli of elasticity are 10.2-8 b t Solution 6. 6.. 6.08 in.4 3630 psi 8. hc 12. A bending moment M 40 k-in.2-7 and 6. acts about the z axis. the thickness t of the faces is 0. y t z C hc h Probs. (b) APPROXIMATE THEORY (EQS.0 in.000 psi for the foam core.000 psi . 6-8 AND 6-9) b 3 (h 12 Mb sface 2I1 score 0 I1 h3 ) c 33.5 in.076 1. (6-6b): Mmax (s2 ) allow B (s2 ) allow B E1I1 E2I2 R (d2 2)E2 Mallow (2) Liner: d2 94 mm d1 32 mm Ep E2 modulus of elasticity ( 2)allow 600 kPa E1 75E2 E1/E2 75 I1 I2 64 64 (d 4 3 (d 4 2 d 4) 2 d 4) 1 1.2 E1I1 (a) GENERAL THEORY (EQS.5 106 psi for the aluminum faces and 12. bh3 c 12 110.5 106 psi b 3 (h h3 ) 33.).25 in. Determine the maximum stresses in the faces and the core using (a) the general theory for composite beams.2 Composite Beams 379 Solution 6. The width b of the beam is 8. and (b) the approximate theory for sandwich beams.5 in.2-7 The cross section of a sandwich beam consisting of aluminum alloy faces and a foam core is shown in the figure.08 in.7 106 lb-in.0 in.4 E2I2 348. (6-6a): Mmax (s1 ) allow B (s1 ) allow E1I1 E2I2 R (d3 2)E1 z plastic 2 C d1 d2 d3 (E1 E2 )I1 I2 (ds 2)(E1 E2 ) 768 N m (1) Pipe: ds Es ( 1)allow 100 mm d2 94 mm E1 modulus of elasticity 35 MPa MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE PLASTIC (2) From Eq.613 10 10 6 m4 m4 STEEL GOVERNS 6 (E1 E2 )I1 I2 R (d2 2) 1051 N m 768 N m Problem 6.2-6 steel 1 Steel pipe with plastic liner y MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (1) From Eq.2-7 1 Sandwich beam y t I2 M 40 k-in. 6-6a AND b) z 2 hc h sface score s1 s2 M(h 2)E1 E1I1 E2I2 M(hc 2)E2 E1I1 E2I2 3610 psi 4 psi b 1 t (1) Aluminum faces: b h E1 I1 (2) Foam core: b E2 8.0 in. t 0.25 in.4 c 12 5.

0 in.) Solution 6. Solution 6. 6-3) Y dA 1 Y1A1 (h1 (h1 t 2)(bt) 1 32)(1)(1 16) in. C 1 — in.2 GPa for the plastic.21 MPa z 2 hc h score (b) APPROXIMATE THEORY (EQS. The moduli of elasticity are 75 GPa for the fiberglass and 1. respectively? (Assume Ea 10.245 10 6 m4 12 275 N m E1I1 E2I2 73.3 . and each strip has a thickness of 1/16 in. 16 1 — in. 6-6a AND b) sface s1 s2 M(h 2)E1 E1I1 E2I2 M(hc 2)E2 E1I1 E2I2 14.2-9 A bimetallic beam used in a temperature-control switch consists of strips of aluminum and copper bonded together as shown in the figure.8 106 psi M 12 lb-in.5 106 psi (2) Copper E2 Ec 16. A bending moment M 275 N m acts about the z axis.2-8 Sandwich beam y 1 t (a) GENERAL THEORY (EQS.8 106 psi.1 MPa 0. 16 Bimetallic beam (1) Aluminum E1 Ea 10.9221 10 6 m4 c 12 (2) Plastic core: b E2 4 mm b 3 (h h3 ) 0. what are the maximum stresses a and c in the aluminum and copper. 16 Problem 6. Determine the maximum stresses in the faces and the core using (a) the general theory for composite beams.2-9 CROSS SECTION y 1 h1 z h2 2 O b = 1 in. the thickness t of the faces is 4 mm. 16 1 t = — in.2 GPa bh3 c I2 3. which is a cross-sectional view.050 N m2 y A z O 1.. NEUTRAL AXIS (EQ. The width b of the beam is 50 mm.2-8 The cross section of a sandwich beam consisting of fiberglass faces and a lightweight plastic core is shown in the figure.9 MPa 2I1 I1 score 0 106 m4 M 50 mm hc 92 mm 1.380 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Problem 6. 6-8 AND 6-9) b 1 t (1) Fiber glass faces: b 50 mm t h 100 mm E1 75 GPa b 3 I1 (h h3 ) 0.5 106 psi and Ec 16. The width of the beam is 1.9221 c 12 Mh sface 14. acting about the z axis. and the height hc of the core is 92 mm (total height h 100 mm). and (b) the approximate theory for sandwich beams. 1 t = — in.0 in. Under the action of a bending moment M 12 lb-in.

