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Answer ? Discussion ? Share The reformers believed that changes were necessary in society, and unjust practi ses needed to be done away with. They thought that the best way to ensure such changes was by per suading people to give up old practises and adopt a new way of life. Whenever they wishe d to challenge a practise that seemed harmful, they tried to find a verse or a sentence in the ancient sacred texts that supported their point of view. They then suggested that the practise as it existed was against early tradition. For example, Rammohun Roy used ancient texts to show that the p ractise of sati or widow burning had no sanction. Similarly, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar used ancie nt texts to suggest that widows could remarry. Question 4: What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The following were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to sch ool. (a) They feared that schools would take girls away from home, thereby preventing them from doing their domestic duties. (b) They felt that travelling through public places in order to reach school wou ld have a corrupting influence on girls. (c) They felt that girls should stay away from public spaces. Question 5: Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would so me people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share Like the reformers, the Christian missionaries too were involved in different re form activities. They set up schools for the underprivileged sections of society like the lower cas tes and tribal groups. They questioned the various social injustices. Like the reformers, they too were opposed = Page 1 = by the various conservative sections of society. Their attempts at reformation w ould have been seen by many as an attempt to destabilise the existing Indian social order. Thei r reform activities would also have been looked at with greater suspicion because of the close link between their religion and their actions. Many would have felt that at the heart of their acti ons was the agenda of religious conversion. So, the missionaries would naturally have been attacked by many people
there was a great demand for labou r labour for digging drains. etc. both within the count ry and abroad. Many of the poor living in the In dian villages and small towns at the time began leaving their villages and towns to look for jobs that were opening up in the cities. This demand for labour was met by the population migrating from the villages and towns. Jy otirao Phule too believed in a golden age free from the Aryans and their ideas of caste. the Brahmins who traced their genealogy back to the Aryans were outsiders. Intellectuals and reformers who themselves were involv ed in various reform activities would also have supported the missionaries. there would also have been many who wo uld have supported the Christian missionaries and their activities. such as the untouchables. The army too offered opportunities for employment. Question 7: How did Jyotirao and the reformers justify their criticism of caste inequality i n society? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The reformers questioned the brahmanical texts that supported the caste system a nd the inferiority of the so-called low castes and the superiority of the so-called high c astes . However. He also extended his criticism of the caste system and linked it with all other forms of inequalities and injustices . A majority of this su pport base would have consisted of those very people who benefited from the reform activities of the missionaries. Question 6: In the British period. According to him. As the cities were growing. For them. Many of these migrating people belonged to the low castes. the cities and the plantations represented the opportunity to get away from the oppressive hold tha t upper-caste landowners exercised over their lives and the daily humiliation they suffered. There was also the demand for labour in the various plantations. The upper castes had therefore no right to their land and power. constructing buildings. laying roads. as in the case of the reformers. = Page 2 = Jyotirao Phule claimed that the lower castes were the true children of the land known as India. Like Birsa Munda who envisioned a golden age free from diksus and all other forms of evil. what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as low ? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The British period saw the rise of the cities. They challenged the brahmanical claims to power and authority. working in factories and m unicipalities.across the country.
there would be an end to all sorts of caste discriminations in Indian society. or the humiliation of the low castes. like the end of slavery in America. He urged the lower castes and the untouchables to free themselves from falsities that had been prop agated for generations. Like Jyotirao Phule. = Page 3 = (b) The style of painting which showed Indian landscape as a quaint. Lesson. By dedicating his book Gulamgiri to the Ameri can movement to free slaves. V. high castes or low castes. Question 8: Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free s laves? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share Jyotirao Phule was concerned with all forms of inequalities and injustices exist ing in society whether it was the plight of the upper-caste women. (c) Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called ___ ______. all humans had the right to equality whether they were men or women. He also criticised the Hindu scriptures by saying that these texts had been used for establishing the authority of the u pper castes over the lower castes and the domination of men over women. Shri Narayana Guru.10 Question 1: Fill in the blanks: (a) The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture exactly what the eye saw is called ___________. This comparison also contains an expression of hope that one day. E. he too saw the Brahmins as having no claims to t he power which they used for oppressing the lower castes. He pointed out that unlike what all r eligions would have one believe. social divisions and inequalities were not God-given. the miseries of the labourer . unexplored land is called __________. he linked the conditions of the black slaves in America with those of the lower castes in India. Ambedkar criticised caste inequality on the basis of his belief that being a low caste did not imply that one was not a human being. a single caste and one guru. . proclaimed the ideals of unity of all people within one sect.prevalent not only in Indian society but also in Western society. Ramaswami Naicker (or Periyar) argued that the untouchables were in fact t he true upholders of an original Tamil and Dravidian culture which had been subjugated b y the Brahmin outsiders. another reformer who criticised caste inequality in society. A case in poin t is his linking of the miseries of the black slaves in America with those of the lower castes in In dia. Only then would social equality be achieved.
