Tw elfth

Edition

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
Environments and Operations

John D. Daniels
University of Miami

Lee H. Radebaugh
Brigham Young University

Daniel P. Sullivan
University of Delaware

Pearson Education International

Acquiring Resources 60 Minimizing Risk 60 60 Modes of Operations in International Business Merchandise Exports and Imports 62 Service Exports and Imports 62 Investments 63 Types of International Organizations 63 Why International Business Differs from Domestic Business 64 Physical and Social Factors 65 The Competitive Environment 67 Looking to the Future: 61 Three Ways of Looking at Globalization 68 C A S E : Carnival Cruise Lines: Exploiting a Sea of Global Opportunity 69 74 Summary Key Terms 75 Endnotes 75 An Atlas 78 Map Index 86 . The Forces Driving Globalization 50 Factors in Increased Globalization 51 What's Wrong with Globalization? 56 Threats to National Sovereignty 56 Economic Growth and Environmental Stress 57 Growing Income Inequality 57 s | Point ^J3ffi^S^^3 ' Offshoring Good Strategy? 58 Why Companies Engage in InternationaLBusiness Expanding Sales 60 .Contents Preface 29 About the Authors • PART ONE 39 BACKGROUND FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 44 1 Globalization and International Business 45 49 44 CASE: The Global Playground Introduction 48 W h a t Is International Business7.

Contents • 2 PART TWO COMPARATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORKS 90 91 90 The Cultural Environments Facing Business 94 95 C A S E : The Java Lounge—Adjusting to Saudi Arabian Culture Introduction The People Factor Cultural Awareness 96 97 A Little Learning Goes a Long Way The Nation as a Point of Reference How Cultures Form and Change The Idea of a "Nation": Delineating Cultures 98 99 98 Language as Both a Diffuser and Stabilizer of Culture 100 103 Does Geography Matter? Where Birds of a Feather Flock Together Religion as a Cultural Stabilizer 104 Behavioral Practices Affecting Business 106 Issues in Social Stratification 106 Work Motivation 109 Relationship Preferences I II Risk-Taking Behavior I 12 Information and Task Processing I 13 Communications I 15 Dealing with Cultural Differences Accommodation I 18 118 Cultural Distance: Usefulness and Limitations I 19 Culture Shock 119 Company and Management Orientations 121 [ P o j n t B f f l J H ^ f f l Does International Business Lead to Cultural Imperialism? Strategies for Instituting Change 125 127 Looking to the Future: What Will Happen to National Cultures? C A S E : Charles Martin in Uganda: What to Do When a Manager Goes Native 128 123 Summary Key Terms Endnotes 132 133 133 3 The Political and Legal Environments Facing Business 137 136 C A S E : China—Legal Growing Pains in a Land of Opportunity Introduction 141 The Political Environment 142 143 Individualism Versus Collectivism Political Ideology 144 Trends in Political Systems 150 .

Too) Summary Key Terms Endnotes 177 178 178 172 4 The Economic Environments Facing Businesses 184 186 180 181 C A S E : Economic Conundrums and the Comeback of Emerging Economies Introduction International Economic Analysis Elements of the Economic Environment Gross National Income 187 Features of an Economy 196 Inflation 196 197 199 Unemployment Debt 198 Income Distribution Poverty 200 Labor Costs Productivity 201 202 202 187 The Balance of Payments | Point |gj@flfl§3^^fl Is a Trade Deficit an Advantage? Integrating Economic Analysis 206 Types of Economic Systems 206 Economic Freedom and Market Transitions Making the Transition to a Market Economy Looking to the Future: C A S E : Meet the BRICs Summary 222 204 209 21 I Is There a Move to Push Back Economic Freedom? 216 218 .Contents Looking to the Future: What Might Become of Democracy? Political Risk 154 153 156 J | Point | g ^ | ^ ^ ^ j 3 Should Political Risk Management Be an Active Strategy? The Legal Environment 157 Legal Systems 158 Types of Legal Systems 158 The Diffusion of Legal Systems 159 Trends in Legal Systems 160 Understanding Bases of Rule 161 Implications for Managers 162 Legal Issues in International Business Operational Concerns 164 Strategic Concerns 166 Intellectual Property Rights 168 164 C A S E : Crime That Pays (and Pretty Well.

