# PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010

BAHAGIAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH DAN SEKOLAH KLUSTER KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY

2010
2. Puan Tuan Norma binti Tuan Yaacob SMS Alam Shah 3. Encik Meli bin Hussin SMS Kuala Terengganu

MODULE Form 5
Teacher’s Copy
DISEDIAKAN OLEH: 1. Puan Hasimah binti Azit - Sekolah Seri Puteri, Cyberjaya

PAPER 3

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
Question 1 Answer all questions. 1. A group of students carried out an experiment to study the effect of temperature to rate of plant transpiration. Diagram 1.1(a) shows a set-up apparatus used in this experiment. The apparatus are prepared and carry out in laboratory temperature of 30ᴼC. The whole were repeated Ai r bubbles placing the set-up apparatus in different temperatures.

Air bubbles

Diagram 1 (b) shows the position of the air bubble at the initial of the experiment.

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
Table 1.1 shows the reading of temperature and location of air bubble in the tube of potometers after 5 minutes.

Thermometers

The location of air bubbles in tube (X) of potometer after 5 minutes

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Table 1.1
(a) Complete the Table 1.1 by recording the temperature and the final position of air bubbles [3 marks] (b) (i) Based on table 1.1 state two observations on the relationship between the temperature and distance of air bubble travel in 5 minutes. 1. ..

2. ..

[3 marks] (ii) State the inferences which corresponds to the observations in 1 (a)(i) 1. ..

2. ..

[3 marks]

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
(c) Base on this experiment, complete the Table 1.2 Variables Manipulated variable Method to handle the variable

Responding variable

Controls variable

[3 marks] Table 1.2 (d) State the hypothesis for this experiment.

[3 marks]

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY2010
(e) The following list is part of the apparatus and material used in this experiment. Thermometer, stop watch, ruler, capillary tube, plant leaves, water Complete Table 1.3 by matching each variable with the apparatus and material used in this experiment. Variable Manipulated Apparatus material

Responding

Controlled Table 1.3 [3 marks]

(f) (i)

Base on the Table 1.1, construct the table and record the results of this experiment which includes following aspects: :  Temperature (oC)  The distance of air bubble moved (cm)  Rate of transpiration (cm/minute) [3 marks]

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
(ii) On the graph paper provided, draw a graph of rate of transpiration against the temperature. [3 marks]

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
(iii) Based on the graph, state the relationship between the rate of transpiration and the temperature Explain your answer.

[3 marks] (g) Based on experiment, define operationally what the ‘transpiration’ is.

[3 marks] (g) In another experiment, the apparatus is located under the bright sun shine. Predict the observation and explain your prediction.

[3 marks]

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Question 1 1(a) Score 3

Explanation Able to record three readings of temperature and the distance movement of air bubble in the potometer correctly. 20 oC = 4.5 cm + 0.5 30 oC = 5.0 cm + 0.5 40 oC = 9.0 cm+ 0.5

1(b) (i) Score 3

Explanation Able to state two correct observations based on experiment. Sample Answer:(either 2): 1. The air bubble moves from 0 cm to 4.5 cm at the temperature 20oC. 2 . The air bubble moves from 0 cm to 5.0 cm at the temperature 30oC. 3 . The air bubble moves from 0 cm to 9.0 cm at the temperature 40oC. 4. The air bubble moves under temperature 40oC is more than under temperature 30oC Explanation Able to state two reasonable inferences for the observation. Sample answer: 1. The water molecules evaporate from surface of the leaves /rate of transpiration is slow in cooler environment. 2. The water molecules evaporate from surface of the leaves rapidly /rate of the transpiration is high under warm environment.. 3. The water molecules evaporate faster in warmer condition compare to cooler condition.

1(b) (ii) Score 3

1(c) (i) Score

Explanation Able to state all the variables and the method to handle variable correctly (√) for each variable and method Variable Manipulated Variable Temperature Responding Variable The distance of air bubble / Rate of transpiration Controlled variable Humidity / Light intensity / number of leaves/ type of plant Method to handle The potometer is put under different temperature Measure and record the distance by using the ruler. Calculate rate of transpiration using formula: distance/time Experiment is carried out in the same room/ use same number of leaves that is 5 leaves / use same type of hibiscus plant in all experiment

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
1(d) Score 3 Explanation Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following criteria: P1 - State the temperature. P2 - State rate of transpiration / the distance of air bubble move R - State the relationship between P1 and P2. The higher the temperature the higher the rate of transpiration/ the further/longer the movement of air bubble. 1(e) Score 3 Variable Manipulated Responding Controls Apparatus Thermometer stop watch Ruler capillary tube Stop watch capillary tube Material plant leaves water Explanation Able to match the apparatus and material used to obtain data for the three variables correctly.

