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# ED 72.

19 Biomass Conversation

## Lab Report No.2: Heating value of solid fuel

The heating value or calorific value of a fuel is the amount of heat released during the
combustion of a specified amount of it. It is measured in units of energy per unit weight:
normally kcal/kg, kJ/kg. The bomb calorimeter is the most common device for measuring
the heating value or calorific value of a solid fuel.

Objectives

## To determine the heating value of solid fuel.

Theory

The amount of heat available from any solid fuel can be determined by testing a small
sample of the fuel in a bomb calorimeter. The test sample such as charcoal, wood is made
to burn completely in a bomb which pressurize with pure oxygen so that the heat
developed by the combustion is absorbed by a definite mass of water. This causes a
measurable rise in the water temperature, from which it is possible to calculate the heating
value.

Apparatus

Specification

## Power supply requirement : 220V, 50 Hz, single phase

Manufacture : G. Cussons

The bomb calorimeter made by G. Cussons is self-contained with the control unit house in
an instrument case that forms the base. The equipment includes the bomb itself, a
calorimeter vessel, an outer double walled water vessel, electric stirrer gear, combined
motor gear and ignition unit. A Backman type thermometer and charging unit with
pressure gauge to facilitate the charging of the bomb with oxygen.

Procedure

1. Measure moisture content (wet basis) and prepare fuel sample for bomb calorimeter
test by powdering and drying at 105°C in oven at least 2 hours.
2. Weigh the empty cup and put the sample in the cup about 0.9-1.1 grams for solid
fuel. Weigh the sample with the cup again and weigh of the true sample can be
determined.
3. Insert the fuse wire about 7 cm. The wire must not touch the cup.
4. Fill about 10 ml of distilled water in the bomb. This is to obtain the higher heating
value of fuel.
5. Assemble the bomb, tighten the cap securely by finger-tight only. Care must be
taken of pilling the sample.
6. Slowly fill the bomb with oxygen at 31.5 bar (450 psig).
7. Measure distilled water of 2,000 ml.(2 Kg.) and pour into calorimeter bucket. The
temperature of water must be 2°C below room temperature.
8. Put the bomb in the bucket, under the water level.
9. Assemble the calorimeter jacket.
10. Stir the water at lease 2 minutes before reading temperature.
11. Record water temperature at 1 minute interval for 5 minutes and then ignite the
fuel.
12. Read thermometer at 1 minute interval until the maximum temperature is reached.
13. Keep on reading after the maximum point at 1 minute interval for 5 minutes.
14. Remove the bomb and release the residual pressure and take off the cap.
15. Calculate the calorific value of fuel.
Results and discussion

## Table 1: Time and Temperature Reading

Test 1 (Rice Husk) Test 2 (Saw Dust)
Weight of crucible = 4.9813 g Weight of crucible = 4.9795 g
Weight of crucible + Sample = Weight of crucible + Sample =
5.9817 g 5.9969 g
Weight of Sample = 1.0004 g Weight of Sample = 1.0174 g
Time (min) Temperature (°C) Time (min) Temperature (°C)
0 1.010 0 1.040
1 1.010 1 1.055
2 1.010 2 1.060
3 1.012 3 1.065
4 1.012 4 1.070
5* 1.014 5* 1.070
6 1.200 6 1.550
7 1.850 7 2.265
8 2.130 8 2.530
9 2.225 9 2.640
10 2.229 10 2.690
11 2.320 11 2.732
12 2.345 12 2.770
13 2.365 13 2.805
14 2.375 14 2.825
15 2.385 15 2.835
16 2.390 16 2.840
17** 2.392 17 2.847
18 2.392 18 2.849
19 2.392 19 2.850
20 2.392 20** 2.851
21 2.392 21 2.851
22 2.390 22 2.851
23 2.390 23 2.850
24 2.388 24 2.849
25 2.386 25 2.847
26 2.385 26 2.845
27 2.842

* Ignition Start
** Maximum Temperature Point
3

2
temperature (0C)

Rice husk
2
Saw dust

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
time (min)
Figure 1: Time and Temperature Reading

## Configuration Test 1 (Rice Husk) Test 2 (Saw Dust)

n (min) 12 15
v1 (°C/min) 0.000800 0.006000
v2 (°C/min) 0.000778 0.001286
Trc = nv1 + (v2 – v1)/2 0.009589 0.087643
Tr = Tmax – Tign 1.378000 1.781000
Tdiff = Trc + Tr 1.387589 1.868643
WV (kg) 0.412 0.412
mwc (kg) 2 2
Mw = WV + mwc 2.412 2.412
Cpw (kJ/kgK) 4.186 4.186
Mf (kg) 1.0004 1.0174
HHVd = (mw * Cpw * Tdiff) / mf (MJ/kg) 14.00 18.54

(HHVd calculation procedure was done by follow the British Standard No. BS 4379,
Designation IP 12/73.)
where,
n = number of minutes between the ignition and the attainment of the maximum temperature
v1 = rate of temperature raise in degree per minute at the beginning of test
v2 = rate of temperature fall in degree per minute at the end of test
Tr = raise the temperature during test (°C)
Tdiff = corrected temperature rise (°C)
Tmax = maximum temperature during test (°C)
Tign = Temperature at ignition started point (°C)
WV = water value of the apparatus (kg)
mwc (kg) = weight of water in calorimeter (kg)
Mw = total equivalent weight of water (kg)
Cpw (kJ/kgK) = specific heat of water = 4.186 kJ/kg K
Mf (kg) = weight of fuel sample (g)
HHVd = higher heating value of the solid fuel (dry basis) (MJ/kg)

As shown in table1, the higher heating value of rice husk and saw dust were
determined by using of the bomb calorimeter. Figure1 shows that both water temperatures
absorbed heat from rice husk and saw dust increased sharply after ignition time, and then
the temperature remained about the same. Table 2 presents that higher heating value
(HHV) of rice husk and saw dust are 14.00 MJ/Kg and 18.54 MJ/Kg respectively. HHV of
rice husk is less than HHV of saw dust. This result has the same trend to proximate
analysis in the experiment 1, as shown in table below.

Moisture
Type of Content Ash content
Sample Volatile Matter (%) (%) (%) Fixed carbon (%)
Rice Husk 57.015 7.59 22.4 12.995
Saw Dust 71.155 10.275 3.875 14.695
* Moisture Content (%) in Dry Basic