Contents Key Terms Endnotes 223 223 5 Globalization and Society 230 231 232 226 227 C A S E : Ecomagination and the Global Greening of GE Introduction Evaluating the Impact of FDI Considering the Logic of FDI The Economic Impact of the M N E 234 Balance-of-Payments Effects 234 Growth and Employment Effects 236 The Foundations of Ethical Behavior 237 Why Do Companies Care About Ethical Behavior? 237 The Cultural Foundations of Ethical Behavior 238 The Legal Foundations of Ethical Behavior 240 Ethics and Corporate Bribery 241 Corruption and Bribery 241 | Point | j E B 5 E ^ f f l Are Top Managers Responsible When Corruption Is Afoot? 244 Ethics and the Environment What Is "Sustainability"? Looking to the Future: 246 246 246 248 249 Global Warming and the Kyoto Protocol Ethical Dilemmas and Business Practices How to See the Trees in the Rain Forest Ethical Dilemmas and the Pharmaceutical Industry 249 Ethical Dimensions of Labor Conditions 251 Corporate Codes of Ethics: How Should a Company Behave? 254 C A S E : Anglo American PLC in South Africa: What Do You Do When Costs Reach Epidemic Proportions? 256 Summary Key Terms Endnotes • 260 261 261 THEORIES AND INSTITUTIONS: TRADE AND INVESTMENT 264 PART THREE 6 International Trade and Factor-Mobility Theory 268 264 265 C A S E : Costa Rica: Using Foreign Trade to Trade-Up Economically Introduction Laissez-Faire Versus Interventionist Approaches to Exports and Imports 269 Theories of Trade Patterns 269 .

Contents Interventionist Theories Mercantilism 270 Free Trade Theories 271 270 Theory of Absolute Advantage 272 Theory of Comparative Advantage 274 Theories of Specialization: Some Assumptions and Limitations 276 Trade Patterns Theories 278 279 284 How Much Does a Country Trade? 278 What Types of Products Does a Country Trade? With Whom Do Countries Trade? Does Geography Matter? The Statics and Dynamics of Trade Product Life Cycle (PLC) Theory The Porter Diamond 287 282 285 285 Variety Is the Spice of Life | Point |g^^^J35flfl Should Nations Use Strategic Trade Policies? 289 Factor-Mobility Theory 291 292 293 295 298 299 Why Production Factors Move Effects of Factor Movements Looking to the Future: Summary Key Terms Endnotes 302 304 304 The Relationship Between Trade and Factor Mobility C A S E : LUKOIL: Trade Strategy atja Privatized Exporter J In What Direction Will Trade Winds Blow? 7 Governmental Influence on Trade 306 C A S E : Making the Emperor's (and Everyone Else's) New Clothes: Textile and Clothing Trade 307 Introduction 310 Conflicting Results of Trade Policies 311 The Role of Stakeholders 31 I Economic Rationales for Governmental Intervention Fighting Unemployment 312 Protecting "Infant Industries" 313 Developing an Industrial Base 314 Economic Relationships with Other Countries 316 Noneconomic Rationales for Government Intervention Maintaining Essential Industries 319 Preventing Shipments to "Unfriendly" Countries 319 ^ § j t ^ ^ 3 Should Governments Forgo Trade Sanctions? Maintaining or Extending Spheres of Influence Preserving National Identity 321 321 311 319 320 .

10 Contents Instruments of Trade Control Tariffs 322 321 Nontariff Barriers: Direct Price Influences 323 Nontariff Barriers: Quantity Controls 325 Dealing with Governmental Trade Influences Tactics for Dealing with Import Competition Looking to the Future: 328 329 330 Dynamics and Complexity C A S E : U.S.-Cuban Trade: When Does a Cold War Strategy Become a Cold War Relic? 330 Summary Key Terms Endnotes 333 334 334 8 Cross-National Cooperation and Agreements 337 340 340 339 336 C A S E : Toyota's European Drive Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO) GATT: The Predecessor to the W T O What Does the W T O Do? 341 The Rise of Bilateral Agreements 342 Regional Economic Integration 343 The Effects of Integration 344 Major Regional Trading Groups 345 The European Union 346 351 356 The NorthAmerican Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Regional Economic Integration in the Americas | Point U B I I H H B I Is CAFTA-DR a Good Idea? 359 Regional Economic Integration in Asia 360 Regional Economic Integration in Africa Looking to the Future: 362 Will the WTO Overcome Bilateral and Regional Integration Efforts? 363 Other Forms of International Cooperation 364 Commodity Agreements Consumers and Producers C A S E : Wal-Mart Goes South Summary 370 365 366 366 366 367 Commodities and the World Economy The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Key Terms Endnotes 371 371 .

