Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens

©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Consumer Buying Behavior
‡ Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers individuals & households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. ‡ The central question for marketers is: ³How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use?´
Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 2

John Bowen. NJ 07458 3 . 3e Philip Kotler. Inc. James Makens Purchase Timing Purchase Amount ©2003 Pearson Education.Model of Buyer Behavior Marketing and Other Stimuli Marketing Product Price Place Promotion Buyer s Black Box Buyer Characteristics Buyer Decision Process Buyer Responses Product Choice Brand Choice Other Economic Technological Political Cultural Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Upper Saddle River.

Inc. NJ 07458 4 .Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Cultural Social Personal Culture Subculture Social class Reference groups Family Roles and status Age and life-cycle Occupation Economic situation Lifestyle Personality and self-concept Psychological Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs and attitudes Buyer Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Upper Saddle River. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. 3e Philip Kotler. John Bowen.

Inc. 3e Philip Kotler.Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Culture Culture is the Most Basic Cause of a Person's Wants and Behavior. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. Hispanic Consumers African American Consumers Asian American Consumers Mature Consumers Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Subculture Group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458 5 . John Bowen.

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Perceptions. Education.Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Culture Culture is the Set of Values. interests. and behaviors. Social Class Society s relatively permanent & ordered divisions whose members share similar values. Measured by: Occupation. Wealth and Other Variables. 3e Philip Kotler. Inc. Wants & Behavior Learned by a Member of Society from Family. NJ 07458 6 . Upper Saddle River. John Bowen. Income. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education.

Upper Saddle River. John Bowen. objects. beliefs. customs. NJ 07458 7 . knowledge. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism.Culture & Subcultures ‡ Cultures ± The accumulation of values. 3e Philip Kotler. and concepts that a society uses to cope with its environment ‡ Subcultures ± Groups of individuals who have similar value and behavior patterns within the group but differ from those in other groups. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. Inc.

NJ 07458 8 . James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. Inc. Upper Saddle River. John Bowen. enduring divisions in a society. and behaviors Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. hierarchically ordered with members sharing similar values. 3e Philip Kotler.Social Class ‡ Relatively homogenous. interests.

Inc. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education.Social Classes Upper Upper ‡ Lower Upper ‡ Upper Middle Lower Middle ‡ Upper Lower ‡ Lower Lower Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. 3e Philip Kotler. NJ 07458 9 . John Bowen. Upper Saddle River.

user Social Factors Roles and Status Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Upper Saddle River. John Bowen. Inc. buyer.Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Social Groups Membership Reference Family (most important) Husband. NJ 07458 10 . wife. 3e Philip Kotler. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. kids Influencer.

John Bowen. 3e Philip Kotler.Family Influence on Buying Behavior ‡ Husband-Dominant ‡ Wife-Dominant ‡ Equal Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. NJ 07458 11 . James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. Inc. Upper Saddle River.

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Personal Pers nall Infl ences Pers I fl ences Age and Life A e and Life ycle tage ycle tage Economic c nomic it ation it ation Pers nality Pers nality elf.ncept Occ ati n Occ ati n Lifestyle Identification Lifestyle Identification Activities Activities Interests Interests Opinions Opinions Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism.ncept elf. Upper Saddle River. Inc. NJ 07458 12 . James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. 3e Philip Kotler. John Bowen.

3e Philip Kotler. Upper Saddle River. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education.Stages in Family Life-Cycle ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Single Newly Married Couples Full Nest I Full Nest II Full Nest III Empty Nest I Empty Nest II Solitary Survivor Solitary Survivor. Inc. NJ 07458 13 . Retired Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. John Bowen.

Inc. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.VALS 2 Principle Oriented Actualizers Abundant Resources Status Oriented Action Oriented Fulfilleds Achievers Experiencers Believers Strivers Makers Minimal Resources Strugglers Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. 3e Philip Kotler. John Bowen. NJ 07458 14 .

NJ 07458 15 . John Bowen. Upper Saddle River.Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Psychological Motivation Beliefs and Attitudes Psychological Factors Affecting Buyers Choices Perception Learning Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Inc. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. 3e Philip Kotler.

James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education.Psychological . Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. John Bowen. Creating a tension state that drives the person to act. ‡Satisfying the need reduces the felt tension. Upper Saddle River. Inc. 3e Philip Kotler. NJ 07458 16 .Motive ‡A motive is a need that has a sufficient level of intensity.

Psychological . James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. NJ 07458 17 .Perception The process by which an individual selects. Inc. organizes. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Upper Saddle River. 3e Philip Kotler. John Bowen.

Upper Saddle River. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. NJ 07458 18 . John Bowen.Learning Changes in an individual¶s behavior arising from experience. 3e Philip Kotler. Inc.Psychological . Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism.

Attitude An attitude describes a person¶s relatively consistent evaluations. NJ 07458 19 . Upper Saddle River. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. feelings. 3e Philip Kotler. John Bowen. and tendencies toward an object or idea. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Inc.Psychological .

3e Philip Kotler.Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Needs (self-esteem) Social Needs (sense of belonging. love) Safety Needs (security. NJ 07458 20 . Inc. protection) Physiological Needs (hunger. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. John Bowen. Upper Saddle River. thirst) Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism.

John Bowen. Inc. NJ 07458 21 Postpurchase Behavior . Upper Saddle River. 3e Philip Kotler. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education.Buyer Decision Process Purchase Decision Evaluation of Alternatives Information Search Need Recognition Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism.

Consumer Buying Decision Process ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Problem recognition Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase decision Post PurchaseEvaluation Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. 3e Philip Kotler. Upper Saddle River. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. John Bowen. Inc. NJ 07458 22 .

NJ 07458 23 . Upper Saddle River.Types of Buying Behavior ‡ Routine Response ‡ Limited Decision ‡ Extension Decision ‡ Impulse Buying Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Inc. John Bowen. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. 3e Philip Kotler.

3e Philip Kotler. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education.Consumer Behavior and Services ‡Search ‡Experience ‡Credence qualities qualities qualities Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Inc. NJ 07458 24 . John Bowen. Upper Saddle River.

When Search Qualities are Lacking ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Personal sources of information More post-purchase evaluation than pre-purchase evaluation Price and physical qualities are major tools Evoked set is smaller Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Inc. NJ 07458 25 . Upper Saddle River. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. John Bowen. 3e Philip Kotler.

186-190. Upper Saddle River.´ in Marketing Of Services. Inc. James Makens ©2003 Pearson Education. NJ 07458 26 . pp.When Search Qualities are Lacking ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Innovations adopted more slowly Perceive greater risks Brand switching is less frequent Self blame for dissatisfaction ± Source: Valarie Zeithaml. 3e Philip Kotler. ³How Consumer Evaluation Processes Differ Between Goods aand Services. John Bowen. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. 1981.

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