ENERGY AVAILABLE IN DIFFERENCE OF WATER AT THE SURFACE OF OCEAN

AND AT DEEPER LEVELS . 
TO OPERATE OTEC THE DIFFERENCE OF 20 ° C IS REQUIRED. WARM SURFACE WATER OF OCEAN IS USED TO BOIL A LOW BOILING LIQUID .

EG. AMMONIA 
THEN IT IS USED TO TURN THE TURBINE OF A GENERATOR AND PRODUCE

ELECTRICITY. 
COLLER WATER FROM THE DEEPER OCEAN IS PUMPED TO COOL AND

CONDENCE THE VAPOURS INTO LIQUID. 
DISADVANTAGES:  SUITABLE SITES FOR THIS SYSTEM IS LIMITED.  OTEC PLANTS ARE COSTLY AND MAINTANCE COST IS HIGH.

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
y

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY STORED IN THE EARTH S MANTLE CAN BE BUILDINGS AND TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY.

USED TO

HEAT

y y

ENERGY HARNESSED FROM THE HOT ROCKS PRESENT INSIDE THE EARTH. HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH PRESSURE STEAM FIELDS EXIST BELOW THE EARTH AS SURFACE IN MANY PLACES. THIS HEAT COMES FROM THE FISSION OF RADIAACTIVE MATERIAL NATURALLY PRESENT IN THE ROCKS.

y y

A TEMPERATURE OF 300 DEGREEC NORMALLY OCCURS ONLY AT DEPTH OF ABOUT 10 KM. IF THE GEOTHERMAL SITES ARE CLOSE TO THE SURFACE, WELLS CAN BE DRILLIED TO EXTRACT THE DRY STEAM, WET STEAM OR HOT WATER.

y

THERMAL ENERGY CAN BE USED FOR HEAT HOMES AND BUILDINGS AND TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY.

y

THE STEAM OR THE HOT WATER COMES OUT OF THE GROUND NATURALLY THROUGH CRACKS IN THE FORM OF NATURAL GEYSERS.

NOISE AND ODOUR (H2S) .ADVANTAGES y y y VERY HIGH EFFICIENCY. DISADVANTAGES: y y y y HOT BRINE RELEASED INTO SURFACE WATER CAUSE ECOLOGICAL PROBLEM. LOWER CO2 EMISSIONS THAN FOSSIL FUELS. SCARCITY OF SUITABLE SITES. LOW LAND USE AND LOW LAND DISTURBANCE. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEPLETED IF USED TOO RAPIDLY.

BIOMASS COMES IN MANY FORMS AND CAN BE BURNRD DIRECTLY AS A SOLID FUEL OR CONVERTED INTO GASEOUS OR LIQUID BIOFUELS. CATTLE DUNG. AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES OR INDIRECTLY TO DRIVE TURBINES AND PRODUCE ELECTRICITRY.COOKING.BIOMASS ENERGY y BIOMASS IS THE ORGANIC MATTER PRODUCED BY THE PLANTS OR ANIMALS WHICH INCLUDE WOOD. CROP RESIDUES. AND IN THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS y y BIOMASS ENERGY IS CONSIDERED TO ANOTHER FROM OF INDIRECT USE OF SOLAR ENERGY. y MOST BIOMASS IS BURNED DIRECTLY FOR HEATING. . y MOST BIOMASS IS BURNED DIRECTLY AS A SOLID FUEL OR CONVERTED INTO GASEOUS OR LIQUID BIOFUELS. MANURE. AGRICULTUREAL WASTE ETC.

PEANUT HULLS. THIS OIL CAN BE BURNED IN DIESEL ENGINES DIRECTLY OR MAY BE REDEFINED TO FORM GASOLINE. y C) AGRICULTURE AND URBAN WASTE BIOMASS: CROP RESIDUES SUCH AS SUGARCANE RESIDUES.BIOMASS ENERGY IS OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES: y A) ENERGY PLANATATIONS: FAST GROWING TREES LIKE COTTONWOOD. CEREALS ECT. y B) PETRO CROPS: CERTAIN LATEX. THESE PLANTS ARE KNOWN AS PETRO. COCONUT SHELLS. ETC AND ANIMAL MANURE ARE COMMON AGRICULTURE WASTES WHICH PRODUCE ENERGY BY BURNING. POPLAR AND CROP PLANTS LIKE SUGARCANE.CROPS. AND CARBOHYDRATE RICH POTATO. SEED SORGHUM AND SUGAR BEET. COTTON STALKS. . IT CAN PRODUCE ENERGY EITHER BY BURNING DIRECTLY. AND MAY BE CONVERTED INTO BURNABLE GAS BY FERMENTATION.CONTAINING PLANTS AND OIL PALMS ARE RICH IN HYDROCARBONS AND CAN YIELD OIL LIKE SUBSTANCE UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE.

ADVANTAGES: y y y LARGE POTENTIAL SUPPLY IN SOME AREA.FOR EXAMPLE: IN BRAZIL 305 ELECTRICITY IS OBTAINED FROM BURNING SUGARCANE RESIDUES. DISADVANTAGES: y THE BURNING OF PLANT RESIDUES OR ANIMAL WASTES CAUSE AIR POLLUTION AND PRODUCE A LOT ASH AS WASTE RESIDUE. . y BURNING OF DUNG DESTROYS ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS LIKE N AND P. MODERATE COSTS WASTE MATERIALS ALSO CONVERTED INTO ENERGY.