Contents 11 • 9 PART FOUR WORLD FINANCIAL ENVIRONMENT 374 374 Global Foreign-Exchange Markets CASE: Going Down to the Wire in the Money-Transfer Market Introduction 377 W h a t Is Foreign Exchange? 377 375 Players on the Foreign-Exchange Market Does Geography Matter? 378 378 382 Some Aspects of the Foreign-Exchange Market Major Foreign-Exchange Markets The Spot Market 383 The Forward Market 387 Options 388 Futures 388 383 Foreign-Exchange Trades The Foreign-Exchange Trading Process Banks and Exchanges Looking to the Future: 390 388 392 Where Are Foreign-Exchange Markets Headed? 394 How Companies Use Foreign Exchange 393 Business Purposes (I): Cash Flow Aspects of Imports and Exports Business Purposes (II): Other Financial Flows C A S E : Banking on Argentina Summary Key Terms Endnotes 402 403 404 398 395 396 | Point | { | j f l j ^ . g f i 3 Is It Ok to Speculate on Currency? 10 The Determination of Exchange Rates C A S E : El Salvador Adopts the U.S. Dollar Introduction 409 407 406 The International Monetary Fund 410 Origin and Objectives 410 The IMF Today 410 Evolution to Floating Exchange Rates 41 I Exchange-Rate Arrangements Fixed Versus Flexible Currencies 412 414 416 Exchange Arrangements with No Separate Legal Tender Currency Board Arrangements 416 Conventional Fixed-Peg Arrangements 416 416 Pegged Exchanges Rates Within Horizontal Bands More Flexible Arrangements 417 .

Strategy.12 Contents Exchange Rates: The Bottom Line The Euro 419 417 421 ^^3fflB Should Africa Develop a Common Currency? Determining Exchange Rates 423 Nonintervention: Currency in a Floating-Rate World 423 Intervention: Currency in a Fixed-Rate or Managed-Floating-Rate World The Role of Central Banks 424 Black Markets 428 Foreign-Exchange Convertibility and Controls 428 Exchange Rates and Purchasing Power Parity 429 Exchange Rates and Interest Rates 432 Other Factors in Exchange-Rate Determination 432 Forecasting Exchange-Rate Movements Fundamental and Technical Forecasting Factors to Monitor 435 433 433 436 424 Business Implications of Exchange-Rate Changes Marketing Decisions 436 Production Decisions 436 Financial Decisions 436 Looking to the Future: In Which Direction Is Exchange-Rate Flexibility Headed? 437 438 C A S E : The Chinese Yuan: Be Careful of the Dragon's Tail Summary Key Terms Endnotes 442 443 444 • PART FIVE GLOBAL STRATEGY. and Firm Performance 452 446 447 Industry Organization Paradigm Leading Strategy Perspectives The Idea of Industry Structure: The Five-Forces Model 454 Industry Change 455 Strategy and Value 456 CreatingValue 457 The Firm as Value Chain 457 What Is the Value Chain? 458 Using the Value Chain 459 Change and the Value Chain 468 453 . STRUCTURE. A N D IMPLEMENTATION 446 11 The Strategy of International Business CASE: Value Creation in the Global Apparel Industry Introduction 451 Industry.

Contents 13 Are Value Chains Real? 469 470 Global Integration Versus Local Responsiveness Pressures for Global Integration 470 Pressures for Local Responsiveness 472 When Pressures Interact 473 Types of Strategy 474 474 475 477 479 481 International Strategy Multidomestic Strategy Global Strategy 476 Transnational Strategy Looking to the Future: Summary Key Terms Endnotes 484 485 485 What's New in the World of Strategy Types? C A S E : The Globalization of eBay 12 Country Evaluation and Selection Introduction 493 494 494 494 488 489 C A S E : Carrefour: Finding Retail Space in All the Right Places How Does Scanning Work? Managing the Alternatives Scanning Versus Detailed Analysis Opportunities Risks 501 Does Geography Matter? 496 What Information Is Important in Scanning? 496 Don't Fool with Mother Nature 508 504 Collecting and Analyzing Data 507 Some Problems with Research Results and Data External Sources of Information Internally Generated Data | Point | g ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 3 510 509 Should Companies Forgo Investment in Violent Areas? 51 I Country Comparison Tools Grids 512 Matrices 513 Allocating Among Locations 512 515 516 Alternative Gradual Commitments 515 Geographic Diversification Versus Concentration Reinvestment Versus Harvesting 518 Noncomparative Decision Making Looking to the Future: CASE: FDI in South Africa 521 519 520 Will Prime Locations Change? .