Find the maximum bending stresses w and s in the wood and steel.0 kN/m y dA 2 y q = 3. The beam is constructed of a wood member.6 MPa (Tension) . 100 mm wide by 150 mm deep. 6-6a AND b) Mh1E1 sa s1 4120 psi E1I1 E2I2 sc s2 Mh2E2 E1I1 E2I2 5230 psi Solve for h1: h1 h2 Problem 6.2-10 BEAM: L Mmax qL2 8 3m Simply supported composite beam q 3.0001128 in.0 kN/m (see figure). respectively. reinforced on its lower side by a steel plate 8 mm thick and 100 mm wide.05529 in. (6-3): E1 1YdA (10.00005647 in.06971 in.74 mm 41.4 12 E1I1 E2I2 2133 lb-in. 6-6a AND b) sw s1 Mh1E1 E1I1 E2I2 Y1A1 (h1 (h1 h 2)(bh) ss 75)(100)(150) mm3 5. due to the uniform load if the moduli of elasticity are Ew 10 GPa for the wood and Es 210 GPa for the steel.2 MAXIMUM STRESSES (EQS.750 N m2 MAXIMUM STRESSES (EQS.3 E2 2YdA 0 0 0.5 106)(h (16. (6-3): E1 1YdA E2 2YdA 0 (10 GPa)(h1 75)(100)(150)(10 9) (210 GPa)(h1 154)(100)(8)(10 Solve for h1: h1 h2 h t h1 h 9) 0 116.26 mm h1 z h2 1 O 2 b MOMENTS OF INERTIA (FROM PARALLEL-AXIS THEOREM) t I1 I2 8 mm E1I1 bh 3 12 bt 2 12 E2I2 bh(h1 bt(h2 h 2) 2 t 2) 2 54. Solution 6. 2(1/16 in.8 1 106)(h 1/32)(1/16) 3/32)(1/16) 1 0.2-10 A simply supported composite beam 3 m long carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity q 3.) h1 MOMENTS OF INERTIA (FROM PARALLEL-AXIS THEOREM) bt 3 I1 bt(h1 t 2) 2 0.4 12 bt 3 I2 bt(h2 t 2) 2 0.115 106 mm4 106 mm4 b 100 mm (1) Wood: E1 (2) Steel: E2 NEUTRAL AXIS Y dA 1 h 150 mm t Ew 10 GPa Es 210 GPa 776.2 Composite Beams 381 Y dA 2 Y2A2 (h1 (h1 t t 2)(bt) 3 32)(1)(1 16) in.SECTION 6.1 MPa (Compression) Mh2E2 s2 E1I1 E2I2 37. Eq.26 1.0 kN/m 150 mm z 3m 100 mm O 8 mm Y2A2 (154 (h t2 h1 )(bt) 3375 N m h1)(100)(18) mm3 CROSS SECTION y Eq.