HYDROGEN SULPHIDE ETC. CLEAN AND LOW COST FUEL WHICH IS VERY USEFUL FOR RURAL AREAS WHERE A LOT OF ANIMAL MANURE AND AGRICULTURE WASTE ARE AVAILABLE.BIOGAS ENERGY BIOGAS IS A MIXTURE OF GASES SUCH AS METHANE . II. IT CONTAINS ABOUT 65% OF METHANE GAS. IT HAS BEEN ESTIMATED THAT 150. y BIOGAS IS OBTAINED BY ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF WASTES LIKE ANIMAL DUNG OR PLANT WASTES IN THE PRESENCE OF WATER. INDIA HAS THE LARGEST CATTLE POPULATION IN THE WORLD(240) MILLION AND HAS TREMENDOUS POTENTIAL FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION. BIOGAS PLANTS USED IN OUR COUNTRY ARE BASICALLY OF TWO TYPES: I. CARBON DIOXIDE.000 TONES OF WOOD y y y y EQUIVALENT PER YEAR. AT PRESENT THERE ARE MORE THAN 330. FLOATING GAS.000 BIOGAS PLANTS WILL SAVE 600.DOME TYPE.000 BIOGAS PLANTS IN THE COUNTRY . . HYDROGEN.HOLDER TYPE FIXED. ANAEROBIC MEANS IN THE ABSENCE OF OXYGEN. IT IS A NON-POLLUTING .

HOLDER TYPE .FLOATING GAS.

methanol produced from wood. BIOFUELS: Biomass can be fermented to alcohols like ethanol and methanol which can be used as fuels. However.FIXED.DOME TYPE.ii. . instead of a steel gasholder there is dome shaped roof made of cement and bricks. Structure is almost similar to that of the previous type. Ethanol produced from carbohydrate rich substance like sugar cane.

y Low co emission.Advantages: y It is renewable. . y Corrosive. Disadvantages: y Large fuel tank needed. y Hard to start engine in cold weather.

Highly explosive &inflammable in nature. Disadvantages: 1. 5. 4. . 2. 4. 6.HYDROGEN AS A FUEL: Advantages: 1. High efficiency in fuel cells. Energy is headed to produce . H2 gas. Presently. 3. H2 is used in the form of liquid hydrogen as a fuel in spaceships. Safer than gasoline and natural gas. It needs much external energy to condense it to liquid forms by cooling down to -253 c. 2. Not found in nature. 3. it can be produced from plentiful water. Very high cost in productive. No pollution.

. produces small amount of water. Huge amount of money has to be spent on safety aspects. produces huge amount of energy of energy from small amount of fuel. disposal of the nuclear waste is also a big problem. iii.low environmental impart. nuclear energy has tremendous potential but any leakage from reactor may cause devasting nuclear pollution.y Advantages: i. ii. ii. y Disadvantages: i. iii.

NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES .

y 1.Natural gas y 4.Petroleum y 3.Coal y 2.Nuclear energy i) Nuclear fission ii) Nuclear fusion .

COAL .

FAIRLY CHEAPLY. THREE TYPES OF COAL y ANTHRACITE (HARD COAL) y BITUMINOUS (SOFT COAL) AND y LIGNITE COAL (BROWN COAL) ADVANTAGES: VERY LARGE AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY CAN BE GENERATED IN ONE PLACE USING COAL.COAL y COAL WAS FORMED 255 350 MILLION YEARS AGO IN THE HOT . . DAMP REGIONS OF THE EARTH DURING CARBONIFEROUS AGE.

y TRACE AMOUNTS OF MERCURY AND RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ARE ALSO RELEASED INTO THE ATMOSPHERE WHEN COAL IS BURNED.DISADVANTAGES: y WHEN COAL IS BURNT IT PRODUCES CO2 WHICH IS A GREENHOUSE GAS REPONSIBLE FOR ENHANCED GLOBAL WARMING. y COAL ALSO CONTAINS SMALL AMOUNT OF SULPHUR AND NITROGEN . RELEASED INTO ATMOSPHERE AS TOXIC GASES LIKE OXIDES OF SULPHUR AND NITROGEN. .

LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS .

(LPG) LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS: y MAIN COMPON ENT IS BUTANE. y ABOUT ¼ th OF THE OIL RESERVES ARE IN SAUDI ARABIA.PETROLEUM y IT S THE LIFE LINE OF GLOBAL ECONOMY. OTHERS IS PROPANE AND BUTANE. . y PETROLEUM GAS IS EASILY CONVERTED TO LIQUID FORM UNDER PRESSURE AS LPG. y ODOURLESS y DOMESTIC GAS GIVES A FOUL SMELL. y THERE ARE 13 COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD HAVING 67% OF PETROLEUM RESERVES.

y CLEANEST FOSSIL FUEL. y COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS: y SYNTHESIS NATURAL GAS: . y RESERVOIR OF CRUDE OIL.NATURAL GAS y COMPOSED OF METHANE 95%.(PROPANE & ETHANE.

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