1(f)(i) Score 3

Explanation Able to construct a table and record the result of the experiment with the following criteria: C - Complete column and row with correct labels D - Transfer all data correctly. (√) T - Calculate the rate of transpiration (distance/minute) (√) Temperature (0C) 20 30 30 Distance of air bubble (cm) 4.5 5.0 9.0 Rate of transpiration (cm/min) 0.9 1.0 1.8

1(f)(ii) Score 3

Explanation Able to draw a graph of rate of transpiration against the temperature.. Axis (A) - both axis are labelled an uniform scales, independent variable on horizontal axis. (√) Point (P) - All points are correctly plotted. (√) Shape(S) - All points are connected smoothly (√).

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
1(f)(iii) Score 3 Explanation Able to answer with the following aspects:  the relationship between rate of transpiration and the temperature  reason 1 - higher temperature, more water vapour evaporate from the leaf  reason 2 - more water absorb by the plant from capillary. Explanation Able to state the definition of transpiration operationally, complete and correct, based on the following criteria. P1 - water vapour loss from the leaves P2 - causing the movement of air bubble in the capillary tube P3 - the factor that affect on transpiration. The transpiration is the loss of water vapour from the leaves causing the movement of air bubble in the capillary tube that affected by the temperature. 1(h) Score 3

1(g) Score 3

Explanation Able to predict correctly and explain the prediction based on the following item: P1 - the distance of air bubble. P2 - the transpiration rate P3 - higher temperature and higher light intensity. The distance of the air bubble is further/more than 9 cm because the transpiration rate is higher due to a higher temperature and higher light intensity.

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
Question 2: An experiment is carried out by a group of student to study the effect of different concentrations of salt solution on the volume of urine produced. Three boys with same body weight and age are selected. They were not allowed to drink any water or taken any food in two hours before experiment and they were asked to empty their bladder before starting the experiment. The students were given three different types of solution to drink as shown in Table 1.1 Student A B C Type of solution 300 ml mineral water 300 ml of 5 % sodium chloride solution. 300 ml of 10% sodium chloride solution. Table 1.1 Urine samples of each student were taken after an hour is shown in Table 1.2 Student A B C

Volume of urine produced /ml

Table 1.2 12

PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
(a) (b) Record the volume of urine produced by each student in Table 12. [3 marks] (i) Based on Table 1.3 state two observations on the volume of urine produced. 1. ..

2. ..

[3 marks] (ii) State the inference which corresponds to the observations in 1 (a)(i) 1. ..

2. ..

(c)

Complete the Table 1.3 base on the experiment that was carried out.

[3 marks]

Variables Manipulated variable

Method to handle the variable

Responding variable

Controlled variable

Table 1.3

[3 marks]

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(d) State the hypothesis for this experiment.

[3 marks] (e) (i) Base on the Table 1.3, construct the table and record the results of this experiment which includes the following aspects:  Concentration of sodium chloride solution.  Volume of urine collected  Water reabsorbed in kidney. [Water reabsorbed in the kidney = volume of solution intake - volume of urine collected]

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(ii) [3 marks] On the graph paper provided, draw the graph of water reabsorbed by kidneys against the concentration of sodium chloride solution. [3 marks]

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(iii) State the relationship between water reabsorbed by kidneys and the concentration of sodium chloride solution based on the graph in 1(e)(ii). Explain your answer.

[3 marks] (f) Based on this experiment, give operation definition of osmoregulation.

[3 marks] (g) In another experiment, student A was asked to drink 300 ml of water and sit in the air condition room for an hour. Predict the volume of urine he will produced. Explain your prediction.