5 in.000 psi 12 in. The wood flanges are 75 mm by 100 mm in cross section.3-2 A simple beam of span length 3.5 STEEL GOVERNS Wood beam is not changed. as shown in the figure. 6-17) s2 M(h2 2)n IT M2 Mmax (s2 ) allowIT h1 2 n 911 k-in.4 MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) (EQ. 0.5 in 8 in. Also. thick steel plates (see figure). Es n 20 Ew Problem 6. and the steel plates are 300 mm deep.5 in C 12 in. Problem 6. 160 0. Solution 6.000 psi. 1 12(160 8)(12) 3 TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD) y 2 s1 M(h1 2) IT M1 (s1 ) allowIT h1 2 1230 k-in. (Assume that the ratio of the moduli of elasticity of steel and wood is 20.0 12 MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (2) (EQ. What is the required thickness t of the steel plates if the allowable stresses are 120 MPa for the steel and 6. z 1 C 8. The cross section of the beam is a hollow box with wood flanges and steel side plates.5 in.2 m carries a uniform load of intensity 48 kN/m.3-1 Wood beam with steel plates 8 in.5 MPa for the wood? (Assume that the moduli of elasticity for the steel and wood are 210 GPa and 10 GPa. h1 1000 psi 8 in. 6-15) 0. IT 1 12(160)(13) 3 7405 in. and disregard the weight of the beam. wide and 12 in.382 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Transformed-Section Method When solving the problems for Section 6.5 (1) Wood beam b ( 1)allow (2) Steel plates b t ( 2)allow 160 in.) All dimensions in inches. deep is reinforced on top and bottom by 0. 13 in. 16. 911 k-in. Find the allowable bending moment Mmax about the z axis if the allowable stress in the wood is 1.3. h2 0.) z y 0.3-1 A wood beam 8 in.) y 75 mm z C 300 mm 75 mm 100 mm t t .000 psi and in the steel is 16. assume that the component parts of the beams are securely bonded by adhesives or connected by fasteners. respectively. be sure to use the transformed-section method in the solutions. Width of steel plates nb (20) (8 in.

6-17) s2 M(h 2)n IT (IT ) 2 Mmax (h 2)n (s2 ) allow 1. The modulus of elasticity of the steel is 20 times that of the wood. If the allowable stresses in the steel and wood are 12.000 psi and 900 psi.3-3 A simple beam that is 15 ft long supports a uniform load of intensity q.2 m q 4.3-2 Box beam qL2 MMAX 61. . 1 1 IT (100 42t)(300) 3 (100)(150) 3 12 12 196.44 kN m 8 SIMPLE BEAM: L 3.92 mm (1) Wood flanges: b h1 ( 1)allow Ew (2) Steel plates: t ( 2)allow Es 100 mm 150 mm 6. deep and 4 in.5t 106 mm4 REQUIRED THICKNESS BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) (EQ. The beam is constructed of an S 8 18.418 109 mm4 12. respectively. 6-15) s1 M(h 2) IT (Ir ) 1 Mmax (h 2) (s1 ) allow 1. what is the allowable load qallow? (Note: Disregard the weight of the beam. tmin 15. The wood beams are 2 in.8 kN/m h 300 mm All dimensions in millimeters. and see Table E-2 of Appendix E for the dimensions and properties of the steel beam.) y 2 in. 4 in.97 mm 2 z C 150 300 mm Equate Ir and (Ir)2 and solve for t: t2 STEEL GOVERNS. S8 z C 18.5 MPa 10 GPa thickness 120 MPa 210 GPa h 300 mm Equate IT and (IT)1 and solve for t: t1 TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD) 1 y REQUIRED THICKNESS BASED UPON THE STEEL (2) (EQ.4 section (I-beam section) reinforced with wood beams that are securely fastened to the flanges (see the cross section shown in the figure).SECTION 6.9 106 mm4 94.4 2 in. wide.612 109 mm4 14.0 mm 21t 100 21t Wood flanges are not changed Es 21 n Ew Width of steel plates nt 21t Problem 6.3 Transformed-Section Method 383 Solution 6.