14 Contents Summary Key Terms Endnotes 524 525 525 13 Export and Import Strategies Introduction 532 Exporting and Importing 528 529 C A S E : Grieve—A Small-Business Export Strategy 533 Export Strategy 534 Advantages to Consider 534 Questions to Ask 535 Strategic Advantages of Exporting 535 Characteristics of Exporters 536 Stages of Export Development 537 Pitfalls of Exporting 538 Designing an Export Strategy 539 Import Strategy 543 543 Types of Importers 543 Strategic Advantages of Imports The Import Process Import Brokers Customs Agencies 544 544 545 546 Looking to the Future: The Technology of Trade Import Documentation 548 The Export Process Indirect Selling Direct Selling 548 548 551 553 | Point | g ^ ^ § f l 8 ^ ^ A Dirty Dilemma: Exporting Hazardous Waste Export Documentation 554 Sources of Regulatory Assistance 556 Foreign Freight Forwarders 558 Countertrade Summary Key Terms Endnotes 559 561 C A S E : A Little Electronic Magic atAlibaba.com 564 565 565 14 Direct Investment and Collaborative Strategies C A S E : The Fizz Biz: Coca-Cola Introduction 572 569 568 Why Exporting May Not Be Feasible When It's Cheaper to Produce Abroad 573 574 .

Comparative Contributions and Appropriations Culture Clashes 595 592 | Point j j f l j m ^ j ^ f f l Should Countries Limit Foreign Control of Key Industries? 594 Managing Foreign Arrangements Finding Compatible Partners Negotiating the Arrangement Drawing Up the Contract Assessing Performance Looking to the Future: Summary Key Terms Endnotes 603 604 605 595 596 597 598 Dynamics of Collaborative Arrangements 598 599 599 600 Why Innovation Breeds Collaboration C A S E : Getting Airline Alliances Off the Ground 15 The Organization of International Business C A S E : Organizing "People.Contents When Transportation Costs Too Much 575 When Domestic Capacity Isn't Enough 575 When Products and Services Need Altering 575 When Trade Restrictions Hinder Imports 576 When Country of Origin Becomes an Issue 576 Noncollaborative Foreign Equity Arrangements Taking Control: Foreign Direct Investment How to Make FDI 578 577 576 15 Why Companies Collaborate 579 . and Environment" at Johnson & Johnson 609 608 Introduction 614 .Values.- Alliance Types 579 General Motives for Collaborative Arrangements 580 International Motives for Collaborative Arrangements 582 Types of Collaborative Arrangements 583 583 584 Some Considerations in Collaborative Arrangements Licensing 586 Franchising 587 Management Contracts 588 Turnkey Operations 589 JointVentures 590 Equity Alliances 591 Problems w i t h Collaborative Arrangements Relative Importance 592 Divergent Objectives 593 Questions of Control 593 .

16 Contents Change: The Critical Factor Organization Structure 617 614 617 618 620 •a* Organizing Today's International Business Vertical Differentiation: Centralization Versus Decentralization Horizontal Differentiation: The Design of the Formal Structure Contemporary Structures 624 | Point IgEfl^^^Sffl Hierarchies or Hyperarchies? Coordination and Control Systems Coordination Systems 629 Control Systems 632 629 628 Organization Culture Challenges and Pitfalls Looking to the Future: Summary Key Terms Endnotes 644 645 645 635 635 638 639 640 637 The Importance of Culture Organization Culture and Strategy The Role and Rise of Corporate Universities C A S E : Infosys: The Search for the Best and the Brightest • PART SIX MANAGING INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS 648 649 648 16 Marketing Globally C A S E : Avon Calls on Foreign Markets Introduction 654 Marketing Strategies 655 657 Marketing Orientations 655 Segmenting and Targeting Markets Product Policies 659 659 Why Firms Alter Products []PoIrTtJ3BffiHEffl Should Home Governments Regulate Their Companies' Marketing in Developing Countries? 660 Alteration Costs 663 The Product Line: Extent and Mix 664 Pricing Strategies 664 664 Potential Obstacles in International Pricing Promotion Strategies 669 The Push-Pull Mix 669 Some Problems in International Promotion 670 673 Branding Strategies 672 Worldwide Brand Versus Local Brands .