[3 marks] (h) The following list is part of the apparatus and material used in this experiment. Stopwatch, Sodium chloride solution, Beaker, measuring cylinder , Mineral water, Urine Complete Table 1.6 by matching each variable with the apparatus and material used in this experiment. Variable Manipulated Responding Controlled Table 1.4 [3 marks] Apparatus Material

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
Marking scheme 1 (a) Score 3 1(b) (i) Score Explanation Able to state two correct observations based on following criteria. 1. The volume of urine collection for student who drank mineral water is 200 ml. 2. The volume of urine collection for student who drank 2.5 % sodium chloride solution is 160 ml. 3. The volume of urine collection for student who drank 200ml of 5.0 % sodium chloride solution is less than the urine produces by student who drank 200 ml of mineral wall Explanation Able to state two reasonable inferences for the observation. 1. The higher of urine produce because less amount of water was reabsorbed into the blood caused by the hypotonic solution. 2. The less of urine produce because more water was reabsorbed into the blood caused by the hypertonic solution that the student drank. 3. Most amount of water reabsorb into the blood caused by the hypertonic solution, the volume of urine is less than the hypotonic solution Explanation Able to state the variable and the method to handle variable correctly (√) for each variable and method Variable Manipulated Variable Concentration of sodium chloride Responding Variable Volume of urine produce Controlled variable Volume of solution drink by student Each of the student drink 300 ml of solution Method to handle Used different concentration of sodium chloride. Measured and record the volume of urine using measuring cylinder Explanation Able to record three reading with unit correctly. 0 % sodium chloride 2.5% sodium chloride 5.0 % sodium chloride - 200 ml. - 160 ml. - 100 ml.

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1(b) (ii) Score 3

1(c) Score 3

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY2010
1(d) Score 3 Explanation Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following criteria: P1 (manipulated) - State the concentration of sodium chloride. P2 (responding) - State the volume of urine collection/ volume of water reabsorb. R - State the relationship between P1 and P2. The higher the concentration of sodium chloride, the volume of urine produce is lower/ more water is reabsorb by kidney 1(e)(i) Score 3  Table with correct titles and unit.  Transfer all data correctly  calculate all the value of water absorbed by kidney Volume of Concentrate of sodium chloride (%) 0% 2.5 % 5.0 % sample drinking water (cm3) 300 300 300 The volume of urine after drinking test water (cm3) 200 160 100 Water reabsorb by kidney (cm3) 100 140 200

Explanation Able to construct a table and record the result of the experiment which the following criteria:

1(e)(ii) Score 3 Explanation Able to draw the graph for relationship between the concentration of sodium chloride and the volume of water reabsorb P1 - Correct axis with suitable scale P2 - Correct transfer of data P3 - Smooth curve (√)

1(e)(iii) Score

Explanation Able to explain the relationship between the concentration of sodium chloride 3 solution and the water reabsorbed based on the following criteria: P1 : the higher the concentration, the higher water reabsorb by kidney P2: osmotic pressure of blood increase P3: more water needed to low/dilute the blood// less water secreted Sample answer:

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
The higher the concentration of sodium chloride solution, more water reabsorbed by the kidney. The osmotic pressure/ blood concentration is higher/increase, more water is needed to dilute the blood.

1(f) Score 3

Explanation Able to state the definition of osmoregulation operationally, based on the following criteria. P1 - amount of water absorb P2 - volume of urine produced P3 - affected by concentration of drinking solution Osmoregulation is the regulation of volume of water reabsorb that showed by volume of urine output/ secreted affected by concentration of salt solution.

1 (g)
Score 3 Explanation Able to predict and explain based on the criteria: P1: prediction of volume ( more than 200 ml) P2: less reabsorbed by the body P3: cool temperature, less sweat produce, less water is needed by the body Sample answer: The volume produced is 230 ml (any value more than 200 ml), in cool condition less sweat produced by the body, less water needed by the body/ osmotic pressure of the blood is not high, less water reabsorbed and more urine produced.

1(h)
Score Answer; Variable Manipulated Apparatus Measuring cylinder Measuring cylinder Beaker Stopwatch Measuring cylinder Material Sodium chloride solution Urine Urine Urine Mineral water Explanation

Responding Controlling

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
Question 3. Xylem vessel is adapted to transport the water from soil to the leaves. Xylem vessel is a long continues tube with lignified wall. Water from the root is pushed by root pressure into the xylem vessel. An experiment is carried out by a group of student to study the effect of root pressure on the water transport in the plant. Two healthy potted balsam plants are used. The shoot is cut off, leaving 5 cm of main stem above the soil. Rubber tubing is fit to the cut end and a glass tube is inserted to it. The apparatus is clamped to a retort stand as shown in The other plant is prepared as above but all the roots are removed. 2 ml of coloured water is added to the capillary tube and the initial level of water is marked.