The city appeared as the place of opportunity where people co uld come to make a new living. cri ticised the corrupt priests and expressed the anger of the common people against the rich. ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share (a) The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture exactly what th e eye saw is called portraiture. These village artists too came and settled in the city in the hope of new patrons and new buyers of their art. Their paintings were their ways of responding to the world around them. (b) The style of painting which showed Indian landscape as a quaint. local village scroll painters and potters m oved to Kalighat. social norms and customs were undergoi ng rapid changes. they began to produce paintings on social and politic al themes. Question 2: Point out which of the following were brought in with British art: (a) oil painting (b) miniatures (c) life-size portrait painting (d) use of persp ective (e) mural art ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share Oil painting. . This change w as the result of living in a society where values. they depicted the social life under British rule. markets were = Page 4 = being established. (c) Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called K alighat paintings. After the 1840s. It was a time when the city of Calcutta was expanding as a commercial and admini strative centre. Colonial offices were coming up. In these paintings. unexplore d land is called picturesque. Kalighat paintings of this period often ridiculed the westernised baboo . tastes. life-size portrait painting and the use of perspective Question 4: Why did the scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share Around the early nineteenth century.(d) Paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their vict ories are called ____________. new buildings and roads were being buil t. (d) Paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their vi ctories are called history paintings. For example. there was a shift in what the Kalighat artists produced from pain tings related to mythology and religion.
These paintings celebrated the British: their power. Only then could the British appear invincible and all-powerful. So. their vic tories and their supremacy. This attempt to create a national style of ar t can be seen in the works produced by Raja Ravi Varma. To do so. Victories had to be remembered. The imperial history paintings attempted to create a public memory of imperial triumphs. They were also influenced by the J apanese art tradition. Question 6: In what way did the British history paintings in India reflect the attitudes of imperial conquerors? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The British history paintings sought to dramatise and recreate various episodes of British imperial history. This portrayal of an Indian consciousness is what makes his paintings national. Question 7: Why do you think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art? = Page 5 = ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share Many painters. towards the end of nineteenth century.Question 5: Why can we think of Raja Ravi Varma s paintings as national? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share Raja Ravi Varma was one of the first artists who tried to create a style that wa s both modern and national. . they turned to medieval Indian traditions of miniature painting and the ancient Indian art of mural painting. He used the Western art of oil painting a nd realistic life study to portray scene after scene from the Indian mythology. implanted in the memory of people. He used the Western art of oil painting and realistic life study to pa int themes from Indian mythology. ther e never was a clear consensus as to what defined an authentic Indian style of art. However. and try to capture the spiritual essence of the East. Nationalist artists like Abanindranath Tagore rejected the art of Ravi Varma and felt that a genuine Indi an style of painting needed to draw inspiration from non-Western art traditions. wanted to establish a stro nger connection between art and nationalism. they tried to develop a style of art that could be considered both modern and Indian. He dramatised on canvas scene after scene from the Indian epic s Ramayana and Mahabharata . bot h in India and Britain. This was perhaps one of the reasons why his paintings were popular not only among Indian princes and art collectors but also among the masses.
Lesson-11 Question 1: Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share There was great dissatisfaction with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s. Such popular prints would have inspired people to fight British rule.Passed in the same year as the Arms Act. th is Act was aimed at silencing those who were critical of the government. Thus.In 1883. Question 2: Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The Congress. was composed of the representatives of all the different communities of India. this Act disallowed Indians from posses sing arms. it was an organ isation that wished to speak for India as a whole. This bill provided for the trial of British or European individuals by Indians. This allowed prints to be produced in large numbers. even the poor could buy them. according to Badruddin Tyabji (its first president).Passed in 1878. (c) The Ilbert Bill controversy . As a result. These prints could therefor e be sold cheap in the market. = Page 6 = (b) The Vernacular Press Act . . one which looked for inspiratio n from living folk art and tribal designs rather than ancient art forms. the popular prints of the early twentieth century began carrying nationalist message s. the white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill. With the spread of nat ionalism. Ultimately. in all its diversity. the government tried introducin g the Ilbert Bill. This enraged the Indians further. the governm ent could confiscate the assets of newspapers if they published anything that was found obj ectionable . Under this Act. mechanical printing presses were set up in diffe rent parts of India.There were others who felt that an authentic Indian style of art would be one wh ich explored the real life instead of illustrating ancient books. Some o f the reasons for this dissatisfaction are as follows: (a) The Arms Act . and s ought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. what all these artists aimed at representing was a certain national consciousness with which each Indian could r elate. Why did some artists produce cheap popular prints? What influence would such pri nts have had on the minds of people who looked at them? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share By the late nineteenth century. However.