" the "Have-Nots" (and the "Have-Somes") 682 CASE: Tommy Hilfiger: Clothes Make the Man and Vice Versa Summary 686 Key Terms 687 Endnotes 687 683 17 Global Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management C A S E : Samsonite's Global Supply Chain Introduction 694 695 What Is Supply Chain Management? 691 690 Global Manufacturing Strategies \ 696 696 Four Key Factors in Manufacturing Strategy Information Technology and Global Supply Chain Management Information Technology 701 Quality 703 Zero Defects Versus Acceptable Quality Level The Deming Approach to Quality Management Total Quality Management (TQM) 704 Six Sigma 705 Quality Standards 705 703 704 700 Supplier Networks Global Sourcing 707 708 709 710 710 Major Sourcing Configurations The Make or Buy Decision | Point | g f f l f l 3 ^ f f l Should Firms Outsource Innovation? Supplier Relations 712 The Purchasing Function 713 Inventory Management 715 715 Lean Manufacturing and Just-in-Time Systems Foreign Trade Zones 716 Transportation Networks 717 .Contents 17 Distribution Strategies 674 675 Does Geography Matter? Is Necessity the Mother of Invention? Deciding Whether to Standardize 676 Choosing Distributors and Channels 676 The Challenge of Getting Distribution Hidden Costs in Distribution E-Commerce and the Internet 678 679 677 Managing the Marketing Mix Gap Analysis 680 Looking to the Future: 680 Marketing to the "Haves.

S.18 Contents Looking to the Future: Summary Key Terms Endnotes 724 724 725 Uncertainty and the Global Supply Chain 718 717 C A S E : Ventus and Business Process Outsourcing 18 International Accounting Issues C A S E : Parmalat: Europe's Enron Introduction 733 729 728 The Crossroads of Accounting and Finance 733 Accounting for International Differences Accounting Objectives 737 Factors in International Accounting Practices Cultural Differences in Accounting 739 Classifying Accounting Systems 741 736 738 International Standards and Global Convergence 744 748 | Point |«piffiffJHBfffil Should U. Companies Be Allowed to Close the GAAP? Transactions in Foreign Currencies Recording Transactions 749 749 750 Translating Foreign-Currency Financial Statements Translation Methods 750 Management Accounting Issues 753 756 Performance Evaluation and Control 753 Transfer Pricing and Performance Evaluation The Balanced Scorecard 757 Corporate Governance 758 759 External Control Mechanisms:The Legal System Internal Control Mechanisms 759 Looking to the Future: Will IFRS Become the Global Accounting Standard? 760 761 C A S E : Ericsson: The Challenges of Listing on Global Capital Markets and the Move to Adopt International Financial Reporting Standards Summary 766 Key Terms Endnotes 767 767 19 The Multinational Finance Function Introduction 774 770 771 C A S E : GPS: In the Market for an Effective Hedging Strategy? The Finance Function 774 The Role of the CFO 775 .

Contents 19 Capital Structure 776 776 Leveraging Debt Financing 776 Factors Affecting the Choice of Capital Structure Debt Markets as Means of Expansion 778 Global Capital Markets 778 778 781 Eurocurrencies and the Eurocurrency Market International Bonds 780 Equity Securities and the Euroequity Market The Size of Global Stock Markets 782 Offshore Financing and Offshore Financial Centers What's an OFC? 784 Counterpoint 784 Should Offshore Financial Centers and Aggressive Tax Practices Be Eliminated? 786 Capital Budgeting in a Global Context 787 Methods of Capital Budgeting 788 Complications in Capital Budgeting 788 Internal Sources of Funds 789 Global Cash Management 790 Foreign-Exchange Risk Management 792 Types of Exposure 792 Exposure-Management Stratgey. 794 Taxation of Foreign-Source Income International Tax Practices 798 800 803 804 805 Taxing Branches and Subsidiaries Transfer Prices 803 Double Taxation and Tax Credit Looking to the Future: Summary Key Terms Endnotes 809 810 810 797 Technology and Cash Flows C A S E : Dell Mercosur: Getting Real in Brazil 20 Human Resource Management CASE: Go Or No Go: Your Career? 813 Introduction 817 What Is HRM? 817 The Strategic Function of International HRM Strategizing HRM 819 812 818 Developing Staffing Policies Managing Expatriates 826 Selecting Expatriates Expatriate Failure Training Expatriates 827 828 829 821 .

20 Contents Learning a Foreign Language—Still Useful? Compensating Expatriates Repatriating Expatriates International Labor Relations How Labor Looks at the MNE 832 836 839 ~840 842 83 I How Labor Responds to the MNE Looking to the Future: The Labor Struggle: Barriers to International Unanimity 843 Which Countries Will Have the Jobs of the Future? 845 Trends in MNE-Labor Relations 845 847 C A S E : Tel-Comm-Tek (TCT) Summary Key Terms Endnotes Glossary Photo Credits Name Index Subject Index 851 853 853 857 873 875 879 887 Company Index and Trademarks .