Capillary tube

Ruler Retort stand

Pot

Diagram 1.1

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
After 2 days, the final level of water column in capillary tube is observed as shown in Diagram 1.2

Stem with roots

Initial level: ……… cm

Final level: ……… cm

Stem without roots

Initial level: ……… cm

Final level: ……… cm 21
Diagram 1.2

PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
(a) (b) Record the initial and final volume of water column in capillary tubes Diagram 1.2. [3 marks] (i) State two observations based on the experiment. 1. ..

2. ..

(ii) State the inference which corresponds to the observations in 1 (a)(i) 1. ..

[3 marks]

2. ..

[3 marks] (c) Complete the Table 1.1 base on the experiment that was carried out. Variables Manipulated variable Method to handle the variable

Responding variable

Controlled variable

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
[3 marks] (d) TABLE 1.1 State the hypothesis for this experiment.

[3 marks]

(e) (i)

Base on the Table 1.1, construct the table and record the results of this experiment which includes the following aspects:  Condition of the stem (With root. Without root)  Initial height of water  Final height of water  Increment in height

[3 marks]

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(ii) On the graph paper provided, draw a bar chart to show the increment of water and stem condition. [3 marks]

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(iii) State the relationship between stem condition and increment of water in capillary tube. Explain your answer.

[3 marks] (f) Based on this experiment, define operationally root pressure.

[3 marks] (g) In another experiment, the same type of plant with more roots is used. Predict the increment of water. Explain your prediction..

[3 marks] (h) List all apparatus and materials used in this experiment in Table 1.2

Apparatus

Material

TABLE 1.2

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
Question 3 (a) Score 3 Explanation Able to record 4 readings of height of water correctly. Stem with roots Without roots Initial 3 3 Final 9 3.5

(b) (i) Score 3

Explanation Able to state two correct observations Sample answer: 1. The stem with roots has 9 cm of final height of water in capillary tube 2. The stem without roots has 3.5 cm of final height of water in capillary tube 3. The stem with roots has higher final height of water in capillary tube compare to the stem without roots

(b) (ii) Score 3

Explanation Able to state two reasonable inferences for the observation. Sample answer: 1. Roots able to absorb more water and push the water into the stem (xylem) 2. No roots, less water absorb by the stem, and less water enter the stem 3. Stem with roots has more water absorbed into it, compare to without it.

(c) (i) Score

Explanation Able to state all the variables and the method to handle variable correctly (√) for each variable and method Variable Manipulated Variable Present of root Responding Variable The height of water column in capillary tube Controlled variable Time Method to handle The experiment is carry out with stem with roots and stem without roots Measure and record the height o water column by using the ruler. Both observations are done after 2 days.

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
1(d) Score 3 Explanation Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following criteria: P1 - stem with roots. P2 - height of water column in capillary tube R - State the relationship between P1 and P2. The stem with root has the higher height of water column in capillary tube compare to stem without roots. 1(e)(i) Score 3

Explanation Able to construct a table and record the result of the experiment which the following criteria:  Table with correct titles and unit.  Transfer all data correctly  Calculate the increment of water Condition of the stem With roots Without roots Initial height of water (cm) 3 3 Final height of water(cm) 9 3.5 Increment in height (cm) 6 0.5

1(e)(ii) Score 3

Explanation Able to draw a bar chart based on: Axis (A) - both axis are labelled an uniform scales, independent variable on horizontal axis. (√) Point (P) - All points are correctly transfer (√) Shape(S) - two bar separated (√).

1(e)(iii) Score 3

Explanation Able to answer with the following aspects:  the relationship between present of roots and increment of water  reason 1 - water is absorbed by roots  reason 2 - water is push into the stem by root pressure sample answer: Stem with roots has higher increment of water, water is absorbed by roots from the soil and the water is push into the stem by root pressure.

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
1(f) Score 3 Explanation Able to state the definition of root pressure operationally, based on the following criteria. P1 - water increase in the capillary/stem P2 - cause by water pressure into the stem P3 - from the roots of the plant The root pressure is the increment height of water column in the capillary tube caused by pressure of the water from the roots of the plant. 1(g) Score 3

Explanation Able to predict correctly and explain the prediction based on the following item: P1 - the increment of height is more than 6 cm P2 - more water absorbed by the root P3 - more pressure to push the water into the stem of the plant. The increment of water column height is 7 cm/ more than 6. When the stem has more roots, more water is absorbed into the stem, more pressure to push the water up the capillary tube. .