3-4 SIMPLE BEAM: Mmax qL2 8 Composite beam L 4. SIMPLE BEAM Mmax qL 8 2 L qallow 15 ft 8Mmax L2 692 lb ft Problem 6. 6-17) s2 M(d 2 t)n IT M2 (s2 ) allowIT (d 2 t)n 233.87 in.3-3 Reinforced I-beam Width of wood beams nb (1/20)(4) 0.000 psi (2) Wood beams: b ( 2)allow 4 in.4 1 (0.610 lb-in.00 in.0 m q 50 kN/m y 50 kN/m 50 mm z 4.384 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Solution 6.2 in.4 d 8. ( 1)allow 12.4 I1 57.3-4 The composite beam shown in the figure is simply supported and carries a total uniform load of 50 kN/m on a span length of 4. 1 IT 57. respectively. All dimensions in inches. 6-15) s1 M(d 2) IT M1 (s1 ) allowIT d2 233. t 900 psi 2 in. TRANSFORMED SECTION (STEEL) y 1 2 z C d = 8. (Disregard the weight of the beam.6 in. M1 M2 (exactly) Mmax 233. MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (2) (EQ.610 lb-in.6 (0.0 m 150 mm C 250 mm 50 mm TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD) y 2 100 kN m 150 mm 11 GPa 150 mm 350 mm h1 250 mm z 1 (1) Wood beam: b Ew (2) Steel plates: b h2 50 t 50 mm Es 209 GPa C 2850 250 50 .610 lb-in.0 m.2)(12) 3 12 77. Determine the maximum stresses s and w in the steel and wood.00 t=2 MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (1) (EQ. The beam is built of a wood member having cross-sectional dimensions 150 mm 250 mm and two steel plates of cross-sectional dimensions 50 mm 150 mm. if the moduli of elasticity are Es 209 GPa and Ew 11 GPa.2 Steel beam is not changed. t=2 0.) Solution 6. Ew 1 n Es 20 By coincidence.2)(8) 3 12 (1) Steel beam: S 8 18.

6 in.1) 3 12 1 (75)(0.0 k-in.667 108 mm4 MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE WOOD (1) (EQ.4 MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE PLASTIC (1) (Eq.0 in.3-5 and 6.73 in.) 75 in. Determine the maximum stresses a and p in the aluminum and plastic.0 in.0)(1.3-5 Plastic beam with aluminum strips 3.4 I1 I2 257.0)(1.85) 2 R 1 z C 3.4 (3. the aluminum strips have thickness t 0. Es 209 n 19 Ew 11 Width of steel plates nb (19) (150 mm) 2850 mm All dimensions in millimeters.3-5 The cross section of a beam made of thin strips of aluminum separated by a lightweight plastic is shown in the figure.3 Transformed-Section Method 385 Wood beam is not changed. 6.6 in.2 in.SECTION 6..0)(3. 6-17) ss s2 Mmax (h2 2)n IT 49.6 3.3-6 y t d z C 3d h 4t 5d d b Solution 6.0 in.2 in.9 MPa Problem 6.. 6-15) sp s1 M(h 2 IT t) 72 psi Plastic segments are not changed.6) 3 12 57.9 MPa MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE STEEL (2) (EQ. respectively.1 in. due to a bending moment of 6. and the plastic segments have heights d 1.0 k-in. t 0.0 1.2 in. d 1. and 3d 3.2) 3 12 1 (3. 6-17) sa s2 M(h 2)n IT 1860 psi . 6.2)(2.1 1.50) 2 R TRANSFORMED SECTION (PLASTIC) y 2 2B 1 (75)(0. respectively. Aluminum: I2 0.4 in.4 IT 200.4 in. Ea n 25 Ep Width of aluminum strips nb (25)(3.0 in. The total height of the beam is h 6.2 (1) Plastic segments: b 3d Ep (2) Aluminum strips: b Ea h M All dimensions in inches.1 in. The beam has width b 3.1)(1.1)(3.1) 3 12 (75)(0. 6-15) sw s1 Mmax (h1 2) IT 1. 440 103 psi 3. The moduli of elasticity for the aluminum and plastic are Ea 11 106 psi and Ep 440 103 psi.2 75 0.1 6.528 in. 3. Probs. 11 106 psi 4t 5d 6. MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2) (EQ.15) 2 (75)(0. Plastic: I1 2B 1 (3. 1 1 IT (2850)(350) 3 (2850 150)(250) 3 12 12 6.

