Bug Life Cycle & Guidelines

Introduction: Bug can be defined as the abnormal behavior of the software. No software exists without a bug. The elimination of bugs from the software depends upon the efficiency of testing done on the software. A bug is a specific concern about the quality of the Application under Test (AUT). Bug Life Cycle: In software development process, the bug has a life cycle. The bug should go through the life cycle to be closed. A specific life cycle ensures that the process is standardized. The bug attains different states in the life cycle. Thelife cycle of the bug can be shown diagrammatically as follows:

The different states of a bug can be summarized as follows:

1. New 2. Open 3. Assign 4. Test 5. Verified 6. Deferred 7. Reopened 8. Duplicate 9. Rejected and 10. Closed

tested and approved. then one bug status is changed to ³DUPLICATE´. It specifies that the bug has been fixed and is released to testing team. Some of them are priority of the bug may be low. Rejected: If the developer feels that the bug is not genuine. 4. the lead of the tester approves that the bug is genuine and he changes the state as ³OPEN´. This state means that the bug is fixed. 9. Duplicate: If the bug is repeated twice or the two bugs mention the same concept of the bug. Closed: Once the bug is fixed. he approves that the bug is fixed and changes the status to ³VERIFIED´. Open: After a tester has posted a bug. Assign: Once the lead changes the state as ³OPEN´. most organization conducts defect discovery and removal. This means that the bug is not yet approved. 5. The bug traverses the life cycle once again. Reopened: If the bug still exists even after the bug is fixed by the developer. The state of the bug now is changed to ³ASSIGN´. he has to assign the bug to the testing team for next round of testing. Verified: Once the bug is fixed and the status is changed to ³TEST´. it is tested by the tester. 7. The reasons for changing the bug to this state have many factors.Description of Various Stages: 1. he changes the status of the bug to ³CLOSED´. 3. its state will be ³NEW´. lack of time for the release or the bug may not have major effect on the software. the tester tests the bug. Deferred: The bug. the tester changes the status to ³REOPENED´. 6. New: When the bug is posted for the first time. Then the state of the bug is changed to ³REJECTED´. he changes the state of bug to ³TEST´. changed to deferred state means the bug is expected to be fixed in next releases. 8. While defect prevention is much more effective and efficient in reducing the number of defects. If the tester feels that the bug no longer exists in the software. Before he releases the software with bug fixed. he rejects the bug. 10. If the bug is not present in the software. Test: Once the developer fixes the bug. Discovering and . 2. he assigns the bug to corresponding developer or developer team.

Examples of this include a missing menu option or security permission required to access a function under test. . Critical / Show Stopper ² An item that prevents further testing of the product or function under test can be classified as Critical Bug. Be specific. A sample guideline for assignment of Priority Levels during the product test phase includes: 1.such as after pop-up did not appear and the behavior which occurred instead. DON¶T USE ALL CAPS. 5. Format words in upper and lower case (mixed case). 3. . etc. Average / Medium ² The defects which do not conform to standards and conventions can be classified as Medium Bugs. That means. . Don¶t add exclamation points. Examples of this include inaccurate calculations. The workaround can be provided for such bugs. Guidelines on writing Bug Description: Bug can be expressed as ³Result followed by the action´. the wrong field being updated. 2. Examples include matching visual and text links which lead to different end points. Don¶t use unnecessary words. . Guidelines on deciding the Severity of Bug: Indicate the impact each defect has on testing efforts or users and administrators of theapplication under test. End sentences with a period. Easy workarounds exists to achieve functionality objectives.removing defects is an expensive and inefficient process. 4. 3. 2. 6. This information is used by developers and management as the basis for assigning priority of work on defects. the unexpected behavior occurring when a particular action takes place can be given as bug description. Major / High ² A defect that does not function as expected/designed or cause other functionality to fail to meet requirements can be classified as Major Bug. 4. State the expected behavior which did not occur . Use present tense. Mention steps to reproduce the bug compulsorily. 1. Minor / Low ² Cosmetic defects which does not affect the functionality of the system can be classified as Minor Bugs. No workaround is possible for such bugs. It is much more efficient for an organization to conduct activities that prevent defects.

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