1(h) Score 3 Apparatus Capillary tube Retort stand Ruler Pot and soil Explanation Material Stem Water

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
Designing experiment 1. In human body, homeostasis is the maintenance process of internal environment. When a change occurs in the body, such as drinking a lot of water, the homeostasis mechanism will regulate the changes back to normal condition. Based on the above information, design an experiment to investigate the effect of volume of water drink to the urine production. You can use the common chemicals and scientific apparatus that can be found in the laboratory. Your report should include:       Answer:  Problem statement What is the effect of drinking of different amount of water to the volume of urine produce? [3marks]  Variables Manipulate: volume of water Responding: volume of urine Fixed: time/ gender/age/sex [3 marks]  Hypothesis : The more amount water is drunk; the more volume of urine produced. [3 marks]  Apparatus and materials Students, plain water, urine, measuring cylinder, paper cups. [3 marks]  Procedures 1. Select 12 male students at same body size and age, and divide them into 4 groups that is A,B,C and D. [K2, K1] 2. The students have to empty their bladder before experiment. [K5] Problem statement Variables Hypothesis Apparatus and materials Procedures How data is communicated [17 marks]

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
3. Group A students are given 100 ml of plain water to drink [K1,K4] Group B students are given 400 ml of plain water to drink Group C students are given 600 ml of plain water to drink Group D students are given 1000 ml of plain water to drink 4. After 30 minutes, collect the urine they produced and measure the volume of the urine. [K1, K 3] 5. After 45 minutes, collect the urine again and measure. Total the amount of urine produced by each student. [K1.K3] 6. Record all readings in the table. [K1] [All 5 K = 3 marks 3-4K = 2 marks 2K= 1 marks 1K= 0 marks]  How data is communicated Group A B C D Volume of water taken /ml 100 400 600 1000 [2 marks] Volume of urine produced/ml 2 3 Average volume of urine /ml

1

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PERFECT SCORE BIOLOGY 2010
2. Transpiration is a process where a plant loses water by evaporation through the leaves. There are many factors affecting the rate of water lost from the plant. Air movement is one of the factors that affect the rate of transpiration. Based on the above statement, plan an experiment to investigate the effects of air movement on the loss of water in a named plant. The planning of your experiment must include the following aspects:  Problem statement  Hypothesis  Variables  List of apparatus and materials  Experimental procedure or method  Presentation of data Answer:  Problem statement What is the effect of air movement on the rate of transpiration? (3m)  Hypothesis The higher the speed of air movement, the higher the rate of transpiration. (3m)  Variables Manipulated : Speed of the wind or air movement Responding : Rate of transpiration / The time taken for air bubble to move in a distance from X to Y. Fixed : Room temperature / light intensity / humidity / type of plant [3m]

 List of apparatus and materials

Leafy shoot of hibiscus plant, simple hotometer, knife, 250 ml beaker, retort stand, stopwatch, ruler, basin, tissue paper, Vaseline and fan. [3m]  Experimental procedure or method 1. Cut a freshly cut leafy shoot of a hibiscus plant in a basin of water. K1 2. Place a simple potometer inside the basin of water. K1 3. Fit the shoot into the rubber tube of the potometer tightly and hold the shoot and the potometer upright using a retort stand. K5 4. Dry the leaves and the stem of the shoot with a piece of cloth. 5. Apply Vaseline to all the connections to prevent any leakage. K5

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5. Allow an air bubble to enter the capillary tube of potometer and trapped it. K1 6. Mark the initial position of air bubble as X. Mark another point, Y, which distance of 5 cm from X.K1 7. Place the potometer at 1 m away from the fan. Switch on the fan at a low speed. K1 8. Record the time taken for the air bubble to move from X to Y in the table. K3 9. Remove the air bubble from the capillary tube and repeat the experiment to obtain another reading. K5 10. Repeat step 4 to 9 by switching on the fan at the medium speed for set Q and the high speed for set R. K4 11. All experiment is done in the same room that have same light intensity and same temperature. K2 12. Record all the readings obtained from the experiment in a table and calculate the rate of transpiration. K1 All 5K = 3m  Presentation of data Set The speed of fan Time taken for the air bubble to move from X to Y /s 1 2 Average Rate of transpiration /cm s-1

P

Low

Q

Medium

R

High [2m]

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