0 ft and supports a uniformly distributed load of intensity q 800 lb/ft.3-7 A composite beam constructed of a wood beam reinforced by a steel plate has the cross-sectional dimensions shown in the figure. respectively. respectively. Ea n 25 Ep Width of aluminum strips nb (25)(75 mm) 1875 mm MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (2) (EQ. Plastic: I1 2B 1 (75)(40) 3 12 (75)(40)(83) 2 R (1) Plastic segments: b 3d (2) Aluminum strips: b Ea h M 75 mm t 3 mm 75 GPa 4t 5d 212 mm 1. the moduli of elasticity are Ea 75 GPa and Ep 3 GPa. and the total height of the beam is h 212 mm.14 MPa Problem 6. Also. The beam is simply supported with a span length of 6.5) 2 IT MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE PLASTIC (1) (EQ.386 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Problem 6.5 in.3-6 Consider the preceding problem if the beam has width b 75 mm. 6-15) sp s1 M(h 2 IT t) 0. Determine the maximum stresses a and p in the aluminum and plastic. the aluminum strips have thickness t 3 mm. respectively. 6-17) sa s2 M(h 2)n IT 12.0 kN m 1 (75)(120) 3 12 52.420 106 mm4 I1 I2 218.3-6 Plastic beam with aluminum strips 75 mm 120 mm d 40 mm Ep 3 GPa All dimensions in millimeters. Calculate the maximum bending stresses s and w in the steel and wood. due to the uniform load if Es /E w 20. 4 in.35 106 mm4 1 (1875)(3) 3 12 (1875)(3)(104. .5) 2 R 12 165.47 MPa Plastic segments are not changed. the plastic segments have heights d 40 mm and 3d 120 mm.934 106 mm4 TRANSFORMED SECTION (PLASTIC) y 2 3 40 1 z C 120 75 40 1875 3 212 Aluminum: I2 2B 1 (1875)(3) 3 (1875)(3)(61. Solution 6. due to a bending moment of 1.0 kN m. O 0. z y 5.5 in.

h1 h h2 4. 6-15) Mh1 sa s1 IT MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE STEEL (2) (EQ. Use the base of the cross section as a reference line. 4 in. 6-15) sw s1 Mmaxh1 IT 1100 psi (Compression) (1) Wood beam: b (2) Steel plate: b h h0 t 4 in.5) (3.5)(h1 2.03 in. 6-17) n 20 (20) (4 in.0 ft q 43. Use the base of the cross section as a reference line. ss s2 Mmaxh2n IT 6170 psi (Tension) y Wood beam is not changed. 80 MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE STEEL (2) (EQ.) 80 in.5) (4)(5.667 Ea 75 80 mm Width of steel part nb (2.5)(h2 0.3 Transformed-Section Method 387 Solution 6.3145 in. Es 6.474)(2. gyi Ai (40)(80)(80) (100)(30)(40) h2 gAi (80)(80) (30)(40) 49.25)(4)(5.5) h2 gAc (80)(0. 1 IT (4)(5.0 in.5 in.474 mm h1 120 h2 70.526 mm MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE ALUMINUM (1) (EQ.5) 3 (80)(0. 6-17) Mh2n ss s2 IT ss sa s (1) Aluminum: b 30 mm Ea 75 GPa (2) Steel: b 30 mm hs Es 200 GPa y 1 h1 2 z h2 O 80 80 s TRANSFORMED SECTION (ALUMINUM) 30 40 Aluminum part is not changed.526 1.5 in. t 0.6855 in. gyc Ac (0.5 MPa . All dimensions in inches. 0. Under the action of a bending moment that produces a maximum stress of 50 MPa in the aluminum.3-8 The cross section of a composite beam made of aluminum and steel is shown in the figure.5) 1. Width of steel plate nb Problem 6.667)(30 mm) h2n (49.5 in.25) 2 12 184. what is the maximum stress s in the steel? Aluminum 40 mm Steel z O 80 mm 30 mm Solution 6.5) 3 (4)(5. 20 Ew TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD) y 1 4 h1 z h2 2 O ho = 5. Es 200 n 2. h0 800 lb/ft 5.25)(80)(0.3-8 Composite beam of aluminum and steel 40 mm 50 MPa a 80 mm ? ha All dimensions in millimeters.667) 1.200 lb-in. The moduli of elasticity are Ea 75 GPa and Es 200 GPa.8707 h1 70.3-7 SIMPLE BEAM: Mmax qL2/8 Composite beam L 6.8707 (50 MPa) 93.SECTION 6.75) 2 12 1 (80)(0.4 MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE WOOD (1) (EQ.5 in.