They felt that the British had respect for the ideals of freedom and justice. They would raise various political. Indian industries expanded during the war. They wanted to develop public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule. the Congress was moderate in its objec tives and methods. What was necessary was to express these demands and make the government aware of the feel ings of Indians. The war created a demand for industrial goods such as jute bags. business groups rea ped fabulous profits from the war. On the other hand. They criticised British rule in their speeches and sent representat ives to different parts of the country to mobilise public opinion. and showed how the British rule was leading to the e conomic ruin of the country. wrote articles.Question 3: What economic impact did the First World War have on India? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The First World War led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Governm ent of India. and so would accept the just demands of Indians. cloth and rails. and expected the government to take action accord ingly. Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in pri ces which created great difficulties for the common people. Question 6: How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The Radicals were opposed to the politics of prayers followed by the Moderates wit . As a result. place their demands before the government. Question 4: What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for Independent States for Muslims in t he NorthWestern and Eastern areas of the country. and caused a decline in the imports from other countries into India. The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profit s. They published newspapers. administrative and economic issues . Its Moderate leaders practised what was called by the Radicals as the po litics of petitions . Question 5: = Page 7 = Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share In the first twenty years of its existence.
times. This incident led Gandhiji to call off the NonCooperation Movement. many-a. classes and groups. People took G andhiji s name and undertook various actions. They believed that people must fight for swaraj . Peasants believed that he would help them in their fight against zamindars . a crowd of angry peasants set fire to a police statio n in Chauri Chaura. (i) Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges (ii) Many lawyers gave up their practises (iii) British titles were surrendered = Page 8 = (iv) Legislatures were boycotted (v) People lit public bonfires of foreign cloth In most cases. They argued that people must rely on the ir own strength. (i) In Kheda. For example. in Februray 1922. (iii) In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. and when successful. they left the British-owned plantations. tea garden labourers demanded a big increase in their wages. . Patidar peasants organised non-violent campaigns against t he high land revenue demand of the British. When the demands were not met. they credited Gandhiji with their achievements. killing twenty-two policemen. For most of the people. the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt maha nts supported by the British from their gurudwaras. They explored more radical objectives and methods. while agricultural labourers felt that he would provide t hem with land. the calls for non-cooperation were related to local grievances.hin the Congress. (ii) In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu. not on the good intentions of the government (as was the stated policy of the Mode rates). (iv) In Punjab. Gandhiji was a kind of messiah. They staged a numb er of forest satyagrahas . tribals and poor peasants protes ted against the colonial state for restricting their use of forest resources. these actions did not conform to Gandhian ideals. (v) In Assam. How did the people understand Gandhiji? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The call for non-cooperation with the British was understood and enacted in diff erent ways by different individuals. Gujrat. Question 7: Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different pa rts of India. liquor shops were picketed. someone who could help t hem overcome their misery and poverty. Slogans like Gandhi Maharaj ki Jai and the likening of Gandhiji to the Gods of Hindu mythology show that Gandhiji was indeed considered a divine being. sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing fees. However. They emphasised the importance of self reliance and constructive work.