Problem 6. Wood beam is not changed.000 psi All dimensions in inches. (Recall that section modulus is equal to bending moment divided by maximum bending stress. WOOD GOVERNS.388 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Problem 6.2 106 psi and for the steel is Es 30 106 psi. MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE STEEL (2) (EQ. Find the allowable bending moment Mallow for the beam if the allowable stress in the wood is w 1200 psi and in the steel is s 10.2 Width of steel plate nb (25)(6 in. t 0.5) (6)(8) 1. steel plate (see figure).3-9 Composite beam of wood and steel 6 in. The modulus of elasticity for the wood is E w 1. 1.5)(6)(8) h2 gAi (150)(0. by 6 in. 6-15) 8 (1) Wood beam: b Ew ( w)allow (2) Steel plate: b Es ( s)allow TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD) y 1 h1 z h2 2 0. wide and 8 in.22 in. respectively. deep reinforced on the lower side by a 0. determine the smaller of the two section moduli for the beam. h1 8.25)2 786.5 180 6 sw s1 Mh1 IT M1 (sw ) allowIT h1 143 k-in.5 h2 6. Use the base of the cross section as a reference line.) In which material does the maximum stress occur? y z A B O 3 mm 3 mm 10 mm Solution 6.9085 in. Assuming that the moduli of elasticity for metals A and B are EA 168 GPa and EB 90 GPa. 165 k-in. hw 8 in.5915 in.3-10 Bimetallic strip y 18. 6-17) ss s2 Mh2n IT M2 Mallow (ss ) allowIT h2n 143 k-in.4 MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) (EQ. gyi Ai (0. 0.5 in. 30 106 psi 10.) 150 in. Es 30 n 25 Ew 1. y 8 in.5) 3 12 12 (150)(0. 1 1 IT (6)(8) 3 (6)(8)(h1 4) 2 (150)(0. z O 6 in.667 z h1 O h2 B 10 A 3 3 Metal A: b EA Metal B: b hB 10 mm hA 3 mm 168 GPa 10 mm 3 mm EB 90 GPa .5 in.5 in.3-10 The cross section of a bimetallic strip is shown in the figure.5)(h2 0.25)(150)(0.3-9 A composite beam is constructed of a wood beam 6 in.000 psi.2 106 psi 1200 psi 6 in.5) (4. Solution 6.

667)(3) h1 Ir 3.19 in.667 mm MAXIMUM STRESS IN MATERIAL B (EQ. . gyi Ai (1. EA 168 n 1.4 MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE CONCRETE (1) (EQ.4 A 14.4) (14. 4 in.372 in. Use the base of the cross section as a reference line.3 Transformed-Section Method 389 TRANSFORMED SECTION (METAL B) Metal B does not change. TRANSFORMED SECTION (CONCRETE) y 30 h1 z h2 O 2 12.7 in.8667)(10 mm) All dimensions in millimeters. The beam and slab are joined by shear connectors that are welded to the steel beam.6 mm3 Maximum stress occurs in metal A. t 4 in.3-11 A W 12 50 steel wide-flange beam and a segment of a 4-inch thick concrete slab (see figure) jointly resist a positive bending moment of 95 k-ft.818 in.667)(3) h2 gAi (10)(3) (18. (These connectors resist the horizontal shear at the contact surface.4)(h2 12.4 nA 176.5465 mm 1 (10)(3) 3 (10)(3)(h2 1.4 in.5) 2 12 1 (18. 6-17) sA s2 Mh1n IT SA M sA Ir h1n 50.5) 2 y Problem 6.19 30 in.3-11 Steel beam and concrete slab (1) Concrete: b 30 in.) The moduli of elasticity of the steel and the concrete are in the ratio 12 to 1. 1 IT (30)(4) 3 (30)(4)(h1 2) 2 4728 12 (176.SECTION 6.2 gyi Ai (12.667)(3) 3 (18.8667 EB 90 Width of metal A nb (1. Determine the maximum stresses s and c in the steel and concrete.6 mm3 MAXIMUM STRESS IN MATERIAL A (EQ. 6-15) sB s1 Mh2 Ir SB M sB IT h2 69. respectively. 1.19/2)2 9568 in. 6-15) Mh1 sc s1 812 psi (Compression) IT MAXIMUM STRESS IN THE STEEL (2) (EQ.6 mm3 SMALLER SECTION MODULUS SA 50.5)(18.2 M 95 k-ft 1140 k-in. nI 4728 in. h1 16. z O W 12 50 All dimensions in inches. (2) Wide-flange beam: W 12 50 d 12.4535 mm 6 h2 2.) Solution 6.31 mm4 18.19 2)(176. (Note: See Table E-1 of Appendix E for the dimensions and properties of the steel beam.4 (30)(4) 9.19 h2 6.400 psi (Tension) IT 1 4 No change in dimensions of the concrete.5)(10)(13) (4. Use the base of the cross section as a reference line.19)(30)(4) h2 gAi 176.667)(3)(h1 12 240. 6-17) Mh2 n ss s2 13. I 394 in. Es E2 n 12 Ec E1 Width at steel beam is increased by the factor n to transform to concrete.

500 Area A3: y3 131 A3 (150)(250) y3 A3 4. Use the base of the cross section as a reference line.597.2 kN m .445.0 MPa and 38 MPa. and if their moduli of elasticity are in the ratio 1 to 6. Ea n 6 Ew Width of aluminum channel is increased.3-12 A wood beam reinforced by an aluminum channel section is shown in the figure.496 mm3 5832 1 (972)(6) 3 (972)(6)(h2 12 65. what is the maximum allowable bending moment for the beam? 150 mm y 216 mm 250 mm z 40 mm 162 mm O 6 mm Solution 6.0 MPa (2) Aluminum channel: t 6 mm ba 162 mm ha 40 mm ( a)allow 38 MPa TRANSFORMED SECTION (WOOD) y Area A2: y2 23 A2 (36)(34) y2A2 28.390 CHAPTER 6 Stresses in Beams Problem 6.152 mm3 1224 37. 6-17) sa s2 Mh2n IT M2 Mallow (sa ) allowIT h2n 17.2 kN m ˇ ˇ MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON ALUMINUM (2) (EQ. respectively.912.000 mm4 1 (36)(34) 3 12 (36)(34)(h2 6 17)2 9. gyi Ai h2 gAi Area A1: y1 3 A1 (972)(6) y1 A1 17. 16.153. If the allowable stresses in the wood and aluminum are 8.08 mm MOMENT OF INERTIA Area A1: I1 36 36 O A2 34 6 Area A2: I2 972 A1 Area A3: I3 Wood beam is not changed.500 mm3 h2 h1 150 A3 h1 250 z h2 A2 y1 A1 2y2 A2 y3 A3 4.000 mm4 I3 297.500 mm4 1 (150)(250) 3 12 (150)(250)(h1 125)2 213.35 106 mm4 3) 2 IT I1 2I2 MAXIMUM MOMENT BASED UPON THE WOOD (1) (EQ. nba (6)(162 mm) 972 mm nt (6)(6 mm) 36 mm All dimensions in millimeters.780 mm2 108.3-12 Wood beam and aluminum channel (1) Wood beam: bw 150 mm hw 250 mm ( w)allow 8. 6-15) sw s1 Mh1 IT M1 (sw ) allowIT h1 16.92 mm 256 h2 147.300 mm3 A1 2 A2 A3 45. The beam has a cross section of dimensions 150 mm by 250 mm.3 kN m ˇ ˇ WOOD GOVERNS. and the channel has a uniform thickness of 6 mm.986.