He led a march to the coastal town of Dandi. It had to be foug ht for. Gandhiji believed that it was sinful to tax salt as it was an esse ntial part of food. Mahatma Gandhi knew that Purna Swaraj would never come on its own.Question 8: Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share In 1929. = Page 9 = Lesson-12 Question 1: Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced. These people had to be found homes and jobs. 8 million refugees had come into the country from what was now Pakistan. Gandhiji declared that he would lead a march to break the salt law. ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share Three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced : (i) As a result of Partition. the Congress resolved to fight for complete independence or Purna Swa raj . Question 3: Fill in the blanks: (a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were ________. Knowing that the need of the hour was direct action. This march related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance shared by everybody. (c) Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a ro le in development was called a ________ _________ model. ? Answer . Question 2: What was the role of the Planning Commission? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The Planning Commission was set up to help design and execute suitable policies for the economic development of India. (iii) A political system had to be adopted which would best serve the hopes and expectations of the Indian population. (d) The death of ___________ sparked off such violent protests that the governme nt was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra. (b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were __________ and _________. According to this law. and boiling sea water to produce salt. in 1930. and thus. ________ and ____ _______. did not divide the rich and the poor. (ii) The maharajas and nawabs of the princely states (almost 500) had to be pers uaded to join the new nation. the state had a monopoly on the ma nufacture and sale of salt. where he broke the salt law by gatheri ng natural salt found on the seashore.
political democracy had to be accompanied by economic and social democracy. the majority of Indians lived in villages . defence and foreig n affairs. The Second Five Year Plan focussed on the development of heavy industry Question 5: What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that In politics we will have equality. Question 4: State whether true or false: (a) At independence. Question 6: After Independence. (c) Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a mixed-economy model. the majority of Indians lived in villages. India would just be a land of contradictions following the principle of one man. and denying the principle of one man.. (b) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party. (c) In the first national election. only men were allowed to vote . ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share (a) At independence. why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguist ic lines? ? Answer . Only then would the equality granted by the Constitution in the sphere of politics (i. (d) The Second Five Year Plan focussed on the development of heavy industry. or between upper and lower castes. one vote and one value in its pol itical life. H e believed that India needed to work towards eradicating all forms of inequality in the economic and social spheres. (d) The death of Potti Sriramulu sparked off such violent protests that the go vernment was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra. Giving the right to vote would not automatically lead to the removal of other inequalities such as between rich and poor.? Discussion ? Share (a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were taxes. an d in social and economic life we will have inequality ? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share = Page 11 = According to Dr Ambedkar. only men were allowed to vote. = Page 10 = (b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were education and health. one value in its economic and social lives. True (b) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party . False (c) False (d) . True In the first national election. Otherwise.e. one vote for every adult Indian citizen) be of any value.
? Answer ? Discussion ? Share The question of language is an important one in the Indian setup. after independence. In such circumstances.A Planning Commission was set u . t hose who did not speak Hindi were of a different opinion. the Congress had promised that once the country won independence. They felt that the need of the hour was for India to rem ain strong and united. = Page 12 = Question 8: How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after Independence? ? Answer ? Discussion ? Share How economic development of India was visualised in the early decades after inde pendence : Objectives . and anything that hindered the growt h of nationalism had to be rejected. it di d not take any steps to honour this promise. They did not wish Hindi to be imposed o n them. India had already bee n divided on the basis of religion. many members wanted Hindi to take over as the sole official language in place of English. and communications bet ween one state and another. Congress leaders believed that any further divisions of the country wo uld only disrupt its unity and progress. imposing any one of the regional languages on the entire country would have proved divisive. Fresh divisions were not co nsidered to be feasible. In 1956. as it did in the case of Pakistan (which imposed Urdu on the Be ngali-speaking East Pakistan) and Sri Lanka (which made Sinhala the sole official language of t he country. There was a reason for this. each major linguistic group would have its own province. The joy of freedom had come along with the tragedy of Partiti on. However. and work towards becoming a nation. This Partition had led to the killing of a million people in riots. the Indian states were reorganised on the basis of language. Question 7: Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence. India is a lan d of several regional languages.Lifting India and Indians out of poverty. that while Hindi would be the official language of India. However. While discussing the language question in the Constituent Assembly. Planning Commission and Five Year Plans . English would be used in the courts. disregarding the Tamil-speaking minority who lived in the North of the island). and building a modern technical and industrial base were among the major objectives of the new nation. the services.? Discussion ? Share In the 1920s. A compromise was finally arrived at: namely.
and the effort at state regulation of the economy ( which was to guide the economic policy for the next few decades) had many critics. Focus on heavy industries and dams . both the State and the private sector would play important and complementary roles in inc reasing production and generating jobs. This focussed strongly on the development of heavy industries such as steel.A mixed -economy model was agreed upon. the Second Five Year Plan was formulated. and on the building of large dams. In this economic mo del.In 1956. This appro ach was criticised because: (i) It put inadequate emphasis on agriculture (ii) It neglected primary education (iii) It did not take into account the environmental implications of concentrati ng on science and machinery = Page 13 = . Mixed-economy .p to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development. The focus on heavy industry.
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